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Diseases (Basel)

Ciro Manzo
The possibility that polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) can be diagnosed when both ESR and CRP are normal at the time of diagnosis and before therapy with glucocorticoids, has been often discussed in the literature. We present a case report of a 100-year-old Caucasian man referred to our outpatient clinic, complaining of chronic pain in the shoulder and hip girdle associated with normal values of both ESR (21 mm/1st hour) and CRP (4 mg/dL). In the previous four months, several anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers associated with physiotherapy treatments gave no significant improvement in pain and self-care...
September 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Pratima Dibba, Andrew A Li, Brandon J Perumpail, Nimy John, Sandy Sallam, Neha D Shah, Waiyee Kwong, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
The two main subsets of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include: (1) nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), the more common and non-progressive subtype; and (2) nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the less common subtype, which has the potential to progress to advanced liver damage. Current treatment strategies have focused on lifestyle management of modifiable risk factors, namely weight, and on the optimization of the management of individual components of metabolic syndrome. Various hypothetical pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed, leading to the development of novel drugs with the potential to effectively treat patients with NASH...
September 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Zainab Jahangir, Ahmed Bakillah, Jahangir Iqbal
The rapidly expanding field of bioactive lipids is exemplified by the many sphingolipids, which are structurally and functionally diverse molecules with significant physiologic functions. These sphingolipids are main constituents of cellular membranes and have been found associated with plasma lipoproteins, and their concentrations are altered in several metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate their biosynthesis and secretion may provide novel information that might be amenable to therapeutic targeting in the treatment of these diseases...
September 17, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Michael Bentham, Gerard Stansby, John Allen
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a simple-to-perform vascular optics measurement technique that can detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue. Beat-to-beat analysis of the PPG waveform enables the study of the variability of pulse features, such as the amplitude and the pulse arrival time (PAT), and when quantified in the time and frequency domains, has considerable potential to shed light on perfusion changes associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In this pilot study, innovative multi-site bilateral finger and toe PPG recordings from 43 healthy control subjects and 31 PAD subjects were compared (recordings each at least five minutes, collected in a warm temperature-controlled room)...
September 17, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Brandon J Perumpail, Andrew A Li, Umair Iqbal, Sandy Sallam, Neha D Shah, Waiyee Kwong, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Our aim is to review the efficacy of various herbs and supplements as a possible therapeutic option in the treatment and/or prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review of medical literature using the PubMed Database by searching the chemical names of many common herbs and supplements with "AND (NAFLD or NASH)". Studies and medical literature that discussed the roles and usage of herbs and supplements in NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from inception until 20 June 2018 were reviewed...
September 10, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Folusakin Ayoade, Ayoola Olayiwola, Ailing Li
Periapical actinomycosis is a relatively rare form of cervicofacial actinomycosis, which typically involves the periapical region with subsequent potential spread to the jaw bones. We hereby present two cases of periapical actinomycosis. Both patients presented with jaw pain and "holes" in their gum and lacked the characteristic clinical features commonly seen in cervicofacial actinomycosis such as jaw mass, draining ulcers, sinuses and fistulae. The first patient was an immunocompetent host with chronic stable medical conditions but with a rather bad dentition requiring multiple recent teeth extractions...
September 6, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Mary Scriven, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Mary Wall
The microbiome gut brain (MGB) axis consists of bidirectional routes of communication between the gut and the brain. It has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for multiple medical specialties including psychiatry. Significant numbers of preclinical trials have taken place with some transitioning to clinical studies in more recent years. Some positive results have been reported secondary to probiotic administration in both healthy populations and specific patient groups. This review aims to summarise the current understanding of the MGB axis and the preclinical and clinical findings relevant to psychiatry...
September 6, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Ricardo Lopez Santi, Sohaib Haseeb, Bryce Alexander, Adrian D Ovidio, Sergio Gimenez, Carlos Secotaro, Diego Martinez Demaria, Luis Maria Pupi, Sonia Costantini, Daniel Piskorz, Alejandro Amarilla, Alberto Lorenzatti, Narcisa Gutierrez, Wilma Hopman, Adrian Baranchuk
Despite epidemiological findings of improvements in cardiovascular risk factors with a light-to-moderate intake of alcohol, many misconceptions remain regarding alcohol intake and the risks and benefits of consumption. We sought to examine physician attitudes and recommendations regarding alcohol intake in a cohort of Argentine physicians and to establish their sources of knowledge. An online national survey was distributed through the Argentine Federation of Cardiology (FAC) to cardiologists, internal medicine specialists, general and other subspecialty physicians in Argentina...
September 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Anna Boronat, Miriam Martínez-Huélamo, Ariadna Cobos, Rafael de la Torre
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and red wine (RW) are two basic elements that form part of the so-called Mediterranean diet. Both stand out because of their high phenolic compound content and their potential related health benefits. The present study is focused on the metabolic disposition of resveratrol (RESV), tyrosol (TYR), and hydroxytyrosol (HT) following the consumption of EVOO, RW, and a combination of both. In this study, 12 healthy volunteers consumed a single dose of 25 mL of EVOO, 150 mL of RW, and a combination of both in a crossover randomized clinical trial...
