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Immunity, Inflammation and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544689/class-ii-obese-and-healthy-pregnant-controls-exhibit-indistinguishable-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-immune-responses-to-caesarian-section
#1
Caroline Graham, Mullein Thorleifson, William P Stefura, Duane J Funk, Kent T HayGlass
INTRODUCTION: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with meta-inflammation and an increased likelihood of clinical complications. Surgery results in intense, acute inflammatory responses in any individual. Because obese individuals exhibit constitutive inflammatory responses and high rates of Caesarian section, it is important to understand the impact of surgery in such populations. Whether more pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and/or counterbalancing changes in anti-inflammatory immune modulators occurs is unknown...
May 25, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544524/increase-of-cells-expressing-pd-1-and-pd-l1-and-enhancement-of-ifn-%C3%AE-production-via-pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-in-bovine-mycoplasmosis
#2
Shinya Goto, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Satoshi Gondaira, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Masateru Koiwa, Motoshi Tajima, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
INTRODUCTION: Bovine mycoplasma, chiefly Mycoplasma bovis, is a pathogen that causes pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, and otitis media in cattle. This pathogen exerts immunosuppressive effects, such as the inhibition of interferon production. However, the mechanisms involved in bovine mycoplasmosis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway in immunosuppression in bovine mycoplasmosis...
May 24, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508570/a-new-transcript-in-the-tcrb-locus-unveils-the-human-ortholog-of-the-mouse-pre-d%C3%A3-1-promoter
#3
Bernard Lethé, Sylvia Snauwaert, Orian Bricard, David Schröder, Tiphanie Gomard, Gérald Hames, Catherine Muller, Christophe Lurquin, Emilie Gauthy, Ahmed Essaghir, Bart Vandekerckhove, Pierre G Coulie
INTRODUCTION: While most transcripts arising from the human T Cell Receptor locus reflect fully rearranged genes, several germline transcripts have been identified. We describe a new germline transcript arising from the human TCRB locus. METHODS: cDNA sequencing, promoter, and gene expression analyses were used to characterize the new transcript. RESULTS: The new germline transcript encoded by the human TCRB locus consists of a new exon of 103 bp, which we named TRBX1 (X1), spliced with the first exon of gene segments Cß1 or Cß2...
May 15, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508554/intestinal-epithelial-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3-socs3-impacts-on-mucosal-homeostasis-in-a-model-of-chronic-inflammation
#4
Elisabeth J Shaw, Emily E Smith, Jayde Whittingham-Dowd, Matthew D Hodges, Kathryn J Else, Rachael J Rigby
INTRODUCTION: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a tumour suppressor, limiting intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation in acute inflammation, and tumour growth, but little is known regarding its role in mucosal homeostasis. Resistance to the intestinal helminth Trichuris muris relies on an "epithelial escalator" to expel the parasite. IEC turnover is restricted by parasite-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). METHODS: Mice with or without conditional knockout of SOCS3 were infected with T...
May 15, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508444/increased-adipose-tissue-expression-of-il-18r-and-its-ligand-il-18-associates-with-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#5
Rasheed Ahmad, Reeby Thomas, Shihab Kochumon, Sardar Sindhu
INTRODUCTION: The proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 is involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. While the changes in IL-18 are known, IL-18R expression and relationship with IL-18 and other inflammatory markers in the adipose tissue in obesity/type-2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. METHODS: We, therefore, determined the adipose tissue expression of IL-18R and IL-18 mRNA/protein in lean, overweight, and obese individuals with and without T2D, 15 each, using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy...
