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Diseases (Basel)

Andrew A Li, George Cholankeril, Xingxing S Cheng, Jane C Tan, Donghee Kim, Alice E Toll, Satheesh Nair, Aijaz Ahmed
In recent years, the opioid epidemic and new hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments have changed the landscape of organ procurement and allocation. We studied national trends in solid organ transplantation (2000⁻2016), focusing on graft utilization from HCV seropositive deceased donors in the pre-2014 (2000⁻2013) versus current (2014⁻2016) eras with a retrospective analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing database. During the study period, HCV seropositive donors increased from 181 to 661 donors/year...
July 10, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Kazutoshi Sugiyama, Yoshifumi Saisho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Zuriñe Rasines-Perea, Isabelle Ky, Gérard Cros, Alan Crozier, Pierre-Louis Teissedre
Observational studies indicate that the intake of polyphenol-rich foods improves vascular health, thereby significantly reducing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the remained potential of grape by-products from important Rhône Valley red wine cultivars: Grenache, Syrah, Carignan, Mourvèdre and Alicante. For that, six different extracts from grape pomaces, selected by their antioxidant activity, were studied in vivo during six weeks with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
July 6, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Félix G Delgado, Paola Cárdenas, Jaime E Castellanos
Natural infection with dengue virus (DENV) induces an increase in the production of cytokines that play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Despite numerous scientific studies, there are still no commercially available disease-specific therapeutics. Previous evidence shows that inhibiting histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) regulates the immune response in several inflammatory disease models. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of HDAC inhibition in the production of inflammatory cytokines in human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2)...
July 6, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Walter Di Iorio, Alessandro Ciarimboli, Giorgio Ferriero, Michele Feleppa, Luigi Baratto, Giuseppe Matarazzo, Giovanni Gentile, Stefano Masiero, Patrizio Sale
The aim of this study was to assess the role of Action Observation (AO) to improve balance, gait, reduce falls, and to investigate the changes in P300 pattern. Five cognitively intact People with Parkinson’s disease (PwP) were enrolled in this prospective, quasi-experimental study to undergo a rehabilitation program of AO for gait and balance recovery of 60 min, three times a week for four weeks. The statistical analysis showed significant improvements for Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor section III p = 0...
July 4, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Chiaki Hidai, Hisataka Kitano
Although the development of effective viral vectors put gene therapy on the road to commercialization, nonviral vectors show promise for practical use because of their relative safety and lower cost. A significant barrier to the use of nonviral vectors, however, is that they have not yet proven effective. This apparent lack of interest can be attributed to the problem of the low gene transfer efficiency associated with nonviral vectors. The efficiency of gene transfer via nonviral vectors has been reported to be 1/10th to 1/1000th that of viral vectors...
July 3, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Naofumi Yoshida, Tomoya Yamashita, Ken-Ichi Hirata
Recent evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome is involved in human health and diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular diseases, which are associated with high morbidity and mortality across the world, are no exception. Increasing evidence has suggested a strong relationship between the gut microbiome and the progression of cardiovascular diseases. We first reported such a relationship with coronary artery disease two years ago...
June 29, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Elisa Cinotti, Luca Provvidenziale, Michele Fimiani, Jean Luc Perrot, Frederic Cambazard, Pietro Rubegni
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase that leads to a systemic accumulation of globotriaosylceramide. Handheld in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (HH-RCM) is a useful modern technique in diagnosis and follow-ups of many skin diseases. This noninvasive device provides high-resolution and high-contrast real-time images to study both the skin and the ocular surface structures that can help clinicians to confirm the diagnosis of FD...
June 27, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Mohammed Raja, Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Ali Hassoun
Neurocysticercosis is a parasitosis caused by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The diagnosis is challenging as morphology on neuroimaging can be inconclusive and serology is frequently negative. We describe the case of a 24-year old Hispanic man who presented with seizures and loss of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic mass in right frontal lobe. Work-up that included body computed tomography (CT) scan and Western blot serology for Echinococcus and cysticercosis was unrevealing...
June 22, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Kelly R Silva, Blanca E R G Bica, Eduardo S Pimenta, Rodrigo B Serafim, Mirhelen M Abreu, Jorge L S Gonçalves, Larissa de S Santana, Mauro J Cabral-Castro, José M Peralta, Marta G Cavalcanti
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection usually presents as a mild and self-limited illness, but it may be associated with severe outcomes. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man with systemic erythematous lupus and common variable immunodeficiency who became infected with both Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus during the 2016 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient presented with intense wrist and right ankle arthritis, and ZIKV RNA and virus particles were detected in synovial tissue, blood and urine, and CHIKV RNA in serum sample, at the time of the diagnosis...
