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BMC Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196507/vrex-an-open-source-toolbox-for-creating-3d-virtual-reality-experiments
#1
Madis Vasser, Markus Kängsepp, Murad Magomedkerimov, Kälver Kilvits, Vladislav Stafinjak, Taavi Kivisik, Raul Vicente, Jaan Aru
BACKGROUND: We present VREX, a free open-source Unity toolbox for virtual reality research in the fields of experimental psychology and neuroscience. RESULTS: Different study protocols about perception, attention, cognition and memory can be constructed using the toolbox. VREX provides a procedural generation of (interconnected) rooms that can be automatically furnished with a click of a button. VREX includes a menu system for creating and storing experiments with different stages...
February 14, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126022/differences-in-motivation-and-adherence-to-a-prescribed-assignment-after-face-to-face-and-online-psychoeducation-an-experimental-study
#2
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sven Alfonsson, Karin Johansson, Jonas Uddling, Timo Hursti
BACKGROUND: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients' behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion...
January 26, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081723/kidney-dysfunction-systemic-inflammation-and-mental-well-being-in-elderly-post-myocardial-infarction-patients
#3
Rick H M Heeres, Ellen K Hoogeveen, Johanna M Geleijnse, Janette de Goede, Daan Kromhout, Erik J Giltay
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate whether mild kidney dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in post-myocardial infarction patients are independently associated with markers of mental well-being (i.e. depressive and apathy symptoms, and dispositional optimism). METHODS: In post-myocardial infarction patients, kidney function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated from the combined CKD-EPI formula based on serum levels of both creatinine and cystatine C...
January 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081710/the-effects-of-perceived-racism-on-psychological-distress-mediated-by-venting-and-disengagement-coping-in-native-hawaiians
#4
Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Mapuana C K Antonio, Claire K Townsend Ing, Andrea Hermosura, Kimberly E Hall, Rebecca Knight, Thomas A Wills
BACKGROUND: Studies have linked perceived racism to psychological distress via certain coping strategies in several different racial and ethnic groups, but few of these studies included indigenous populations. Elucidating modifiable factors for intervention to reduce the adverse effects of racism on psychological well-being is another avenue to addressing health inequities. METHODS: We examined the potential mediating effects of 14 distinct coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress in a community-based sample of 145 Native Hawaiians using structural equation modeling...
January 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927237/the-personality-inventory-for-dsm-5-short-form-pid-5-sf-psychometric-properties-and-association-with-big-five-traits-and-pathological-beliefs-in-a-norwegian-population
#5
Jens C Thimm, Stian Jordan, Bo Bach
BACKGROUND: With the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), an alternative model for personality disorders based on personality dysfunction and pathological personality traits was introduced. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a 220-item self-report inventory designed to assess the personality traits of this model. Recently, a short 100-item version of the PID-5 (PID-5-SF) has been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the score reliability and structure of the Norwegian PID-5-SF...
December 7, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#6
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903302/preventing-the-ends-from-justifying-the-means-withholding-results-to-address-publication-bias-in-peer-review
#7
EDITORIAL
Katherine S Button, Liz Bal, Anna Clark, Tim Shipley
The evidence that many of the findings in the published literature may be unreliable is compelling. There is an excess of positive results, often from studies with small sample sizes, or other methodological limitations, and the conspicuous absence of null findings from studies of a similar quality. This distorts the evidence base, leading to false conclusions and undermining scientific progress. Central to this problem is a peer-review system where the decisions of authors, reviewers, and editors are more influenced by impressive results than they are by the validity of the study design...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894358/attentional-and-affective-consequences-of-technology-supported-mindfulness-training-a-randomised-active-control-efficacy-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sheffy Bhayee, Patricia Tomaszewski, Daniel H Lee, Graeme Moffat, Lou Pino, Sylvain Moreno, Norman A S Farb
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness training (MT) programs represent an approach to attention training with well-validated mental health benefits. However, research supporting MT efficacy is based predominantly on weekly-meeting, facilitator-led, group-intervention formats. It is unknown whether participants might benefit from neurofeedback-assisted, technology-supported MT (N-tsMT), in which meditation is delivered individually, without the need for a facilitator, travel to a training site, or the presence of a supportive group environment...
November 29, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876079/copenhagen-infant-mental-health-project-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-circle-of-security-parenting-and-care-as-usual-as-interventions-targeting-infant-mental-health-risks
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mette Skovgaard Væver, Johanne Smith-Nielsen, Theis Lange
BACKGROUND: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies...
November 22, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842610/views-on-a-brief-mindfulness-intervention-among-patients-with-long-term-illness
#10
Ana Howarth, Linda Perkins-Porras, Claire Copland, Michael Ussher
BACKGROUND: Chronic illness is the leading cause of death in the UK and worldwide. Psychological therapies to support self-management have been shown to play an important role in helping those with chronic illness cope; more recently, the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness approaches have become evident for managing depression and other distressing emotions. Brief guided mindfulness interventions, are more convenient than intensive traditional programmes requiring regular attendance but have been less explored...
November 15, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842603/simulated-partners-and-collaborative-exercise-space-to-boost-motivation-for-astronauts-study-protocol
#11
Deborah L Feltz, Lori Ploutz-Snyder, Brian Winn, Norbert L Kerr, James M Pivarnik, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Stephen Samendinger, William Jeffery
BACKGROUND: Astronauts may have difficulty adhering to exercise regimens at vigorous intensity levels during long space missions. Vigorous exercise is important for aerobic and musculoskeletal health during space missions and afterwards. A key impediment to maintaining vigorous exercise is motivation. Finding ways to motivate astronauts to exercise at levels necessary to mitigate reductions in musculoskeletal health and aerobic capacity have not been explored. The focus of Simulated Partners and Collaborative Exercise (SPACE) is to use recently documented motivation gains in task groups to heighten the exercise experience for participants, similar in age and fitness to astronauts, for vigorous exercise over a 6-month exercise regimen...
