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Immunity, Inflammation and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737044/a-clinical-follow-up-of-omalizumab-in-routine-treatment-of-allergic-asthma-monitored-by-cd-sens
#1
S Gunnar O Johansson, Gunnar Lilja, Jenny Hallberg, Anna Nopp
INTRODUCTION: Omalizumab has been available for treatment of allergic asthma for more than a decade and thus, its efficacy in routine treatment was of interest to evaluate. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-sens) has been shown to correlate with the bronchial allergen threshold sensitivity and can be used to objectively measure omalizumab treatment efficacy. We aimed to evaluate the effect of omalizumab treatment of allergic asthma by CD-sens, as an objective marker of the IgE-mediated inflammation, and related to SPT, spirometry, FeNO, Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness (GETE)...
May 7, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701015/a-case-series-association-of-anaphylaxis-with-a-significant-decrease-in-platelet-levels-and-possible-secondary-risk-of-thrombosis
#2
Brian P Peppers, Anant Vatsayan, Jignesh Dalal, Tracey Bonfield, Haig Tcheurekdjian, Robert Hostoffer
INTRODUCTION: Anaphylaxis is a life threatening systemic inflammatory process that share mediators involved in the coagulation cascade. Platelet activating factor, known to increase platelet aggregation, has also been implicated as an important mediator of anaphylaxis. Although other inflammatory reactions are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis, anaphylaxis is currently not reported as one of them. Furthermore the role platelets may have in the perianaphylaxis period is not well understood...
April 26, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642283/hyperglycaemia-is-inversely-correlated-with-live-m-bovis-bcg-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-tanzanian-adults-with-latent-or-active-tuberculosis
#3
Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Anneth-Mwasi N Tumbo, Matthieu Perreau, Patrizia Amelio, Kaushik L Ramaiya, Maliwaza Mganga, Christian Schindler, Sebastien Gagneux, Klaus Reither, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Claudia Daubenberger, Damien Portevin
INTRODUCTION: The rising prevalence of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in high TB-endemic countries may adversely affect sustainability of TB control since DM constitutes a risk factor for development of active tuberculosis (TB). The impact of DM on TB specific adaptive immune responses remains poorly addressed, particularly in people living in Sub-Saharan countries. We performed a functional characterization of TB specific cellular immune response in Tanzanian subjects with active or latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection stratified by their diabetic status...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642282/effect-of-the-s-nitrosoglutathione-reductase-inhibitor-n6022-on-bronchial-hyperreactivity-in-asthma
#4
Loretta G Que, Zhonghui Yang, Njira L Lugogo, Rohit K Katial, Steven A Shoemaker, Janice M Troha, David M Rodman, Robert M Tighe, Monica Kraft
RATIONALE: Patients with asthma demonstrate depletion of the endogenous bronchodilator GSNO and upregulation of GSNOR. OBJECTIVES: An exploratory proof of concept clinical study of N6022 in mild asthma to determine the potential bronchoprotective effects of GSNOR inhibition. Mechanistic studies aimed to provide translational evidence of effect. METHODS: Fourteen mild asthma patients were treated with intravenous N6022 (5 mg) or placebo and observed for 7 days, with repeated assessments of the provocative dose of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (methacholine PC20 FEV1), followed by a washout period and crossover treatment and observation...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642281/fas-ligand-localizes-to-intraluminal-vesicles-within-nk-cell-cytolytic-granules-and-is-enriched-at-the-immune-synapse
#5
Jeansun Lee, Nele M G Dieckmann, James R Edgar, Gillian M Griffiths, Richard M Siegel
INTRODUCTION: T cell and NK cell cytotoxicity can be mediated via the perforin/granzyme system and Fas Ligand (FasL, CD178). FasL is synthesized as a type II transmembrane protein that binds its cognate receptor Fas (CD95). Membrane-bound FasL is expressed on the plasma membrane of activated lymphocytes and is the main form of FasL with cytotoxic activity, but whether FasL is delivered to the immune synapse along with granzyme and perforin-containing granules is unclear. METHODS: We stably expressed FasL-fluorescent fusion proteins into human NK cells and examined the localization of FasL relative to other intracellular markers by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy, and examined the trafficking of FasL during formation of immune synapses with HLA-deficient B cells...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635889/neural-architecture-in-lymphoid-organs-hard-wired-antigen-presenting-cells-and-neurite-networks-in-antigen-entrance-areas
