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Annual Review of Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961414/the-good-that-viruses-do
#1
Mario Mietzsch, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961413/making-sense-of-multifunctional-proteins-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-accessory-and-regulatory-proteins-and-connections-to-transcription
#2
Tyler B Faust, Jennifer M Binning, John D Gross, Alan D Frankel
Viruses are completely dependent upon cellular machinery to support replication and have therefore developed strategies to co-opt cellular processes to optimize infection and counter host immune defenses. Many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), encode a relatively small number of genes. Viruses with limited genetic content often encode multifunctional proteins that function at multiple stages of the viral replication cycle. In this review, we discuss the functions of HIV-1 regulatory (Tat and Rev) and accessory (Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef) proteins...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961412/phage-tail-like-bacteriocins
#3
Dean Scholl
Many dsDNA bacterial viruses (bacteriophages/phages) have long tail structures that serve as organelles for DNA delivery to host targets. These structures, particularly those of Myoviridae and Siphoviridae phages, have an evolutionary relationship with other cellular biological entities that share the common function of penetrating the bacterial envelope. Among these are type VI secretion systems, insecticidal protein complexes, and bacteriocins. Phage tail-like bacteriocins (PTLBs) are widespread in bacteria, comprising different types that likely evolved independently...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961411/the-bridges-and-blockades-to-evolutionary-convergence-on-the-road-to-predicting-chikungunya-virus-evolution
#4
Marco Vignuzzi, Stephen Higgs
Chikungunya virus, first isolated in the 1950s, has since reemerged to cause several epidemics and millions of infections throughout the world. What was once blurred and confused with dengue virus in both diagnosis and name has since become one of the best-characterized arboviral diseases. In this review, we cover the history of this virus, its evolution into distinct genotypes and lineages, and, most notably, the convergent evolution observed in recent years. We highlight research that reveals to what extent convergent evolution, and its inherent predictability, may occur and what genetic or environmental factors may hinder it...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961410/overcoming-the-host-immune-response-to-adeno-associated-virus-gene-delivery-vectors-the-race-between-clearance-tolerance-neutralization-and-escape
#5
Federico Mingozzi, Katherine A High
Immune responses in gene therapy with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been the object of almost two decades of study. Although preclinical models helped to define and predict certain aspects of interactions between the vector and the host immune system, most of our current knowledge has come from clinical trials. These studies have allowed development of effective interventions for modulating immunotoxicities associated with vector administration, resulting in therapeutic advances. However, the road to full understanding and effective modulation of immune responses in gene therapy is still long; the determinants of the balance between tolerance and immunogenicity in AAV vector-mediated gene transfer are not fully understood, and effective solutions for overcoming preexisting neutralizing antibodies are still lacking...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961409/viruses-in-soil-ecosystems-an-unknown-quantity-within-an-unexplored-territory
#6
Kurt E Williamson, Jeffry J Fuhrmann, K Eric Wommack, Mark Radosevich
Viral abundance in soils can range from below detection limits in hot deserts to over 1 billion per gram in wetlands. Abundance appears to be strongly influenced by water availability and temperature, but a lack of informational standards creates difficulties for cross-study analysis. Soil viral diversity is severely underestimated and undersampled, although current measures of viral richness are higher for soils than for aquatic ecosystems. Both morphometric and metagenomic analyses have raised questions about the prevalence of nontailed, ssDNA viruses in soils...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961408/introduction
#7
Lynn W Enquist, Terence S Dermody, Daniel DiMaio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800289/fate-regulating-circuits-in-viruses-from-discovery-to-new-therapy-targets
#8
Anand Pai, Leor S Weinberger
Current antivirals effectively target diverse viruses at various stages of their life cycles. Nevertheless, curative therapy has remained elusive for important pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and herpesviruses, in large part due to viral latency and the evolution of resistance to existing therapies. Here, we review the discovery of viral master circuits: virus-encoded autoregulatory gene networks that autonomously control viral expression programs (i.e., between active, latent, and abortive fates)...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787582/symbiosis-viruses-as-intimate-partners
#9
Marilyn J Roossinck, Edelio R Bazán
Viruses must establish an intimate relationship with their hosts and vectors in order to infect, replicate, and disseminate; hence, viruses can be considered as symbionts with their hosts. Symbiotic relationships encompass different lifestyles, including antagonistic (or pathogenic, the most well-studied lifestyle for viruses), commensal (probably the most common lifestyle), and mutualistic (important beneficial partners). Symbiotic relationships can shape the evolution of the partners in a holobiont, and placing viruses in this context provides an important framework for understanding virus-host relationships and virus ecology...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784044/the-distribution-evolution-and-roles-of-gene-transfer-agents-in-prokaryotic-genetic-exchange
#10
Andrew S Lang, Alexander B Westbye, J Thomas Beatty
Diverse prokaryotes produce gene transfer agents (GTAs), which are bacteriophage-like particles that exclusively package pieces of the producing cell's genome and transfer them to other cells. There are clear evolutionary connections between GTAs and phages, but GTAs have properties that lead us to suggest they are more than simply defective phages and instead provide a selective advantage for the producing organisms. The five types of currently known GTAs are genetically distinct, indicating multiple instances of convergent evolution...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759330/giant-viruses-of-amoebae-a-journey-through-innovative-research-and-paradigm-changes
#11
Philippe Colson, Bernard La Scola, Didier Raoult
Giant viruses of amoebae were discovered serendipitously in 2003; they are visible via optical microscopy, making them bona fide microbes. Their lifestyle, structure, and genomes break the mold of classical viruses. Giant viruses of amoebae are complex microorganisms. Their genomes harbor between 444 and 2,544 genes, including many that are unique to viruses, and encode translation components; their virions contain >100 proteins as well as mRNAs. Mimiviruses have a specific mobilome, including virophages, provirophages, and transpovirons, and can resist virophages through a system known as MIMIVIRE (mimivirus virophage resistance element)...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749735/the-discovery-mechanisms-and-evolutionary-impact-of-anti-crisprs
