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Movement Ecology

Frances E Buderman, Mevin B Hooten, Mathew W Alldredge, Ephraim M Hanks, Jacob S Ivan
Background: While many species have suffered from the detrimental impacts of increasing human population growth, some species, such as cougars ( Puma concolor ), have been observed using human-modified landscapes. However, human-modified habitat can be a source of both increased risk and increased food availability, particularly for large carnivores. Assessing preferential use of the landscape is important for managing wildlife and can be particularly useful in transitional habitats, such as at the wildland-urban interface...
2018: Movement Ecology
Jade Vacquié-Garcia, Christian Lydersen, Rolf A Ims, Kit M Kovacs
Background: The Arctic is experiencing rapid reductions in sea ice and in some areas tidal glaciers are melting and retracting onto land. These changes are occurring at extremely rapid rates in the Northeast Atlantic Arctic. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of these environmental changes on space use by white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) in Svalbard, Norway. Using a unique biotelemetry data set involving 34 animals, spanning two decades, habitat use and movement patterns were compared before (1995-2001) and after (2013-2016) a dramatic change in the regional sea ice regime that began in 2006...
2018: Movement Ecology
Kristaps Sokolovskis, Giuseppe Bianco, Mikkel Willemoes, Diana Solovyeva, Staffan Bensch, Susanne Åkesson
Background: High-latitude bird migration has evolved after the last glaciation, in less than 10,000-15,000 years. Migrating songbirds rely on an endogenous migratory program, encoding timing, fueling, and routes, but it is still unknown which compass mechanism they use on migration. We used geolocators to track the migration of willow warblers ( Phylloscopus trochilus yakutensis ) from their eastern part of the range in Russia to wintering areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to investigate if the autumn migration route can be explained by a simple compass mechanism, based on celestial or geomagnetic information, or whether migration is undertaken as a sequence of differential migratory paths possibly involving a map sense...
2018: Movement Ecology
Felix Liechti, Silke Bauer, Kiran L Dhanjal-Adams, Tamara Emmenegger, Pavel Zehtindjiev, Steffen Hahn
Background: Over the past decade, the miniaturisation of animal borne tags such as geolocators and GPS-transmitters has revolutionized our knowledge of the whereabouts of migratory species. Novel light-weight multi-sensor loggers (1.4 g), which harbour sensors for measuring ambient light intensity, atmospheric pressure, temperature and acceleration, were fixed to two long-distance migrant bird species - eurasian hoopoe ( Upupa epops ) and great reed warbler ( Acrocephalus arundinaceus )...
2018: Movement Ecology
Anne K Scharf, Jerrold L Belant, Dean E Beyer, Martin Wikelski, Kamran Safi
Background: Increases in landscape connectivity can improve a species' ability to cope with habitat fragmentation and degradation. Wildlife corridors increase landscape connectivity and it is therefore important to identify and maintain them. Currently, corridors are mostly identified using methods that rely on generic habitat suitability measures. One important and widely held assumption is that corridors represent swaths of suitable habitat connecting larger patches of suitable habitat in an otherwise unsuitable environment...
2018: Movement Ecology
Ben G Weinstein, Ladd Irvine, Ari S Friedlaender
Background: Matching animal movement with the behaviors that shape life history requires a rigorous connection between the observed patterns of space use and inferred behavioral states. As animal-borne dataloggers capture a greater diversity and frequency of three dimensional movements, we can increase the complexity of movement models describing animal behavior. One challenge in combining data streams is the different spatial and temporal frequency of observations. Nested movement models provide a flexible framework for gleaning data from long-duration, but temporally sparse, data sources...
2018: Movement Ecology
Pablo A E Alarcón, Sergio A Lambertucci
Telemetry-based movement research has become central for learning about the behavior, ecology and conservation of wide-ranging species. Particularly, early telemetry studies were conducted on vultures and condors due to three main reasons: i) these birds capture the curiosity of humans, ii) their large body size allows researchers to deploy large telemetry units, and iii) they are of high conservation concern. This has resulted in a great number of scientific articles that remain scattered throughout the literature...
