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Journal of Transport & Health

Elizabeth A Webb, Steven Bell, Rebecca E Lacey, Jessica G Abell
Pedestrian crossings in the UK and US require people to walk at 1.2 m/s to cross the road in time; however a large proportion of older people do not walk this fast, potentially discouraging walking or putting older people at risk of injury. We use longitudinal data to investigate changes in walking speed, and ability to cross the road in time, at older ages. 31,015 walking speed measurements were taken from 10,249 men and women aged 60+ years in waves 1-7 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2002-2014)...
June 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Leslie A Meehan, Neil Maizlish, Arthur M Wendel
The Integrated Transport and Health Impact Model (ITHIM) is a comprehensive tool that estimates the hypothetical health effects of transportation mode shifts through changes to physical activity, air pollution, and injuries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of ITHIM in greater Nashville, Tennessee (USA), describe important lessons learned, and serve as an implementation guide for other practitioners and researchers interested in running ITHIM. As might be expected in other metropolitan areas in the US, not all the required calibration data was available locally...
June 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Leslie A Meehan, Geoffrey P Whitfield
The Nashville Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) is among the first MPOs in the United States to recognize the interplay of transportation and public health, particularly regarding physical activity, air pollution, and traffic crashes. The Nashville MPO has taken a multifaceted approach to simultaneously improve the transportation system, quality of life, and health status of the region's population. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiple programs and projects that the MPO has undertaken to this end, so that other cities might learn from Nashville's example...
March 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Orion T Stewart, Heather A Carlos, Chanam Lee, Ethan M Berke, Philip M Hurvitz, Li Li, Anne Vernez Moudon, Mark P Doescher
Built environment (BE) data in geographic information system (GIS) format are increasingly available from public agencies and private providers. These data can provide objective, low-cost BE data over large regions and are often used in public health research and surveillance. Yet challenges exist in repurposing GIS data for health research. The GIS data do not always capture desired constructs; the data can be of varying quality and completeness; and the data definitions, structures, and spatial representations are often inconsistent across sources...
December 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Lindsay M Braun, Daniel A Rodriguez, Yan Song, Katie A Meyer, Cora E Lewis, Jared P Reis, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: While many studies have found the built environment to be associated with walking, most have used cross-sectional research designs and few have examined more distal cardiometabolic outcomes. This study contributes longitudinal evidence based on changes in walking, body mass index (BMI), and cardiometabolic risk following residential relocation. METHODS: We examined 1,079 participants in the CARDIA study who moved residential locations between 2000 and 2006 (ages 32-46 in 2000, 49% white/51% black, 55% female)...
December 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Lars B Christiansen, Ester Cerin, Hannah Badland, Jacqueline Kerr, Rachel Davey, Jens Troelsen, Delfien van Dyck, Josef Mitáš, Grant Schofield, Takemi Sugiyama, Deborah Salvo, Olga L Sarmiento, Rodrigo Reis, Marc Adams, Larry Frank, James F Sallis
INTRODUCTION: Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling. METHODS: This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status...
December 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Yong Yang
Recently, research on utilitarian walking has gained momentum due to its benefits on both health and the environment. However, our overall understanding of how built and social environments affect travel mode choice (walking or not) is still limited, and most existing frameworks on travel mode choice lack dynamic processes. After a review of several mainstream theories and a number of frameworks, we propose an integrated framework. The basic constructs in the travel mode choice function are utilities, constraints, attitudes, and habits...
September 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Barbara B Brown, Douglas Tharp, Calvin P Tribby, Ken R Smith, Harvey J Miller, Carol M Werner
Although bicycling has been related to positive health indicators, few studies examine health-related measures associated with non-competitive community cycling before and after cycling infrastructure improvements. This study examined cycling changes in a neighborhood receiving a bike lane, light rail, and other "complete street" improvements. Participants wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data loggers for one week in both 2012 and 2013, pre- and post- construction completion. Participants sampled within 2 km of the complete street improvements had the following patterns of cycling: never cyclists (n=434), continuing cyclists (n= 29), former cyclists (n=33, who bicycled in 2012 but not 2013), and new cyclists (n=40, who bicycled in 2013 but not 2012)...
September 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Casey P Durand, Xiaohui Tang, Kelley P Gabriel, Ipek N Sener, Abiodun O Oluyomi, Gregory Knell, Anna K Porter, Deanna M Oelscher, Harold W Kohl
INTRODUCTION: Use of public transit is cited as a way to help individuals incorporate regular physical activity into their day. As a novel research topic, however, there is much we do not know. The aim of this analysis was to identify the correlation between distance to a transit stop and the probability it will be accessed by walking. We also sought to understand if this relation was moderated by trip, personal or household factors. METHODS: Data from the 2012 California Household Travel Survey was used for this cross-sectional analysis...
