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Immunity, Inflammation and Disease

Shiro Sonoda, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Kotaro Aoki, Daisuke Ono, Ayami Sato, Chiaki Kajiwara, Soichiro Kimura, Yoshikiyo Akasaka, Yoshikazu Ishii, Yasunari Miyazaki, Naohiko Inase, Kazuhiro Tateda
INTRODUCTION: The USA300 clone of community-associated MRSA is reported to be hypervirulent and epidemic in the United States. This clone causes a variety of diseases from lethal pneumonia to mild skin infections. We hypothesized that evolutionary diversity may exist among USA300 clones, which may link virulence traits with host responses and mortality rates. METHODS: USA300 isolates from severe pneumonia (IP) and skin infection (IS) were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and next-generation sequencing...
August 8, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Keiji Oishi, Kazuto Matsunaga
INTRODUCTION: Recently, several new biological therapies targeted IgE and IL-5 in severe asthma have been developed and approved. In the last few years, there have been some reports on the therapeutic algorithms for severe asthmatic subjects screened by biomarkers. However, these algorithms have one problem. In atopic/eosinophilic overlapping asthmatic subjects, there is no effective answer to the question: "which is the optimal choice between Anti-IgE and anti-IL-5?" METHODS: We propose a new three-step algorithm for biological therapy in severe asthma...
August 7, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Melody Mazon, Valérie Larouche, Maryse St-Louis, Detlev Schindler, Madeleine Carreau
INTRODUCTION: Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is a soluble protein and antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. DKK1 is found elevated in serum from patients affected with various types of cancers and in some instances, it is considered a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Elevated serum levels of DKK1 have also been detected in animal models of chronic inflammatory diseases. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated upregulation of DKK1 in cells and mouse models of the bone marrow failure (BMF) and cancer-prone disease Fanconi anemia (FA)...
July 20, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Lau F Larsen, Nanna Juel-Berg, Anker Hansen, Kirsten S Hansen, E N Clare Mills, Ronald van Ree, Madeleine Rådinger, Lars K Poulsen, Bettina M Jensen
INTRODUCTION: Mast cells are the primary effector cells of allergy. This study aimed at characterizing human peripheral blood-derived mast cells (PBdMC) from peanut allergic and non-allergic subjects by investigating whether the molecular and stimulus-response profile of PBdMC discriminate between peanut allergic and healthy individuals. METHODS: PBdMC were generated from eight peanut allergic and 10 non-allergic subjects. The molecular profile (cell surface receptor expression) was assessed using flow cytometry...
July 10, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Amy Y Liu, Stephen C De Rosa, Brandon L Guthrie, Robert Y Choi, Rose Kerubo-Bosire, Barbra A Richardson, James Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Barbara Lohman-Payne
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous interferon-γ (IFNγ) released detected by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays may be a biological phenomenon. Markers of immune activation levels were assessed as correlates of high background among individuals in Kenya. METHODS: Couples concordantly seronegative for HIV-1 were enrolled. IFN-γ ELISpot assays were conducted and negative control wells were categorized as having either high or low background (≥50 and <50 SFU/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMC], respectively)...
