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BMC Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499409/in-your-face-the-biased-judgement-of-fear-anger-expressions-in-violent-offenders
#1
Martin Wegrzyn, Sina Westphal, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: Why is it that certain violent criminals repeatedly find themselves engaged in brawls? Many inmates report having felt provoked or threatened by their victims, which might be due to a tendency to ascribe malicious intentions when faced with ambiguous social signals, termed hostile attribution bias. METHODS: The present study presented morphed fear-anger faces to prison inmates with a history of violent crimes, a history of child sexual abuse, and to matched controls form the general population...
May 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494817/comparison-of-cognitive-functioning-as-measured-by-the-ruff-figural-fluency-test-and-the-cogstate-computerized-battery-within-the-lifelines-cohort-study
#2
Jisca S Kuiper, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Floor E A Verhoeven, Sytse U Zuidema, Nynke Smidt
BACKGROUND: The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; a pencil and paper test) and the CogState (a computerized cognitive test battery) are well-validated and suitable tests to evaluate cognitive functioning in large observational studies at the population level. The LifeLines Cohort Study includes the RFFT as baseline measurement and incorporated the CogState as replacement for the RFFT at follow-up. It is unknown how these two tests relate to each other. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the correlation between the RFFT and the CogState and the impact of demographic characteristics on this association...
May 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454588/a-case-matched-study-examining-the-reliability-of-using-impact-to-assess-effects-of-multiple-concussions
#3
Trevor Barker, Stephen A Russo, Gaytri Barker, Mark A Rice, Mary G Jeffrey, Gordon Broderick, Travis J A Craddock
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.8 million sport and recreational concussions occur per year, creating a need for accurate diagnosis and management of concussions. Researchers and clinicians are exploring the potential dose-response cumulative effects of concussive injuries using computerized neuropsychological exams, however, results have been mixed and/or contradictory. This study starts with a large adolescent population and applies strict inclusion criteria to examine how previous mild traumatic brain injuries affect symptom reports and neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized tool...
April 28, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446229/expanding-protection-motivation-theory-investigating-an-application-to-animal-owners-and-emergency-responders-in-bushfire-emergencies
#4
Rachel Westcott, Kevin Ronan, Hilary Bambrick, Melanie Taylor
BACKGROUND: Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was developed by Rogers in 1975, to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat. Rogers expected the use of PMT to diversify over time, which has proved true over four decades. The purpose of this paper is to explore how PMT can be used and expanded to inform and improve public safety strategies in natural hazards. As global climate change impacts on the Australian environment, natural hazards seem to be increasing in scale and frequency, and Emergency Services' public education campaigns have necessarily escalated to keep pace with perceived public threat...
April 26, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376928/-these-people-you-just-guide-them-until-they-become-these-people-learning-to-become-a-frequent-indoor-tanner
#5
Jerod L Stapleton, Benjamin F Crabtree
BACKGROUND: Many young women experiment with using indoor tanning beds with some becoming regular users. There is a dearth of research focused on factors related to the development of regular tanning. This study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the experiences of a regular indoor tanning bed user for the purpose of discovering working hypotheses related to the development of this behavior. The article thesis is that initial interactions with tanning salon employees transmit insider knowledge that serves to encourage the regular use of indoor tanning beyond experimentation...
April 4, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376909/disordered-eating-and-emotion-dysregulation-among-adolescents-and-their-parents
#6
Erika Hansson, Daiva Daukantaité, Per Johnsson
BACKGROUND: Research on the relationships between adolescent and parental disordered eating (DE) and emotion dysregulation is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether mothers' and fathers' own DE, as measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and emotion dysregulation, as measured by the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), were associated with their daughters' or sons' DE and emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of shared family meals and possible parent-related predictors of adolescent DE were explored...