2018: Movement Ecology
Kevin W Heist, Tim S Bowden, Jake Ferguson, Nathan A Rathbun, Erik C Olson, Daniel C Nolfi, Rebecca Horton, Jeffrey C Gosse, Douglas H Johnson, Michael T Wells
Background: Millions of flying migrants encounter the Great Lakes and other large water bodies on long-distance flights each spring and fall, but quantitative data regarding how they traverse these obstacles are limited. Shorelines are known areas of migrant concentration due to the ecological barrier effect, but details on the magnitude of this concentration and the flight behaviors causing it are largely unknown and difficult to quantify. Mobile avian radar can provide a unique view of how birds and bats move across landscapes by tracking thousands of individual migrants moving through a sample volume that extends multiple kilometers in radius...
2018: Movement Ecology
Zachary S Ladin, Steffie Van Nieuland, Solny A Adalsteinsson, Vincent D'Amico, Jacob L Bowman, Jeffrey J Buler, Jan M Baetens, Bernard De Baets, W Gregory Shriver
Background: Persistent declines in migratory songbird populations continue to motivate research exploring contributing factors to inform conservation efforts. Nearctic-Neotropical migratory species' population declines have been linked to habitat loss and reductions in habitat quality due to increasing urbanization in areas used throughout the annual cycle. Despite an increase in the number of studies on post-fledging ecology, generally characterized by the period between fledging and dispersal from natal areas or migration, contextual research linking post-fledging survival and habitat use to anthropogenic factors remains limited...
2018: Movement Ecology
Manuel Roeleke, Tobias Teige, Uwe Hoffmeister, Friederike Klingler, Christian C Voigt
Background: Animals change their habitat use in response to spatio-temporal fluctuation of resources. Some resources may vary periodically according to the moonphase. Yet it is poorly documented how animals, particularly nocturnal mammals, adjust their use of space in response to the moonphase.Here, we asked if an obligate nocturnal mammal, the aerial-hawking common noctule bat ( Nyctalus noctula ), adjusts its 3-dimensional flight behaviour and habitat use to the lunar period. Using miniaturized GPS loggers, we recorded 3-dimensional flight tracks of N...
2018: Movement Ecology
Brian D Gerber, Mevin B Hooten, Christopher P Peck, Mindy B Rice, James H Gammonley, Anthony D Apa, Amy J Davis
Background: Characterizing animal space use is critical for understanding ecological relationships. Animal telemetry technology has revolutionized the fields of ecology and conservation biology by providing high quality spatial data on animal movement. Radio-telemetry with very high frequency (VHF) radio signals continues to be a useful technology because of its low cost, miniaturization, and low battery requirements. Despite a number of statistical developments synthetically integrating animal location estimation and uncertainty with spatial process models using satellite telemetry data, we are unaware of similar developments for azimuthal telemetry data...
2018: Movement Ecology
Adam F Parlin, Jessica A Nardone, John Kelly Dougherty, Mimi Rebein, Kamran Safi, Paul J Schaeffer
Background: Ectotherms are assumed to be strongly influenced by the surrounding ambient and environmental conditions for daily activity and movement. As such, ecological and physiological factors contribute to stimuli influencing navigation, extent of movement, and therefore habitat use. Our study focused on the intensity of activity (from acceleration data) and extent of movement (from GPS and thread trailing data) of Eastern box turtles ( Terrapene carolina carolina ) in a fragmented landscape near their northern population limit...
2018: Movement Ecology
Eric R Dougherty, Perry de Valpine, Colin J Carlson, Jason K Blackburn, Wayne M Getz
Background: Continued exploration of the performance of the recently proposed cross-validation-based approach for delimiting home ranges using the Time Local Convex Hull (T-LoCoH) method has revealed a number of issues with the original formulation. Main text: Here we replace the ad hoc cross-validation score with a new formulation based on the total log probability of out-of-sample predictions. To obtain these probabilities, we interpret the normalized LoCoH hulls as a probability density...