July 4, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Anneth-Mwasi N Tumbo, Matthieu Perreau, Patrizia Amelio, Kaushik L Ramaiya, Maliwaza Mganga, Christian Schindler, Sebastien Gagneux, Klaus Reither, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Claudia Daubenberger, Damien Portevin
INTRODUCTION: The rising prevalence of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in high TB-endemic countries may adversely affect sustainability of TB control since DM constitutes a risk factor for development of active tuberculosis (TB). The impact of DM on TB specific adaptive immune responses remains poorly addressed, particularly in people living in Sub-Saharan countries. We performed a functional characterization of TB specific cellular immune response in Tanzanian subjects with active or latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection stratified by their diabetic status...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Loretta G Que, Zhonghui Yang, Njira L Lugogo, Rohit K Katial, Steven A Shoemaker, Janice M Troha, David M Rodman, Robert M Tighe, Monica Kraft
RATIONALE: Patients with asthma demonstrate depletion of the endogenous bronchodilator GSNO and upregulation of GSNOR. OBJECTIVES: An exploratory proof of concept clinical study of N6022 in mild asthma to determine the potential bronchoprotective effects of GSNOR inhibition. Mechanistic studies aimed to provide translational evidence of effect. METHODS: Fourteen mild asthma patients were treated with intravenous N6022 (5 mg) or placebo and observed for 7 days, with repeated assessments of the provocative dose of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (methacholine PC20 FEV1), followed by a washout period and crossover treatment and observation...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Jeansun Lee, Nele M G Dieckmann, James R Edgar, Gillian M Griffiths, Richard M Siegel
INTRODUCTION: T cell and NK cell cytotoxicity can be mediated via the perforin/granzyme system and Fas Ligand (FasL, CD178). FasL is synthesized as a type II transmembrane protein that binds its cognate receptor Fas (CD95). Membrane-bound FasL is expressed on the plasma membrane of activated lymphocytes and is the main form of FasL with cytotoxic activity, but whether FasL is delivered to the immune synapse along with granzyme and perforin-containing granules is unclear. METHODS: We stably expressed FasL-fluorescent fusion proteins into human NK cells and examined the localization of FasL relative to other intracellular markers by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy, and examined the trafficking of FasL during formation of immune synapses with HLA-deficient B cells...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Clemens Wülfing, Fenja Amrei Schuran, Julia Urban, Jasmin Oehlmann, Hauke Simon Günther
INTRODUCTION: Recently, we found abundant innervation of antigen presenting cells that were reached and enclosed by single neurites. These neurally hard-wired antigen presenting cells (wAPC) could be observed in the T-cell zone of superficial cervical lymph nodes of rats and other mammalians, including humans. METHODS: As a consequence, we investigated lymph nodes at many different anatomical positions as well as all primary and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) in rodents for a similar morphology of innervation regarding antigen presenting cells known in those tissues...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Sujata Prasad, Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Priyanka Chauhan, James R Lokensgard
INTRODUCTION: Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated in vivo persistence of CD103+ CD69+ brain resident memory CD8+ T-cells (bTRM ) following viral infection, and that the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway promotes development of these TRM cells within the brain. Although glial cells express low basal levels of PD-L1, its expression is upregulated upon IFN-γ-treatment, and they have been shown to modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway. METHODS: We performed flow cytometric analysis of cells from co-cultures of mixed glia and CD8+ T-cells obtained from wild type mice to investigate the role of glial cells in the development of bTRM ...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Evan Li, Chu-Lin Tsai, Zahida K Maskatia, Ekta Kakkar, Paul Porter, Roger D Rossen, Sarah Perusich, John M Knight, Farrah Kheradmand, David B Corry
INTRODUCTION: Fungal airway infection (airway mycosis) is increasingly recognized as a cause of asthma and related disorders. However, prior controlled studies of patients treated with antifungal antibiotics have produced conflicting results. Our objective is to measure the effect of antifungal therapy in moderate to severe adult asthmatics with positive fungal sputum cultures in a single center referral-based academic practice. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 41 patients with asthma and culture-proven airway mycosis treated with either terbinafine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole for 4 to >12 weeks together with standard bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agents...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Jihui Zhang, Jie Chen, Shannon C Mangat, Chathuri Perera Baruhupolage, David R Garrod, Clive Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Intracellular reactive oxidant species (ROS) are generated in human airway epithelial cells by the prothrombinase action of Group 1 house dust mite (HDM) allergens and by ligation of viral RNA sensor Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We explored signaling convergence between HDM allergens and TLRs in ROS generation because epithelial cells form the primary barrier against inhaled substances and dictate host responses to allergens and viruses. METHODS: ROS formation by Calu-3 human airway cells was studied by measuring dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation after activation by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (to activate TLR3), CL097 (to activate TLR7), a natural mixture of HDM allergens, or BzATP...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Jarkko Mäntylä, Tuuli Thomander, Auli Hakulinen, Kaarina Kukkonen, Kati Palosuo, Helena Voutilainen, Anna Pelkonen, Paula Kauppi
