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Current Opinion in Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764670/editorial-overview-parasites-parasitoids-biological-control-bee-health-in-the-modern-age-a-major-concern
#1
EDITORIAL
Elke Genersch, Annette Bruun Jensen, Bryony C Bonning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764669/editorial-overview-ecology-ecological-adaptation-in-agroecosystems-novel-opportunities-to-integrate-evolutionary-biology-and-agricultural-entomology
#2
EDITORIAL
Yolanda H Chen, Sean D Schoville
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764668/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-health-and-disease-of-adult-honey-bee-workers
#3
REVIEW
Kasie Raymann, Nancy A Moran
The role of the gut microbiome in animal health has become increasingly evident. Unlike most other insects, honey bees possess a highly conserved and specialized core gut microbiome, which consists of nine bacterial species and is acquired mostly through social transmission. Five of these species are ubiquitous in honey bees and are also present in bumble bees. Recent studies have shown that the bee gut microbiome plays a role in metabolism, immune function, growth and development, and protection against pathogens...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764667/bacterial-pathogens-of-bees
#4
REVIEW
Anne Fünfhaus, Julia Ebeling, Elke Genersch
Pollination is an indispensable ecosystem service provided by many insects, especially by wild and managed bee species. Hence, reports on large scale honey bee colony losses and on population declines of many wild bees were alarming and resulted in increased awareness of the importance of bee health and increased interest in bee pathogens. To serve this interest, this review will give a comprehensive overview on bacterial bee pathogens by covering not only the famous pathogens (Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius), but also the orphan pathogens which have largely been neglected by the scientific community so far (spiroplasmas) and the pathogens which were only recently discovered as being pathogenic to bees (Serratia marcescens, Lysinibacillus sphaericus)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764666/relevance-of-wild-and-managed-bees-for-human-well-being
#5
REVIEW
Alexandra-Maria Klein, Virginie Boreux, Felix Fornoff, Anne-Christine Mupepele, Gesine Pufal
Wild and managed bees provide pollination services to both crops and wild plants, and a variety of other services from which humans benefit. We summarize the most important and recent findings on bees as providers of provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services. With comprehensive literature searches, we first identified ten important bee species for global pollination of crops, which include wild and managed honey bees, bumble bees, orchard-, cucumber- and longhorn bees. We second summarized bee-dependent ecosystem services to show how bees substantially contribute to food security, medical resources, soil formation or spiritual practices, highlighting their wide range of benefits for human well-being and to identify future research needs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764665/rapid-evolution-in-insect-pests-the-importance-of-space-and-time-in-population-genomics-studies
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin Pélissié, Michael S Crossley, Zachary Paul Cohen, Sean D Schoville
Pest species in agroecosystems often exhibit patterns of rapid evolution to environmental and human-imposed selection pressures. Although the role of adaptive processes is well accepted, few insect pests have been studied in detail and most research has focused on selection at insecticide resistance candidate genes. Emerging genomic datasets provide opportunities to detect and quantify selection in insect pest populations, and address long-standing questions about mechanisms underlying rapid evolutionary change...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764664/agriculture-sows-pests-how-crop-domestication-host-shifts-and-agricultural-intensification-can-create-insect-pests-from-herbivores
#7
REVIEW
Julio S Bernal, Raul F Medina
We argue that agriculture as practiced creates pests. We use three examples (Corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis; Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus) to illustrate: firstly, how since its origins, agriculture has proven conducive to transforming selected herbivores into pests, particularly through crop domestication and spread, and agricultural intensification, and; secondly, that the herbivores that became pests were among those hosted by crop wild relatives or associates, and were pre-adapted either as whole species or component subpopulations...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764663/tropilaelaps-mite-an-emerging-threat-to-european-honey-bee
#8
REVIEW
Panuwan Chantawannakul, Samuel Ramsey, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Patcharin Phokasem
