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Diseases (Basel)

Ashleigh Parkin, Jennifer Man, Angela Chou, Adnan M Nagrial, Jaswinder Samra, Anthony J Gill, Paul Timpson, Marina Pajic
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths, characterised by poor survival, marked molecular heterogeneity and high intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance. Only 10⁻20% of pancreatic cancer patients present with surgically resectable disease and even then, 80% die within 5 years. Our increasing understanding of the genomic heterogeneity of cancer suggests that the failure of definitive clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy in the majority of cases is likely due to the low proportion of responsive molecular subtypes...
November 13, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Dimitrios Siskos, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Each year, a large number of patients undergo coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that the preoperative administration of statins might be useful in preventing adverse events after CABG. In the present review, we discuss the role of statins in the perioperative management of patients undergoing CABG. Preoperative administration of statins in these patients substantially reduces the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation and shortens hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay...
November 11, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Toshitaka Suzuki, Tatsuo Kato, Ryoko Ohnishi, Shigeo Yasuda, Kimiyasu Sano, Yohei Shirakami, Masahito Shimizu, Nobuo Murakami
Tuberculosis remains a serious health problem worldwide. Patients with tuberculosis who also require nursing care due to aging and underlying diseases are considered to have a high mortality rate; however, there are few studies describing detailed examinations of such disease conditions. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate differences in clinical features of elderly tuberculosis patients according to the levels of nursing and healthcare required. DESIGN: The study participants included 146 elderly (≥65 years) patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis among patients hospitalized with tuberculosis at a single center...
November 11, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Ahmed Saad, Shafiq Shahban, Tarek Elgamal
Pyomyositis is a relatively rare condition and often requires a low index of suspicion. We present a case of an otherwise fit and well woman who had pyomyositis of the pectoralis major muscle and presented as an acute septic arthritis of the shoulder. We present the conundrums that arose in arriving at this diagnosis, and how we successfully managed this condition through our multidisciplinary approach. We urge all clinicians to bear in mind this potential diagnosis, even in those patients not deemed to be immunocompromised...
November 10, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Olatunji M Kolawole, Adebimpe A Seriki, Ahmad A Irekeola, Jeremiah I Ogah
Arboviruses are distributed worldwide and constitute significant health burden globally. Outbreaks of arboviruses have been reported in Africa and beyond. In Nigeria, like in many other countries, arbovirus infections are more often than not neglected. As the early clinical features of arbovirus infections are generally nonspecific, most healthcare providers mistake them for other diseases. Outbreaks have been reported in Africa and beyond. The consequence of missed diagnosis of diseases cannot be overstated...
November 5, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Prince Onyekachi Andrew, Azad Bhuiyan, Anthony Mawson, Sarah G Buxbaum, Jung Hye Sung, Mohammad Shahbazi
This study among 400 undergraduate students enrolled at Jackson State University (JSU) study aimed to assess knowledge about HIV and AIDS among African-American undergraduate students attending a historically black college and university. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Data were collected using a validated, self-administered, and standardized questionnaire on knowledge regarding risks for HIV and AIDS. Three hundred and eighty-six students (96.5%) had good knowledge about HIV and AIDS, although some participants had misconceptions about the modes of HIV infection transmission...
October 31, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Emmanuel Obeng-Gyasi, Barnabas Obeng-Gyasi
In this cross-sectional study, lead exposure among those with a history in military environments was examined. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are clinical markers of blood pressure, while gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a marker of oxidative stress. These markers and their effects on those exposed to military environments were explored using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2009 to 2016. Mean SBP and GGT were significantly elevated in those exposed to military environments, with a moderately significant association existing between blood lead levels (BLLs) and SBP...
October 27, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Aldo Vagge, Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Paolo Nucci, Massimiliano Serafino, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Andrea Lembo, Carlo Enrico Traverso
Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is a common condition causing excessive tearing or mucoid discharge from the eyes, due to blockage of the nasolacrimal duct system. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction affects as many as 20% children aged <1 year worldwide and is often resolved without surgery. Available treatment options are conservative therapy, including observation, lacrimal sac massage and antibiotics, and invasive therapy. Observation, combined with conservative options, seems to be the best option in infants aged <1 year...
October 22, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Aileen Y Chang, Sarah Tritsch, St Patrick Reid, Karen Martins, Liliana Encinales, Nelly Pacheco, Richard L Amdur, Alexandra Porras-Ramirez, Alejandro Rico-Mendoza, Guangzhao Li, Jin Peng, Gary S Firestein, Gary L Simon, Jeff M Bethony
The cytokine profile during acute chikungunya infection that predicts future chronic arthritis has not yet been investigated. We conducted a nested case-control study comparing serum cytokine concentrations during acute chikungunya infection in cases ( n = 121) that reported the presence of chronic joint pain versus age- and gender-matched controls ( n = 121) who reported recovery at 20 months post infection. We observed that a robust cytokine response during acute infection was correlated with a decreased incidence of chronic joint pain and that low TNFα, IL-13, IL-2, and IL-4 during acute infection was predictive of chronic joint pain...