#6
Clemens Wülfing, Fenja Amrei Schuran, Julia Urban, Jasmin Oehlmann, Hauke Simon Günther
INTRODUCTION: Recently, we found abundant innervation of antigen presenting cells that were reached and enclosed by single neurites. These neurally hard-wired antigen presenting cells (wAPC) could be observed in the T-cell zone of superficial cervical lymph nodes of rats and other mammalians, including humans. METHODS: As a consequence, we investigated lymph nodes at many different anatomical positions as well as all primary and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) in rodents for a similar morphology of innervation regarding antigen presenting cells known in those tissues...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602245/reactive-glia-promote-development-of-cd103-cd69-cd8-t-cells-through-programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-pd-l1
#7
Sujata Prasad, Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Priyanka Chauhan, James R Lokensgard
INTRODUCTION: Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated in vivo persistence of CD103+ CD69+ brain resident memory CD8+ T-cells (bTRM ) following viral infection, and that the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway promotes development of these TRM cells within the brain. Although glial cells express low basal levels of PD-L1, its expression is upregulated upon IFN-γ-treatment, and they have been shown to modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway. METHODS: We performed flow cytometric analysis of cells from co-cultures of mixed glia and CD8+ T-cells obtained from wild type mice to investigate the role of glial cells in the development of bTRM ...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575717/benefits-of-antifungal-therapy-in-asthma-patients-with-airway-mycosis-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#8
Evan Li, Chu-Lin Tsai, Zahida K Maskatia, Ekta Kakkar, Paul Porter, Roger D Rossen, Sarah Perusich, John M Knight, Farrah Kheradmand, David B Corry
INTRODUCTION: Fungal airway infection (airway mycosis) is increasingly recognized as a cause of asthma and related disorders. However, prior controlled studies of patients treated with antifungal antibiotics have produced conflicting results. Our objective is to measure the effect of antifungal therapy in moderate to severe adult asthmatics with positive fungal sputum cultures in a single center referral-based academic practice. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 41 patients with asthma and culture-proven airway mycosis treated with either terbinafine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole for 4 to >12 weeks together with standard bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agents...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542272/pathways-of-airway-oxidant-formation-by-house-dust-mite-allergens-and-viral-rna-converge-through-myosin-motors-pannexons-and-toll-like-receptor-4
#9
Jihui Zhang, Jie Chen, Shannon C Mangat, Chathuri Perera Baruhupolage, David R Garrod, Clive Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Intracellular reactive oxidant species (ROS) are generated in human airway epithelial cells by the prothrombinase action of Group 1 house dust mite (HDM) allergens and by ligation of viral RNA sensor Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We explored signaling convergence between HDM allergens and TLRs in ROS generation because epithelial cells form the primary barrier against inhaled substances and dictate host responses to allergens and viruses. METHODS: ROS formation by Calu-3 human airway cells was studied by measuring dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation after activation by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (to activate TLR3), CL097 (to activate TLR7), a natural mixture of HDM allergens, or BzATP...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542268/the-effect-of-oral-immunotherapy-treatment-in-severe-ige-mediated-milk-peanut-and-egg-allergy-in-adults
#10
Jarkko Mäntylä, Tuuli Thomander, Auli Hakulinen, Kaarina Kukkonen, Kati Palosuo, Helena Voutilainen, Anna Pelkonen, Paula Kauppi
INTRODUCTION: The standard care of severe food allergy in both adults and children means avoidance of allergens. In recent years promising results of oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been reported in children. In adults, information on OIT in severe food allergy is very limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study if OIT is possible in adults. METHODS: We report OIT results in 10 adult patients with milk OIT, nine adult patients with peanut OIT, and four adult patients with egg OIT...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516688/hygiene-practices-are-they-protective-factors-for-eczema-symptoms
