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Current Opinion in Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208232/editorial-overview-insect-pheromones-making-sense-of-a-rapidly-diversifying-field-of-study
#1
EDITORIAL
Kenneth F Haynes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208231/editorial-overview-recent-advances-in-insect-neuroethology-from-sensory-processing-to-circuits-controlling-internal-states
#2
EDITORIAL
Stanley Heinze, Anne C von Philipsborn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208230/learning-from-connectomics-on-the-fly
#3
REVIEW
Philipp Schlegel, Marta Costa, Gregory Sxe Jefferis
Parallels between invertebrates and vertebrates in nervous system development, organisation and circuits are powerful reasons to use insects to study the mechanistic basis of behaviour. The last few years have seen the generation in Drosophila melanogaster of very large light microscopy data sets, genetic driver lines and tools to report or manipulate neural activity. These resources in conjunction with computational tools are enabling large scale characterisation of neuronal types and their functional properties...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208229/pheromones-involved-in-insect-parental-care-and-family-life
#4
REVIEW
Sandra Steiger, Johannes Stökl
Effective parental care requires recognition and communication processes. Whereas chemical communication has been studied intensively in eusocial organisms, in which the workers (siblings) predominantly provide brood care, insect groups in which parents engage in care have been largely neglected. However, the study of communication in insect families might complement and enhance our understanding not only of the evolution of signaling process involved in social insects, but also of those involved in vertebrate families...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208228/pheromones-based-sexual-selection-in-a-rapidly-changing-world
#5
REVIEW
Jessica Henneken, Therésa M Jones
Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208227/retinal-perception-and-ecological-significance-of-color-vision-in-insects
#6
REVIEW
Fleur Lebhardt, Claude Desplan
Color vision relies on the ability to discriminate different wavelengths and is often improved in insects that inhabit well-lit, spectrally rich environments. Although the Opsin proteins themselves are sensitive to specific wavelength ranges, other factors can alter and further restrict the sensitivity of photoreceptors to allow for finer color discrimination and thereby more informed decisions while interacting with the environment. The ability to discriminate colors differs between insects that exhibit different life styles, between female and male eyes of the same species, and between regions of the same eye, depending on the requirements of intraspecific communication and ecological demands...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208226/image-statistics-and-their-processing-in-insect-vision
#7
REVIEW
Olga Dyakova, Karin Nordström
Natural scenes may appear random, but are not only constrained in space and time, but also show strong spatial and temporal correlations. Spatial constraints and correlations can be described by quantifying image statistics, which include intuitive measures such as contrast, color and luminance, but also parameters that need some type of transformation of the image. In this review we will discuss some common tools used to quantify spatial and temporal parameters of naturalistic visual input, and how these tools have been used to inform us about visual processing in insects...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208225/pheromone-biosynthesis-in-bark-beetles
#8
REVIEW
Claus Tittiger, Gary J Blomquist
Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208224/unraveling-the-neural-basis-of-insect-navigation
#9
REVIEW
Stanley Heinze
One of the defining features of animals is their ability to navigate their environment. Using behavioral experiments this topic has been under intense investigation for nearly a century. In insects, this work has largely focused on the remarkable homing abilities of ants and bees. More recently, the neural basis of navigation shifted into the focus of attention. Starting with revealing the neurons that process the sensory signals used for navigation, in particular polarized skylight, migratory locusts became the key species for delineating navigation-relevant regions of the insect brain...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208223/neuronal-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis
#10
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208222/using-virtual-reality-to-study-visual-performances-of-honeybees
#11
REVIEW
Patrick Schultheiss, Alexis Buatois, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Martin Giurfa
Virtual reality (VR) offers an appealing experimental framework for studying visual performances of insects under highly controlled conditions. In the case of the honeybee Apis mellifera, this possibility may fill the gap between behavioural analyses in free-flight and cellular analyses in the laboratory. Using automated, computer-controlled systems, it is possible to generate virtual stimuli or even entire environments that can be modified to test hypotheses on bee visual behaviour. The bee itself can remain tethered in place, making it possible to record neural activity while the bees is performing behavioural tasks...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208221/evolutionary-origin-of-insect-pheromones
#12
REVIEW
Johannes Stökl, Sandra Steiger
