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Journal of Transport & Health

Alexandra Macmillan, James Woodcock
Background: Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes...
December 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Ruizhu Huang, Anne V Moudon, Chuan Zhou, Orion T Stewart, Brian E Saelens
Areas around Light Rail Transit (LRT) stations offer ideal conditions for Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). Relatively dense, mixed-use neighborhoods can have positive impacts on mobility, health, and perceptions of neighborhood safety among nearby residents, primarily through walking activity for both transit and other purposes. To examine how station areas may attract new activity, this study analyzed changes in walking around station areas among people living close to an LRT station before and after the opening of a new transit system...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Barbara B Brown, Ken R Smith
Active travel bouts are healthy, but bout-specific motives, social, and physical contexts have been poorly characterized. Adults (n= 421 in 2012, 436 in 2013) described their moderate activity bouts over the past week, aided by accelerometry/GPS data integration. Participants viewed maps indicating date, time, and starting and ending locations of their past week moderate-to-vigorous active travel bouts of 3 or more minutes. These prompts helped participants recall their social and physical contexts and motives for the bouts...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Neil Maizlish, Nicholas J Linesch, James Woodcock
The purpose of this research was to quantify health co-benefits and carbon reductions of preferred scenarios of California regional transportation plans and alternatives with ambitious levels of active transport. The alternatives were designed to examine the efficacy of independent contributions of walking, bicycling, and transit at levels consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General recommendation for physical activity. Using data from travel and health surveys, vital statistics, collision databases, and outputs from regional and statewide travel models, the Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model estimated the change in the population disease burden, as measured by deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs), due to a shift from a 2010 baseline travel pattern to an alternative...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Eva Heinen, Amelia Harshfield, Jenna Panter, Roger Mackett, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Intervention studies suggest that changing the built environment may encourage a modal shift from car travel towards active travel. However, little is known about the detail of patterns of changes in travel behaviour. METHOD: Adult commuters working in Cambridge (UK) completed annual questionnaires between 2009 and 2012. Commuting was assessed using a validated seven-day travel-to-work record. The intervention consisted of the opening of a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in 2011...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Jonathan R Olsen, Laura Macdonald, Anne Ellaway
AIM: The aim of the study was to examine changes over time in satisfaction with usual transport mode, explore individual and area level characteristics as mediators in the likelihood of transport satisfaction, and whether any changes in transport satisfaction varied by these factors over time. METHODS: Adults from West Central Scotland, United Kingdom, who participated at both waves of the repeat cross-sectional 'Transport, Health and Well-being Study' conducted in 1997 (n=2735) and 2010 (n=2024) were assessed...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Kelli L Cain, Kavita A Gavand, Terry L Conway, Carrie M Geremia, Rachel A Millstein, Lawrence D Frank, Brian E Saelens, Marc A Adams, Karen Glanz, Abby C King, James F Sallis
Purpose: Macroscale built environment factors (e.g., street connectivity) are correlated with physical activity. Less-studied but more modifiable microscale elements (e.g., sidewalks) may also influence physical activity, but shorter audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of an abbreviated 54-item streetscape audit tool with multiple measures of physical activity in four age groups. Methods: We developed a 54-item version from the original 120-item Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS)...
June 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Elizabeth A Webb, Steven Bell, Rebecca E Lacey, Jessica G Abell
Pedestrian crossings in the UK and US require people to walk at 1.2 m/s to cross the road in time; however a large proportion of older people do not walk this fast, potentially discouraging walking or putting older people at risk of injury. We use longitudinal data to investigate changes in walking speed, and ability to cross the road in time, at older ages. 31,015 walking speed measurements were taken from 10,249 men and women aged 60+ years in waves 1-7 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2002-2014)...
June 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Leslie A Meehan, Neil Maizlish, Arthur M Wendel
The Integrated Transport and Health Impact Model (ITHIM) is a comprehensive tool that estimates the hypothetical health effects of transportation mode shifts through changes to physical activity, air pollution, and injuries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of ITHIM in greater Nashville, Tennessee (USA), describe important lessons learned, and serve as an implementation guide for other practitioners and researchers interested in running ITHIM. As might be expected in other metropolitan areas in the US, not all the required calibration data was available locally...
June 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Leslie A Meehan, Geoffrey P Whitfield
The Nashville Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) is among the first MPOs in the United States to recognize the interplay of transportation and public health, particularly regarding physical activity, air pollution, and traffic crashes. The Nashville MPO has taken a multifaceted approach to simultaneously improve the transportation system, quality of life, and health status of the region's population. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiple programs and projects that the MPO has undertaken to this end, so that other cities might learn from Nashville's example...
