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Current Opinion in Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939719/editorial-overview-neuroscience-back-to-the-future-in-the-developing-insect-nervous-system
#1
EDITORIAL
Susan E Fahrbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939718/origins-of-glial-cell-populations-in-the-insect-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Jaison J Omoto, Jennifer K Lovick, Volker Hartenstein
Glia of vertebrates and invertebrates alike represents a diverse population of cells in the nervous system, divided into numerous classes with different structural and functional characteristics. In insects, glia fall within three basic classes: surface, cell body, and neuropil glia. Due to the glial subclass-specific markers and genetic tools available in Drosophila, it is possible to establish the progenitor origin of these different populations and reconstruct their migration and differentiation during development...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939717/editorial-overview-insect-phylogenetics-an-expanding-toolbox-to-resolve-evolutionary-questions
#3
EDITORIAL
Gregory W Courtney, Brian M Wiegmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939716/democratizing-evolutionary-biology-lessons-from-insects
#4
REVIEW
Robert R Dunn, DeAnna E Beasley
The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales. This review highlights how insect-based citizen science has led to the expansion of specimen collections and reframed research questions in light of new observations and unexpected discoveries. Given the rapid expansion of human-modified (and inhabited) environments, the degree to which the public can participate in insect-based citizen science will allow us to track and monitor evolutionary trends at a global scale...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939715/museums-are-biobanks-unlocking-the-genetic-potential-of-the-three-billion-specimens-in-the-world-s-biological-collections
#5
REVIEW
David K Yeates, Andreas Zwick, Alexander S Mikheyev
Museums and herbaria represent vast repositories of biological material. Until recently, working with these collections has been difficult, due to the poor condition of historical DNA. However, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology, and subsequent development of techniques for preparing and sequencing historical DNA, have recently made working with collection specimens an attractive option. Here we describe the unique technical challenges of working with collection specimens, and innovative molecular methods developed to tackle them...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939714/the-rapidly-changing-landscape-of-insect-phylogenetics
#6
REVIEW
David R Maddison
Insect phylogenetics is being profoundly changed by many innovations. Although rapid developments in genomics have center stage, key progress has been made in phenomics, field and museum science, digital databases and pipelines, analytical tools, and the culture of science. The importance of these methodological and cultural changes to the pace of inference of the hexapod Tree of Life is discussed. The innovations have the potential, when synthesized and mobilized in ways as yet unforeseen, to shine light on the million or more clades in insects, and infer their composition with confidence...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939713/incorporating-fossils-into-hypotheses-of-insect-phylogeny
#7
REVIEW
Jessica L Ware, Phillip Barden
Fossils represent stem and crown lineages, and their inclusion in phylogenetic reconstruction influences branch lengths, topology, and divergence time estimation. In addition, paleontological data may inform trends in morphological evolution as well as biogeographic history. Here we review the incorporation of fossils in studies of insect evolution, from morphological analyses to combined 'total evidence' node dating analyses. We discuss challenges associated with fossil based phylogenetics, and suggest best practices for use in tree reconstruction...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939712/a-review-of-methods-for-analysing-insect-structures-the-role-of-morphology-in-the-age-of-phylogenomics
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin Wipfler, Hans Pohl, Margarita I Yavorskaya, Rolf G Beutel
Techniques currently used in insect morphology are outlined briefly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microphotography are used mainly for documenting external features, the former providing more information on tiny surface structures and the latter on coloration, transparency and degree of sclerotization. A broad spectrum of methods is now available for anatomical studies: histological serial sections, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM), dual beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), and μ-computed tomography (micro-CT)...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939711/testing-cospeciation-through-large-scale-cophylogenetic-studies
#9
REVIEW
Astrid Cruaud, Jean-Yves Rasplus
Insects are involved in a multitude of interactions with other organisms, which make them ideal models for large-scale cophylogenetic studies. Once phylogenies of interacting lineages have been inferred, there are a number of questions we may wish to ask, such as what was the relationship between the partners in the past? Have they co-evolved for thousands or millions of years, or has one of the partners switched among different host species? To answer such questions, researchers may conduct cophylogenetic analysis, to explore the relationships between the phylogenies of interacting lineages and determine whether the match is significant or find explanations for observed differences...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939710/insect-phylogenetics-in-the-digital-age
#10
REVIEW
Christopher H Dietrich, Dmitry A Dmitriev
Insect systematists have long used digital data management tools to facilitate phylogenetic research. Web-based platforms developed over the past several years support creation of comprehensive, openly accessible data repositories and analytical tools that support large-scale collaboration, accelerating efforts to document Earth's biota and reconstruct the Tree of Life. New digital tools have the potential to further enhance insect phylogenetics by providing efficient workflows for capturing and analyzing phylogenetically relevant data...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939709/advances-using-molecular-data-in-insect-systematics
