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Current Opinion in Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428935/genetic-analysis-of-mosquito-detection-of-humans
#1
Joshua I Raji, Matthew DeGennaro
Mosquitoes detect the presence of humans by integrating chemosensory, thermal, and visual cues. Among these, odors are crucial for mosquito host detection. Insects have evolved a diverse repertoire of receptors to detect their plant and animal hosts. Genetic analysis of these receptors in Drosophila has set the stage for similar studies in mosquitoes. The diversity of the cues involved in mosquito host-seeking has made designing behavioral control strategies a challenge. The sensory receptors that are most important for mosquito detection of humans can now be determined using genome editing...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521950/editorial-overview-development-and-regulation-the-diverse-traits-that-have-facilitated-the-successful-radiation-of-insects
#2
EDITORIAL
Yoshinori Tomoyasu, Haruhiko Fujiwara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521949/editorial-overview-insect-genomics
#3
EDITORIAL
David L Denlinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521948/genomics-of-interaction-between-the-brown-planthopper-and-rice
#4
REVIEW
Shengli Jing, Yan Zhao, Bo Du, Rongzhi Chen, Lili Zhu, Guangcun He
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) form a model system for dissection of the mechanism of interaction between insect pest and crop. In this review, we focus on the genomics of BPH-rice interaction. On the side of rice, a number of BPH-resistance genes have been identified genetically. Thirteen of these genes have been cloned which shed a light on the molecular basis of the interaction. On the aspect of BPH, a lot of salivary proteins have been identified using transcriptome and proteome techniques...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521947/ultrabithorax-and-the-evolution-of-insect-forewing-hindwing-differentiation
#5
REVIEW
Yoshinori Tomoyasu
Decades have passed since the stunning four-winged phenotype of the Drosophila Ultrabithorax (Ubx) mutant was reported, and accumulating knowledge obtained from studies on Ubx in Drosophila has provided a framework to investigate the role of Ubx during insect wing evolution. With several new insights emerging from recent studies in non-Drosophila insects, along with the outcomes of genomic studies focused on identifying Ubx targets, it appears to be an appropriate time to revisit the Drosophila paradigm regarding insect wing development and evolution...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521946/genomics-of-the-asian-rice-gall-midge-and-its-interactions-with-rice
#6
REVIEW
Deepak Kumar Sinha, Isha Atray, Ruchi Agarrwal, Jagadish Sanmallappa Bentur, Suresh Nair
Understanding virulence and manipulative strategies of gall formers will reveal new facets of plant defense and insect counter defense. Among the gall midges, the Asian rice gall midge (AGM) has emerged as a model for studies on plant-insect interactions. Data from several genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics studies have revealed diverse strategies adopted by AGM to successfully invade the host while overcoming its defense. Adaptive skills of AGM transcend from its genomic and transcriptomic make-up...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521945/whitefly-interactions-with-plants
#7
REVIEW
Xiao-Wei Wang, Ping Li, Shu-Sheng Liu
Whiteflies are important pests of many crops worldwide. They are polyphagous and effectively feed on phloem sap using mouthparts modified into long, flexible stylets. Plants respond to whitefly attack by activating defense genes leading to production of toxic compounds. To reach plant phloem and survive on host plants, whiteflies secret effectors in the saliva to regulate plant responses and activate detoxification system to cope with plant defenses. Additionally, whitefly-transmitted viruses may exert substantial effects on host plants and in turn the performance of whiteflies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521944/genomics-of-lepidoptera-saliva-reveals-function-in-herbivory
#8
REVIEW
Loren J Rivera-Vega, Flor E Acevedo, Gary W Felton
Lepidoptera herbivores deposit copious amounts of saliva when feeding. Their saliva is produced by the paired mandibular and labial glands and evidence indicates that it may play an important role in allowing an herbivore to establish on its host plant. Genomic studies of Lepidoptera saliva are beginning to reveal the role of saliva in herbivory. Molecules involved in digestion, detoxification, immunity, defense against plant secondary chemicals, chemoreception and so on have been identified using high throughput genomic tools...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521943/developmental-regulation-and-evolution-of-scaling-novel-insights-through-the-study-of-onthophagus-beetles
#9
REVIEW
Sofia Casasa, Daniel B Schwab, Armin P Moczek
Scaling relationships play critical roles in defining biological shape, trait functionality, and species characteristics, yet the developmental basis of scaling and its evolution remain poorly resolved in most taxa. In the horned beetle genus Onthophagus, scaling relationships of most traits are largely comparable across many species, however, the morphology and scaling of horns, a recent evolutionary invention, has diversified dramatically, ranging from modestly to highly positively linear to more complex sigmoidal allometries...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521942/regulation-development-and-evolution-of-caste-ratios-in-the-hyperdiverse-ant-genus-pheidole
#10
REVIEW
Angelica Lillico-Ouachour, Ehab Abouheif
Ant colonies are considered complex biological systems because many individuals are divided into different castes that interact to efficiently perform their tasks. Colonies in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole have evolved a worker caste with at least two subcastes: soldiers and minor workers. The proportion of soldiers and minor workers in a colony has a major impact on the colony's fitness and is tightly regulated. Here, we summarize over 100 years of research on the internal, external, and developmental factors that regulate subcaste production as well as influence subcaste evolution in Pheidole...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521941/developmental-mechanism-of-the-tarsus-in-insect-legs
#11
REVIEW
Tetsuya Kojima