2018: Movement Ecology
Rachel Muheim, Heiko Schmaljohann, Thomas Alerstam
Birds use different compass mechanisms based on celestial (stars, sun, skylight polarization pattern) and geomagnetic cues for orientation. Yet, much remains to be understood how birds actually use these compass mechanisms on their long-distance migratory journeys. Here, we assess in more detail the consequences of using different sun and magnetic compass mechanisms for the resulting bird migration routes during both autumn and spring migration. First, we calculated predicted flight routes to determine which of the compasses mechanisms lead to realistic and feasible migration routes starting at different latitudes during autumn and spring migration...
2018: Movement Ecology
Yannis P Papastamatiou, Yuuki Y Watanabe, Urška Demšar, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Darcy Bradley, Roland Langrock, Kevin Weng, Christopher G Lowe, Alan M Friedlander, Jennifer E Caselle
Background: Central place foragers (CPF) rest within a central place, and theory predicts that distance of patches from this central place sets the outer limits of the foraging arena. Many marine ectothermic predators behave like CPF animals, but never stop swimming, suggesting that predators will incur 'travelling' costs while resting. Currently, it is unknown how these CPF predators behave or how modulation of behavior contributes to daily energy budgets. We combine acoustic telemetry, multi-sensor loggers, and hidden Markov models (HMMs) to generate 'activity seascapes', which combine space use with patterns of activity, for reef sharks (blacktip reef and grey reef sharks) at an unfished Pacific atoll...
2018: Movement Ecology
Alison A Kock, Theoni Photopoulou, Ian Durbach, Katya Mauff, Michael Meÿer, Deon Kotze, Charles L Griffiths, M Justin O'Riain
Background: Understanding white shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ) habitat use in coastal areas adjacent to large cities, is an important step when formulating potential solutions to the conservation conflict that exists between humans and large predatory sharks. In this study, we present the findings of a 2.5-year study of white shark occurrence and movement patterns adjacent to the City of Cape Town in False Bay, South Africa, with a focus on spring and summer months. Fifty-one white sharks were monitored annually at three offshore and twelve inshore sites by VR2 acoustic receivers, over 975 days from 1 May 2005 to 31 December 2007...
2018: Movement Ecology
Amanda Bishop, Casey Brown, Michael Rehberg, Leigh Torres, Markus Horning
Background: A utilization distribution quantifies the temporal and spatial probability of space use for individuals or populations. These patterns in movement arise from individuals' internal state and from their response to the external environment, and thus can provide insights for assessing factors associated with the management of threatened populations. The Western Distinct Population Segment of the Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus ) has declined to approximately 20% of levels encountered 40 years ago...
2018: Movement Ecology
Peter N Laver, Kathleen A Alexander
Background: Variation in animal space use reflects fitness trade-offs associated with ecological constraints. Associated theories such as the metabolic theory of ecology and the resource dispersion hypothesis generate predictions about what drives variation in animal space use. But, metabolic theory is usually tested in macro-ecological studies and is seldom invoked explicitly in within-species studies. Full evaluation of the resource dispersion hypothesis requires testing in more species...
2018: Movement Ecology
Katie J Harrington, Suzan Pole-Evans, Micky Reeves, Marc Bechard, Melissa Bobowski, David R Barber, Kalinka Rexer-Huber, Nicolas Lecomte, Keith L Bildstein
Background: The extent to which seasonal changes in food availability affect small-scale movements in free-ranging populations of birds of prey is relatively little studied. Here we describe a seasonal "micro-migration" of a farm-island population of striated caracaras ( Phalcoboenus australis ) in the Falkland Islands in response to seasonal changes in the availability of seabird carcasses. We banded more than 450 individuals on Saunders Island, deployed archival and satellite GPS data loggers on 17 individuals, and monitored movements within and between two feeding areas on Saunders Island, a "marine-subsidized" site near seabird colonies and an anthropogenic "human-subsidized" farm site 16 km to the southeast...
2018: Movement Ecology
Philip L Richardson, Ewan D Wakefield, Richard A Phillips
Background: Albatrosses and other large seabirds use dynamic soaring to gain sufficient energy from the wind to travel large distances rapidly and with little apparent effort. The recent development of miniature bird-borne tracking devices now makes it possible to explore the physical and biological implications of this means of locomotion in detail. Here we use GPS tracking and concurrent reanalyzed wind speed data to model the flight performance of wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans soaring over the Southern Ocean...
2018: Movement Ecology
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