April 4, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356128/the-impact-of-conscientiousness-mastery-and-work-circumstances-on-subsequent-absenteeism-in-employees-with-and-without-affective-disorders
#7
Almar A L Kok, Inger Plaisier, Johannes H Smit, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: High numbers of employees are coping with affective disorders. At the same time, ambitiousness, achievement striving and a strong sense of personal control and responsibility are personality characteristics that are nowadays regarded as key to good work functioning, whereas social work circumstances tend to be neglected. However, it is largely unkown how personality characteristics and work circumstances affect work functioning when facing an affective disorder. Given the high burden of affective disorders on occupational health, we investigate these issues in the context of affective disorders and absenteeism from work...
March 29, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320473/which-neural-mechanisms-mediate-the-effects-of-a-parenting-intervention-program-on-parenting-behavior-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laura Kolijn, Saskia Euser, Bianca G van den Bulk, Renske Huffmeijer, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
BACKGROUND: The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) has proven effective in increasing parental sensitivity. However, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. In a randomized controlled trial we examine parental neurocognitive factors that may mediate the intervention effects on parenting behavior. Our aims are to (1) examine whether the intervention influences parents' neural processing of children's emotional expressions and the neural precursors of response inhibition and to (2) test whether neural changes mediate intervention effects on parenting behavior...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320474/gender-differences-in-beliefs-about-health-a-comparative-qualitative-study-with-ghanaian-and-indian-migrants-living-in-the-united-kingdom
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lailah Alidu, Elizabeth A Grunfeld
BACKGROUND: There is a well-established association between migration to high income countries and health status, with some groups reporting poorer health outcomes than the host population. However, processes that influence health behaviours and health outcomes across minority ethnic groups are complex and in addition, culture ascribes specific gender roles for men and women, which can further influence perspectives of health. The aim of this study was to undertake a comparative exploration of beliefs of health among male and female Ghanaian and Indian migrants and White British participants residing in an urban area within the UK...
March 20, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292323/relationships-between-pathologic-subjective-halitosis-olfactory-reference-syndrome-and-social-anxiety-in-young-japanese-women
#10
Miho Tsuruta, Toru Takahashi, Miki Tokunaga, Masanori Iwasaki, Shota Kataoka, Satoko Kakuta, Inho Soh, Shuji Awano, Hiromi Hirata, Masaharu Kagawa, Toshihiro Ansai
BACKGROUND: Pathologic subjective halitosis is known as a halitosis complaint without objective confirmation of halitosis by others or by halitometer measurements; it has been reported to be associated with social anxiety disorder. Olfactory reference syndrome is a preoccupation with the false belief that one emits a foul and offensive body odor. Generally, patients with olfactory reference syndrome are concerned with multiple body parts. However, the mouth is known to be the most common source of body odor for those with olfactory reference syndrome, which could imply that the two conditions share similar features...
March 14, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264716/patterns-of-control-beliefs-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-results-of-a-population-based-survey
#11
Johanna M Doerr, Daniela S Jopp, Michael Chajewski, Urs M Nater
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) represents a unique clinical challenge for patients and health care providers due to unclear etiology and lack of specific treatment. Characteristic patterns of behavior and cognitions might be related to how CFS patients respond to management strategies. METHODS: This study investigates control beliefs in a population-based sample of 113 CFS patients, 264 individuals with insufficient symptoms or fatigue for CFS diagnosis (ISF), and 124 well individuals...
March 6, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249624/a-tailored-compassion-focused-therapy-program-for-sexual-minority-young-adults-with-depressive-symotomatology-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christopher A Pepping, Anthony Lyons, Ruth McNair, James N Kirby, Nicola Petrocchi, Paul Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women represent one of the highest-risk populations for depressive symptomatology and disorders, with young LGB adults being at greatest risk. To date, there have been no randomized controlled trials (RCT) to specifically target depressive symptoms in young LGB adults. This is despite research highlighting unique predictors of depressive symptomatology in this population. Here we outline a protocol for an RCT that will test the preliminary efficacy of a tailored compassion-focused therapy (CFT) intervention for young LGB adults compared with a self-directed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program with no specific tailoring for LGB individuals...
