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Annual Review of Animal Biosciences

S Panserat, L Marandel, I Seiliez, S Skiba-Cassy
The rapid development of aquaculture production throughout the world over the past few decades has led to the emergence of new scientific challenges to improve fish nutrition. The diet formulations used for farmed fish have been largely modified in the past few years. However, bottlenecks still exist in being able to suppress totally marine resources (fish meal and fish oil) in diets without negatively affecting growth performance and flesh quality. A better understanding of fish metabolism and its regulation by nutrients is thus mandatory...
November 12, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Sung Woo Kim, John F Less, Li Wang, Tianhai Yan, Viswanath Kiron, Sadasivam J Kaushik, Xin Gen Lei
Feed protein supplements are one of the most expensive and limiting feed ingredients. This review offers a comprehensive analysis of how the expected expansion of animal production, driven by the rising world population and living standards for more animal-sourced foods, is creating a global shortage of feed protein supply. Because ruminants, chickens, and pigs contribute to 96% of the global supply of animal protein and aquaculture is growing fast, means of meeting the feed protein requirements of these species are elaborated...
November 12, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Elaine A Ostrander, Dayna L Dreger, Jacquelyn M Evans
Dogs are second only to humans in medical surveillance and preventative health care, leading to a recent perception of increased cancer incidence. Scientific priorities in veterinary oncology have thus shifted, with a demand for cancer genetic screens, better diagnostics, and more effective therapies. Most dog breeds came into existence within the last 300 years, and many are derived from small numbers of founders. Each has undergone strong artificial selection, in which dog fanciers selected for many traits, including body size, fur type, color, skull shape, and behavior, to create novel breeds...
November 12, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Wan-Sheng Liu
Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes. The X chromosome is highly conserved, whereas the Y chromosome varies among species in size, structure, and gene content. Unlike autosomes that contain randomly mixed collections of genes, the sex chromosomes are enriched in testis-biased genes related to sexual development and reproduction, particularly in spermatogenesis and male fertility. This review focuses on how sex chromosome dosage compensation takes place and why meiotic sex chromosome inactivation occurs during spermatogenesis...
November 9, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Constance E Clare, Amey H Brassington, Wing Yee Kwong, Kevin D Sinclair
One-carbon (1C) metabolism comprises a series of interlinking metabolic pathways that include the methionine and folate cycles that are central to cellular function, providing 1C units (methyl groups) for the synthesis of DNA, polyamines, amino acids, creatine, and phospholipids. Sadenosylmethionine is a potent aminopropyl and methyl donor within these cycles and serves as the principal substrate for methylation of DNA, associated proteins, and RNA. We propose that 1C metabolism functions as a key biochemical conduit between parental environment and epigenetic regulation of early development and that interindividual and ethnic variability in epigenetic-gene regulation arises because of genetic variants within 1C genes, associated epigenetic regulators, and differentially methylated target DNA sequences...
November 9, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Marko Rudar, Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
Skeletal muscle growth during the early postnatal period is rapid in the pig and dependent on the capacity of muscle to respond to anabolic and catabolic stimuli. Muscle mass is driven by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Among these processes, muscle protein synthesis in the piglet is exceptionally sensitive to the feeding-induced postprandial changes in insulin and amino acids, whereas muscle protein degradation is affected only during specific catabolic states. The developmental decline in the response of muscle to feeding is associated with changes in the signaling pathways located upstream and downstream of the mechanistic target of rapamycin...
November 2, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Joel Armstrong, Ian T Fiddes, Mark Diekhans, Benedict Paten
Rapidly improving sequencing technology coupled with computational developments in sequence assembly are making reference-quality genome assembly economical. Hundreds of vertebrate genome assemblies are now publicly available, and projects are being proposed to sequence thousands of additional species in the next few years. Such dense sampling of the tree of life should give an unprecedented new understanding of evolution and allow a detailed determination of the events that led to the wealth of biodiversity around us...
October 31, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Aimee J Silla, Phillip G Byrne
Anthropogenic environmental change has led to unprecedented rates of species extinction, presenting a major threat to global biodiversity. Among vertebrates, amphibians have been most severely impacted, with an estimated 41% of species now threatened with extinction. In response to this biodiversity crisis, a moral and ethical obligation exists to implement proactive interventionist conservation actions to assist species recovery and decelerate declines. Conservation breeding programs have been established for several threatened amphibian species globally, aiming to prevent species' extinction by maintaining genetically representative assurance colonies ex situ while providing individuals for population augmentation, translocation, and reestablishment in situ...
October 25, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
I Martin Sheldon, James G Cronin, John J Bromfield
Bacteria are ubiquitous in the bovine uterus after parturition, but 50 years ago, cows tolerated these bacteria and few animals developed uterine disease. Now, up to 40% of dairy cattle develop postpartum uterine disease. Uterine disease causes infertility by compromising the function of not only the endometrium but also the ovary. Animals defend themselves against pathogens using tolerance and resistance mechanisms. Tolerance is the ability to limit the disease severity induced by a given pathogen burden. Resistance is the ability to limit the pathogen burden and is usually the function of immunity...