#12
Adair L Borges, Alan R Davidson, Joseph Bondy-Denomy
Bacteria and archaea use CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems to defend themselves from infection by bacteriophages (phages). These RNA-guided nucleases are powerful weapons in the fight against foreign DNA, such as phages and plasmids, as well as a revolutionary gene editing tool. Phages are not passive bystanders in their interactions with CRISPR-Cas systems, however; recent discoveries have described phage genes that inhibit CRISPR-Cas function. More than 20 protein families, previously of unknown function, have been ascribed anti-CRISPR function...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746819/humanized-mouse-models-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#13
Matthew D Marsden, Jerome A Zack
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. No effective vaccine is available to prevent HIV transmission, and although antiretroviral therapy can prevent disease progression, it does not cure HIV infection. Substantial effort is therefore currently directed toward basic research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence and developing methods to stop the spread of the HIV epidemic and cure those individuals already infected with HIV. Humanized mice are versatile tools for the study of HIV and its interaction with the human immune system...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715976/astrovirus-biology-and-pathogenesis
#14
Valerie Cortez, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Erik A Karlsson, Virginia Hargest, Cydney Johnson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Astroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause gastrointestinal illness. Although a leading cause of pediatric diarrhea, human astroviruses are among the least characterized enteric RNA viruses. However, by using in vitro methods and animal models to characterize virus-host interactions, researchers have discovered several important properties of astroviruses, including the ability of the astrovirus capsid to act as an enterotoxin, disrupting the gut epithelial barrier...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715975/viruses-with-circular-single-stranded-dna-genomes-are-everywhere
#15
L M Shulman, I Davidson
Circular single-stranded DNA viruses infect archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotic organisms. The relatively recent emergence of single-stranded DNA viruses, such as chicken anemia virus (CAV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), as serious pathogens of eukaryotes is due more to growing awareness than to the appearance of new pathogens or alteration of existing pathogens. In the case of the ubiquitous human circular single-stranded DNA virus family Anelloviridae, there is still no convincing direct causal relation to any specific disease...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715974/electron-cryomicroscopy-of-viruses-at-near-atomic-resolutions
#16
Jason T Kaelber, Corey F Hryc, Wah Chiu
Recently, dozens of virus structures have been solved to resolutions between 2.5 and 5.0 Å by means of electron cryomicroscopy. With these structures we are now firmly within the "atomic age" of electron cryomicroscopy, as these studies can reveal atomic details of protein and nucleic acid topology and interactions between specific residues. This improvement in resolution has been the result of direct electron detectors and image processing advances. Although enforcing symmetry facilitates reaching near-atomic resolution with fewer particle images, it unfortunately obscures some biologically interesting components of a virus...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715973/the-molecular-basis-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-latency
#17
Uri Mbonye, Jonathan Karn
Although potent combination antiretroviral therapy can effectively block viral replication in the host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists due to the existence of latent but replication-competent proviruses residing primarily in a very small population of resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Viral latency is established when the expression of the autoregulatory viral trans-activating factor Tat is reduced to subthreshold levels. The absence of Tat reduces HIV transcription and protein production to levels that make the host cell invisible to the immune system and refractory to antiretroviral treatment...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715972/defensins-in-viral-infection-and-pathogenesis
#18
Mayumi K Holly, Karina Diaz, Jason G Smith
α, β, and θ defensins are effectors of the innate immune system with potent antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. Defensins have direct antiviral activity in cell culture, with varied mechanisms for individual viruses, although some common themes have emerged. In addition, defensins have potent immunomodulatory activity that can alter innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. In some cases, there is evidence for paradoxical escape from defensin neutralization or enhancement of viral infection...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715971/a-consensus-view-of-escrt-mediated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-abscission
#19
J Lippincott-Schwartz, E O Freed, S B van Engelenburg
The strong dependence of retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), on host cell factors is no more apparent than when the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is purposely disengaged. The resulting potent inhibition of retrovirus release underscores the importance of understanding fundamental structure-function relationships at the ESCRT-HIV-1 interface. Recent studies utilizing advanced imaging technologies have helped clarify these relationships, overcoming hurdles to provide a range of potential models for ESCRT-mediated virus abscission...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645240/engineered-expression-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-against-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#20
Maham Ahmad, Osama M Ahmed, Bruce Schnepp, Philip R Johnson
This review discusses recent progress made in developing a vaccine and novel treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It highlights the shortcomings of the RV144 vaccination trial [ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E] and the current standard of care and proposes that engineered expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 could overcome these shortcomings. Current developments in three major lines of research on HIV prevention and treatment using bNAbs are reviewed: firstly, the use of sequential immunogens to activate B cells to express bNAbs; secondly, the delivery of novel and extremely potent bNAbs through passive administration; and finally, the use of gene transfer using adeno-associated viral vectors to deliver bNAbs...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
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