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New Microbes and New Infections

N Pourramezan, S Ohadian Moghadam, M R Pourmand
Health-care workers may serve as a reservoir for dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to patients in hospital settings. The present study aimed to screen MRSA in nasal swabs of health-care workers and clinical specimens from patients and investigate the possible relationship between these isolates at a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Additionally, we aimed to identify potential risk factors for MRSA colonization in health-care workers. Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from health-care workers and inpatients who completed a questionnaire on risk factors...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
D Musso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
L Pilloux, A Baumgartner, K Jaton, R Lienhard, R Ackermann-Gäumann, C Beuret, G Greub
Ticks are vectors of several microorganisms responsible for infectious diseases in human and animals, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Coxiella burnetii. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of these two bacteria in 62 889 Ixodes ricinus ticks in selected regions covering all Switzerland. A high prevalence of 11.9% of A. phagocytophilum DNA was observed by real-time PCR on 8534 pools of ticks. This pool prevalence corresponds to an estimated prevalence of 1.71% in individual tick. A total of 144 of the 171 collection sites (84...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
I Lafri, A Hachid, I Bitam
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, related to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle. WNV has recently dramatically expanded its geographical range and is now considered the most widespread arbovirus in the world, including the Americas, Europe and countries facing the Mediterranean Basin. In Algeria, West Nile disease (WND) infections with human meningoencephalitis cases have been reported in 1994 in Tinerkouk (southwest Sahara...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
Z Rafaque, J I Dasti, S C Andrews
Sequence type 38 is considered a uropathogenic Escherichia coli /enteroaggregative E. coli hybrid associated with multidrug resistance and urinary tract infections. The draft genome sequence of UEC59 from a woman in Pakistan revealed a 5 324 938 bp genome with 5386 coding sequences (CDS), 86 transfer RNA genes and multiple antibiotic resistance genes ( bla TEM-1 , CMY-2, sul1, sul2, dfrA17, tetA, mphA ) and mobile elements ( int1, two transposons, 30 insertion sequence elements, one integrative conjugative element, four plasmids, five prophages), along with many virulence genes...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
D Darban-Sarokhalil
Currently some parasitic and viral infections, tuberculosis, brucellosis and hospital-acquired infections are challenging issues in Iran. Despite decreasing the rate of some infectious diseases in Iran in recent years, improved sanitation, active surveillance, comprehensive infection control strategies and monitoring appropriate use of antibiotics are indispensable.
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
H Namkoong, T Asakura, M Ishii, S Yoda, K Masaki, T Sakagami, E Iwasaki, Y Yamagishi, T Kanai, T Betsuyaku, N Hasegawa
This study describes a patient who experienced hepatobiliary Mycobacterium avium infection associated with neutralizing anti-interferon gamma (IFN-γ) autoantibodies during treatment for disseminated M. avium disease. Hepatobiliary M. avium infection should be considered in jaundiced patients with neutralizing anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies, including those receiving antimycobacterial therapy for disseminated M. avium disease.
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
M Dahmani, G Diatta, N Labas, A Diop, H Bassene, D Raoult, L Granjon, F Fenollar, O Mediannikov
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.nmni.2018.03.005.].
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
B La Scola, P-E Fournier, J-L Mege, P Colson
Since its creation in 2011, the Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection (IHU MI) has devoted a major part of its funding to support higher education programs. In 2017, on a recurrent budget of 5.8 million Euros per year, 2.9 (50%) were spent on infrastructure, mostly for maintenance and equipment of our new building. Among the remaining 2.9 million Euros, 2.3 (80%) have been dedicated to support higher education programs.
