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Case Reports in Hepatology

Nazneen Hussain, Samuel O Igbinedion, Richie Diaz, J S Alexander, Moheb Boktor, Kurt Knowles
Liver involvement is a known feature of secondary syphilis. The prevalence of hepatitis in secondary syphilis ranges broadly from 1 to 50%. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus and sickle cell trait presenting with jaundice and acute liver cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasound revealed mild hepatic fatty infiltration. RPR and Treponema pallidum IgG results were positive with a reflex titer of 1:64. Liver biopsy revealed chronic hepatitis with normal hepatic architecture, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, hepatic cholestasis, and ductal proliferation suggestive of syphilitic hepatitis...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Dan-Qing Xue, Lan Yang
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common liver cell-derived benign tumor. It is postulated that chemotherapy-induced hepatic circulatory abnormalities, like sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), could lead to the development of FNH. Cyclophosphamide was also reported to induce SOS in a synergistic effect with total body irradiation. However, none of cyclophosphamide-related FNH had ever been reported before. In this case report, we present a female patient who was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy of cyclophosphamide (500mg/m2 )-docetaxel (75mg/m2 )-pharmorubicin (90mg/m2 ) regimen every 3 weeks for breast cancer developed FNH after 4 courses of treatment...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Hiroyuki Sugo, Yuki Sekine, Shozo Miyano, Ikuo Watanobe, Michio Machida, Kuniaki Kojima, Hironao Okubo, Ayako Ura, Kanako Ogura, Toshiharu Matsumoto
We report here an extremely rare case of hepatic sclerosing hemangioma mimicking a biliary cystadenocarcinoma. A previously healthy 39-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a large tumor in the liver. Abdominal computed tomography revealed early peripheral ring enhancement in the arterial phase and slight internal heterogeneous enhancement in the delayed phase. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor with low intensity in the T1-weighted image and very high intensity in the fat-saturated T2-weighted image...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Patrick T Koo, Valentina Medici, James H Tabibian
The biliary anastomosis remains a common site of postoperative complications in liver transplantation (LT). Biliary complications have indeed been termed the "Achilles' heel" of LT, and while their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment have continued to evolve over the last two decades, various challenges and uncertainties persist. Here we present the case of a 33-year-old man who, 10 years after undergoing LT for idiopathic recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, was noted to have developed pruritus and abnormalities in serum liver biochemistries during routine post-liver transplant follow-up...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Elizabeth Caitlin Brewer, Leigh Hunter
Acute liver failure (ALF) can be due to numerous causes and result in fatality or necessitate liver transplantation if left untreated. Possible etiologies of ALF include ischemia, venous obstruction, medications, toxins, autoimmune hepatitis, metabolic and infectious causes including hepatitis A-E, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus with VZV being the most rarely reported. Pathognomonic skin lesions facilitate diagnosis of VZV hepatitis, but definitive diagnosis is secured with liver biopsy, tissue histopathology, culture, and specific VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Nalan Okuroglu, Meltem Sertbas, Ali Ozdemir
A 73-year-old female patient with a history of type 2 DM for seven years was admitted to our out-patient clinic with a complaint of frequent hypoglycemic episodes. She was receiving basal- bolus insulin treatment. She underwent liver transplantation 20 months ago due to end stage liver disease caused by HCV infection genotype 1b. While she was still on tacrolimus for liver transplantation, she received direct acting antiviral agents including fix dose ledipasvir-sofosbuvir with ribavirin. Biochemical analysis showed fasting plasma glucose of 105 mg/dl and postprandial glucose of 200 mg/dl, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c of 4...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Emily A Minor, Mackenzie S Newman, Justin T Kupec
Historically used as an anesthetic, chloroform is a halogenated hydrocarbon that is associated with central nervous system depression, arrhythmias, and hepatotoxicity. It is no longer used clinically, but accidental and intentional poisonings still occur. We report a case of chronic chloroform abuse leading to severe hepatotoxicity in a 26-year-old male graduate student. The patient presented to the emergency department with a three-day history of abdominal pain, dehydration, and scleral icterus. He drank several beers the night before the onset of symptoms, but denied taking acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or other drugs...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Karen Jiang, Ahmad Najdat Bazarbashi, Sami Dahdal, Adina Voiculescu, Natalia Khalaf
Leptospirosis is a common bacterial disease in tropical regions of the world due to greater exposure to rodents and domestic animals; however, this condition can also occur in US urban areas, though it often goes unrecognized. Gastrointestinal symptoms are very commonly seen, and icteric leptospirosis is often confused for other conditions resulting in delayed diagnosis and worse outcomes. As mortality increases with more extensive hepatic involvement, gastroenterologists should be aware of the constellation of gastrointestinal symptoms related to leptospirosis, as it can occur in the absence of classic exposure history...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Gregory W Charville, Sukhmani K Padda, Richard K Sibley, Ajithkumar Puthillath, Paul Y Kwo
Targeted cancer treatments offer the prospect of precise inhibition of tumor growth without the untoward off-target toxicity of traditional chemotherapies. Still, unintended, often idiosyncratic side effects, such as drug-induced liver injury, can occur. We discuss the case of a 26-year-old female with a history of ROS1 -rearranged lung adenocarcinoma, undergoing treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib, who presented to our hospital with abdominal pain and scleral icterus. Liver chemistries were notable for hyperbilirubinemia (5 mg/dL total) and marked transaminasemia (AST 1736 U/L, ALT >3500 U/L); liver biopsy demonstrated acute hepatitis with extensive necrosis...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Samuel Igbinedion, Meher S Mavuram, Moheb Boktor, John Bienvenu
Liver abscesses are the most common types of visceral abscesses. Pyogenic liver abscesses, a particular type of liver abscesses, are uncommonly encountered. We present a rare case of pyogenic liver abscess caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a young man. A 21-year- old man presented from prison to the hospital with fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain for five days. Labs were significant for leukocytosis with predominant neutrophilia and elevated liver enzymes. CT abdomen with contrast revealed an 8...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Kazuhiro Nishida, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Tomohiro Funabiki
