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BMC Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#1
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903302/preventing-the-ends-from-justifying-the-means-withholding-results-to-address-publication-bias-in-peer-review
#2
EDITORIAL
Katherine S Button, Liz Bal, Anna Clark, Tim Shipley
The evidence that many of the findings in the published literature may be unreliable is compelling. There is an excess of positive results, often from studies with small sample sizes, or other methodological limitations, and the conspicuous absence of null findings from studies of a similar quality. This distorts the evidence base, leading to false conclusions and undermining scientific progress. Central to this problem is a peer-review system where the decisions of authors, reviewers, and editors are more influenced by impressive results than they are by the validity of the study design...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894358/attentional-and-affective-consequences-of-technology-supported-mindfulness-training-a-randomised-active-control-efficacy-trial
#3
Sheffy Bhayee, Patricia Tomaszewski, Daniel H Lee, Graeme Moffat, Lou Pino, Sylvain Moreno, Norman A S Farb
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness training (MT) programs represent an approach to attention training with well-validated mental health benefits. However, research supporting MT efficacy is based predominantly on weekly-meeting, facilitator-led, group-intervention formats. It is unknown whether participants might benefit from neurofeedback-assisted, technology-supported MT (N-tsMT), in which meditation is delivered individually, without the need for a facilitator, travel to a training site, or the presence of a supportive group environment...
November 29, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876079/copenhagen-infant-mental-health-project-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-circle-of-security-parenting-and-care-as-usual-as-interventions-targeting-infant-mental-health-risks
#4
Mette Skovgaard Væver, Johanne Smith-Nielsen, Theis Lange
BACKGROUND: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies...
November 22, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842610/views-on-a-brief-mindfulness-intervention-among-patients-with-long-term-illness
#5
Ana Howarth, Linda Perkins-Porras, Claire Copland, Michael Ussher
BACKGROUND: Chronic illness is the leading cause of death in the UK and worldwide. Psychological therapies to support self-management have been shown to play an important role in helping those with chronic illness cope; more recently, the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness approaches have become evident for managing depression and other distressing emotions. Brief guided mindfulness interventions, are more convenient than intensive traditional programmes requiring regular attendance but have been less explored...
November 15, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842603/simulated-partners-and-collaborative-exercise-space-to-boost-motivation-for-astronauts-study-protocol
#6
Deborah L Feltz, Lori Ploutz-Snyder, Brian Winn, Norbert L Kerr, James M Pivarnik, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Stephen Samendinger, William Jeffery
BACKGROUND: Astronauts may have difficulty adhering to exercise regimens at vigorous intensity levels during long space missions. Vigorous exercise is important for aerobic and musculoskeletal health during space missions and afterwards. A key impediment to maintaining vigorous exercise is motivation. Finding ways to motivate astronauts to exercise at levels necessary to mitigate reductions in musculoskeletal health and aerobic capacity have not been explored. The focus of Simulated Partners and Collaborative Exercise (SPACE) is to use recently documented motivation gains in task groups to heighten the exercise experience for participants, similar in age and fitness to astronauts, for vigorous exercise over a 6-month exercise regimen...
November 14, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842577/getting-nowhere-fast-trade-off-between-speed-and-precision-in-training-to-execute-image-guided-hand-tool-movements
#7
Anil Ufuk Batmaz, Michel de Mathelin, Birgitta Dresp-Langley
BACKGROUND: The speed and precision with which objects are moved by hand or hand-tool interaction under image guidance depend on a specific type of visual and spatial sensorimotor learning. Novices have to learn to optimally control what their hands are doing in a real-world environment while looking at an image representation of the scene on a video monitor. Previous research has shown slower task execution times and lower performance scores under image-guidance compared with situations of direct action viewing...
