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Current Opinion in Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410869/insect-and-insect-inspired-aerodynamics-unsteadiness-structural-mechanics-and-flight-control
#1
Richard J Bomphrey, Ramiro Godoy-Diana
Flying insects impress by their versatility and have been a recurrent source of inspiration for engineering devices. A large body of literature has focused on various aspects of insect flight, with an essential part dedicated to the dynamics of flapping wings and their intrinsically unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms. Insect wings flex during flight and a better understanding of structural mechanics and aeroelasticity is emerging. Most recently, insights from solid and fluid mechanics have been integrated with physiological measurements from visual and mechanosensors in the context of flight control in steady airs and through turbulent conditions...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025644/editorial-overview-behavioural-ecology-behavioural-ecology-of-insects-current-research-and-potential-applications
#2
EDITORIAL
Eric Wajnberg, Emmanuel Desouhant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025643/editorial-overview-pests-and-resistance-resistance-to-pesticides-in-arthropod-crop-pests-and-disease-vectors-mechanisms-models-and-tools
#3
EDITORIAL
Chris Bass, Christopher M Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025642/the-role-of-glutathione-s-transferases-gsts-in-insecticide-resistance-in-crop-pests-and-disease-vectors
#4
REVIEW
Nena Pavlidi, John Vontas, Thomas Van Leeuwen
Insecticide resistance seriously threatens efficient arthropod pest management. Arthropod glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) confer resistance via direct metabolism or sequestration of chemicals, but also indirectly by providing protection against oxidative stress induced by insecticide exposure. To date, GST activity has been associated with resistance to all main classes of insecticides. However, recent advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with modern genetic, functional and biochemical techniques, facilitate the unraveling of specific GST-mediated resistance mechanisms...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025641/rethinking-biological-control-programs-as-planned-invasions
#5
REVIEW
Paul K Abram, Chandra E Moffat
Biological control of pests with their natural enemies essentially consists of planned invasions, with the opportunity to select both the invader and the invaded environment. Recent advances in invasion science link 'intrinsic invasion factors' (life history and behavioral traits) with invader success; connect 'extrinsic invasion factors' (abiotic and biotic aspects of the invaded environment) with environmental invasibility; and demonstrate that their interaction leads not only to ecologically driven variability but also to rapid evolutionary change in biocontrol systems...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025640/regulating-resistance-cncc-maf-antioxidant-response-elements-and-the-overexpression-of-detoxification-genes-in-insecticide-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Craig S Wilding
Although genetic and genomic tools have greatly furthered our understanding of resistance-associated mutations in molecular target sites of insecticides, the genomic basis of transcriptional regulation of detoxification loci in insect pests and vectors remains relatively unexplored. Recent work using RNAi, reporter assays and comparative genomics are beginning to reveal the molecular architecture of this response, identifying critical transcription factors and their binding sites. Central to this is the insect ortholog of the mammalian transcription factor Nrf2, Cap 'n' Collar isoform-C (CncC) which as a heterodimer with Maf-S regulates the transcription of phase I, II and III detoxification loci in a range of insects, with CncC knockdown or upregulation directly affecting phenotypic resistance...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025639/copy-number-variation-cnv-and-insecticide-resistance-in-mosquitoes-evolving-knowledge-or-an-evolving-problem
#7
REVIEW
David Weetman, Luc S Djogbenou, Eric Lucas
Copy number variation (CNV) in insect genomes is a rich source of potentially adaptive polymorphism which may help overcome the constraints of purifying selection on conserved genes and/or permit elevated transcription. Classic studies of amplified esterases and acetylcholinesterase duplication in Culex pipiens quantified evolutionary dynamics of CNV driven by insecticidal selection. A more complex and potentially medically impactful form of CNV is found in Anopheles gambiae, with both heterogeneous duplications and homogeneous amplifications strongly linked with insecticide resistance...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025638/adaptive-learning-in-non-social-insects-from-theory-to-field-work-and-back
#8
REVIEW
Caroline M Nieberding, Hans Van Dyck, Lars Chittka
We review the evidence that learning affects fitness in non-social insects. Early accounts date back from the 1970s and were based on field-based observational and experimental work, yet exploration of the ways in which various forms of learning increase fitness remains limited in non-social insects. We highlight the concerns that arise when artificial laboratory settings, which do not take the ecology of the species into account, are used to estimate fitness benefits of learning. We argue that ecologically-relevant experimental designs are most useful to provide fitness estimates of learning, that is, designs that include: firstly, offspring of wild-caught animals producing newly established stocks under relevant breeding conditions, combined with common-garden and reciprocal transplant experiments; secondly, the spatio-temporal dynamics of key ecological resources; and thirdly, the natural behaviours of the animals while searching for, and probing, resources...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025637/insect-cuticle-a-critical-determinant-of-insecticide-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Vasileia Balabanidou, Linda Grigoraki, John Vontas
Intense use of insecticides has resulted in the selection of extreme levels of resistance in insect populations. Therefore understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance mechanisms becomes critical. Penetration resistance refers to modifications in the cuticle that will eventually slow down the penetration of insecticide molecules within insects' body. So far, two mechanisms of penetration resistance have been described, the cuticle thickening and the altering of cuticle composition. Cuticular modifications are attributed to the over-expression of diversified genes or proteins, which belong to structural components (cuticular proteins mainly), enzymes that catalyze enzymatic reactions (CYP4G16 and laccase 2) or ABC transporters that promote cuticular translocation...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025636/harnessing-model-organisms-to-study-insecticide-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Trent Perry, Philip Batterham
The vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has made an enormous contribution to our understanding of insecticide targets, metabolism and transport. This contribution has been enabled by the unmatched capacity to manipulate genes in D. melanogaster and the fact that lessons learn in this system have been applicable to pests, because of the evolutionary conservation of key genes, particularly those encoding targets. With the advent of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, genes can now be manipulated in pest species, but this review points to advantages that are likely to keep D...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025635/comparative-analysis-of-behavioural-traits-in-insects
#11
REVIEW
Peter J Mayhew
Comparative studies of insect behaviour based on evolutionary trees are currently blossoming, because of the increasing ease of phylogeny estimation, the availability of new trait data to analyze, and a vast and growing array of statistical techniques for exploring data and testing hypotheses. These studies address not only the selective forces and constraints on insect behaviour, which are the realm of traditional behavioural ecology, but also their ecological and evolutionary consequences. Recent studies have significantly increased our understanding of foraging behaviour, interspecific interactions, locomotion and dispersal, communication and signalling, mate choice and sexual selection, parental care and the evolution of sociality...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025634/insect-personality-what-can-we-learn-from-metamorphosis
#12
REVIEW
Isabelle Amat, Emmanuel Desouhant, Elisa Gomes, Jérôme Moreau, Karine Monceau
Ontogeny of animal personality is still an open question. Testing whether personality traits correlated with state variables (e.g. metabolic rate, hormones) and/or life history traits, and which ones are involved, requires more empirical studies. Insects with metamorphosis represent a good opportunity to tackle this question. Because of the various degrees of internal (physiological, nervous) and environmental changes linked to metamorphosis they allow testing whether these modifications drive consistency in personality traits between immature and adult stages...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025633/nutritional-ecology-and-foraging-theory
#13
REVIEW
David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
Historically, two fields of research have developed theory around foraging and feeding that have influenced biology more broadly, optimal foraging theory and nutritional ecology. While these fields have developed largely in parallel, they are complementary with each offering particular strengths. Here we show how an approach developed in the study of insect nutrition, called nutritional geometry, has provided a framework for incorporating key aspects of optimal foraging theory into nutritional ecology. This synthesis provides a basis for integrating with foraging and feeding the many facets of biology that are linked to nutrition and is now influencing diverse areas of the biological and biomedical sciences...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025632/lessons-from-the-multitudes-insights-from-polyembryonic-wasps-for-behavioral-ecology
#14
REVIEW
Paul J Ode, Tamar Keasar, Michal Segoli
Even for parasitic Hymenoptera, polyembryonic wasps are unusual creatures. Two features in particular, allow for novel exploration of major questions in behavioral ecology: the production of multiple offspring per egg and, in some species, the production of a soldier caste. Because final brood sizes of polyembryonic species are not constrained by trade-offs between current and future parental reproductive effort, we can clearly examine the selective forces at play that drive the balance between the number of offspring and their body size...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025631/could-increased-understanding-of-foraging-behavior-help-to-predict-the-success-of-biological-control
#15
REVIEW
Nicholas J Mills, George E Heimpel
Importation biological control, the introduction of a specialist natural enemy from the region of origin of an invasive pest or weed, has been practiced for more than 100 years and has provided some iconic success stories, but also a number of failures. To improve both the success and safety of biological control in the future it is important to consider all opportunities that can help to transform biological control into a more predictive science. Once established, whether or not an imported natural enemy can reduce the abundance and distribution of an invasive host, likely depends on a suite of life history and behavioral traits that include phenological synchronization and foraging efficiency among many others...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025630/plasticity-in-a-changing-world-behavioural-responses-to-human-perturbations
#16
REVIEW
Joan van Baaren, Ulrika Candolin
Most insect species are affected by Human Induced Rapid Environmental Changes (HIREC). Multiple responses to HIREC are observed in insects, such as modifications of their morphology, physiology, behavioural strategies or phenology. Most of the responses involve phenotypic plasticity rather than genetic evolution. Here, we review the involvement of behavioural plasticity in foraging, reproduction, habitat choice and dispersal; and how behavioural plasticity modifies social behaviour and inter-specific interactions...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025629/dispersal-strategies-in-terrestrial-insects
#17
REVIEW
Mark K Asplen
Terrestrial insects frequently disperse and/or migrate, either through their own self-directed actions or via other vehicles. Here, the following recent advances in the study of insect dispersal are highlighted: (1) components of classic hypotheses (marginal value theorem and inbreeding avoidance via sex-specific dispersal) have found varying degrees of recent support; (2) modern genetic tools have uncovered several candidate dispersal genes; (3) dispersal syndromes vary in their genetic and/or physiological constraints; and (4) common laboratory techniques may not accurately reflect dispersal in the field...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025628/corrigendum-to-genomics-of-interaction-between-the-brown-planthopper-and-rice-curr-opin-insect-sci-19-2017-82-87
#18
Shengli Jing, Yan Zhao, Bo Du, Rongzhi Chen, Lili Zhu, Guangcun He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025627/erratum-to-retinal-perception-and-ecological-significance-of-color-vision-in-insects-curr-opin-insect-sci-24-2017-75-83
#19
Fleur Lebhardt, Claude Desplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025626/the-genomics-of-insecticide-resistance-insights-from-recent-studies-in-african-malaria-vectors
#20
REVIEW
Chris S Clarkson, Helen J Temple, Alistair Miles
Over 80% of the world's population is at risk from arthropod-vectored diseases, and arthropod crop pests are a significant threat to food security. Insecticides are our front-line response for controlling these disease vectors and pests, and consequently the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance is of global concern. Here we provide a brief overview of how genomics can be used to implement effective insecticide resistance management (IRM), with a focus on recent advances in the study of Anopheles gambiae, the major vector of malaria in Africa...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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