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Annual Review of Virology

Margaret G Redinbaugh, Lucy R Stewart
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. The coinfecting viruses act synergistically to result in frequent plant death or severely reduce or negligible yield. Over the past eight years, MLN has emerged in sub-Saharan East Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America, with large impacts on smallholder farmers...
July 30, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Leo C James, David A Jacques
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most studied of all human pathogens. One strain-HIV-1 group M-is responsible for a global pandemic that has infected >60 million people and killed >20 million. Understanding the stages of HIV infection has led to highly effective therapeutics in the form of antiviral drugs that target the viral enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease as well as biotechnological developments in the form of retroviral and lentiviral vectors for the transduction of cells in tissue culture and, potentially, gene therapy...
July 27, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Meredith C Rogers, John V Williams
Viral lung infections are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Effective immune responses to these infections require precise immune regulation to preserve lung function after viral clearance. One component of airway pathophysiology and lung injury associated with acute respiratory virus infection is effector T cells, yet these are the primary cells required for viral clearance. Accordingly, multiple immune mechanisms exist to regulate effector T cells, limiting immunopathology while permitting clearance of infection...
July 27, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Walid Azab, Anisha Dayaram, Alex D Greenwood, Nikolaus Osterrieder
Herpesviruses are ubiquitous and can cause disease in all classes of vertebrates but also in animals of lower taxa, including molluscs. It is generally accepted that herpesviruses are primarily species specific, although a species can be infected by different herpesviruses. Species specificity is thought to result from host-virus coevolutionary processes over the long term. Even with this general concept in mind, investigators have recognized interspecies transmission of several members of the Herpesviridae family, often with fatal outcomes in non-definitive hosts-that is, animals that have no or only a limited role in virus transmission...
July 27, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
James E Schoelz, Lucy R Stewart
Viruses are an important but sequence-diverse and often understudied component of the phytobiome.Wesuccinctly review current information on how plant viruses directly affect plant health and physiology and consequently have the capacity to modulate plant interactions with their biotic and abiotic environments. Virus interactions with other biota in the phytobiome, including arthropods, fungi, and nematodes, may also impact plant health. For example, viruses interact with and modulate the interface between plants and insects...
July 26, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Patrick T Dolan, Zachary J Whitfield, Raul Andino
RNA viruses are unique in their evolutionary capacity, exhibiting high mutation rates and frequent recombination. They rapidly adapt to environmental changes, such as shifts in immune pressure or pharmacological challenge. The evolution of RNA viruses has been brought into new focus with the recent developments of genetic and experimental tools to explore and manipulate the evolutionary dynamics of viral populations. These studies have uncovered new mechanisms that enable viruses to overcome evolutionary challenges in the environment and have emphasized the intimate relationship of viral populations with evolution...
July 26, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Paul Bieniasz, Alice Telesnitsky
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle assembly requires several protein:RNA interactions that vary widely in their character, from specific recognition of highly conserved and structured viral RNA elements to less specific interactions with variable RNA sequences. Genetic, biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies have illuminated how virion morphogenesis is accompanied by dramatic changes in the interactions among the protein and RNA virion components. The 5' leader RNA element drives RNA recognition by Gag upon initiation of HIV-1 assembly and can assume variable conformations that influence translation, dimerization, and Gag recognition...
July 26, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Lenore Pereira
Why certain viruses cross the physical barrier of the human placenta but others do not is incompletely understood. Over the past 20 years, we have gained deeper knowledge of intrauterine infection and routes of viral transmission. This review focuses on human viruses that replicate in the placenta, infect the fetus, and cause birth defects, including rubella virus, varicella-zoster virus, parvovirus B19, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and hepatitis E virus type 1. Detailed discussions include (a) the architecture of the uterine-placental interface, (b) studies of placental explants ex vivo that provide insights into the infection and spread of CMV and ZIKV to the fetal compartment and how these viruses undermine early development, and (c) novel treatments and vaccines that limit viral replication and have the potential to reduce dissemination vertical transmission and the occurrence of congenital disease...
July 26, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Dustin R Glasner, Henry Puerta-Guardo, P Robert Beatty, Eva Harris
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent medically important mosquitoborne virus in the world. Upon DENV infection of a host cell, dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) can be found intracellularly as a monomer, associated with the cell surface as a dimer, and secreted as a hexamer into the bloodstream. NS1 plays a variety of roles in the viral life cycle, particularly in RNA replication and immune evasion of the complement pathway. Over the past several years, key roles for NS1 in the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease have emerged, including direct action of the protein on the vascular endothelium and triggering release of vasoactive cytokines from immune cells, both of which result in endothelial hyperpermeability and vascular leak...
July 25, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Gary W Blissard, David A Theilmann
Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses of invertebrates that are highly pathogenic in many hosts. In the infection cycle, baculoviruses produce two types of virions. These virion phenotypes are physically and functionally distinct, and each serves a critical role in the biology of the virus. One phenotype, the occlusion-derived virus (ODV), is occluded within a crystallized protein that facilitates oral infection of the host. A large complex of at least nine ODV envelope proteins called per os infectivity factors are critically important for ODV infection of insect midgut epithelial cells...