INTRODUCTION: The standard care of severe food allergy in both adults and children means avoidance of allergens. In recent years promising results of oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been reported in children. In adults, information on OIT in severe food allergy is very limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study if OIT is possible in adults. METHODS: We report OIT results in 10 adult patients with milk OIT, nine adult patients with peanut OIT, and four adult patients with egg OIT...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
David Ferrandiz-Mont, Nur Wahyuniati, Hsin-Jen Chen, Mulyadi Mulyadi, Tjut Mariam Zanaria, Dar-Der Ji
INTRODUCTION: Exact etiology and proper treatment of eczema are still unknown. The hygiene hypothesis and epidermal barrier dysfunction hypothesis attempted to give some plausible explanations for these issues but they still remain unclear. The identification of factors, including hygiene practices, related to eczema symptoms (ES) could shed some light on these matters. Therefore, this study aimed to determine risk factors related to ES and the ES prevalence in two disparate areas in terms of urbanization in Aceh, Indonesia...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Tina A Nguyen, Daniel A Kahn, Andrea I Loewendorf
INTRODUCTION: Maternal-fetal chimerism is miniscule, a testament to the integrity of the uteroplacental interface. The soundness of this border region is potentially altered through cesarean delivery of prior babies with uncertain consequences for the following pregnancies. METHODS: Using multicolor flow cytometry and quantitative PCR of non-inherited maternal antigens we performed a retrospective case control pilot study and formulated the null hypothesis that placental implantation over a prior uterine scar does not result in the presence of memory Treg (CD45RO+) in the fetus...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Akihiko Nishikimi, Yoh-Ichi Koyama, Sayaka Ishihara, Shusaku Kobayashi, Chisa Tometsuka, Masashi Kusubata, Kumiko Kuwaba, Osamu Hayashida, Shunji Hattori, Koko Katagiri
INTRODUCTION: Collagen peptides have been widely used as a food supplement. After ingestion of collagen peptides, oligopeptides containing hydroxyproline (Hyp), which are known to have some physiological activities, are detected in peripheral blood. However, the effects of collagen-peptide administration on immune response are unclear. In the present study, we tested the effects of collagen-peptide ingestion on allergic response and the effects of collagen-derived oligopeptides on CD4+ T-cell differentiation...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Becky Omodho, Tizong Miao, Alistair L J Symonds, Randeep Singh, Suling Li, Ping Wang
INTRODUCTION: Impaired proliferation and production of IL2 are the hallmarks of experimental T cell tolerance. However, in most autoimmune diseases, auto-reactive T cells do not display hyper proliferation, but inflammatory phenotypes. METHODS: We have now demonstrated that the transcription factors Egr2 and 3 are important for the control of inflammatory cytokine production by tolerant T cells, but not for tolerance induction. RESULTS: In the absence of Egr2 and 3, T cell tolerance, as measured by impaired proliferation and production of IL2, can still be induced, but tolerant T cells produced high levels of inflammatory cytokines...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Raquel A Pinna, Adriana C Dos Santos, Daiana S Perce-da-Silva, Luciene A da Silva, Rodrigo N Rodrigues da Silva, Marcelo R Alves, Fátima Santos, Joseli de Oliveira Ferreira, Josué C Lima-Junior, Déa M Villa-Verde, Paula M De Luca, Carla E Carvalho-Pinto, Dalma M Banic
INTRODUCTION: A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B cell activation factor (BAFF) are known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including BAFF in malaria. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APRIL and BAFF plasma concentrations could be part of inflammatory responses associated with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in patients from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from P. vivax and P...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Jessica Badolato-Corrêa, Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila, Thiara Manuele Alves de Souza, Luciana Santos Barbosa, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Mariana Gandini, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha, Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo, Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) co-circulated during latest outbreaks in Brazil, hence, it is important to evaluate the host cross-reactive immune responses to these viruses. So far, little is known about human T cell responses to ZIKV and no reports detail adaptive immune responses during DENV/ZIKV coinfection. METHODS: Here, we studied T cells responses in well-characterized groups of DENV, ZIKV, or DENV/ZIKV infected patients and DENV-exposed healthy donors...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
María Morales, María T Gallego, Victor Iraola, Raquel Moya, Soraya Santana, Jerónimo Carnés
INTRODUCTION: Alternaria alternata is a widespread fungi whose allergy is a risk factor for asthma development. The use of a polymerized allergen extract (allergoid) may be safer than native extract based treatments while maintaining efficacy. The objective of this study was to characterize biochemically and immunochemically a new Alternaria alternata allergoid. METHODS: Characterization of native and allergoid extracts was performed by determination of protein content, protein and allergenic profile, biological potency, identification of Alternaria allergens, and Alt a 1 quantification...
June 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
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