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New Microbes and New Infections

P Asadollahi, Sh Razavi, Kh Asadollahi, M R Pourshafie, M Talebi
Introduction: The clinical significance of enterococci is mostly related to its antibiotic resistance which contributes to colonization and infection, in particular amongst the hospitalized patients. The present review has examined the literature to provide a comprehensive data on enterococci antibiotic resistance during the last 20 years in Iran. Methods: Search engines such as Google Scholar and PubMed were used to identify all Persian and English-language articles investigating enterococci in Iran from 1996 to 2017...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
C H D Lawrence, S Waseem, W Newsholme, J L Klein
The clinical spectrum of human disease caused by Trueperella bernardiae is poorly described, partly as a result of historical difficulties with microbial identification. With the introduction of powerful new technologies, such as matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, into routine microbiology laboratories, new insights into diseases caused by such organisms are being made. Here we report a case of septic thrombophlebitis with bacteraemia caused by this organism, together with a retrospective description of laboratory isolation of this organism over a period of 6 years in a hospital in London, UK...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
C Andrieu, M Mailhe, D Ricaboni, M D M Fonkou, M Bilen, F Cadoret, E Tomei, N Armstrong, V Vitton, A Benezech, B Davoust, A Levasseur, J-C Lagier, P-E Fournier, D Raoult
Culturomics is a concept developing different culture conditions in order to enlarge our knowledge of the human microbiota through the discovery of previously uncultured bacteria. This enabled us to isolate six new species of the Bacteroides genus: Bacteroides mediterraneensis strain Marseille-P2644, Bacteroides ihuae strain Marseille-P2824, Bacteroides togonis strain Marseille-P3166, Bacteroides ndongoniae strain Marseille-P3108, Bacteroides ilei strain Marseille-P3208 and Bacteroides congonensis strain Marseille-P3132...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
S Ndongo, M Beye, G Dubourg, T T Nguyen, C Couderc, D P Fabrizio, P-E Fournier, D Raoult, E Angelakis
Xanthomonas massiliensis strain SN6T is a Gram-negative bacterium which is aerobic, motile and nonsporulating. This new species isolated from human faeces exhibited the characteristic traits of members of this genus, such as yellow pigmentation and viscosity. Here we present the main phenotypic characteristics and the taxonogenomics description of this strain. The genome is 3 690 720 bp long with DNA G + C content of about 70.52%.
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
P Yagupsky, N El Houmami, P-E Fournier
Kingella negevensis , a novel Kingella species implicated in a pediatric joint infection, has been recently characterized but its epidemiology remains largely unknown. The pharyngeal carriage of K. negevensis was studied by re-examining the results of a previous longitudinal study conducted in a cohort of healthy Israeli children from whom upper respiratory tract specimens were sequentially cultured between the ages of 2 and 36 months. Isolates were identified as K. negevensis by a species-specific nucleic amplification assay and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
N Ishitobi, T-W Wan, O E Khokhlova, L-J Teng, Y Yamamori, T Yamamoto
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with ST8/SCC mec IV threatens human health. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. ST8 CA-MRSA (CA-MRSA/J) with SCC mec IVl, which carries the large LPXTG-motif-containing putative adhesin gene, spj, has emerged in Japan. We present the first reported case of death from CA-MRSA/J. The patient was a 64-year-old woman with iliopsoas abscesses complicated by septic pulmonary embolism and multiorgan abscesses. Vancomycin, arbekacin, daptomycin and rifampicin were ineffective...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
A Al-Haqqan, N Al-Sweih, S Ahmad, S Khan, L Joseph, S Varghese, Z Khan
Candida blankii is a newly recognized human pathogen. Here we describe a case of bloodstream infection in a preterm neonate. The yeast was repeatedly isolated from blood, and its identity was confirmed by PCR sequencing of rDNA. Additionally, C. blankii DNA was detected directly in a blood sample. The isolates initially developed pink colonies on CHROMagar Candida which later turned into dark metallic blue similar to Candida tropicalis . Inaccurate identification by the VITEK 2 yeast identification system as Stephanoascus ciferrii and intrinsic resistance to fluconazole (MIC 12-16 μg/mL) underscore the need for its accurate identification for appropriate therapeutic management...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
K Al-Obaid, S Ahmad, L Joseph, Z Khan
The true clinical significance of Lodderomyces elongisporus remains underestimated as a result of problems associated with its identification by the VITEK 2 yeast identification system. Here we describe a case of L. elongisporus primary progressive fungaemia in a woman with no known risk factors for invasive fungal infections. The isolate was identified by PCR sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Despite treatment with caspofungin, the patient died within 3 days of onset of fungaemia...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
S Abbasian, N N Farahani, Z Mir, F Alinejad, M Haeili, M Dahmardehei, M Mirzaii, S S Khoramrooz, M J Nasiri, D Darban-Sarokhalil
Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remain a major global healthcare problem. We aimed to find the common lineages of S. aureus strains circulating in a burn hospital in Tehran. A total of 167 isolates of S. aureus obtained from patients, healthcare workers (HCWs) and environment in Shahid Motahari burn hospital were genotyped by using spa, agr and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by using the disc diffusion method...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
H Ghaoui, I Bitam, K Ait-Oudhia, N Achour, A Saad-Djaballah, F Z Saadnia, S Kedjour, P-E Fournier, D Raoult
We investigated Q fever infection in Febrile Spontaneous Abortions in women by using a serologic method (Immuno-Fluorescence Assay, IFA) and a molecular method (real-time quantitative PCR, qPCR) in Obstetric-Gynaecology (OB-GYN) services in two hospitals in Algiers. We included in the case group 380 women who experienced Febrile Spontaneous Abortion; the control group comprised 345 women who gave birth without any other infections or complications. Among the 725 women included, antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were detected by IFA in three (03) cases patients; all control group samples were IFA negative...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
A-S Le Guern, C Savin, S Brémont, G Payro, D Bon, E Carniel, J Pizarro-Cerdá
Yersinia entomophaga is an insect pathogen first isolated from larvae of Coleoptera in New Zealand in 2011. We report here the first isolation of Y. entomophaga from human urine. Using whole-genome sequencing, we confirmed the presence of specific chromosomal virulence genes and identified a plasmid harbouring a quinolone resistance gene.
