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Immunity, Inflammation and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980783/plasmodium-chabaudi-infection-induces-aid-expression-in-transitional-and-marginal-zone-b-cells
#1
Joel R Wilmore, Alexander C Maue, Rosemary Rochford
INTRODUCTION: Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus and repeated malaria infections. A defining feature of eBL is the translocation of the c-myc oncogene to the control of the immunoglobulin promoter. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been shown to be critical for this translocation. Malaria infection induces AID in germinal center B cells, but whether malaria infection more broadly affects AID activation in extrafollicular B cells is unknown...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980782/whole-genome-prediction-and-heritability-of-childhood-asthma-phenotypes
#2
Michael J McGeachie, George L Clemmer, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Joanne E Sordillo, Jessica A Lasky-Su, Benjamin A Raby, Kelan G Tantisira, Scott T Weiss
INTRODUCTION: While whole genome prediction (WGP) methods have recently demonstrated successes in the prediction of complex genetic diseases, they have not yet been applied to asthma and related phenotypes. Longitudinal patterns of lung function differ between asthmatics, but these phenotypes have not been assessed for heritability or predictive ability. Herein, we assess the heritability and genetic predictability of asthma-related phenotypes. METHODS: We applied several WGP methods to a well-phenotyped cohort of 832 children with mild-to-moderate asthma from CAMP...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980781/critical-influence-of-the-thymus-on-peripheral-t-cell-homeostasis
#3
Pedro Henrique Oliveira Vianna, Fábio B Canto, Jeane S Nogueira, Caroline Fraga Cabral Gomes Nunes, Adriana César Bonomo, Rita Fucs
INTRODUCTION: A tight balance between regulatory CD4(+)Foxp3(+) (Treg) and conventional CD4(+)Foxp3(-) (Tconv) T cell subsets in the peripheral compartment, maintained stable throughout most of lifetime, is essential for preserving self-tolerance along with efficient immune responses. An excess of Treg cells, described for aged individuals, may critically contribute to their reported immunodeficiency. In this work, we investigated if quantitative changes in thymus emigration may alter the Treg/Tconv homeostasis regardless of the aging status of the peripheral compartment...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980780/hsp90-inhibition-ameliorates-cd4-t-cell-mediated-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-mice
#4
Carsten Berges, Thomas Kerkau, Sandra Werner, Nelli Wolf, Nadine Winter, Thomas Hünig, Hermann Einsele, Max S Topp, Niklas Beyersdorf
INTRODUCTION: For many patients with leukemia only allogeneic bone marrow transplantion provides a chance of cure. Co-transplanted mature donor T cells mediate the desired Graft versus Tumor (GvT) effect required to destroy residual leukemic cells. The donor T cells very often, however, also attack healthy tissue of the patient inducing acute Graft versus Host Disease (aGvHD)-a potentially life-threatening complication. METHODS: Therefore, we used the well established C57BL/6 into BALB/c mouse aGvHD model to evaluate whether pharmacological inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) would protect the mice from aGvHD...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980779/distinct-immunological-activation-profiles-of-dslim%C3%A2-and-promune%C3%A2-depend-on-their-different-structural-context
#5
Kerstin Kapp, Jacqueline Schneider, Lisa Schneider, Nadine Gollinge, Stefanie Jänsch, Matthias Schroff, Burghardt Wittig, Christiane Kleuss
INTRODUCTION: DNA-based TLR9 agonists are potent activators of the immune system. ProMune® and dSLIM® belong to different families of TLR9 agonists and both have been established as cancer immunotherapeutics in clinical proof-of-concept studies. Unfortunately, ProMune® failed in pivotal oncological trials. dSLIM®, the active ingredient of Lefitolimod (MGN1703), successfully finished a double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II study in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, exhibiting improved progression-free survival and durable disease control...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980778/basophil-activation-test-identifies-the-patients-with-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-suffering-the-most-active-disease
#6
Laia Curto-Barredo, Jose Yelamos, Ramon Gimeno, Sergi Mojal, Ramon M Pujol, Ana Giménez-Arnau
INTRODUCTION: The basophil activation test showing CD63 up regulation could be a specific and sensitive in vitro complementary text to the in vivo autologous serum skin test for the activity assessment of the patients suffering autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria. The aim of this study is to define the basophil activation test as a useful tool in clinical practice in order to identify those patients with more active disease. METHODS: We screened 139 patients (96 women) diagnosed of chronic spontaneous urticaria using simultaneously autologous serum skin test and basophil activation test and their relationship with disease activity...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980777/improved-b-cell-development-in-humanized-nod-scid-il2r%C3%AE-null-mice-transgenically-expressing-human-stem-cell-factor-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-and-interleukin-3
#7
Sonal Jangalwe, Leonard D Shultz, Anuja Mathew, Michael A Brehm
INTRODUCTION: Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human immune systems support studies of human hematopoiesis and the immune response to human-specific pathogens. A significant limitation of these humanized mouse models is, however, a severely restricted ability of human B cells to undergo class switching and produce antigen-specific IgG after infection or immunization. METHODS: In this study, we have characterized the development and function of human B cells in NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) (NSG) mice transgenically expressing human stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-3 (NSG-SGM3) following engraftment with human hematopoietic stem cells, autologous fetal liver, and thymic tissues (bone marrow, liver, thymus or BLT model)...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980776/macrophagic-control-of-the-response-to-uropathogenic-e-coli-infection-by-regulation-of-iron-retention-in-an-il-6-dependent-manner