The risk of transmission of honey bee parasites has increased substantially as a result of trade globalization and technical developments in transportation efficacy. Great concern over honey bee decline has accelerated research on newly emerging bee pests and parasites. These organisms are likely to emerge from Asia as it is the only region where all 10 honey bee species co-occur. Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite, is a classic example of a pest that has shifted from A. cerana, a cavity nesting Asian honey bee to A...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764662/biological-and-genetic-features-of-introduced-aphid-populations-in-agroecosystems
#9
REVIEW
Christian C Figueroa, Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras, Marco A Molina-Montenegro, Claudio C Ramírez
In agroecosystems, introduced aphids that reproduce by obligate parthenogenesis (OP) show strong biased representation of a few genotypes (superclones), whereas species with cyclical parthenogenesis (CP) exhibit the opposite trend with many unique genotypes. We analyzed the biological and genetic features of 23 different aphid species introduced in different geographic areas and climates, finding putative superclones in about 60% of them. We have examined the proximal causes for aphid establishment and spread after their introduction, and found that OP, host availability, and phenotypic plasticity are among the main variables underpinning the ability of aphids to succeed in new geographic areas, which may explain the high potential for invasion in this group of pest insects...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764661/interactions-between-pesticides-and-pathogen-susceptibility-in-honey-bees
#10
REVIEW
Scott T O'Neal, Troy D Anderson, Judy Y Wu-Smart
There exist a variety of factors that negatively impact the health and survival of managed honey bee colonies, including the spread of parasites and pathogens, loss of habitat, reduced availability or quality of food resources, climate change, poor queen quality, changing cultural and commercial beekeeping practices, as well as exposure to agricultural and apicultural pesticides both in the field and in the hive. These factors are often closely intertwined, and it is unlikely that a single stressor is driving colony losses...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764660/genomic-mechanisms-of-sympatric-ecological-and-sexual-divergence-in-a-model-agricultural-pest-the-european-corn-borer
#11
REVIEW
Brad S Coates, Erik B Dopman, Kevin W Wanner, Thomas W Sappington
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a model species for elucidating mechanisms underlying adaptively differentiated subpopulations in the face of reciprocal gene flow, and is a major pest of cultivated maize in North America and Eurasia. Strains are characterized by different pheromone communication systems in combination with voltinism strains that are adapted to distinct local climate and photoperiod through adjustments in diapause traits. However, only partial barriers to inter-strain hybridization exist in areas of sympatry...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764659/mechanisms-of-aphid-adaptation-to-host-plant-resistance
#12
REVIEW
Ashley D Yates, Andy Michel
Host-plant resistant (HPR) crops can play a major role in preventing insect damage, but their durability is limited due to insect adaptation. Research in basal plant resistance provides a framework to investigate adaptation against HPR. Resistance and adaptation are predicted to follow the gene-for-gene and zigzag models of plant defense. These models also highlight the importance of insect effectors, which are small molecules that modulate host plant defense signaling. We highlight research in insect adaptation to plant resistance, and then draw parallels to virulence adaptation...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764658/transgenerational-effects-of-insecticides-implications-for-rapid-pest-evolution-in-agroecosystems
#13
REVIEW
Kristian Brevik, Leena Lindström, Stephanie D McKay, Yolanda H Chen
Although pesticides are a major selective force in driving the evolution of insect pests, the evolutionary processes that give rise to insecticide resistance remain poorly understood. Insecticide resistance has been widely observed to increase with frequent and intense insecticide exposure, but can be lost following the relaxation of insecticide use. One possible but rarely explored explanation is that insecticide resistance may be associated with epigenetic modifications, which influence the patterning of gene expression without changing underlying DNA sequence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764657/does-host-plant-adaptation-lead-to-pesticide-resistance-in-generalist-herbivores
#14
REVIEW
Wannes Dermauw, Adam Pym, Chris Bass, Thomas Van Leeuwen, René Feyereisen
Most herbivorous arthropods feed on one or a few closely related plant species; however, certain insect and mite species have a greatly expanded host range. Several of these generalists also show a remarkable propensity to evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. In this review, we ask if the evolution of mechanisms to tolerate the diversity of plant secondary metabolites that generalist herbivores encounter, has pre-adapted them to resist synthetic pesticides. Critical examination of the evidence suggests that a generalist life-style per se is not a predictor of rapid resistance evolution to pesticides...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764656/rapid-evolution-of-aphid-pests-in-agricultural-environments