June 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Ipek N Sener, Richard J Lee, Zachary Elgart
Transit has the potential to increase an individual's level of physical activity due to the need to walk or bike at the beginning and end of each trip. Consideration of these health benefits would allow transit proponents to better demonstrate its true costs and benefits. In light of transit's potential health-related impacts, this study contributes to the growing discussion in the emerging field of health and transportation by providing a review of the current level of understanding and evidence related to the physical activity implications of transit use and its associated health cost benefits...
June 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Eva Heinen, David Ogilvie
PURPOSE: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. METHODS: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant's home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s)...
March 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Anna Goodman, Esther M F van Sluijs, David Ogilvie
PURPOSE: The 'Bikeability' cycle training scheme, a flagship policy of the government in England, aims to give children the skills and confidence to cycle more safely and more often. Little, however, is known about the scheme׳s reach. This paper examined which schools offer Bikeability, and which children participate in cycle training. METHODS: We used operational delivery data to examine which primary schools in England offered Bikeability. Predictors included the deprivation level of the student body and the local prevalence of cycling...
December 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Catherine L Falconer, Sam D Leary, Angie S Page, Ashley R Cooper
BACKGROUND: To examine the tracking of active travel through adolescence, and its association with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass at age 17 in a UK cohort. METHODS: We analysed data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The analyses include all participants with self-reported travel mode to school at ages 12, 14 and 16 years, and measured height, weight and body composition at age 17 (n=2,026). Tracking coefficients were calculated for individual travel behaviours (including walking and cycling) through adolescence using Generalised Estimating Equations...
December 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Marko Tainio
Transport is a major source of air pollution, noise, injuries and physical activity in the urban environment. The quantification of the health risks and benefits arising from these factors would provide useful information for the planning of cost-effective mitigation actions. In this study we quantified the burden of disease caused by local transport in the city of Warsaw, Poland. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated for transport related air pollution (particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium, lead and nickel), noise, injuries and physical activity...
September 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Md Moniruzzaman, Anna Chudyk, Antonio Páez, Meghan Winters, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather McKay
Given the aging demographic landscape, the concept of walkable neighborhoods has emerged as a topic of interest, especially during the last decade. However, we know very little about whether walkable neighborhoods promote walking among older adults, particularly those with lower incomes. Therefore in this paper we: (i) examine the relation between trip distance and sociodemographic attributes and accessibility features of lower income older adults in Metro Vancouver; and, (ii) implement a web-based application to calculate the accessibility of lower income older adults in Metro Vancouver based on their travel behavior...
June 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Alice M Dalton, Andrew P Jones, Jenna Panter, David Ogilvie
Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well modelled routes reflect those actually taken, and what characteristics explain these differences...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Roselle Thoreau
As older people start to have difficulty in walking many choose to use a mobility scooter to help them move around. Benefitting from improved design, mobility scooters are becoming an increasingly popular mobility device and are a common sight on many streets. However, very little is known about their usage or their impact in terms of either quality of life or functional health. Whilst mobility scooters may help to improve the quality of life of their users, it is also possible that the sedentary nature of their usage results in a decline of physical functionality and therefore reduced capabilities...
June 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Eva Heinen, Jenna Panter, Alice Dalton, Andy Jones, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: New transport infrastructure may help promote active travel, thereby contributing to increasing overall physical activity and population health gain. In 2011 a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling was opened in Cambridgeshire, UK. This paper investigates the predictors of walking, cycling and bus use on the busway. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of the final questionnaire wave (2012) of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge cohort study following the opening of the busway...
June 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Yong Yang
Due to walking's benefits to physical and mental health as well as to environmental and economic sustainability, numerous studies have examined psychological and environmental characteristics on their impacts on walking. However, understanding of how the interactions between psychological and environmental characteristics influence walking remains limited. Recently, both competitive mechanism and synergetic mechanism have been proposed, and a number of empirical studies have examined the interactions between psychological and environmental characteristics, but the results were inconsistent...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Lin Yang, J Aaron Hipp, Deepti Adlakha, Christine M Marx, Rachel G Tabak, Ross C Brownson
BACKGROUND: Promoting the use of public transit and active transport (walking and cycling) instead of car driving is an appealing strategy to increase overall physical activity. PURPOSE: To quantify the combined associations between self-reported home and worksite neighborhood environments, worksite support and policies, and employees' commuting modes. METHOD: Between 2012 and 2013, participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas were interviewed via telephone (n = 1,338) and provided information on socio-demographic characteristics, home and worksite neighborhoods, and worksite support and policies...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
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