May 15, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497614/broad-th2-neutralization-and-anti-inflammatory-action-of-pentosan-polysulfate-sodium-in-experimental-allergic-rhinitis
#6
Caroline Sanden, Michiko Mori, Prajakta Jogdand, Jimmie Jönsson, Ravi Krishnan, Xiangdong Wang, Jonas S Erjefält
BACKGROUND: Th2 cytokines like interleukin-4, -5, and -13 are regarded as important drivers of the immunopathology underlying allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. The present study explores the capacity of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), a semi-synthetic heparin-like macromolecular carbohydrate, to bind Th2 cytokines and exert biological neutralization in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory actions in vivo. METHODOLOGY: The capacity of PPS to bind recombinant Th2 cytokines was tested with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology and biological Th2 neutralization was assessed by Th2-dependent proliferation assays...
May 12, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497578/effector-and-regulatory-dendritic-cells-display-distinct-patterns-of-mirna-expression
#7
Vincent Lombardi, Sonia Luce, Hélène Moussu, Lise Morizur, Claire Gueguen, Catherine Neukirch, Sylvie Chollet-Martin, Laurent Mascarell, Michel Aubier, Véronique Baron-Bodo, Philippe Moingeon
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the regulation of dendritic cell (DC) polarization, thereby influencing the balance of adaptive immune responses. Herein, we studied the expression of miRNAs in polarized DCs and analyzed whether expression of these miRNAs could be associated with allergic rhinitis and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) outcome. METHOD: Using specific culture conditions, we differentiated immature human monocyte-derived DCs into DC1, DC2, and DCreg subsets (supporting the differentiation of TH 1, TH 2 or regulatory T cells, respectively)...
May 12, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497586/r-ras-deficiency-does-not-affect-papain-induced-ige-production-in-mice
#8
Laura Kummola, Zsuzsanna Ortutay, Maria Vähätupa, Stuart Prince, Hannele Uusitalo-Järvinen, Tero A H Järvinen, Ilkka S Junttila
INTRODUCTION: R-Ras GTPase has recently been implicated in the regulation of immune functions, particularly in dendritic cell (DC) maturation, immune synapse formation, and subsequent T cell responses. METHODS: Here, we investigated the role of R-Ras in allergen-induced immune response (type 2 immune response) in Rras deficient (R-Ras KO) and wild type (WT) mice. RESULTS: Initially, we found that the number of conventional DC's in the lymph nodes (LNs) was reduced in R-Ras KO mice...
May 11, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493442/upa-derived-peptide-%C3%A3-6-is-involved-in-the-suppression-of-lipopolysaccaride-promoted-inflammatory-osteoclastogenesis-and-the-resultant-bone-loss
#9
Yosuke Kanno, Chihiro Maruyama, Ayaka Matsuda, Akira Ishisaki
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis frequently cause bone destruction. Inflammation-induced bone loss results from the increase of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Recently, we demonstrated that urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) suppressed lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-inflammatory osteoclastogenesis through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, whereas its receptor (uPAR) promoted that through the Akt pathway...
May 11, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480538/glucuronides-of-phytoestrogen-flavonoid-enhance-macrophage-function-via-conversion-to-aglycones-by-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-in-macrophages
#10
Atsushi Kaneko, Takashi Matsumoto, Yosuke Matsubara, Kyoji Sekiguchi, Junichi Koseki, Ryo Yakabe, Katsuyuki Aoki, Setsuya Aiba, Kenshi Yamasaki
INTRODUCTION: Flavonoids are converted to inactive metabolites like glucuronides in the gut, and circulate mainly as glucuronides in blood stream, resulting in low concentrations of active aglycones in plasma. It is therefore unclear how oral flavonoids exert their effects in tissues. We recently reported the plasma pharmacokinetics of some flavonoids and suggested the possibility that the absorbed flavonoids modified macrophage functions leading to enhance bacterial clearance. We aimed to confirm their pharmacological profiles focusing on tissue macrophages...