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Christophe Simon, Jean Peccoud
Aphids constitute a major group of crop pests that inflict serious damages to plants, both directly by ingesting phloem and indirectly as vectors of numerous diseases. In response to intense and repeated human-induced pressures, such as insecticide treatments, the use of resistant plants and biological agents, aphids have developed a series of evolutionary responses relying on adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we highlight some remarkable evolutionary responses to anthropogenic pressures in agroecosystems and discuss the mechanisms underlying the ecological and evolutionary success of aphids...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764655/effects-of-the-gut-parasite-nosema-ceranae-on-honey-bee-physiology-and-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Laurianne Paris, Hicham El Alaoui, Frédéric Delbac, Marie Diogon
The common and widespread parasite Nosema ceranae is considered a major threat to the Western honey bee at both the individual and colony levels. Several studies demonstrated that infection by this parasite may affect physiology, behavior, and survival of honey bees. N. ceranae infection impairs midgut integrity and alters the energy demand in honey bees. The infection can also significantly suppress the bee immune response and modify pheromone production in worker and queen honey bees leading to precocious foraging...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764654/drivers-of-colony-losses
#17
REVIEW
Nathalie Steinhauer, Kelly Kulhanek, Karina Antúnez, Hannelie Human, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Marie-Pierre Chauzat, Dennis vanEngelsdorp
Over the past decade, in some regions of the world, honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies have experienced rates of colony loss that are difficult for beekeepers to sustain. The reasons for losses are complex and interacting, with major drivers including Varroaand related viruses, pesticides, nutrition and beekeeper practices. In these endeavors it has also become apparent that defining a dead colony, and singling out the effects of specific drivers of loss, is not so straightforward. Using the class of neonicotinoid pesticides as an example we explain why quantifying risk factor impact at the colony level is at times elusive and in some cases unpractical...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764653/interaction-effects-of-different-drivers-of-wild-bee-decline-and-their-influence-on-host-pathogen-dynamics
#18
REVIEW
Ivan Meeus, Matti Pisman, Guy Smagghe, Niels Piot
Wild bee decline is a multi-factorial problem, yet it is crucial to understand the impact of a single driver. Hereto the interaction effects of wild bee decline with multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be clear. This is also true for the driver 'pathogens', as stressor induced disturbances of natural host-pathogen dynamics can unbalance settled virulence equilibria. Invasive species, bee domestication, habitat loss, climate changes and insecticides are recognized drivers of wild bee decline, but all influence host-pathogen dynamics as well...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764652/genetics-and-physiology-of-varroa-mites
#19
REVIEW
Jay D Evans, Steven C Cook
Varroa destructor is the primary biological threat to domesticated honey bee colonies in much of the world, impacting host fitness both directly and by transmitting RNA viruses. Genomic, proteomic, and functional-genetic resources provide a framework for Varroa biology. When coupled with physiological analyses of development, host finding, and reproduction, these resources reveal general traits of arthropods and offer new strategies for mite control. Efforts to develop novel controls are focused on efficacy, efficient delivery, and the avoidance of both host impacts and the swift evolution of resistance by mites...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764651/recently-identified-bee-viruses-and-their-impact-on-bee-pollinators
#20
REVIEW
Alexander J McMenamin, Michelle L Flenniken
Bees are agriculturally and ecologically important plant pollinators. Recent high annual losses of honey bee colonies, and reduced populations of native and wild bees in some geographic locations, may impact the availability of affordable food crops and the diversity and abundance of native and wild plant species. Multiple factors including viral infections affect pollinator health. The majority of well-characterized bee viruses are picorna-like RNA viruses, which may be maintained as covert infections or cause symptomatic infections or death...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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