#11
David Ferrandiz-Mont, Nur Wahyuniati, Hsin-Jen Chen, Mulyadi Mulyadi, Tjut Mariam Zanaria, Dar-Der Ji
INTRODUCTION: Exact etiology and proper treatment of eczema are still unknown. The hygiene hypothesis and epidermal barrier dysfunction hypothesis attempted to give some plausible explanations for these issues but they still remain unclear. The identification of factors, including hygiene practices, related to eczema symptoms (ES) could shed some light on these matters. Therefore, this study aimed to determine risk factors related to ES and the ES prevalence in two disparate areas in terms of urbanization in Aceh, Indonesia...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235261/interferon-%C3%AE-2-and-interferon-%C3%AE-induce-the-degranulation-independent-production-of-vegf-a-and-il-1-receptor-antagonist-and-other-mediators-from-human-mast-cells
#12
Sharon A Oldford, Suzanne P Salsman, Liliana Portales-Cervantes, Raidan Alyazidi, Robert Anderson, Ian D Haidl, Jean S Marshall
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are resident immune effector cells, often studied in the context of allergic disease. Found in substantial numbers at sites of potential infection they are increased at sites of angiogenesis and can be pivotal for the sensing and clearance of a variety of pathogens. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical for host defence against intracellular pathogens. Increased levels of IFNs are observed during viral infection and in autoimmune diseases. IFNs are also widely used therapeutically and have been examined in the therapy of severe asthma...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205929/dendritic-cell-targeted-hiv-1-gag-protein-vaccine-provides-help-to-a-recombinant-newcastle-disease-virus-vectored-vaccine-including-mobilization-of-protective-cd8-t-cells
#13
Loveline N Ngu, Nadesh N Nji, Georgia Ambada, Apeh A Ngoh, Ghislain D Njambe Priso, Jules C Tchadji, Abel Lissom, Suzanne H Magagoum, Carol N Sake, Thibau F Tchouangueu, George O Chukwuma, Arinze S Okoli, Bertrand Sagnia, Rebecca Chukwuanukwu, Denis M Tebit, Charles O Esimone, Alain B Waffo, Chae G Park, Klaus Überla, Godwin W Nchinda
INTRODUCTION: Recombinant Newcastle Disease virus (rNDV) vectored vaccines are safe mucosal applicable vaccines with intrinsic immune-modulatory properties for the induction of efficient immunity. Like all viral vectored vaccines repeated inoculation via mucosal routes invariably results to immunity against viral vaccine vectors. To obviate immunity against viral vaccine vectors and improve the ability of rNDV vectored vaccines in inducing T cell immunity in murine air way we have directed dendritic cell targeted HIV-1 gag protein (DEC-Gag) vaccine; for the induction of helper CD4+ T cells to a Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing codon optimized HIV-1 Gag P55 (rNDV-L-Gag) vaccine...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168324/environmental-levels-of-avian-antigen-are-relevant-to-the-progression-of-chronic-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-during-antigen-avoidance
#14
Manabu Sema, Yasunari Miyazaki, Toshiharu Tsutsui, Makoto Tomita, Yoshinobu Eishi, Naohiko Inase
BACKGROUND: In chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (chronic HP), antigen avoidance is critical for disease management; however, complete avoidance is difficult because of unrecognized exposure to antigens. Recently, we revealed that the amount of avian antigen (AAA) in household dust at the time of diagnosis predicted the progression of chronic bird-related HP. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the prognosis of chronic bird-related HP and the AAA that remained in the environment during antigen avoidance...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164823/immunoglobulin-g-structure-and-functional-implications-of-different-subclass-modifications-in-initiation-and-resolution-of-allergy
#15
REVIEW
Timothy H Scott-Taylor, Stefan-Claudiu Axinia, Sumeya Amin, Ruth Pettengell
IgE and not IgG is usually associated with allergy. IgE lodged on mast cells in skin or gut and basophils in the blood allows for the prolonged duration of allergy through the persistent expression of high affinity IgE receptors. However, many allergic reactions are not dependent on IgE and are generated in the absence of allergen specific and even total IgE. Instead, IgG plasma cells are involved in induction of, and for much of the pathogenesis of, allergic diseases. The pattern of IgG producing plasma cells in atopic children and the tendency for direct or further class switching to IgE are the principle factors responsible for long-lasting sensitization of mast cells in allergic children...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124902/t-cell-responses-against-rhinovirus-species-a-and-c-in-asthmatic-and-healthy-children
