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Respirology Case Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435681/a-hol-e-y-predicament
#1
Shaiva Ginoya Meka, Daniel Shelden, Amy Mertens, Paul Christensen, Meet Patel
Endocardial cushion defects are congenital abnormalities that result in valvular dysfunction as well as defects (or "holes") in the septa of the heart. They are typically diagnosed in early infancy; presentation late in life is rare. We present the case of a 72-year-old female admitted to the hospital with dyspnoea and palpitations. She was found to have multifocal atrial tachycardia. She suffered cardiac arrest associated with refractory hypoxaemia that required mechanical ventilation and vasodilator therapy with inhaled nitric oxide...
July 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428888/multimodal-imaging-findings-in-an-adult-case-of-swyer-james-macleod-syndrome
#2
Hitoshi Kawasuji, Kensuke Suzuki, Hideaki Furuse, Takeshi Tsuda, Yasuaki Masaki, Hirokazu Taniguchi
Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome (SJMS) is an uncommon obliterative lung disease that is radiologically characterized by hyperlucency of a part of or the entire lung. A 33-year-old man presented to our hospital for chest tightness. A chest X-ray revealed unilateral hyperlucency of left lower lung, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest disclosed a hyperlucent left lung without vascularity. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction and ventilation-perfusion scan findings were concordant with SJMS...
July 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413686/cytokine-profiles-of-amyopathic-dermatomyositis-with-interstitial-lung-diseases-treated-with-mycophenolate
#3
Masachika Hayashi, Ami Aoki, Katsuaki Asakawa, Takuro Sakagami, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Toshinori Takada
A 59-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with interstitial lung disease associated with amyopathic dermatomyositis with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) antibodies was treated with intravenous methyl prednisolone (PSL) 1000 mg, oral PSL 1 mg/kg, and oral cyclosporin 200 mg daily. His respiratory condition worsened after treatment with two times of intravenous cyclophosphamide and another steroid pulse therapy as well as PSL and cyclosporin. Addition of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), 1...
July 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413685/empyema-associated-with-campylobacter-curvus-infection
#4
Yukihiro Horio, Yoshiki Shiraishi, Nobuo Watanabe, Shigeaki Inoue, Tadashi Imanishi, Koichiro Asano
We report the first case of thoracic empyema associated with Campylobacter curvus infection. A 65-year-old woman with a history of bronchiectasis presented with acute cough and phlegm. The patient reported dyspnoea and left chest pain accompanied by left pleural effusion, despite treatment with sitafloxacin. Curved Gram-negative rods, eventually identified as C. curvus using 16S ribosomal RNA- and atpA-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing, were cultured in anaerobic condition of pleural effusion together with Peptostreptococci...
July 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392920/coexistence-of-diffuse-panbronchiolitis-and-asthma-reciprocity-of-neutrophilic-and-eosinophilic-inflammation
#5
Kiyoshi Takeyama, Yuri Shimizu, Masanobu Ishii, Hiroko Hara, Mitsuko Kondo, Jun Tamaoki
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) and asthma are obstructive airway diseases, the former being characterized by Th1-type and the latter by Th2-type airway inflammation. Differential diagnosis is often a problem, but coexistence has rarely been reported. A 76-year-old man with asthma was admitted to our hospital because of one-month history of dyspnoea on exertion with bilateral diffuse granular shadows. He also had a history of chronic sinusitis. Auscultation of the lungs showed coarse crackles and wheezes. Laboratory data revealed an elevated total serum immunoglobulin E and a high titre of cold agglutinin...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392919/respiratory-bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease-secondary-to-electronic-nicotine-delivery-system-use-confirmed-with-open-lung-biopsy
#6
Mark Flower, Lakshmy Nandakumar, Mahendra Singh, David Wyld, Morgan Windsor, David Fielding
As a modern phenomenon, there is currently limited understanding of the possible toxic effects and broader implications of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Large volumes of aerosolized particles are inhaled during "vaping" and there are now an increasing number of case reports demonstrating toxic effects of ENDS, as well as human studies demonstrating impaired lung function in users. This article presents a case of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) precipitated by vaping in a 33-year-old male with 10 pack years of traditional cigarette and prior treatment for mixed germ cell tumour...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361002/a-case-of-lung-abscess-successfully-treated-by-transbronchial-drainage-using-a-guide-sheath