November 14, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832817/prevalence-of-psychological-symptoms-among-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease-in-korle-bu-teaching-hospital-ghana
#8
Michael Tetteh Anim, Joseph Osafo, Felix Yirdong
BACKGROUND: Previous research revealed high prevalence of psychological symptoms among sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in the West and Europe. In some Black SCD populations such as Nigeria and Jamaica, anxiety and depression had low prevalence rates compared to Europe. With difficulty locating research data on the prevalence of psychological symptoms in Ghana, this study aimed at exploring psychological symptoms among adults with SCD in a Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. METHODS: Two hundred and one participants (males 102 and females 99) who were HbSS (n = 131) and HbSC (n = 70), aged 18 years and above were purposively recruited...
November 10, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806721/identifying-factors-of-psychological-distress-on-the-experience-of-pain-and-symptom-management-among-cancer-patients
#9
Tamara A Baker, Jessica L Krok-Schoen, Susan C McMillan
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. METHODS: Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center...
November 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793188/intra-and-interpersonal-emotion-regulation-and-adjustment-symptoms-in-couples-the-role-of-co-brooding-and-co-reappraisal
#10
Andrea B Horn, Andreas Maercker
BACKGROUND: Adult emotion regulation is not only occurring within the person but includes strategies that happen in social interactions and that are framed as co-regulating. The current study investigates the role of the interpersonal emotion regulation strategies of co-reappraisal and co-brooding in couples for adjustment disorder symptoms as the disorder will be outlined in the International Classification of Diseases-11 (ICD-11). METHODS: Couples registered together in an online questionnaire study reporting whether or not they are adjusting to a major stressor that is psychologically challenging to them...
October 28, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782849/habituation-of-the-startle-reflex-depends-on-attention-in-cannabis-users
#11
Karina K Kedzior, Eileen Wehmann, Mathew Martin-Iverson
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is associated with an attention-dependent deficit in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI). The aim of the current study was to investigate startle habituation in cannabis users and healthy controls during two attentional tasks. METHODS: Auditory startle reflex was recorded from orbicularis oculi muscle while participants (12 controls and 16 regular cannabis users) were either attending to or ignoring 100 dB startling pulses. Startle habituation was measured as the absolute reduction in startle magnitude on block 2 (last nine trials) vs...
October 26, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776553/effects-of-a-job-crafting-intervention-program-on-work-engagement-among-japanese-employees-a-pretest-posttest-study
#12
Asuka Sakuraya, Akihito Shimazu, Kotaro Imamura, Katsuyuki Namba, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. METHODS: Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671742/study-protocol-of-an-rct-of-emotion-an-indicated-intervention-for-children-with-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression
#13
Joshua Patras, Kristin Dagmar Martinsen, Solveig Holen, Anne Mari Sund, Frode Adolfsen, Lene-Mari Potulski Rasmussen, Simon-Peter Neumer
BACKGROUND: High levels of anxiety and depression are common psychological symptoms among children and adolescents. These symptoms affect young people in multiple life domains and are possible precursors of long-term psychological distress. Despite relatively high prevalence, few children with emotional problems are referred for clinical treatment, indicating the need for systematic prevention. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate an indicated preventive intervention, EMOTION Coping Kids Managing Anxiety and Depression (EMOTION), to reduce high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms...
September 26, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654459/prevalence-and-severity-of-depressive-symptoms-in-relation-to-rural-to-urban-migration-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Hannah Maike Albers, Sanjay Kinra, K V Radha Krishna, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Hannah Kuper
BACKGROUND: Migration is a major life event, which may also be a risk factor for depression. However, little is known regarding the relationship between these phenomena in low and middle income settings. This study explores the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms among rural-to-urban migrants compared to permanent rural and to urban residents in India. METHODS: We assessed 884 subjects; urban non-migrants (n = 159), urban migrants (n = 461) and rural non-migrants (n = 264) in Hyderabad, India, in 2009-2010...
September 21, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624487/self-reported-quality-of-life-and-self-esteem-in-sad-and-anxious-school-children
#15
Kristin D Martinsen, Simon-Peter Neumer, Solveig Holen, Trine Waaktaar, Anne Mari Sund, Philip C Kendall
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. METHODS: Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study...