#8
Nana Owusu-Boaitey, Kyle A Bauckman, Tingxuan Zhang, Indira U Mysorekar
INTRODUCTION: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the causative agent of over 85% of urinary tract infections (UTIs), elaborate a number of siderophores to chelate iron from the host. On the other hand, the host immune imperative is to limit the availability of iron to the bacteria. Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying this host-iron-UPEC interaction. Our objective was to determine whether macrophages, in response to UPEC infection, retain extracellular siderophore-bound and free iron, thus limiting the ability of UPEC to access iron...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980775/involvement-of-il-17a-producing-tcr-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-late-protective-immunity-against-pulmonary-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Masayuki Umemura, Yuko Okamoto-Yoshida, Ayano Yahagi, Seigo Touyama, Susumu Nakae, Yoichiro Iwakura, Goro Matsuzaki
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin (IL)-17A is a cytokine originally reported to induce neutrophil-mediated inflammation and anti-microbial activity. The CD4(+) T cells, which produce IL-17A, have been well characterized as Th17 cells. On the other hand, IL-17A-producing TCR γδ(+) T cells have been reported to participate in the immune response at an early stage of infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Mycobacterium bovis in mice. However, the involvement of IL-17A in protective immunity was not clearly demonstrated in the chronic stage of M...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980774/cofactors-in-allergic-reactions-to-food-physical-exercise-and-alcohol-are-the-most-important
#10
Astrid Versluis, Harmieke van Os-Medendorp, Astrid G Kruizinga, W Marty Blom, Geert F Houben, André C Knulst
INTRODUCTION: Involvement of cofactors, like physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of several types of medication, are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. However, there is limited evidence on how often cofactors play a role in food allergic reactions. The study aimed to get more insight into the frequency of exposure to cofactors and how often cofactors are associated with more severe symptoms in food allergic patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by patients visiting the Allergology outpatient clinic...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621819/ifn-%C3%AE-3-polymorphism-indirectly-influences-nk-cell-phenotype-and-function-during-acute-hcv-infection
#11
Marion Depla, Sandy Pelletier, Nathalie Bédard, Camille Brunaud, Julie Bruneau, Naglaa H Shoukry
INTRODUCTION: Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN-λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN-λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. METHODS: We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621818/mapping-an-epitope-in-ebna-1-that-is-recognized-by-monoclonal-antibodies-to-ebna-1-that-cross-react-with-dsdna
#12
Pragya Yadav, Matthew T Carr, Ruby Yu, Alice Mumbey-Wafula, Linda A Spatz
INTRODUCTION: The Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) has been associated with the autoimmune disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). EBV nuclear antigen-I (EBNA-1) is the major nuclear protein of EBV. We previously generated an IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb) to EBNA-1, 3D4, and demonstrated that it cross-reacts with double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and binds the 148 amino acid viral binding site (VBS) in the carboxyl region of EBNA-1. The aim of the present study was to characterize another antibody to EBNA-1 that cross-reacts with dsDNA, compare its immunoglobulin genes to 3D4, and finely map the epitope in EBNA-1 that is recognized by these cross-reactive antibodies...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621817/cholesterol-sensing-liver-x-receptors-stimulate-th2-driven-allergic-eosinophilic-asthma-in-mice
#13
Muriel Smet, Lien Van Hoecke, Ans De Beuckelaer, Seppe Vander Beken, Thomas Naessens, Karl Vergote, Monique Willart, Bart N Lambrecht, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Knut R Steffensen, Johan Grooten
INTRODUCTION: Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that function as cholesterol sensors and regulate cholesterol homeostasis. High cholesterol has been recognized as a risk factor in asthma; however, the mechanism of this linkage is not known. METHODS: To explore the importance of cholesterol homeostasis for asthma, we investigated the contribution of LXR activity in an ovalbumin- and a house dust mite-driven eosinophilic asthma mouse model. RESULTS: In both models, airway inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity, and goblet cell hyperplasia were reduced in mice deficient for both LXRα and LXRβ isoforms (LXRα(-/-)β(-/-)) as compared to wild-type mice...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621816/the-blocking-of-upar-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-osteoclastogenesis-and-the-resultant-bone-loss-through-attenuation-of-integrin-%C3%AE-3-akt-pathway
#14
Yosuke Kanno, Akira Ishisaki, Mei Miyashita, Osamu Matsuo
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis, cause the bone destruction by promotion of the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells into mature osteoclasts (OCs) with active bone-resorbing character. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. We herein investigated the role of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in the bone destruction caused by chronic inflammation. METHODS: We investigated that the effect of uPAR on inflammatory OC formation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in inflammatory diseases...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621815/caspase-8-regulates-the-expression-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#15