November 14, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842577/getting-nowhere-fast-trade-off-between-speed-and-precision-in-training-to-execute-image-guided-hand-tool-movements
#12
Anil Ufuk Batmaz, Michel de Mathelin, Birgitta Dresp-Langley
BACKGROUND: The speed and precision with which objects are moved by hand or hand-tool interaction under image guidance depend on a specific type of visual and spatial sensorimotor learning. Novices have to learn to optimally control what their hands are doing in a real-world environment while looking at an image representation of the scene on a video monitor. Previous research has shown slower task execution times and lower performance scores under image-guidance compared with situations of direct action viewing...
November 14, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832817/prevalence-of-psychological-symptoms-among-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease-in-korle-bu-teaching-hospital-ghana
#13
Michael Tetteh Anim, Joseph Osafo, Felix Yirdong
BACKGROUND: Previous research revealed high prevalence of psychological symptoms among sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in the West and Europe. In some Black SCD populations such as Nigeria and Jamaica, anxiety and depression had low prevalence rates compared to Europe. With difficulty locating research data on the prevalence of psychological symptoms in Ghana, this study aimed at exploring psychological symptoms among adults with SCD in a Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. METHODS: Two hundred and one participants (males 102 and females 99) who were HbSS (n = 131) and HbSC (n = 70), aged 18 years and above were purposively recruited...
November 10, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806721/identifying-factors-of-psychological-distress-on-the-experience-of-pain-and-symptom-management-among-cancer-patients
#14
Tamara A Baker, Jessica L Krok-Schoen, Susan C McMillan
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. METHODS: Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center...
November 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793188/intra-and-interpersonal-emotion-regulation-and-adjustment-symptoms-in-couples-the-role-of-co-brooding-and-co-reappraisal
#15
Andrea B Horn, Andreas Maercker
BACKGROUND: Adult emotion regulation is not only occurring within the person but includes strategies that happen in social interactions and that are framed as co-regulating. The current study investigates the role of the interpersonal emotion regulation strategies of co-reappraisal and co-brooding in couples for adjustment disorder symptoms as the disorder will be outlined in the International Classification of Diseases-11 (ICD-11). METHODS: Couples registered together in an online questionnaire study reporting whether or not they are adjusting to a major stressor that is psychologically challenging to them...
October 28, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782849/habituation-of-the-startle-reflex-depends-on-attention-in-cannabis-users
#16
Karina K Kedzior, Eileen Wehmann, Mathew Martin-Iverson
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is associated with an attention-dependent deficit in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI). The aim of the current study was to investigate startle habituation in cannabis users and healthy controls during two attentional tasks. METHODS: Auditory startle reflex was recorded from orbicularis oculi muscle while participants (12 controls and 16 regular cannabis users) were either attending to or ignoring 100 dB startling pulses. Startle habituation was measured as the absolute reduction in startle magnitude on block 2 (last nine trials) vs...
October 26, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776553/effects-of-a-job-crafting-intervention-program-on-work-engagement-among-japanese-employees-a-pretest-posttest-study
#17
Asuka Sakuraya, Akihito Shimazu, Kotaro Imamura, Katsuyuki Namba, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. METHODS: Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671742/study-protocol-of-an-rct-of-emotion-an-indicated-intervention-for-children-with-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression
#18
Joshua Patras, Kristin Dagmar Martinsen, Solveig Holen, Anne Mari Sund, Frode Adolfsen, Lene-Mari Potulski Rasmussen, Simon-Peter Neumer
BACKGROUND: High levels of anxiety and depression are common psychological symptoms among children and adolescents. These symptoms affect young people in multiple life domains and are possible precursors of long-term psychological distress. Despite relatively high prevalence, few children with emotional problems are referred for clinical treatment, indicating the need for systematic prevention. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate an indicated preventive intervention, EMOTION Coping Kids Managing Anxiety and Depression (EMOTION), to reduce high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms...
September 26, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654459/prevalence-and-severity-of-depressive-symptoms-in-relation-to-rural-to-urban-migration-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Hannah Maike Albers, Sanjay Kinra, K V Radha Krishna, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Hannah Kuper
BACKGROUND: Migration is a major life event, which may also be a risk factor for depression. However, little is known regarding the relationship between these phenomena in low and middle income settings. This study explores the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms among rural-to-urban migrants compared to permanent rural and to urban residents in India. METHODS: We assessed 884 subjects; urban non-migrants (n = 159), urban migrants (n = 461) and rural non-migrants (n = 264) in Hyderabad, India, in 2009-2010...
September 21, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628186/psychosocial-factors-associated-with-flourishing-among-australian-hiv-positive-gay-men
#20
Anthony Lyons, Wendy Heywood, Tomas Rozbroj
BACKGROUND: Mental health outcomes among HIV-positive gay men are generally poorer than in the broader population. However, not all men in this population experience mental health problems. Although much is known about factors associated with depression and anxiety among HIV-positive gay men, little is known about factors associated with positive mental health. Such knowledge can be useful for optimizing well-being support programs for HIV-positive gay men. METHODS: In this study, we examined flourishing, which broadly covers most aspects of positive mental health...
September 15, 2016: BMC Psychology
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