September 13, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553950/improved-parenting-maintained-four-years-following-a-brief-parent-training-intervention-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#16
Charlotte Reedtz, Sihu Klest
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether the effects of a short, six session version of an evidence-based parent training programme (The Incredible Years), delivered in a non-clinical community sample in the northern Norway, are maintained 4 years following the initial intervention. METHOD: Data were collected primarily from mothers in a randomized controlled trial (N = 117). Children's mean age at 4 year follow-up was 7.5 years. RESULTS: A mixed model analyses of linear change with a time by condition interaction revealed that statistically significant differences were maintained between the parent training and control groups for several outcomes...
August 24, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457478/comparison-of-two-psycho-educational-family-group-interventions-for-improving-psycho-social-outcomes-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-and-their-caregivers-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-multi-family-group-intervention-versus-an-active-education-control
#17
Dennis G Dyck, Douglas L Weeks, Sarah Gross, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Hilary A Lott, Aimee J Wallace, Sonya M Wood
BACKGROUND: Over 12,000 individuals suffer a spinal cord injury (SCI) annually in the United States, necessitating long-term, complex adjustments and responsibilities for patients and their caregivers. Despite growing evidence that family education and support improves the management of chronic conditions for care recipients as well as caregiver outcomes, few systematic efforts have been made to involve caregivers in psycho-educational interventions for SCI. As a result, a serious gap exists in accumulated knowledge regarding effective, family-based treatment strategies for improving outcomes for individuals with SCI and their caregivers...
July 26, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255744/effect-of-household-size-on-mental-problems-in-children-results-from-the-norwegian-mother-and-child-cohort-study
#18
Bjørn Grinde, Kristian Tambs
BACKGROUND: Most people in industrialized societies grow up in core (parents only) families with few if any siblings. Based on an evolutionary perspective, it may be argued that this environment reflects a mismatch, in that the tribal setting offered a larger number of close affiliates. The present project examined whether this mismatch may have a negative impact on mental health. METHODS: We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), which includes 114 500 children...
June 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230903/short-term-effects-of-the-together-at-school-intervention-program-on-children-s-socio-emotional-skills-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Olli Kiviruusu, Katja Björklund, Hanna-Leena Koskinen, Antti Liski, Jallu Lindblom, Heini Kuoppamäki, Paula Alasuvanto, Tiina Ojala, Hanna Samposalo, Nina Harmes, Elina Hemminki, Raija-Leena Punamäki, Reijo Sund, Päivi Santalahti
BACKGROUND: Together at School is a universal intervention program designed to promote socio-emotional skills among primary-school children. It is based on a whole school approach, and implemented in school classes by teachers. The aim of the present study is to examine the short-term effects of the intervention program in improving socio-emotional skills and reducing psychological problems among boys and girls. We also examine whether these effects depend on grade level (Grades 1 to 3) and intervention dosage...
May 26, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142187/tobacco-consumption-and-positive-mental-health-an-epidemiological-study-from-a-positive-psychology-perspective
#20
Juan Carlos Bazo-Alvarez, Frank Peralta-Alvarez, Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz, Germán F Alvarado, J Jaime Miranda
BACKGROUND: Positive mental health (PMH) is much more than the absence of mental illnesses. For example, PMH explains that to be happy or resilient can drive us to live a full life, giving us a perception of well-being and robustness against everyday problems. Moreover, PMH can help people to avoid risky behaviours like tobacco consumption (TC). Our hypothesis was that PMH is negatively associated with TC, and this association differs across rural, urban and migrant populations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the PERU MIGRANT Study's dataset, including rural population from the Peruvian highlands (n = 201), urban population from the capital city Lima (n = 199) and migrants who were born in highlands but had to migrated because of terrorism (n = 589)...
May 4, 2016: BMC Psychology
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