Siv H Moen, Marita Westhrin, Muhammad Zahoor, Nikolai N Nørgaard, Hanne Hella, Berit Størdal, Anders Sundan, Nadra J Nilsen, Anne-Marit Sponaas, Therese Standal
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells, also called mesenchymal stromal cells, MSCs, have great potential in stem cell therapy partly due to their immunosuppressive properties. How these cells respond to chronic inflammatory stimuli is therefore of importance. Toll-like receptors (TLR)s are innate immune receptors that mediate inflammatory signals in response to infection, stress, and damage. Caspase-8 is involved in activation of NF-kB downstream of TLRs in immune cells. Here we investigated the role of caspase-8 in regulating TLR-induced cytokine production from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs)...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621814/lactobacillus-reuteri-and-staphylococcus-aureus-differentially-influence-the-generation-of-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-and-subsequent-autologous-t-cell-responses
#16
Yeneneh Haileselassie, Marit Navis, Nam Vu, Khaleda Rahman Qazi, Bence Rethi, Eva Sverremark-Ekström
INTRODUCTION: In early-life, the immature mucosal barrier allows contact between the gut microbiota and the developing immune system. Due to their strategic location and their ability to sample luminal antigen, dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in the interaction of microbes and immune cells in the gut. Here, we investigated how two bacteria associated with opposite immune profiles in children, that is, Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, influenced the differentiation of monocytes in vitro as well how the generated DC impacted T cell responses...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621813/early-infiltration-of-p40il12-ccr7-cd11b-cells-is-critical-for-fibrosis-development
#17
Tarcio Teodoro Braga, Matheus Correa-Costa, Hatylas Azevedo, Reinaldo Correia Silva, Mario Costa Cruz, Maira Estanislau Soares Almeida, Meire Ioshie Hiyane, Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho, Marinilce Fagundes Santos, Katia Regina Perez, Iolanda Midea Cuccovia, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
INTRODUCTION: Macrophages are heterogeneous and thus can be correlated with distinct tissue outcomes after injury. Conflicting data have indicated that the M2-related phenotype directly triggers fibrosis. Conversely, we hypothesize here that the inflammatory milieu provided by early infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophages dictates tissue scarring after injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: We first determined that tissue-localized macrophages exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype (p40IL12(+)CCR7(+)CD11b(+)) during the early phase of a chronic injury model, in contrast to a pro-resolving phenotype (Arg1(+)IL10(+)CD206(+)CD11b(+)) at a later stage...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621812/individual-strains-of-lactobacillus-paracasei-differentially-inhibit-human-basophil-and-mouse-mast-cell-activation
#18
Lydie Cassard, Ana Inés Lalanne, Peggy Garault, Aurélie Cotillard, Christian Chervaux, Michiel Wels, Tamara Smokvina, Marc Daëron, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard
INTRODUCTION: The microbiota controls a variety of biological functions, including immunity, and alterations of the microbiota in early life are associated with a higher risk of developing allergies later in life. Several probiotic bacteria, and particularly lactic acid bacteria, were described to reduce both the induction of allergic responses and allergic manifestations. Although specific probiotic strains were used in these studies, their protective effects on allergic responses also might be common for all lactobacilli...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621811/phosphocholine-containing-ligands-direct-crp-induction-of-m2-macrophage-polarization-independent-of-t-cell-polarization-implication-for-chronic-inflammatory-states
#19
JoAnn Trial, Katarzyna A Cieslik, Mark L Entman
INTRODUCTION: We studied monocyte transendothelial migration and subsequent polarization into M1/M2 macrophages in response to C-reactive protein (CRP) with two disease-related ligands: (1) phosphocholine (PC) and (2) multilamellar liposomes containing both unoxidized and oxidized forms of the lipid, phosphatidylcholine. These ligands differ in biological origin: PC is present on bacterial cell walls while oxidized lipids are present in atherogenic lipids. METHODS: We used an in vitro model of human monocyte transendothelial migration and assessed the polarization of monocytes and T cells and signaling through Fcγ receptors in monocytes...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621810/combination-treatment-with-fingolimod-and-a-pathogenic-antigen-prevents-relapse-of-glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase-peptide-induced-arthritis
#20
Yuya Yoshida, Norihisa Mikami, Yuki Matsushima, Mai Miyawaki, Hiroki Endo, Rie Banno, Takumi Tsuji, Tetsuro Fujita, Takeyuki Kohno
INTRODUCTION: Combination treatment with fingolimod (FTY720) plus pathogenic antigen is thought to prevent glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)325-339-induced arthritis progression by effective induction of immune tolerance. Here, we examined the efficacy of this combination treatment on remission maintenance. METHODS: GPI325-339-induced arthritis mice were treated for 5 days with FTY720 (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.) alone, GPI325-339 (10 μg/mouse, i.v.) alone, or with the FTY720 plus GPI325-339 combination...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
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