March 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Orion T Stewart, Heather A Carlos, Chanam Lee, Ethan M Berke, Philip M Hurvitz, Li Li, Anne Vernez Moudon, Mark P Doescher
Built environment (BE) data in geographic information system (GIS) format are increasingly available from public agencies and private providers. These data can provide objective, low-cost BE data over large regions and are often used in public health research and surveillance. Yet challenges exist in repurposing GIS data for health research. The GIS data do not always capture desired constructs; the data can be of varying quality and completeness; and the data definitions, structures, and spatial representations are often inconsistent across sources...
December 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Lindsay M Braun, Daniel A Rodriguez, Yan Song, Katie A Meyer, Cora E Lewis, Jared P Reis, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: While many studies have found the built environment to be associated with walking, most have used cross-sectional research designs and few have examined more distal cardiometabolic outcomes. This study contributes longitudinal evidence based on changes in walking, body mass index (BMI), and cardiometabolic risk following residential relocation. METHODS: We examined 1,079 participants in the CARDIA study who moved residential locations between 2000 and 2006 (ages 32-46 in 2000, 49% white/51% black, 55% female)...
December 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Lars B Christiansen, Ester Cerin, Hannah Badland, Jacqueline Kerr, Rachel Davey, Jens Troelsen, Delfien van Dyck, Josef Mitáš, Grant Schofield, Takemi Sugiyama, Deborah Salvo, Olga L Sarmiento, Rodrigo Reis, Marc Adams, Larry Frank, James F Sallis
INTRODUCTION: Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling. METHODS: This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status...
December 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Yong Yang
Recently, research on utilitarian walking has gained momentum due to its benefits on both health and the environment. However, our overall understanding of how built and social environments affect travel mode choice (walking or not) is still limited, and most existing frameworks on travel mode choice lack dynamic processes. After a review of several mainstream theories and a number of frameworks, we propose an integrated framework. The basic constructs in the travel mode choice function are utilities, constraints, attitudes, and habits...
September 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Barbara B Brown, Douglas Tharp, Calvin P Tribby, Ken R Smith, Harvey J Miller, Carol M Werner
Although bicycling has been related to positive health indicators, few studies examine health-related measures associated with non-competitive community cycling before and after cycling infrastructure improvements. This study examined cycling changes in a neighborhood receiving a bike lane, light rail, and other "complete street" improvements. Participants wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data loggers for one week in both 2012 and 2013, pre- and post- construction completion. Participants sampled within 2 km of the complete street improvements had the following patterns of cycling: never cyclists (n=434), continuing cyclists (n= 29), former cyclists (n=33, who bicycled in 2012 but not 2013), and new cyclists (n=40, who bicycled in 2013 but not 2012)...
September 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Casey P Durand, Xiaohui Tang, Kelley P Gabriel, Ipek N Sener, Abiodun O Oluyomi, Gregory Knell, Anna K Porter, Deanna M Oelscher, Harold W Kohl
INTRODUCTION: Use of public transit is cited as a way to help individuals incorporate regular physical activity into their day. As a novel research topic, however, there is much we do not know. The aim of this analysis was to identify the correlation between distance to a transit stop and the probability it will be accessed by walking. We also sought to understand if this relation was moderated by trip, personal or household factors. METHODS: Data from the 2012 California Household Travel Survey was used for this cross-sectional analysis...
June 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Ipek N Sener, Richard J Lee, Zachary Elgart
Transit has the potential to increase an individual's level of physical activity due to the need to walk or bike at the beginning and end of each trip. Consideration of these health benefits would allow transit proponents to better demonstrate its true costs and benefits. In light of transit's potential health-related impacts, this study contributes to the growing discussion in the emerging field of health and transportation by providing a review of the current level of understanding and evidence related to the physical activity implications of transit use and its associated health cost benefits...
June 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Eva Heinen, David Ogilvie
PURPOSE: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. METHODS: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant's home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s)...
March 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
S Graham, B Lewis, B Flanagan, M Watson, L Peipins
We examined lack of private vehicle access and 30 minutes or longer public transportation travel time to mammography facilities for women 40 years of age or older in the urban areas of Boston, Philadelphia, San Antonio, San Diego, Denver, and Seattle to identify transit marginalized populations - women for whom these travel characteristics may jointly present a barrier to clinic access. This ecological study used sex and race/ethnicity data from the 2010 US Census and household vehicle availability data from the American Community Survey 2008-2012, all at Census tract level...
December 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
Anna Goodman, Esther M F van Sluijs, David Ogilvie
PURPOSE: The 'Bikeability' cycle training scheme, a flagship policy of the government in England, aims to give children the skills and confidence to cycle more safely and more often. Little, however, is known about the scheme׳s reach. This paper examined which schools offer Bikeability, and which children participate in cycle training. METHODS: We used operational delivery data to examine which primary schools in England offered Bikeability. Predictors included the deprivation level of the student body and the local prevalence of cycling...
December 2015: Journal of Transport & Health
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