Communication via chemical signals, that is, pheromones, is of pivotal importance for most insects. According to current evolutionary theory, insect pheromones originated either from extant precursor compounds being selected for information transfer or by the pheromone components exploiting a pre-existing sensory bias in the receiver. Here, we review the available experimental evidence for both hypotheses. Existing data indicate that most insect pheromones evolved from precursor compounds that were emitted as metabolic by-products or that previously had other non-communicative functions...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208220/regulation-of-pheromone-biosynthesis-in-moths
#13
REVIEW
Russell Jurenka
Female moths release sex pheromones for attracting males from a distance. Most moths are nocturnal so there is a periodicity to the release of sex pheromone. The temporal release of sex pheromone in most moths is regulated by calling behavior and by the biosynthesis of sex pheromone. In most moths, biosynthesis occurs in the pheromone gland and is controlled by the neuropeptide PBAN (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide). PBAN is produced in the subesophageal ganglion and released into circulation where it travels to the pheromone gland to activate pheromone biosynthesis...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208219/neuronal-modulation-of-d-melanogaster-sexual-behaviour
#14
REVIEW
Bárður Eyjólfsson Ellendersen, Anne C von Philipsborn
Drosophila melanogaster sexual behaviour relies on well-studied genetically determined neuronal circuits. At the same time, it can be flexible and is modulated by multiple external and internal factors. This review focuses on how physiological state, behavioural context and social experience impact sexual circuits in the two sexes. We discuss how females tune receptivity and other behaviours depending on mating status and how males adjust courtship intensity based on sexual satiety, age and the conflicting drive for aggression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208218/drosophila-as-a-holistic-model-for-insect-pheromone-signaling-and-processing
#15
REVIEW
Joanne Y Yew, Henry Chung
In recent years, research into the chemical ecology of the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has yielded a wealth of information on the neural substrates that detect and process pheromones and control behavior. The studies reveal at the cellular and molecular level how behavioral responses to pheromones are initiated and modulated by social, environmental, and physiological factors. By taking into account both the complexity of the chemical world and the intricacies of the animal's physiological state, the emerging holistic perspective provides insight not only into chemical communication but more generally, how organisms balance internal and external signals when making behavioral decisions...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208217/humidity-sensing-in-insects-from-ecology-to-neural-processing
#16
REVIEW
Anders Enjin
Humidity is an omnipresent climatic factor that influences the fitness, reproductive behavior and geographic distribution of animals. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment. Although the sensory neurons of this elusive sense were first described more than fifty years ago, the transduction mechanism of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains unknown. Recent work has uncovered some of the key molecules involved, opening up for novel approaches to study hygrosensory transduction...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129291/editorial-overview-molecular-physiology-insect-nutrition-beyond-energy
#17
EDITORIAL
Matthew Piper, Carlos Ribeiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129290/editorial-overview-global-change-biology-everything-connects-to-everything-else
#18
EDITORIAL
Brandon T Barton, Jason P Harmon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129289/craving-for-the-future-the-brain-as-a-nutritional-prediction-system
#19
REVIEW
Samuel J Walker, Dennis Goldschmidt, Carlos Ribeiro
In the last decades, predictive coding has emerged as an important framework for understanding how the brain processes information. It states that the brain is constantly inferring and predicting sensory data from statistical regularities in its environment. While this framework has been largely applied to sensory processing and motor control, we argue here that it could also serve as framework for a better understanding of how animals regulate nutrient homeostasis. Mechanisms that underlie nutrient homeostasis are commonly described in terms of negative feedback control, which compares current states with a reference point, called setpoint, and counteracts any mismatches...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129288/overturning-dogma-tolerance-of-insects-to-mixed-sterol-diets-is-not-universal
#20
REVIEW
Spencer T Behmer
Insects cannot synthesize sterols de novo, but like all eukaryotes they use them as cell membrane inserts where they influence membrane fluidity and rigidity. They also use a small amount for metabolic purposes, most notably as essential precursors for steroid hormones. It has been a long-held view that most insects require a small amount of specific sterol (often cholesterol) for metabolic purposes, but for membrane purposes (where the bulk of sterols are used) specificity in sterol structure was less important...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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