July 13, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Olen Kew, Mark Pallansch
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), paralytic cases associated with wild poliovirus (WPV) have fallen from ∼350,000 in 1988 to 22 in 2017. WPV type 2 (WPV2) was last detected in 1999, WPV3 in 2012, and WPV1 appeared to be localized to Pakistan and Afghanistan in 2017. Through continuous refinement, the GPEI has overcome operational and biological challenges far more complex and daunting than originally envisioned. Operational challenges had led to sustained WPV endemicity in core reservoirs and widespread dissemination to polio-free countries...
July 12, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Sebastien Lemire, Kevin M Yehl, Timothy K Lu
Bacteriophage research has been instrumental to advancing many fields of biology, such as genetics, molecular biology, and synthetic biology. Many phage-derived technologies have been adapted for building gene circuits to program biological systems. Phages also exhibit significant medical potential as antibacterial agents and bacterial diagnostics due to their extreme specificity for their host, and our growing ability to engineer them further enhances this potential. Phages have also been used as scaffolds for genetically programmable biomaterials that have highly tunable properties...
July 12, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Matthew D Weitzman, Amélie Fradet-Turcotte
Viral DNA genomes have limited coding capacity and therefore harness cellular factors to facilitate replication of their genomes and generate progeny virions. Studies of viruses and how they interact with cellular processes have historically provided seminal insights into basic biology and disease mechanisms. The replicative life cycles of many DNA viruses have been shown to engage components of the host DNA damage and repair machinery. Viruses have evolved numerous strategies to navigate the cellular DNA damage response...
July 11, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Otto Haller, Heinz Arnheiter, Jovan Pavlovic, Peter Staeheli
The discovery of the Mx gene-dependent, innate resistance of mice against influenza virus was a matter of pure chance. Although the subsequent analysis of this antiviral resistance was guided by straightforward logic, it nevertheless led us into many blind alleys and was full of surprising turns and twists. Unexpectedly, this research resulted in the identification of one of the first interferon-stimulated genes and provided a new view of interferon action. It also showed that in many species, MX proteins have activities against a broad range of viruses...
June 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Michiel van Gent, Konstantin M J Sparrer, Michaela U Gack
Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a versatile family of ubiquitin E3 ligases involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Studies in recent years have demonstrated that many TRIM proteins play central roles in the host defense against viral infection. While some TRIM proteins directly antagonize distinct steps in the viral life cycle, others regulate signal transduction pathways induced by innate immune sensors, thereby modulating antiviral cytokine responses. Furthermore, TRIM proteins have been implicated in virus-induced autophagy and autophagy-mediated viral clearance...
June 27, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Mario Mietzsch, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
Tyler B Faust, Jennifer M Binning, John D Gross, Alan D Frankel
Viruses are completely dependent upon cellular machinery to support replication and have therefore developed strategies to co-opt cellular processes to optimize infection and counter host immune defenses. Many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), encode a relatively small number of genes. Viruses with limited genetic content often encode multifunctional proteins that function at multiple stages of the viral replication cycle. In this review, we discuss the functions of HIV-1 regulatory (Tat and Rev) and accessory (Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef) proteins...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
Dean Scholl
Many dsDNA bacterial viruses (bacteriophages/phages) have long tail structures that serve as organelles for DNA delivery to host targets. These structures, particularly those of Myoviridae and Siphoviridae phages, have an evolutionary relationship with other cellular biological entities that share the common function of penetrating the bacterial envelope. Among these are type VI secretion systems, insecticidal protein complexes, and bacteriocins. Phage tail-like bacteriocins (PTLBs) are widespread in bacteria, comprising different types that likely evolved independently...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
Marco Vignuzzi, Stephen Higgs
Chikungunya virus, first isolated in the 1950s, has since reemerged to cause several epidemics and millions of infections throughout the world. What was once blurred and confused with dengue virus in both diagnosis and name has since become one of the best-characterized arboviral diseases. In this review, we cover the history of this virus, its evolution into distinct genotypes and lineages, and, most notably, the convergent evolution observed in recent years. We highlight research that reveals to what extent convergent evolution, and its inherent predictability, may occur and what genetic or environmental factors may hinder it...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
Federico Mingozzi, Katherine A High
Immune responses in gene therapy with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been the object of almost two decades of study. Although preclinical models helped to define and predict certain aspects of interactions between the vector and the host immune system, most of our current knowledge has come from clinical trials. These studies have allowed development of effective interventions for modulating immunotoxicities associated with vector administration, resulting in therapeutic advances. However, the road to full understanding and effective modulation of immune responses in gene therapy is still long; the determinants of the balance between tolerance and immunogenicity in AAV vector-mediated gene transfer are not fully understood, and effective solutions for overcoming preexisting neutralizing antibodies are still lacking...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
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