Introduction: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the first-line therapy for patient with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although TACE is a generally safe procedure, major complications can be occurred. We describe a patient with rupture of HCC after TACE followed by gastric bleeding. Case Presentation: An 81-year-old man presented with worsening epigastric pain. He had been diagnosed with multiple HCC with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and underwent TACE 19 days previously...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
E Veitsman, E Pras, O Pappo, A Arish, R Eshkenazi, C Feray, J Calderaro, D Azoulay, Z Ben Ari
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disease associated with progressive iron overload, eventually leading in some cases to damage of parenchymal organs, such as the liver, pancreas, and heart. Although the gene had been identified (HFE), HH pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. We report here, for the first time, a case of inadvertent transplantation of a liver from a donor with C282Y/H63D compound heterozygosity into a nonhemochromatotic 19-year-old Caucasian male recipient with primary sclerosing cholangitis...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Innocent Lule Segamwenge, Miriam Kaunanele Bernard
Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients presenting with fulminant liver failure after varying periods of exposure to Efavirenz containing antiretroviral medications. Methods: We report a series of 4 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were admitted with acute liver failure (ALF) over a 6-month period. All these patients had been treated with a range of Efavirenz containing antiretroviral regimens and were negative for hepatitis A, B, and C infections as well as other opportunistic infections, all were negative for autoimmune hepatitis, and none had evidence of chronic liver disease or use of alcohol or herbal medications...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Gary A Abrams, Robert Chapman, Samuel R W Horton
We report on a rare case of refractory hepatic hydrothorax in an individual with Scleroderma/CREST syndrome and noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Portal pressure measurements revealed a normal transjugular hepatic venous portal pressure gradient, mild pulmonary hypertension, and an unremarkable liver biopsy except for mild sinusoidal dilation. Pulmonary hypertension, cardiac diastolic dysfunction, and chronic kidney disease were determined to be the causes of his refractory pleural effusions and ascites. Over the year, he underwent 50 thoracenteses and 20 paracenteses averaging 10-12 liters/week...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Ifeyinwa E Obiorah, Metin Ozdemirli
Meningiomas are slow growing neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS). Most of the tumors are benign and distant metastasis from a benign meningioma is rare. Metastasis to the liver, although rare, usually presents with hypoglycemia or occurs in conjunction with a clinical history of an intracranial meningioma or following the resection of a prior CNS meningioma, thus making clinical diagnosis relatively easy. Here we present an unusual case of metastatic meningioma to the liver in a 54-year-old female who presented with an incidental liver mass by ultrasound...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Walid Abboud, Saif Abdulla, Mohammed Al Zaabi, Ramzi Moufarrej
Glycogenic hepatopathy is a rare but potentially reversible condition characterized by hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes occurring in poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and often requires a liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. We present the case of a young man who was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis in the setting of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 1 and was noted to have significantly elevated transaminases that continued to worsen despite appropriate treatment of the diabetic ketoacidosis...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Masahiro Takeuchi, Yoshitaka Sakamoto, Hirotsugu Noguchi, Sohsuke Yamada, Keiji Hirata
Tubulocystic carcinoma of the bile duct is extremely rare and has not been reported in the literature. We reported a case of cystic neoplasm of the liver with distinct histopathological features that could not be clearly classified as of either mucinous or intraductal papillary neoplasm. A 68-year-old Japanese patient had a multicystic biliary tumor within the liver. This tumor was detected on follow-up of polymyalgia rheumatica. The exophytic, multicystic, 35 × 50 mm mass was composed of complex tubulocystic structures...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Lokesh K Jha, Laura L Ulmer, Marco A Olivera-Martinez, Timothy M McCashland, Kai Fu, Fedja A Rochling
A 59-year-old male with a history of hepatitis C cirrhosis and history of hepatitis B exposure presented 8 months after orthotopic liver transplant (LT) with fever, fatigue, myalgia, night sweats, nonproductive cough, and shortness of breath. Bone marrow biopsy for pancytopenia was positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. Lymph node biopsy for lymphadenopathy on imaging showed human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) associated Castleman's disease. Treatment included valganciclovir, rituximab, and prednisone taper with eventual discontinuation...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Jiten P Kothadia, Monica Kaminski, Hrishikesh Samant, Marco Olivera-Martinez
The use of herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss is becoming increasingly common as obesity is becoming major health problem in the United States. Despite the popularity of these natural supplements, there are no guidelines for their therapeutic doses and their safety is always a concern. Garcinia cambogia extract with its active ingredient "hydroxycitric acid" is a component of many weight loss regimens. It suppresses fatty acid biosynthesis and decreases appetite. However, its prolonged use in weight maintenance is unknown...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Pinelopi Arvaniti, Kalliopi Zachou, George K Koukoulis, George N Dalekos
Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) is commonly reported in neonatal and infantile liver diseases but rarely in adults where the term postinfantile GCH (PIGCH) is used. PIGCH is associated with many diseases, including drugs toxicity, viruses, and autoimmune liver diseases, with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) being the most prevalent. We present a case of PIGCH in a 76-year-old female without known history of liver disease who suffered from an acute severe episode of hepatitis. After careful exclusion of other hepatitis causes by imaging, virological, immunological, and microbiological investigations, a diagnosis of acute severe AIH (AS-AIH) was established...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
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