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Current Opinion in Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805647/editorial-overview-social-insects-integrative-approaches-to-understanding-insect-sociality-why-physiology-is-still-highly-relevant
#1
EDITORIAL
Amy L Toth, Adam G Dolezal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805646/editorial-overview-vectors-and-medical-and-veterinary-entomology-becoming-vectors-or-victims-the-intriguing-interplay-between-insects-and-viruses
#2
EDITORIAL
Mariangela Bonizzoni, Geoffrey Attardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805645/evolutionary-feedbacks-between-insect-sociality-and-microbial-management
#3
REVIEW
Peter Hw Biedermann, Marko Rohlfs
Fitness-determining interactions with microbes-in particular fungi-have often been considered a by-product of social evolution in insects. Here, we take the view that both beneficial and harmful microbial consortia are major drivers of social behaviours in many insect systems-ranging from aggregation to eusociality. We propose evolutionary feedbacks between the insect sociality and microbial communities that strengthen mutualistic interactions with beneficial (dietary or defensive) microbes and simultaneously increase the capacity to defend against pathogens (i...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805644/weak-links-how-colonies-counter-the-social-costs-of-individual-variation-in-thermal-physiology
#4
REVIEW
Kaitlin M Baudier, Sean O'Donnell
Social insect nestmates often differ in thermal tolerance (the range of temperatures at which an individual functions). Worker thermal physiology can covary with body size, development, genetics and gene expression. Because colonies rely on the integration of diverse colony members, individual thermal tolerance differences can affect group performance. The weak link hypothesis states that if workers differ in thermal sensitivity, then in variable thermal environments colonies can incur performance costs due to thermal stress effects on the most thermally sensitive worker types...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805643/the-evolution-of-cuticular-fertility-signals-in-eusocial-insects
#5
REVIEW
Adrian A Smith, J├╝rgen Liebig
A reproductive division of labor is a definitive characteristic of eusocial insect societies and it requires a means through which colony members can assess the presence and productivity of reproductive individuals. Cuticular hydrocarbons are the primary means of doing so across eusocial hymenopterans. However, recent experimental work presents conflicting views on how these chemical signals function, are interpreted by workers, and evolve. These recent advances include demonstrations of hydrocarbons as evolutionarily conserved 'queen pheromones' and as species-divergent 'fertility signals' used by both queens and workers...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805642/hytrosaviruses-current-status-and-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Henry M Kariithi, Irene K Meki, Drion G Boucias, Adly Mm Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) are entomopathogenic dsDNA, enveloped viruses that replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of the adult dipterans, Glossina spp (GpSGHV) and Musca domestica (MdSGHV). Although belonging to the same virus family (Hytrosaviridae), SGHVs have distinct morphologies and pathobiologies. Two GpSGHV strains potentially account for the differential pathologies in lab-bred tsetse. New data suggest incorporation of host-derived cellular proteins and lipids into mature SGHVs. In addition to within the SGs, MdSGHV undergoes limited replication in the corpora allata, potentially disrupting hormone biosynthesis, and GpSGHV replicates in the milk glands providing a transmission conduit to progeny tsetse...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805641/culicoides-virus-interactions-infection-barriers-and-possible-factors-underlying-vector-competence
#7
REVIEW
Mary K Mills, Kristin Michel, Robert S Pfannenstiel, Mark G Ruder, Eva Veronesi, Dana Nayduch
In the United States, Culicoides midges vector arboviruses of economic importance such as Bluetongue Virus and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. A limited number of studies have demonstrated the complexities of midge-virus interactions, including dynamic changes in virus titer and prevalence over the infection time course. These dynamics are, in part, dictated by mesenteron infection and escape barriers. This review summarizes the overarching trends in viral titer and prevalence throughout the course of infection...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805640/nutritional-endocrine-and-social-influences-on-reproductive-physiology-at-the-origins-of-social-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Karen M Kapheim
Understanding the evolutionary origins of social behavior in insects requires understanding the physiological basis for reproductive plasticity. Solitary bees and wasps or those living in small, flexible societies will be key to understanding how conserved pathways have evolved to give rise to reproductive castes. Nutrient-sensing and endocrine pathways are decoupled from reproduction in some life stages of social insects. Heterochrony, particularly as it is related to diapause physiology, may be an important mechanism by which this decoupling occurs...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805639/development-and-evolution-of-brain-allometry-in-wasps-vespidae-size-ecology-and-sociality
#9
REVIEW
Sean O'Donnell, Susan Bulova
We review research on brain development and brain evolution in the wasp family Vespidae. Basic vespid neuroanatomy and some aspects of functional neural circuitry are well-characterized, and genomic tools for exploring brain plasticity are being developed. Although relatively modest in terms of species richness, the Vespidae include species spanning much of the known range of animal social complexity, from solitary nesters to highly eusocial species with some of the largest known colonies and multiple reproductives...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805638/nonretroviral-integrated-rna-viruses-in-arthropod-vectors-an-occasional-event-or-something-more
#10
REVIEW
Ken E Olson, Mariangela Bonizzoni
With few exceptions, all arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are nonretroviral RNA viruses (NRVs). Despite NRVs do not encode reverse transcriptases and integrases, NRVs-DNA fragments are detected in mosquito cells and mosquitoes at early stages of infection as episomal DNA forms. Additionally, next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analyses have convincingly shown NRVs-vDNA integrated in vector genomes. We hypothesize vDNA role may be linked to host immunity and viral persistence. Key questions remain about nonretroviral integrated RNA virus sequences (NIRVS) in mosquitoes such as what is driving vDNA synthesis from NRVs, how does integration occur and what is their biological function...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805637/wolbachia-mediated-virus-blocking-in-the-mosquito-vector-aedes-aegypti