October 25, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Yusuke Nakane, Takashi Yoshimura
Organisms use changes in photoperiod for seasonal reproduction to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms and are therefore excellent models for studying these phenomena. Birds perceive light via deep-brain photoreceptors and long day-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland (PT), which cause local thyroid hormone activation within the mediobasal hypothalamus. The local bioactive thyroid hormone controls seasonal gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and subsequent gonadotropin secretion...
October 17, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Mateus Contar Adolfi, Rafael Takahiro Nakajima, Rafael Henrique Nóbrega, Manfred Schartl
In vertebrates, sex organs are generally specialized to perform a male or female reproductive role. Acquisition of the Müllerian duct, which gives rise to the oviduct, together with emergence of the Amh/Amhr2 system favored evolution of viviparity in jawed vertebrates. Species with high sexspecific reproductive adaptations have less potential to sex reverse, making intersex a nonfunctional condition. Teleosts, the only vertebrate group in which hermaphroditism evolved as a natural reproductive strategy, lost the Müllerian duct during evolution...
October 10, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
James E Jim Womack
I abandoned my original career choice of high school teaching to pursue dentistry and soon abandoned that path for genetics. The latter decision was due to a challenge by a professor that led to me reading Nobel speeches by pioneer geneticists before I had formal exposure to the subject. Even then, I was 15 years into my career before my interest in rodent genomes gave way to mapping cattle genes. Events behind these twists and turns in my career path comprise the first part of this review. The remainder is a review of the development of the field of bovine genomics from my personal perspective...
October 8, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Scott P Kenney, Xiang-Jin Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen that historically has been difficult to study. Limited levels of replication in vitro hindered our understanding of the viral life cycle. Sporadic and low-level virus shedding, lack of standardized detection methods, and subclinical infections made the development of animal models difficult. Better diagnostic techniques and understanding of the virus increased our ability to identify and characterize animal strains and animals that are amenable to model human-relevant infection...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Janos Zempleni, Sonal Sukreet, Fang Zhou, Di Wu, Ezra Mutai
Exosomes are natural nanoparticles that play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Communication is achieved through the transfer of cargos, such as microRNAs, from donor to recipient cells and binding of exosomes to cell surface receptors. Exosomes and their cargos are also obtained from dietary sources, such as milk. Exosome and cell glycoproteins are crucial for intestinal uptake. A large fraction of milk exosomes accumulates in the brain, whereas the tissue distribution of microRNA cargos varies among distinct species of microRNA...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Sandra G Velleman
The functional unit in skeletal muscle is the multinucleated myofiber, which is composed of parallel arrays of microfibrils. The myofiber and sarcomere structure of skeletal muscle are established during embryogenesis, when mononuclear myoblast cells fuse to form multinucleated myotubes and develop into muscle fibers. With the myoblasts permanently unable to enter a proliferative state again after they fuse to form the multinucleated myotube, postnatal myofiber growth, muscle homeostasis, and myofiber regeneration are dependent on a myogenic stem cell, the satellite cell...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Rodolfo C Cardoso, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Prenatal exposure to excess steroids or steroid mimics can disrupt the normal developmental trajectory of organ systems, culminating in adult disease. The metabolic system is particularly susceptible to the deleterious effects of prenatal steroid excess. Studies in sheep demonstrate that prenatal exposure to excess native steroids or endocrine-disrupting chemicals with steroidogenic activity, such as bisphenol A, results in postnatal development of numerous cardiometabolic perturbations, including insulin resistance, increased adiposity, altered adipocyte size and distribution, and hypertension...
September 7, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Thomas E Spencer, Andrew M Kelleher, Frank F Bartol
All mammalian uteri contain glands that synthesize or transport and secrete substances into the uterine lumen. Uterine gland development, or adenogenesis, is uniquely a postnatal event in sheep and pigs and involves differentiation of glandular epithelium from luminal epithelium, followed by invagination and coiling morphogenesis throughout the stroma. Intrinsic transcription factors and extrinsic factors from the ovary and pituitary as well as the mammary gland (lactocrine) regulate uterine adenogenesis. Recurrent pregnancy loss is observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout sheep, providing unequivocal evidence that glands and their products are essential for fertility...
September 5, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Vydianathan Ravi, Byrappa Venkatesh
Boasting nearly 30,000 species, teleosts account for half of all extant vertebrates and approximately 98% of all ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii). Teleosts are also the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, exhibiting an astonishing level of morphological, physiological, and behavioral diversity. Previous studies had indicated that the teleost lineage has experienced an additional whole-genome duplication event. Recent comparative genomic analyses of teleosts and other bony vertebrates using spotted gar (a nonteleost ray-finned fish) and elephant shark (a cartilaginous fish) as outgroups have revealed several divergent features of teleost genomes...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Harris Lewin, Mike Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Allen D Smith, Kiran S Panickar, Joseph F Urban, Harry D Dawson
Vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) play an important role in regulating and shaping an immune response. Deficiencies generally result in inadequate or dysregulated cellular activity and cytokine expression, thereby affecting the immune response. Decreased levels of natural killer, granulocyte, and phagocytic cell activity and T and B cell proliferation and trafficking are associated with inadequate levels of micronutrients, as well as increased susceptibility to various adverse health conditions, including inflammatory disorders, infection, and altered vaccine efficacy...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
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