#16
Cibele M Gaido, Caitlyn Granland, Ingrid A Laing, Peter N Le Souëf, Wayne R Thomas, Andrew J Currie, Belinda J Hales
BACKGROUND: Infections by rhinovirus (RV) species A and C are the most common causes of exacerbations of asthma and a major cause of exacerbations of other acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Infections by both species are prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children and, particularly for RV-C, can cause severe symptoms and a need for hospitalization. While associations between RV infection and asthma are well established, the adaptive immune-mechanisms by which RV infections influence asthma exacerbations are yet to be defined...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119707/impaired-expression-of-cxcl5-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-lungs-of-mice-with-high-susceptibility-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#17
Rubia I Mancuso, Eliane N Miyaji, Cristiane C F Silva, Fernanda V Portaro, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Orlando G Ribeiro, Maria Leonor S Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of healthy individuals establishing a commensal relationship with the host. In some conditions, bacteria invade the lower respiratory tract and innate immune responses are crucial to avoid diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis. METHODS: Here, we compared the susceptibility to pneumococcal respiratory infection of two outbred mouse lines, AIRmin and AIRmax, selected for low or high acute inflammatory responses, respectively...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105376/transcriptional-and-translational-uncoupling-in-regulation-of-the-cxcl12-and-its-receptors-cxcr4-7-in-thp-1-monocytes-and-macrophages
#18
Lu Yu, Liangli Yu, Quynhchi Pham, Thomas T Y Wang
INTRODUCTION: The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and 7 play crucial roles in the immune system. In the present study, regulation of this pathway was further examined using the in-vitro model of undifferentiated human THP-1 monocytes (u-THP-1) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophages (d-THP-1), to assess the effects of differentiation and the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the pathway. METHODS/RESULTS: Differentiation did not affect the CXCR4, 7 mRNA levels...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105371/mast-cells-partially-contribute-to-mucosal-adjuvanticity-of-surfactin-in-mice
#19
Naoto Yoshino, Ryosuke Takeshita, Hanae Kawamura, Yutaka Sasaki, Masahiro Kagabu, Toru Sugiyama, Yasushi Muraki, Shigehiro Sato
INTRODUCTION: Surfactin (SF) is a cyclic lipopeptide that has potent mucosal adjuvant properties. However, immunological mechanisms of SF adjuvant action have not yet been elucidated. As some cyclic lipopeptides, such as polymyxin, can stimulate histamine release from mast cells, we hypothesized that mast cell activation is critical for SF adjuvanticity. METHODS/RESULTS: We observed that following intranasal immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) plus SF, the titers of the OVA-specific antibody (Ab) in the mucosal secretions and plasma of mast cell-deficient mice were significantly lower than those in congenic normal mice, although OVA-specific Ab did not entirely disappear from mast cell-deficient mice...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094518/disparities-in-rate-triggers-and-management-in-pediatric-and-adult-cases-of-suspected-drug-induced-anaphylaxis-in-canada
#20
REVIEW
Sofianne Gabrielli, Ann E Clarke, Harley Eisman, Judy Morris, Lawrence Joseph, Sebastien La Vieille, Peter Small, Rodrick Lim, Paul Enarson, Michal Zelcer, Edmond S Chan, Chris Mill, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
INTRODUCTION: Data is sparse on drug-induced anaphylaxis (DIA) and there have not been studies assessing the differences in clinical characteristics and management of DIA between adults and children. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the percentage, diagnosis, and management of DIA among all anaphylaxis visits in three pediatric and one adult emergency departments (ED) across Canada. METHODS: Children presenting to the Montreal Children's Hospital (MCH), British Columbia Children's Hospital (BCCH), and Children's Hospital at London Health Sciences Center and adults presenting to Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur with anaphylaxis were recruited as part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry...
March 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
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