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
N G Vallianou, K Melaki, F Constantinou, V Gennimata, E Kokkinakis
Brucella may cause testicular masses, which may be confused with a testicular tumour. We present the case of a man with fever and oedema in the scrotum. Ultrasound and colour Doppler ultrasound with a 6 to 15 MHz high-frequency linear-array transducer was performed, revealing bilateral scrotal wall oedema, heterogeneous echo texture and slightly increased vascularization of the right testis, with hypoechoic lesions characterized by hypervascular margins and no flow within them. These findings were compatible with testicular abscesses...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Amani T Abdulzahra, Mahmoud A F Khalil, Walid F Elkhatib
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that poses an increasing threat in the health-care community. Colistin is one of the promising options for treatment of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii . The current study investigated the emergence of colistin resistance among carbapenem-resistant strains of A. baumannii in Egypt. It involved identification of clinically recovered A . baumannii isolates using the VITEK-2 system, and screening of their antimicrobial susceptibilities using broth microdilution techniques...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
S H Alfaraj, J A Al-Tawfiq, P Gautret, M G Alenazi, A Y Asiri, Z A Memish
The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in September 2012 in Saudi Arabia had attracted the attention of the global health community. In 2017 the Saudi Ministry of Health released a visual triage system with scoring to alert healthcare workers in emergency departments (EDs) and haemodialysis units for the possibility of occurrence of MERS-CoV infection. We performed a retrospective analysis of this visual score to determine its sensitivity and specificity. The study included all cases from 2014 to 2017 in a MERS-CoV referral centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Cl Soria Segarra, G Larrea Vera, Ml Berrezueta Jara, M Arévalo Mendez, P Cujilema, M Serrano Lino, Ca Soria Segarra
Culture of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) as part of active surveillance is one of the most useful strategies for successful infection control programmes. Our objective was to compare the recently introduced CHROMagar mSuperCARBA agar for CPE detection in surveillance cultures from perineal swabs with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method. Our results showed that this agar is a useful and affordable alternative (sensitivity 93.05%, specificity 96.21%, diagnostic accuracy 95...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
M Stojanov, D Baud, G Greub, N Vulliemoz
Infertility is a disease that affects one in seven couples. As male infertility affects approximately 30% of these couples with an unknown cause in half the cases, it represents a major public health concern. The classic treatment of male infertility involves intrauterine insemination, with modest outcome, and in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which is known to be invasive and expensive, without treating the specific cause of infertility. Male fertility is mainly evaluated through a semen assessment where abnormal parameters such as concentration and motility can be associated with a decreased chance of conception...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
M Dahmani, G Diatta, N Labas, A Diop, H Bassene, D Raoult, L Granjon, F Fenollar, O Mediannikov
Bartonella mastomydis sp. nov. strain 008 is the type strain of B. mastomydis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bartonella. This strain was isolated from Mastomys erythroleucus rodents trapped in the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. The 2 044 960 bp long genomes with 38.44% G + C content contains 1674 protein-coding and 42 RNA genes, including three rRNA genes.
September 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
A Aliramezani, M Talebi, A Baghani, M Hajabdolbaghi, M Salehi, A Abdollahi, S Afhami, M Marjani, F Golbabaei, M A Boroumand, A Sarrafnejad, M Yaseri, S Ghourchian, M Douraghi
Little is known about the toxin profiles, toxinotypes and variations of toxin Clostridioides difficile C ( tcdC ) in Iranian C. difficile isolates. A total of 818 stool specimens were obtained from outpatients ( n  = 45) and hospitalized patients ( n  = 773) in Tehran, Iran, from 2011 to 2017. The 44 C. difficile isolates were subjected to PCR of toxin C. difficile A ( tcdA ), toxin C. difficile B ( tcdB ), tcdA 3'-end deletion, toxinotyping and sequencing of the tcdC gene. Thirty-eight isolates (86...
September 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
D P Alves, A P D'A Carvalho-Assef, O C Conceição-Neto, C A M Aires, R M Albano, T W Folescu, S C S Ornelas, R S Leão, E A Marques
We describe the first detection of a KPC-2- and QnrB-producing Enterobacter cloacae from a patient with cystic fibrosis. The bla KPC-2 and qnrB-1 genes were located in a 79.8-kb plasmid. The presence of bla KPC-2 and qnrB-1 genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Mobilization of plasmid containing bla KPC2 gene was assayed by conjugation.
September 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
M Drancourt, P-E Fournier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
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