#7
Hiroki Izumi, Masahiro Kodani, Shingo Matsumoto, Yuji Kawasaki, Tadashi Igishi, Eiji Shimizu
A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with colon cancer in September 2011, and a solitary pulmonary nodule was detected by computed tomography (CT) scan. We performed a transbronchial biopsy with endobronchial ultrasonography using a guide sheath (GS) and diagnosed lung metastasis of colon cancer. The patient experienced remittent fever after the biopsy in spite of intravenous antibiotic therapies. Moreover, his CT scan showed a large lung abscess at the biopsy site. We performed transbronchial drainage using a GS as salvage therapy...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357112/immunoglobulin-g4-related-disease-a-rare-steroid-responsive-disease
#8
Vorawut Thanthitaweewat, Poonchavist Chantranuwatana, Naricha Chirakalwasan
A 70-year-old man presented with progressive dyspnoea and weight loss. Physical examination revealed only mild pale conjunctiva. The workup showed mild anaemia, mild impaired renal function, and high globulin level. Multiple myeloma was excluded by normal serum protein electrophoresis. The chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral multifocal patchy infiltration with mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy was performed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid examination was negative for infection and malignancy...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352469/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-nocardiosis-with-fluoroquinolone-in-bronchial-asthma-and-bronchiectasis
#9
Hironori Sadamatsu, Koichiro Takahashi, Hiroki Tashiro, Kazutoshi Komiya, Tomomi Nakamura, Naoko Sueoka-Aragane
A 72-year-old Japanese woman was admitted at Saga University Hospital for fever, malaise, and productive cough. Six years ago, she had been diagnosed with bronchial asthma and was treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed infiltrates in the right middle lobe, a mass lesion in the left lower lobe, and bronchiectasis in both lower lobes. Sputum examination showed Gram-positive rods with phagocytosis by neutrophils. These bacilli were identified as Nocardia otitidiscaviarum by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316788/chemical-pleurodesis-using-mistletoe-extracts-via-spray-catheter-during-medical-thoracoscopy-for-management-of-malignant-pleural-effusion
#10
Jung Seop Eom, Tae Hwa Kim, Geewon Lee, Hyo Yeong Ahn, Jeong Ha Mok, Min Ki Lee
We present three cases of successful chemical pleurodesis with a liquid solution of mistletoe extract using a spray catheter during medical thoracoscopy. The medical thoracoscopy was performed in all presented cases to remove pleural effusion and conduct chemical pleurodesis to manage symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. A spray catheter was used to instil the mistletoe extract evenly into the pleural cavity, and there were no pleurodesis-related complications. Respiratory symptoms caused by pleural effusion improved after pleurodesis, and successful pleurodesis was maintained for more than 3 months after medical thoracoscopy in all three patients...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286654/it-s-better-to-be-lucky%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-successful-management-of-an-acute-endobronchial-tumour-embolism-in-the-icu-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Christopher J Walsh, Ron Olivenstein, Eric Forget, Anne V Gonzalez
Endobronchial tumour embolism is a rare cause of acute central airway obstruction. It is primarily reported during pneumonectomy, and the outcome is frequently fatal. Successful management requires the urgent removal of tumour with rigid or flexible bronchoscopy. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with poorly differentiated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), referred to our institution for Nd:YAG laser photoresection of endobronchial tumour completely obstructing the right mainstem bronchus (RMSB)...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286653/diffuse-panbronchiolitis-in-a-samoan-man
#12
Justine Gibson, Harrison King, Mahendra Singh, Khoa Tran
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease which is predominantly recognised in the Japanese population with only isolated case reports in Western populations. This is the first reported case of DPB in a Samoan man with typical radiological and histopathological features. He had an excellent response to long-term erythromycin and this case highlights the importance of recognising this rare disease.