June 21, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Hiroteru Kamimura, Toru Setsu, Naruhiro Kimura, Takeshi Yokoo, Akira Sakamaki, Kenya Kamimura, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Masaaki Takamura, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of proteins. Liver dysfunction affects many organs because it communicates with the spleen and all digestive organs through the portal vein. Additionally, the kidney is an organ that is closely related to the liver and is involved in liver diseases. Glomerulonephritis is an important extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy effectively suppresses HBV replication by inhibiting HBV polymerase, thus decreasing the levels of serum HBV-DNA and delaying the progression of cirrhosis...
June 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora
INTRODUCTION: The new direct acting antivirals (DAA) have demonstrated low rates of adverse effects in controlled studies. However, real world-studies have disclosed emerging toxicities and drug-drug interactions in special populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of HIV/HCV coinfected patients who were treated with DAA at Jackson Memorial Hospital from 2014 to 2017. Our aim was to determine the adverse effects (AE) and factors that are associated with AE in HIV/HCV individuals who are treated with DAA...
June 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Antoinette J Pusateri, Somashekar G Krishna
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal cancers despite extensive research. Further understanding of precursor lesions may enhance the ability to treat and prevent pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) with malignant potential include: mucinous PCLs (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasm), solid pseudopapillary tumors and cystic neuroendocrine tumors. This review summarizes the latest literature describing what is known about the pathogenesis and malignant potential of these PCLs, including unique epidemiological, radiological, histological, genetic and molecular characteristics...
June 13, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Roland Cheofor Ngu, Vitalis Fambombi Feteh, Belmond Tse Kika, Emade Ketchemen Nerice F, Chia Mark Ayeah, Theresia Chifor, Tsi Njim, Alvine Manuela Fankem, Franklin Kwenti Fai Yengo
Antibiotic self-medication in patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) is increasing globally and has been reported to be one of the prime contributors to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Our study aims to provide data on the prevalence of antibiotic self-medication and identify the factors contributing to self-medication in adult patients with respiratory tract infection in an urban setting in Cameroon. This was cross-sectional study carried out at Mboppi Baptist Hospital, Douala, Cameroon. A validated structured questionnaire was administered to 308 consenting participants with diagnosed RTIs, to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and history of antibiotic self-medication...
June 8, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Drew R Neavin, Jeremiah Joyce, Cosima Swintak
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe illness that afflicts about 16.6% of people over their lifetime. MDD is highly correlated with suicidality, and often first presents in adolescence. Unfortunately, many pediatric patients suffering from MDD go undiagnosed, and current evidence-based treatment options in the U.S. are limited to psychotherapy and two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Molecular mechanisms have been shown to play a role in MDD pathogenesis, progression, and response to medication, yet few studies have explored the role of these pathways in pediatric MDD...
June 4, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Farida Benhadou, Dillon Mintoff, Benjamin Schnebert, Hok Bing Thio
BACKGROUND: Recent advances have highlighted the crucial role of microbiota in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases as well as its impact on the efficacy of therapeutic agents. Psoriasis is a chronic, multifactorial inflammatory skin disorder, which has a microbiota distinct from healthy, unaffected skin. AIM: Through an extensive review of the literature, we aim to discuss the skin and gut microbiota and redefine their role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis...
June 2, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Zachary Henry, Sakir Humayun Gultekin
Post-surgical aspergillosis is an uncommon complication that carries a high mortality rate in affected patients. The diagnosis is challenging given the lack of highly sensitive methods to isolate Aspergillus from surgical sites. Here, we present a case of post-surgical aspergillosis that occurred after the resection of acoustic neuroma in an immunocompetent patient. Imaging revealed leptomeningeal enhancement and a cerebellar extra-axial fluid collection adjacent to the right retrosigmoid craniotomy. The patient was taken to the operating room for debridement, where purulent fluid was obtained from subdural space...
May 31, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Christian Abendstein Kjellmo, Anders Hovland, Knut Tore Lappegård
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Due to high costs and unknown long-term adverse effects, critical evaluation of patients considered for PCSK9 inhibitors is important. It has been proposed that measuring low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions, or LDL particle numbers (LDL-P), could be of value in CVD risk assessment and may identify patients at high risk of CVD...
May 27, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Kazutoshi Sugiyama, Yoshifumi Saisho
Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Statins have played a crucial role in its management, but residual risk remains since many patients cannot achieve their desired low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level and up to 20% of patients are statin-intolerant, experiencing adverse events perceived to be caused by statins, most commonly muscle symptoms. Recently, great advances have been made in nonstatin treatment with ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), all showing a proven benefit with an excellent safety profile in cardiovascular outcome trials...
May 24, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Máté Varga, Dorottya Ralbovszki, Eszter Balogh, Renáta Hamar, Magdolna Keszthelyi, Kálmán Tory
Recent advances in sequencing technologies have made it significantly easier to find the genetic roots of rare hereditary pediatric diseases. These novel methods are not panaceas, however, and they often give ambiguous results, highlighting multiple possible causative mutations in affected patients. Furthermore, even when the mapping results are unambiguous, the affected gene might be of unknown function. In these cases, understanding how a particular genotype can result in a phenotype also needs carefully designed experimental work...
May 22, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
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