March 1, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196507/vrex-an-open-source-toolbox-for-creating-3d-virtual-reality-experiments
#13
Madis Vasser, Markus Kängsepp, Murad Magomedkerimov, Kälver Kilvits, Vladislav Stafinjak, Taavi Kivisik, Raul Vicente, Jaan Aru
BACKGROUND: We present VREX, a free open-source Unity toolbox for virtual reality research in the fields of experimental psychology and neuroscience. RESULTS: Different study protocols about perception, attention, cognition and memory can be constructed using the toolbox. VREX provides a procedural generation of (interconnected) rooms that can be automatically furnished with a click of a button. VREX includes a menu system for creating and storing experiments with different stages...
February 14, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126022/differences-in-motivation-and-adherence-to-a-prescribed-assignment-after-face-to-face-and-online-psychoeducation-an-experimental-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sven Alfonsson, Karin Johansson, Jonas Uddling, Timo Hursti
BACKGROUND: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients' behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion...
January 26, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081723/kidney-dysfunction-systemic-inflammation-and-mental-well-being-in-elderly-post-myocardial-infarction-patients
#15
Rick H M Heeres, Ellen K Hoogeveen, Johanna M Geleijnse, Janette de Goede, Daan Kromhout, Erik J Giltay
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate whether mild kidney dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in post-myocardial infarction patients are independently associated with markers of mental well-being (i.e. depressive and apathy symptoms, and dispositional optimism). METHODS: In post-myocardial infarction patients, kidney function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated from the combined CKD-EPI formula based on serum levels of both creatinine and cystatine C...
January 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081710/the-effects-of-perceived-racism-on-psychological-distress-mediated-by-venting-and-disengagement-coping-in-native-hawaiians
#16
Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Mapuana C K Antonio, Claire K Townsend Ing, Andrea Hermosura, Kimberly E Hall, Rebecca Knight, Thomas A Wills
BACKGROUND: Studies have linked perceived racism to psychological distress via certain coping strategies in several different racial and ethnic groups, but few of these studies included indigenous populations. Elucidating modifiable factors for intervention to reduce the adverse effects of racism on psychological well-being is another avenue to addressing health inequities. METHODS: We examined the potential mediating effects of 14 distinct coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress in a community-based sample of 145 Native Hawaiians using structural equation modeling...
January 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927237/the-personality-inventory-for-dsm-5-short-form-pid-5-sf-psychometric-properties-and-association-with-big-five-traits-and-pathological-beliefs-in-a-norwegian-population
#17
Jens C Thimm, Stian Jordan, Bo Bach
BACKGROUND: With the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), an alternative model for personality disorders based on personality dysfunction and pathological personality traits was introduced. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a 220-item self-report inventory designed to assess the personality traits of this model. Recently, a short 100-item version of the PID-5 (PID-5-SF) has been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the score reliability and structure of the Norwegian PID-5-SF...
December 7, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#18
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903302/preventing-the-ends-from-justifying-the-means-withholding-results-to-address-publication-bias-in-peer-review
#19
EDITORIAL
Katherine S Button, Liz Bal, Anna Clark, Tim Shipley
The evidence that many of the findings in the published literature may be unreliable is compelling. There is an excess of positive results, often from studies with small sample sizes, or other methodological limitations, and the conspicuous absence of null findings from studies of a similar quality. This distorts the evidence base, leading to false conclusions and undermining scientific progress. Central to this problem is a peer-review system where the decisions of authors, reviewers, and editors are more influenced by impressive results than they are by the validity of the study design...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894358/attentional-and-affective-consequences-of-technology-supported-mindfulness-training-a-randomised-active-control-efficacy-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sheffy Bhayee, Patricia Tomaszewski, Daniel H Lee, Graeme Moffat, Lou Pino, Sylvain Moreno, Norman A S Farb
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness training (MT) programs represent an approach to attention training with well-validated mental health benefits. However, research supporting MT efficacy is based predominantly on weekly-meeting, facilitator-led, group-intervention formats. It is unknown whether participants might benefit from neurofeedback-assisted, technology-supported MT (N-tsMT), in which meditation is delivered individually, without the need for a facilitator, travel to a training site, or the presence of a supportive group environment...
November 29, 2016: BMC Psychology
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