May 8, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474411/a-trial-of-oral-corticosteroids-for-persistent-systemic-and-airway-inflammation-in-severe-asthma
#11
Keiji Oishi, Tsunahiko Hirano, Ryo Suetake, Syuichiro Ohata, Yoshikazu Yamaji, Kosuke Ito, Nobutaka Edakuni, Kazuto Matsunaga
INTRODUCTION: The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophils, markers of local and systemic eosinophilic inflammation, respectively, are increased in asthmatic patients. Little is known concerning the relationship between the FeNO levels and blood eosinophils in asthmatics. METHODS: Twenty severe asthmatics with persistent FeNO elevation (≥40 ppb) and blood eosinophilia (≥3%) despite maintenance therapy including high-daily-dose inhaled corticosteroids were analyzed...
May 4, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474815/probiotic-supplementation-promotes-a-reduction-in-t-cell-activation-an-increase-in-th17-frequencies-and-a-recovery-of-intestinal-epithelium-integrity-and-mitochondrial-morphology-in-art-treated-hiv-1-positive-patients
#12
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giacomo Rossi, Carolina Scagnolari, Mauro Andreotti, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Saeid Najafi Fard, Vito Trinchieri, Paola Mastromarino, Carla Selvaggi, Silvia Scarpona, Gianfranco Fanello, Fausto Fiocca, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Guido Antonelli, Jason M Brenchley, Vincenzo Vullo
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is characterized by a persistent immune activation associated to a compromised gut barrier immunity and alterations in the profile of the fecal flora linked with the progression of inflammatory symptoms. The effects of high concentration multistrain probiotic (Vivomixx®, Viale del Policlinico 155, Rome, Italy in EU; Visbiome®, Dupont, Madison, Wisconsin in USA) on several aspects of intestinal immunity in ART-experienced HIV-1 patients was evaluated. METHODS: A sub-study of a longitudinal pilot study was performed in HIV-1 patients who received the probiotic supplement twice a day for 6 months (T6)...
April 20, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474861/group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-elevated-and-activated-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#13
Julie A Poposki, Aiko I Klingler, Bruce K Tan, Pejman Soroosh, Homayon Banie, Gavin Lewis, Kathryn E Hulse, Whitney W Stevens, Anju T Peters, Leslie C Grammer, Robert P Schleimer, Kevin C Welch, Stephanie S Smith, David B Conley, Joseph R Raviv, James G Karras, Omid Akbari, Robert C Kern, Atsushi Kato
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by type 2 inflammation with high levels of Th2 cytokines. Although T helper cytokines are released from T cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are also known to produce high levels of the same cytokines. However, the presence of various types of ILC in CRS is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to fully characterize the presence of all ILC subsets in CRS and to identify phenotypical differences of group 2 ILC (ILC2) in CRSwNP compared to ILC2 from non-type 2 inflamed areas...
April 19, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474781/the-hemochromatosis-protein-hfe-20-years-later-an-emerging-role-in-antigen-presentation-and-in-the-immune-system
#14
REVIEW
Alexandre Reuben, Jacqueline W Chung, Réjean Lapointe, Manuela M Santos
INTRODUCTION: Since its discovery, the hemochromatosis protein HFE has been primarily defined by its role in iron metabolism and homeostasis, and its involvement in the genetic disease termed hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). While HH patients are typically afflicted by dysregulated iron levels, many are also affected by several immune defects and increased incidence of autoimmune diseases that have thereby implicated HFE in the immune response. Growing evidence has supported an immunological role for HFE with recent studies describing HFE specifically as it relates to MHC I antigen presentation...
April 19, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474788/in-vivo-targeting-of-protein-antigens-to-dendritic-cells-using-anti-dec-205-single-chain-antibody-improves-hiv-gag-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-protecting-from-airway-challenge-with-recombinant-vaccinia-gag-virus
#15
Loveline N Ngu, Nadesh N Nji, Georgia E Ambada, Bertrand Sagnia, Carol Ngane Sake, Jules Colinc Tchadji, Ghislain Donald Njambe Priso, Abel Lissom, Thibau Flaurant Tchouangueu, Denis Manga Tebit, Alain Bopda Waffo, Chae Gyu Park, Ralph M Steinman, Klaus Überla, Godwin W Nchinda
INTRODUCTION: Targeting antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo via a DC-restricted endocytic receptor, DEC205, has been validated to enhance immunity in several vaccine platforms. Particularly atttractive is selected delivery of proteins to DCs in vivo because it enables proteins to be more immunogenic and provides a cheaper and effective way for repeated immunizations. METHODS: In this study, we tested the efficacy of a single chain antibody to DEC205 (scDEC) to deliver protein antigens selectively to DCs in vivo and to induce protective immunity...