#11
REVIEW
Gerard Terradas, Elizabeth A McGraw
Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes such as dengue, Zika and West Nile cause a threat to global health due to increased geographical range and frequency of outbreaks. The bacterium Wolbachia pipientis may be the solution reducing disease transmission. Though commonly missing in vector species, the bacterium was artificially and stably introduced into Aedes aegypti to assess its potential for biocontrol. When infected with Wolbachia, mosquitoes become refractory to infection by a range of pathogens, including the aforementioned viruses...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805636/west-nile-virus-and-its-vectors
#12
REVIEW
Alexander T Ciota
West Nile virus (WNV Flaviviridae; Flavivrus) is the most geographically widespread arbovirus in the world and the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis globally. Worldwide, WNV is maintained in an enzootic cycle between primarily Culex spp. mosquitoes and birds, with human infection and disease resulting from enzootic spillover. Dynamic and complex intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the temporal and spatial variability in WNV transmission. The most current information on the relative contribution of each of these factors is reviewed and a case to incorporate detailed and localized environmental and genetic data into predictive models is presented...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805635/mosquito-specific-and-mosquito-borne-viruses-evolution-infection-and-host-defense
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca Halbach, Sandra Junglen, Ronald P van Rij
Recent virus discovery programs have identified an extensive reservoir of viruses in arthropods. It is thought that arthropod viruses, including mosquito-specific viruses, are ancestral to vertebrate-pathogenic arboviruses. Mosquito-specific viruses are restricted in vertebrate cells at multiple levels, including entry, RNA replication, assembly, and by the inability to replicate at high temperatures. Moreover, it is likely that the vertebrate immune system suppresses replication of these viruses. The evolution from single to dual-host tropism may also require changes in the course of infection in the mosquito host...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805634/honey-bee-gut-dysbiosis-a-novel-context-of-disease-ecology
#14
REVIEW
Kirk E Anderson, Vincent A Ricigliano
The honey bee microbiota has become a hot-spot of recent research. Highly co-evolved with its host, the hindgut microbiota of a worker honey bee consists of six bacterial species shown to occur reliably in particular proportions. Altered microbiota structure is associated with host deficiencies, and a variety of bacteria found throughout the hive environment can dominate the worker gut suppressing or displacing microbiota function. The synthesis presented here suggests environmental insults alter gut bacterial balance, leading to decreased host function and disease progression...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805633/of-phlebotomines-sandflies-and-viruses-a-comprehensive-perspective-on-a-complex-situation
#15
REVIEW
Nazli Ayhan, Remi N Charrel
Old World sandfly-borne phleboviruses are classified into three serological complexes: Sandfly fever Sicilian, Sandfly fever Naples and Salehabad. Human pathogens (febrile illness ['sandfly fever'], neuroinvasive infections) belong to the two first complexes. The increasing number of newly discovered sandfly-borne phleboviruses raises concerns about their medical and veterinary importance. They occupy a wide geographic area from Mediterranean basin to North Africa and the Middle East to the central Asia. At least nine species of sandflies can transmit these viruses...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805632/juvenile-hormone-and-hemimetabolan-eusociality-a-comparison-of-cockroaches-with-termites
#16
REVIEW
Judith Korb, Xavier Belles
Termites are social Dictyoptera that evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. They are characterized by unique developmental plasticity that is the basis of caste differentiation and social organization. As developmental plasticity is a result of endocrine regulation, in order to understand the evolution of termite sociality it is helpful to compare the endocrine underpinning of development between termites and cockroaches. Nijhout and Wheeler (1982) proposed that varying JH titers determine caste differentiation in termites...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805631/bumble-bee-ecophysiology-integrating-the-changing-environment-and-the-organism
#17
REVIEW
S Hollis Woodard
Bumble bees are among the most ecologically and economically important pollinators worldwide, yet many of their populations are being threatened by a suite of interrelated, human-mediated environmental changes. Here, I discuss recent progress in our understanding of bumble bee ecophysiology, including advances related to thermal biology in light of global warming; nutritional biology in the context of declining food resources; and the capacity for bumble bees to exhibit physiological plasticity or adaptations to novel or extreme environments, with reference to their evolutionary history and current biogeography...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805630/implications-of-autophagy-on-arbovirus-infection-of-mosquitoes
#18
REVIEW
Doug E Brackney
Arthropod-borne (arbo-) viruses, like all viruses, are obligate intracellular parasites that have evolved mechanisms to subvert cellular processes and evade anti-viral defenses to replicate and persist. An increasing body of research is beginning to recognize the intimate relationship between arboviruses and the cellular autophagy pathway. As a result, new therapeutic approaches that modify the autophagic response to viral infection have shown great promise. The preponderance of work thus far, however, has originated from vertebrate systems...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602243/editorial-overview-current-investigations-of-environmental-drivers-and-community-interactions-that-influence-biological-control
#19
EDITORIAL
Mary M Gardiner, James D Harwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602242/editorial-overview-ecology-the-chemical-ecology-of-human-disease-transmission-by-mosquito-vectors
#20
EDITORIAL
Mark C Mescher, Consuelo M De Moraes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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