Insects show a tremendous morphological variety and have been a subject of studying morphological evolution. In legs, the tarsus is especially variable in the number of subsegments (tarsal segments) and their proportion unlike other leg segments. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed details of the tarsal development: regionalization of the tarsal region through integration of regulatory network and its growth, determination of the joint-forming region in each segment through strict regulation of Notch activity, changes in tissue morphology through regulation of RhoGTPases regulators and localized cell death, and finally, the morphogenetic mechanism of the ball-and-socket joint between tarsal segments...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521940/cuticle-itself-as-a-central-and-dynamic-player-in-shaping-cuticle
#12
REVIEW
Reiko Tajiri
The wide variety of external morphologies has underlain the evolutionary success of insects. The insect exoskeleton, or cuticle, which covers the entire body and constitutes the external morphology, is extracellular matrix produced by the epidermis. How is cuticle shaped during development? Past studies have mainly focused on patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis of the epidermis. Recently, however, it is becoming clear that cuticle itself plays important and active roles in regulation of cuticle shape...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521939/developmental-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-shaping-butterfly-eyespots
#13
REVIEW
Patrícia Beldade, Carolina M Peralta
Butterfly eyespots are visually compelling models to study the reciprocal interactions between evolutionary and developmental processes that shape phenotypic variation. They are evolutionarily diversified, ecologically relevant, and developmentally tractable, and have made key contributions to linking genotype, development, phenotype and fitness. Advances in the availability of analytical tools (e.g. gene editing and visualization techniques) and resources (e.g. genomic and transcriptomic data) are boosting the detailed dissection of the mechanisms underlying eyespot development and evolution...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521938/current-findings-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-anhydrobiosis-in-polypedilum-vanderplanki
#14
REVIEW
Yoichiro Sogame, Takahiro Kikawada
Water is an essential molecule for living organisms. However, some organisms can survive in environments which receive no rainfall for months and in which ordinary life cannot survive. How do they endure the extended dry season? The sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki, which inhabits sub-Saharan Africa, exhibits extreme tolerance to complete desiccation, a process termed anhydrobiosis. During anhydrobiosis these organisms dry up and entirely shut down their metabolism. However, when the dried larvae are immersed in water, their metabolism is resumed...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521937/using-drosophila-pigmentation-traits-to-study-the-mechanisms-of-cis-regulatory-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Mark Rebeiz, Thomas M Williams
One primary agenda of the developmental evolution field is to elucidate molecular mechanisms governing differences in animal form. While mounting evidence has established an important role for mutations in transcription controlling cis-regulatory elements (CREs), the underlying mechanisms that translate these alterations into differences in gene expression are poorly understood. Emerging studies focused on pigmentation differences among closely related Drosophila species have provided many examples of phenotypically relevant CRE changes, and have begun to illuminate how this process works at the level of regulatory sequence function and transcription factor binding...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939719/editorial-overview-neuroscience-back-to-the-future-in-the-developing-insect-nervous-system
#16
EDITORIAL
Susan E Fahrbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939718/origins-of-glial-cell-populations-in-the-insect-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Jaison J Omoto, Jennifer K Lovick, Volker Hartenstein
Glia of vertebrates and invertebrates alike represents a diverse population of cells in the nervous system, divided into numerous classes with different structural and functional characteristics. In insects, glia fall within three basic classes: surface, cell body, and neuropil glia. Due to the glial subclass-specific markers and genetic tools available in Drosophila, it is possible to establish the progenitor origin of these different populations and reconstruct their migration and differentiation during development...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939717/editorial-overview-insect-phylogenetics-an-expanding-toolbox-to-resolve-evolutionary-questions
#18
EDITORIAL
Gregory W Courtney, Brian M Wiegmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939716/democratizing-evolutionary-biology-lessons-from-insects
#19
REVIEW
Robert R Dunn, DeAnna E Beasley
The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales. This review highlights how insect-based citizen science has led to the expansion of specimen collections and reframed research questions in light of new observations and unexpected discoveries. Given the rapid expansion of human-modified (and inhabited) environments, the degree to which the public can participate in insect-based citizen science will allow us to track and monitor evolutionary trends at a global scale...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939715/museums-are-biobanks-unlocking-the-genetic-potential-of-the-three-billion-specimens-in-the-world-s-biological-collections
#20
REVIEW
David K Yeates, Andreas Zwick, Alexander S Mikheyev
Museums and herbaria represent vast repositories of biological material. Until recently, working with these collections has been difficult, due to the poor condition of historical DNA. However, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology, and subsequent development of techniques for preparing and sequencing historical DNA, have recently made working with collection specimens an attractive option. Here we describe the unique technical challenges of working with collection specimens, and innovative molecular methods developed to tackle them...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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