March 13, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474508/complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induces-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-enhancing-il-6-production-during-initiation-of-the-immune-response
#16
Jillian A Fontes, Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Natalie Stickel, Julie Schaub, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
INTRODUCTION: Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) emulsified with an antigen is a widely used method to induce autoimmune disease in animal models, yet the contribution of CFA to the immune response is not well understood. We compared the effectiveness of CFA with Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) or TiterMax Gold Adjuvant (TMax) in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) in male mice. METHODS: EAM was induced in A/J, BALB/c, and IL6KO BALB/c male mice by injection of the myocarditogenic peptide in CFA, IFA, or TMax on days 0 and 7...
June 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474507/il-17f-induces-il-6-via-tak1-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Masayuki Nakajima, Mio Kawaguchi, Kyoko Ota, Junichi Fujita, Satoshi Matsukura, Shau-Ku Huang, Yuko Morishima, Yukio Ishii, Hiroaki Satoh, Tohru Sakamoto, Nobuyuki Hizawa
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin (IL)-17F plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of IL-17F in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) and its regulatory mechanisms remain to be defined. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression of IL-6 by IL-17F and the involvement of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB by in ASMCs. METHODS: ASMCs were cultured in the presence or absence of IL-17F...
June 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474506/expression-of-the-inhibitory-receptor-nkg2a-correlates-with-increased-liver-and-splenic-nk-cell-response-to-activating-receptor-engagement
#18
Claire E Meyer, Phillip N Key, Toby Zhu, Mark Shabsovich, Ann Ni, Sandeep K Tripathy
INTRODUCTION: Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in the innate immune response to viruses and tumors, and comprise a large proportion of the hepatic lymphocyte population. They must remain tolerant to non-pathogenic antigens while protecting the host from harmful agents. Herein, we investigate how the NK cell response to activation receptor engagement is altered in the liver. METHODS: In this study, we assess IFN-γ production and degranulation of splenic NK cells and selected subsets of liver NK cells...
June 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474505/house-dust-mite-specific-immunotherapy-with-two-licensed-vaccines-outcome-under-clinical-routine-conditions
#19
Vera Mahler, Christian Klein, Angelika Sager, Jürgen Zimmermann
INTRODUCTION: House dust mite (HDM) allergens are major causes for the development of allergic diseases. A disease modifying effect and clinical benefit of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. Clinical trials, however, are carried out in selected populations under specific conditions based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and may not represent the entire patient population from medical practice. Objective of this study conducted in patients with HDM allergy was to systematically collect information about the benefit of AIT under clinical routine conditions...
June 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474504/mouse-nidovirus-ldv-infection-alleviates-graft-versus-host-disease-and-induces-type-i-ifn-dependent-inhibition-of-dendritic-cells-and-allo-responsive-t-cells
#20
Mélanie Gaignage, Reece G Marillier, Catherine Uyttenhove, Nicolas Dauguet, Anubha Saxena, Bernard Ryffel, Thomas Michiels, Jean-Paul Coutelier, Jacques Van Snick
INTRODUCTION: Viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to alter immune reactions. In 1969, it was reported that lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), a single stranded positive sense mouse nidovirus, delays skin allograft rejection and inhibits spleen alterations in graft versus host disease (GVHD). As the underlying mechanisms have remained unresolved and given the need for new therapies of this disease, we reassessed the effects of the virus on GVHD and tried to uncover its mode of action...
June 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
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