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
B Davoust, A Levasseur, O Mediannikov
The genetic and morphologic similarities between primates and humans means that much information obtained from primates may be applied to humans, and vice versa. However, habitat loss, hunting and the continued presence of humans have a negative effect on the biology and behaviour of almost all nonhuman primates. Noninvasive methods such as stool collection are among the safest alternative ways to study the multiple aspects of the biology of primates. Many epidemiologic issues (e.g. pathogen detection, microbiota studies) may be easily studied using stool samples from primates...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
J-L Mege, F Bretelle, M Leone
Most infectious diseases are unequally distributed between male and female subjects. This sex dimorphism is confirmed by epidemiologic studies which suggest an increased number of male septic patients, while, due to the class age of septic patients, an overrepresentation of female patients would be expected. Lifestyle, recreational activities, professional exposition and access to care are plausible reasons for this dimorphism. However, biological differences should be carefully considered, particularly the weight of X-linked variability and the role of sex hormones...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
P Gautret, B Pradines, Z A Memish, C Sokhna, P Parola
The Méditerranée Infection institute is internationally recognized for its expertise in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, and is one of the most active research centres for infectious diseases in Europe. Surveillance and research addressing infectious diseases in globally mobile populations is one of the strong components of the research conducted at the institute. A significant amount of clinical, microbiologic and epidemiologic works have been conducted in international travellers, pilgrims participating in large international religious gatherings, economic migrants and homeless migrant people over the last decades by our group...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
J-C Lagier, M Bilen, F Cadoret, M Drancourt, P-E Fournier, B La Scola, D Raoult
The number of isolated new microorganisms has dramatically increased after the readaption of culture using the culturomics approach. Each of these microorganisms is deposited in an international strain collection institute, with its name being attributed and published by the scientist who isolated it. The attributed name is of Latin or Latinized origin and chosen on the basis of the geographical location of the sample collection, the institute or geographical region where the project was being performed, the name of a concerned scientist, and characteristics of the sample or the microorganism...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
E Chabriere, H Bassène, M Drancourt, C Sokhna
We review reviewing our experience of point-of-care and mass spectrometry in Senegal as two disruptive technologies promoting the rapid diagnosis of infection, permitting better medical management of patients.
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
B Pradines, C Rogier
Historically, infectious diseases have caused more casualties than battle. The French military health service therefore developed a range of research on vector-borne diseases such as malaria and arboviruses, antibiotic resistance, infectious agents that can be used as biological weapons and vaccines. The main objective is to control naturally acquired or provoked infectious diseases and limit their impact on armed forces as well as on civilian populations in France or abroad, particularly in Africa and anywhere French armies may be deployed...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
B Kouriba, O Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, B Traoré, A Touré, L Raskine, F X Babin
In Mali, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is estimated at 56 cases per 100 000 people, with a prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB in new cases of 1.7% (range, 0.3-3.1%) and in retreatment cases of 17% (range, 4.4-30%). Appropriate biosafety conditions for performing routine TB culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing have been lacking. In 2015, a biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratory set up in a shipping container was donated to the Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene to provide capacity for TB testing...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
F M Fusco, P Brouqui, G Ippolito
Epidemics such as viral haemorrhagic fevers, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus or yet unknown ones have few chances of disappearing. Globalization, worldwide travel, climate change, social conflicts and wars, among others, are likely to favor the emergence of epidemics. Preparedness of hospitals to prevent the spread of these outbreaks is among the prioritized political programmes of many countries. The EuroNHID network has in the past drawn a map of features and equipment of hospitals across Europe to take care of highly contagious patients...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
L Peyclit, A Chanteloup, L Hadjadj, J-M Rolain
Surveillance of antibiotic resistance has become a public global concern after the rapid worldwide dissemination of several antibiotic resistance genes. Here we report the role of the Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection created in 2011 in the identification and description of multidrug-resistant bacteria thanks to collaborations and training of students from the Mediterranean basin and from African countries. Since the creation of the institute, 95 students and researchers have come from 19 different countries from these areas to characterize 6359 bacterial isolates from 7280 samples from humans (64%), animals (28%) and the environment (8%)...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
F Gouriet, H Chaudet, P Gautret, L Pellegrin, V P de Santi, H Savini, G Texier, D Raoult, P-E Fournier
Infective endocarditis is a severe disease with high mortality. Despite a global trend towards an increase in staphylococcal aetiologies, in older patients and a decrease in viridans streptococci, we have observed in recent studies great epidemiologic disparities between countries. In order to evaluate these differences among Mediterranean countries, we performed a PubMed search of infective endocarditis case series for each country. Data were available for 13 of the 18 Mediterranean countries. Despite great differences in diagnostic strategies, we could classify countries into three groups...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
C Abat, J-M Rolain, P Colson
Food-borne infections are major causes of public health concern in developing and developed countries. During the past decade, the Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection has conducted or been involved in multiple investigations that aimed at identifying the sources and strains responsible for food-borne diseases and therefore at improving the understanding, diagnosis, prevention and control of these infections. Investigations were conducted in the Mediterranean area and in sub-Saharan Africa on more than 15 food-borne agents, 17 food products and 14 antibiotic resistance-associated genes...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
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