September 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Dan Zimelewicz Oberman, Liliana Patrucco, Carolina Cuello Oderiz
Cryptococcal meningitis is a life-threatening condition caused by a fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans , that can infect both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent hosts. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in severely immunodeficient patients. However, in an immunocompetent patient it represents a diagnostic challenge, mainly because it is extremely rare, but also because of its nonspecific clinical manifestation. Neurovascular involvement in cryptococcal meningitis is rare and not well known and only few reports have described this association...
August 31, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Sara Artusi, Yoshitaka Miyagawa, William F Goins, Justus B Cohen, Joseph C Glorioso
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have a profound impact on human health worldwide and their incidence is predicted to increase as the population ages. ND severely limits the quality of life and leads to early death. Aside from treatments that may reduce symptoms, NDs are almost completely without means of therapeutic intervention. The genetic and biochemical basis of many NDs is beginning to emerge although most have complex etiologies for which common themes remain poorly resolved. Largely relying on progress in vector design, gene therapy is gaining increasing support as a strategy for genetic treatment of diseases...
August 14, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Eleni Pavlidou, Maria Mantzorou, Aristeidis Fasoulas, Christina Tryfonos, Dimitris Petridis, Constantinos Giaginis
INTRODUCTION: Moderate wine consumption is a characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Studies around the world have shown a beneficial effect of moderate alcohol intake, especially wine, on health. This review aims to critically summarise the most recent studies that investigate the beneficial effects of moderate wine intake on human health. METHODS: The PubMed database was comprehensively searched to identify trials published from 2013 to 2018 that investigated the association between moderate wine consumption and health...
August 8, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Shiwangni Rao, Kenneth A Chinkwo, Abishek B Santhakumar, Christopher L Blanchard
Previous studies suggest that pulses may have the potential to protect against cancer development by inhibiting pathways that result in the development of cancer. These pathways include those that result in inflammation, DNA damage, cell proliferation, and metastasis. Other studies have demonstrated extracts from pulses have the capacity to induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells. Compounds reported to be responsible for these activities have included phenolic compounds, proteins and short chain fatty acids...
August 3, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Ruchir Chavada, Deborah Tong, Michael Maley
There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of blood stream infections (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MDR GN), which cause increased morbidity and mortality. For this reason, recent studies have focused on risk factors of acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. However, there is limited data on risk factors for BSI caused by AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (AmpC EC), especially in low prevalence settings such as Australia...
August 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Yogeeta Varadarajalu
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection that is typically associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the frequency of this infection, but has led to the emergence of atypical cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Here, we describe the case of a 40-year-old man who was diagnosed with HIV infection and cryptococcal meningitis. He was successfully treated with antifungals and then started antiretroviral therapy...
July 28, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Miguel-Ángel Torralba-Cabeza, Susana Olivera-González, José-Luis Sierra-Monzón
Managing the multisystemic symptoms of type I Gaucher Disease (GD) requires a multidisciplinary team approach that includes disease-specific treatments, as well as supportive care. This involves a range of medical specialists, general practitioners, supportive care providers, and patients. Phenotype classification and the setting of treatment goals are important for optimizing the management of type I GD, and for providing personalized care. The ability to classify disease severity using validated measurement tools allows the standardization of patient monitoring, and the measurement of disease progression and treatment response...
July 26, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Folusakin Ayoade, Pradeep Mada, Andrew Stevenson Joel Chandranesan, Mohammed Alam
Prompt and accurate diagnosis of Nocardia skin infections is important in immunocompromised hosts, especially transplant patients. The sporotrichoid form, which is otherwise known as the lymphocutaneous form of Nocardia skin involvement, can mimic other conditions, including those caused by fungi, mycobacteria, spirochetes, parasites and other bacteria. Delayed or inaccurate diagnosis and treatment of Nocardia skin infections in transplant patients could lead to dissemination of disease and other poor outcomes...
July 25, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Amira Namsi, Thomas Nury, Haithem Hamdouni, Aline Yammine, Anne Vejux, Dominique Vervandier-Fasseur, Norbert Latruffe, Olfa Masmoudi-Kouki, Gérard Lizard
In the prevention of neurodegeneration associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), neuronal differentiation is of interest. In this context, neurotrophic factors are a family of peptides capable of promoting the growth, survival, and/or differentiation of both developing and immature neurons. In contrast to these peptidyl compounds, polyphenols are not degraded in the intestinal tract and are able to cross the blood⁻brain barrier. Consequently, they could potentially be used as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative pathologies associated with neuronal loss, thus requiring the stimulation of neurogenesis...
July 22, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Artemissia-Phoebe Nifli
Feeding and nutrition follow the growth trajectory of the course of life. The profound physiological changes that human body experiences during ageing affect separate aspects of food intake, from tastant perception to satiety. Concurrent morbidities, such as neurodegeneration, as seen in dementia, and metabolic syndrome, may further shape nutritional behaviours, status and adequacy. In an effort to fill the gap between the exhausting basic research and the actual needs of professionals caring for the exponentially expanding ageing population, the current review addresses major factors relevant to appetite and eating disturbances...
July 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Karikari Asafo-Adjei, James E Mensah, Appiah-Korang Labi, Nicholas T K D Dayie, Eric S Donkor
The aim of this study was to investigate urinary tract infections among patients with Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO) at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Accra, Ghana, including the prevalence, risk factors, aetiological agents and their antibiogram. Urine specimens were collected from 188 male patients presenting with BOO and cultured for bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and tested against a spectrum of antimicrobial agents using the Kirby Bauer method...
July 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
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