October 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Monica Corzo-Pedroza, Maria Romero Alvarez, Octavio V Martinez
Raoultella planticola is a gram-negative bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae family that is usually found in soil, plant and aquatic environments. It is an uncommon human pathogen and has been associated with cases of bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, among others. Here, we present the case of an 85-year-old female that developed nosocomial pneumonia and bacteremia caused by Raoultella planticola . Pertinent microbiological studies detected carbapenemase production codified by the blaKPC gene...
October 17, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Rosann Cholankeril, Vikram Patel, Brandon J Perumpail, Eric R Yoo, Umair Iqbal, Sandy Sallam, Neha D Shah, Waiyee Kwong, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
As a chronic disease encompassing a wide spectrum of liver-related histologic damage, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a global epidemic with significant impacts on all-cause morbidity and mortality. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus predispose individuals to NAFLD and related complications. Therefore, timely intervention with anti-diabetic medications may prevent and delay the development of NAFLD or have a therapeutic implication. The focus of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting the efficacy of anti-diabetic medications in the treatment of NAFLD...
October 3, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Aldo Vagge, Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Paolo Nucci, Massimiliano Serafino, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Carlo E Traverso
The prevalence of myopia has increased worldwide in recent decades and now is endemic over the entire industrial world. This increase is mainly caused by changes in lifestyle and behavior. In particular, the amount of outdoor activities and near work would display an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several strategies have been reported as effective. Spectacles and contact lenses have shown only slight results in the prevention of myopia and similarly ortokerathology should not be considered as a first-line strategy, given the high risk of infectious keratitis and the relatively low compliance for the patients...
September 30, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Eric R Yoo, Sandy Sallam, Brandon J Perumpail, Umair Iqbal, Neha D Shah, Waiyee Kwong, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by histological evidence of hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning degeneration and hepatic fibrosis in the absence of significant alcohol use and other known causes of chronic liver diseases. NAFLD is subdivided into nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFL is generally benign but can progress to NASH, which carries a higher risk of adverse outcomes including cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and death if liver transplantation is not pursued in a timely fashion...
September 30, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Charles Antwi-Boasiako, Bartholomew Dzudzor, William Kudzi, Alfred Doku, Campbell Andrew Dale, Fredericka Sey, Kate Hgar Otu, Gifty Dankwah Boatemaa, Ivy Ekem, John Ahenkorah, Daniel Gyingiri Achel, Elvis Twumasi Aboagye, Eric S Donkor
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) variants have been found to be associated with several vascular disorders as well as the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD) complications such as vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). Studies on eNOS gene variants among SCD patients are rare in Ghana and several other African countries. The current study aimed to determine a possible association between variants of the eNOS gene (variable number of tandem repeats in intron 4 and T786C) in SCD complications among Ghanaian patients...
September 29, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Wilbert McClay
In Phase I, we collected data on five subjects yielding over 90% positive performance in Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) mid-and post-movement activity. In addition, a driver was developed that substituted the actions of the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) as mouse button presses for real-time use in visual simulations. The process was interfaced to a flight visualization demonstration utilizing left or right brainwave thought movement, the user experiences, the aircraft turning in the chosen direction, or on iOS Mobile Warfighter Videogame application...
September 28, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Marzia Testa, Gian Luca Rosso, Cinzia Ferreri, Mauro Feola
Galectin-3 is demonstrated to be a robust independent marker of cardiovascular mid-term (18-month) outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the value of a pre-discharged determination of galectin-3 alone and with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in predicting mid-term outcomes in elderly patients (>70 years old) discharged after an acute decompensated HF (ADHF) episode. METHODS: all elderly (≥70 years old) HF subjects discharged alive after an ADHF were enrolled...
September 27, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Umair Iqbal, Brandon J Perumpail, Nimy John, Sandy Sallam, Neha D Shah, Waiyee Kwong, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histological features, including steatosis, steatohepatitis with balloon degeneration, and hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. In patients with advanced liver damage, NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are components of metabolic syndrome and are commonly associated with NAFLD...
September 24, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Brandon J Perumpail, Andrew A Li, Nimy John, Sandy Sallam, Neha D Shah, Waiyee Kwong, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
There has been a growing interest in the role of vitamin E supplementation in the treatment and/or prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review of the medical literature from inception through 15 June 2018 by utilizing PubMed and searching for key terms such as NAFLD, vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Data from studies and medical literature focusing on the role of vitamin E therapy in patients with NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were reviewed...
September 24, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Jenna L Gordon, Mark A Brown, Melissa M Reynolds
Determination of therapeutic efficacy is a major challenge in developing treatment options for cancer. Prior to in vivo studies, candidate therapeutics are evaluated using cell-based in vitro methods to assess their anti-cancer potential. This review describes the utility and limitations of evaluating therapeutic efficacy using human tumor-derived cell lines. Indicators for therapeutic efficacy using tumor-derived cell lines include cell viability, cell proliferation, colony formation, cytotoxicity, cytostasis, induction of apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest...
September 22, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Ciro Manzo
The possibility that polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) can be diagnosed when both ESR and CRP are normal at the time of diagnosis and before therapy with glucocorticoids, has been often discussed in the literature. We present a case report of a 100-year-old Caucasian man referred to our outpatient clinic, complaining of chronic pain in the shoulder and hip girdle associated with normal values of both ESR (21 mm/1st hour) and CRP (4 mg/dL). In the previous four months, several anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers associated with physiotherapy treatments gave no significant improvement in pain and self-care...
September 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
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