#11
REVIEW
Karl Kjer, Marek L Borowiec, Paul B Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Brian M Wiegmann
The size of molecular datasets has been growing exponentially since the mid 1980s, and new technologies have now dramatically increased the slope of this increase. New datasets include genomes, transcriptomes, and hybrid capture data, producing hundreds or thousands of loci. With these datasets, we are approaching a consensus on the higher level insect phylogeny. Huge datasets can produce new challenges in interpreting branch support, and new opportunities in developing better models and more sophisticated partitioning schemes...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939708/applications-of-phylogenetics-to-solve-practical-problems-in-insect-conservation
#12
REVIEW
Thomas R Buckley
Phylogenetic approaches have much promise for the setting of conservation priorities and resource allocation. There has been significant development of analytical methods for the measurement of phylogenetic diversity within and among ecological communities as a way of setting conservation priorities. Application of these tools to insects has been low as has been the uptake by conservation managers. A critical reason for the lack of uptake includes the scarcity of detailed phylogenetic and species distribution data from much of insect diversity...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939707/synapsin-based-approaches-to-brain-plasticity-in-adult-social-insects
#13
REVIEW
Susan E Fahrbach, Byron N Van Nest
Development of the mushroom bodies continues after adult eclosion in social insects. Synapsins, phosphoproteins abundant in presynaptic boutons, are not required for development of the nervous system but have as their primary function modulation of synaptic transmission. A monoclonal antibody against a conserved region of Drosophila synapsin labels synaptic structures called microglomeruli in the mushroom bodies of adult social insects, permitting studies of microglomerular volume, density, and number. The results point to multiple forms of brain plasticity in social insects: age-based and experience-based maturation that results in a decrease in density coupled with an increase in volume of individual microglomeruli in simultaneous operation with shorter term changes in density produced by specific life experiences...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939706/long-term-fluorescence-live-imaging-of-tribolium-castaneum-embryos-principles-resources-scientific-challenges-and-the-comparative-approach
#14
REVIEW
Frederic Strobl, Ernst Hk Stelzer
Light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy became an important tool in insect developmental biology due to its high acquisition speed, low photo-bleaching rate and the high survival probability of the specimens. Initially applied to document the embryogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster, it is now used to investigate the embryonic morphogenesis of emerging model organisms such as the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Here, we discuss the principles of light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy and outline Tribolium as a model organism for developmental biology...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939705/embryonic-axon-guidance-insights-from-drosophila-and-other-insects
#15
REVIEW
Timothy A Evans
During embryonic development, growing axons are guided by cellular signaling pathways that control a series of individual axon guidance decisions. In Drosophila, two major pathways (Netrin-Frazzled/DCC and Slit-Robo) regulate axon guidance in the embryonic ventral nerve cord, including the critical decision of whether or not to cross the midline. Studies in the fruit fly have revealed a complex picture of precise regulation and cross-talk between these pathways. In addition, Robo receptors in Drosophila have diversified their activities to regulate additional axon guidance decisions in the developing embryo...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939704/neuronal-migration-during-development-and-the-amyloid-precursor-protein
#16
REVIEW
Philip F Copenhaver, Jenna M Ramaker
The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is the source of amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease. However, members of the APP family are strongly expressed in the developing nervous systems of invertebrates and vertebrates, where they regulate neuronal guidance, synaptic remodeling, and injury responses. In contrast to mammals, insects express only one APP ortholog (APPL), simplifying investigations into its normal functions. Recent studies have shown that APPL regulates neuronal migration in the developing insect nervous system, analogous to the roles ascribed to APP family proteins in the mammalian cortex...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720083/editorial-overview-molecular-physiology-molecular-basis-of-insect-colors-and-patterns
#17
Takema Fukatsu, Ryo Futahashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720082/editorial-overview-global-change-biology-linking-pattern-and-process-to-prediction-and-policy
#18
Vladimir Koštál, Brent J Sinclair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720081/evolutionary-and-ecological-patterns-of-thermal-acclimation-capacity-in-drosophila-is-it-important-for-keeping-up-with-climate-change
#19
Jesper Givskov Sørensen, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Johannes Overgaard
Phenotypic plasticity of temperature tolerance (thermal acclimation) is often highlighted as an important component of the acute and evolutionary adaptation to temperatures in insects. For this reason, it is often suggested that thermal acclimation ability could be important for buffering the consequences of climate change. Based on data from Drosophila we discuss if and how phenotypic plasticity is likely to mitigate the effects of climate change. We conclude that plasticity of upper thermal limits is small in magnitude, evolves slowly and that acclimation ability is weakly correlated with latitude and environmental heterogeneity...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720080/a-call-to-insect-scientists-challenges-and-opportunities-of-managing-insect-communities-under-climate-change
#20
Jessica J Hellmann, Ralph Grundel, Chris Hoving, Gregor W Schuurman
As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us to revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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