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275428/control-of-brain-metastases-with-alectinib-in-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-rearranged-lung-cancer
#13
Wang Chun Kwok, Terence Chi Chun Tam, Macy Mei Sze Lui, David Chi Leung Lam, James Chung Man Ho
Brain metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer remains a challenge to physicians. It occurs in 30% of patients with advanced stage adenocarcinoma of lung and is often regarded as the ominous sign of disease progression and death. Alectinib is likely to be a promising agent, even after the failure of crizotinib and ceritinib, for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) -driven non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis, resulting in a durable response for both intracranial and extra-cranial diseases...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261483/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-involving-the-epiglottis
#14
Yuya Aono, Shiro Imokawa, Tomohiro Uto, Jun Sato, Fumihiko Tanioka, Takafumi Suda
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) frequently involves the upper respiratory tracts, but involvement of the epiglottis is extremely rare. This report describes a patient initially presenting with dysphagia and increasing stridor due to epiglottitis. Bronchoscopy showed swelling of the epiglottis with partly whitish nodular lesions, with biopsy specimens showing neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Chest computed tomography showed multiple nodular consolidations in the bilateral lung parenchyma, and histological findings were consistent with vasculitis...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261482/pneumonic-type-mucinous-lung-adenocarcinoma-diagnosed-by-transbronchial-cryobiopsy
#15
Rick Balestra, Akilan Selvaraju, Sadia Benzaquen, Dani S Zander
Primary lung adenocarcinoma with lepidic growth can mimic diffuse pulmonary parenchymal processes like infectious pneumonia or idiopathic inflammatory pneumonitis. We report a case of subacute pneumonitis refractory to antibiotic therapy and empirical corticosteroids, proven to be diffuse mucinous adenocarcinoma with lepidic growth on transbronchial cryobiopsy.
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250932/edoxaban-treatment-for-pulmonary-arterial-thromboembolism-associated-with-azygous-vein-aneurysm
#16
Takao Mochimaru, Ichiro Kawada, Shotaro Chubachi, Akihiro Tsutsumi, Hanako Hasegawa, Tomoko Betsuyaku
A 76-year-old woman, diagnosed 5 years previously with an asymptomatic mediastinal bronchogenic cyst, was referred to our department as the mass had grown slightly larger. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed an azygous vein aneurysm with a pulmonary arterial thromboembolism. The patient was treated with heparin for 5 days, and anticoagulation therapy with edoxaban was continued for 12 months. The thrombus resolved, and the aneurysm remained unchanged. An azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare condition that causes pulmonary arterial thromboembolism...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250931/chylothorax-and-central-vein-thrombosis-an-under-recognized-association-a-case-series
#17
Sze Shyang Kho, Siew Teck Tie, Swee Kim Chan, Mei Ching Yong, Sing Ling Chai, Pei Jye Voon
Chylothorax is defined as the presence of chyle in the pleural cavity. Central vein thrombosis is an under-recognized cause of chylothorax in the adult population and is commonly related to central venous catheterization. Case 1 illustrates a patient with AIDS and disseminated tuberculosis with left chylothorax and central vein thrombosis after a month of antituberculosis therapy. Case 2 was a patient with advanced seminoma who presented with left chylothorax and central vein thrombosis while on chemotherapy...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250930/disseminated-histoplasmosis-a-rare-clinical-phenotype-with-difficult-diagnosis
#18
Xiao-Feng Xiong, Li-Li Fan, Mei Kang, Jia Wei, De-Yun Cheng
We describe a rare and interesting case of a 37-year-old man who presented with an intermittent fever, progressive cytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Histopathological examination of a bone marrow smear revealed haemophagocytes and intracellular yeast-like Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum); thus, we prolonged the blood culture duration to detect fungi, and H. capsulatum was detected in the peripheral blood. After the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis, the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B and symptomatic therapy...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250929/ambiguous-presentation-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-associated-rasmussen-aneurysm
#19
Hsin-Wei Chiu, Shu-Hung Kuo, Ruay-Sheng Lai, Ming-Ting Wu, Hsiu-Fu Wu
A 77-year-old man with a progressively dry cough (two months duration) was admitted with hemoptysis. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed left lingular lobe consolidation and one thick-walled cavity lesion over the left lower lobe, which was accompanied by satellite micro-nodules in a tree-in-bud pattern. CT-guided biopsy confirmed mycobacterial infection, and subsequent culture yielded Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Unremitting hemoptysis was present despite treatment (14 days) with ethambutol, rifampin, clarithromycin, and streptomycin...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191315/emergency-surgery-for-lung-cancer-with-abscess-formation-after-transbronchial-biopsy
#20
Yusuke Takanashi, Koichi Miyashita, Shogo Tajima, Takamitsu Hayakawa, Hiroshi Neyatani, Kazuhito Funai
Abscess formation in lung cancer after transbronchial biopsy (TBB) is a rare complication with no standard consensus on a coping strategy or prophylaxis. We describe an instructive case of lung cancer which developed into an abscess after TBB. An 80-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus underwent TBB for diagnosing a mass lesion in the left upper lobe. The TBB specimen confirmed a diagnosis of lung cancer, and he was scheduled for radical surgery. However, the tumour was revealed to have progressed into an enlarged abscess 24 days after TBB...
March 2017: Respirology Case Reports
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