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Annual Review of Animal Biosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912243/vomeronasal-receptors-in-vertebrates-and-the-evolution-of-pheromone-detection
#1
Liliana Silva, Agostinho Antunes
Pheromones were identified as chemical signals used for intraspecific communication in insects (e.g., sexual attraction) in the 1950s. However, only almost 40 years later the vomeronasal receptors type-1 (V1R) and type-2 (V2R) were identified, usually associated with the presence of a vomeronasal organ (VNO). VRs are widespread in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but birds lost the VNO. Similarly, fishes lack VRs and a VNO but can still detect pheromones, instead using the olfactory receptors related to class A and class C G protein-coupled receptors...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912242/deciphering-the-origin-of-dogs-from-fossils-to-genomes
#2
Adam H Freedman, Robert K Wayne
Understanding the timing and geographic context of dog origins is a crucial component for understanding human history, as well as the evolutionary context in which the morphological and behavioral divergence of dogs from wolves occurred. A substantial challenge to understanding domestication is that dogs have experienced a complicated demographic history. An initial severe bottleneck was associated with domestication followed by postdivergence gene flow between dogs and wolves, as well as population expansions, contractions, and replacements...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912244/environmental-sustainability-analysis-and-nutritional-strategies-of-animal-production-in-china
#3
Bie Tan, Yulong Yin
Animal production in China has achieved considerable progress and contributes to46%of the total agriculture output value of the country. However, this fast expansion of animal production has led to environmental pollution. In this article, we review the status of soil, water, and air pollution associated with animal production in China and analyze the main sources of the pollutants. The government has promulgated regulations and standards, and effective models and technologies have been developed to control pollution during the last 10 years...
November 21, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860491/genomic-selection-in-dairy-cattle-the-usda-experience
#4
George R Wiggans, John B Cole, Suzanne M Hubbard, Tad S Sonstegard
Genomic selection has revolutionized dairy cattle breeding. Since 2000, assays have been developed to genotype large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at relatively low cost. The first commercial SNP genotyping chip was released with a set of 54,001 SNPs in December 2007. Over 15,000 genotypes were used to determine which SNPs should be used in genomic evaluation of US dairy cattle. Official USDA genomic evaluations were first released in January 2009 for Holsteins and Jerseys, in August 2009 for Brown Swiss, in April 2013 for Ayrshires, and in April 2016 for Guernseys...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860493/biomarkers-in-veterinary-medicine
#5
Michael J Myers, Emily R Smith, Phillip G Turfle
This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine...
November 14, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860492/veterinary-replicon-vaccines
#6
Mia C Hikke, Gorben P Pijlman
Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have strengthened the position of nucleic acid vaccines in veterinary vaccinology. The present review focuses on replicon vaccines designed for veterinary use. Replicon vaccines are self-amplifying viral RNA sequences that, in addition to the sequence encoding the antigen of interest, contain all elements necessary for RNA replication...
November 14, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860495/campylobacter-associated-diseases-in-animals
#7
Orhan Sahin, Michael Yaeger, Zuowei Wu, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter includes a group of genetically diverse species causing a range of diseases in animals and humans. The bacterium is frequently associated with two economically important and epidemiologically distinct reproductive diseases in ruminants: enzootic infectious infertility in cattle owing to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and abortions in sheep, goats, and cattle. Septic abortion, usually epizootic in sheep, has been historically associated with C. fetus subsp. fetus and to a lesser extent with Campylobacter jejuni...
November 9, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860494/salmonella-in-swine-microbiota-interactions
#8
Hyeun Bum Kim, Richard E Isaacson
For the important foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica to cause disease or persist in pigs, it has evolved an intricate set of interactions between itself, the host, and the indigenous microflora of the host. S. enterica must evade the host's immune system and must also overcome colonization resistance mediated by the pig's indigenous microflora. The inflammatory response against S. enterica provides the bacteria with unique metabolites and is thus exploited by S. enterica for competitive advantage. During infection, changes in the composition of the indigenous microflora occur that have been associated with a breakdown in colonization resistance...
November 9, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813680/taming-the-past-ancient-dna-and-the-study-of-animal-domestication
#9
David E MacHugh, Greger Larson, Ludovic Orlando
During the last decade, ancient DNA research has been revolutionized by the availability of increasingly powerful DNA sequencing and ancillary genomics technologies, giving rise to the new field of paleogenomics. In this review, we show how our understanding of the genetic basis of animal domestication and the origins and dispersal of livestock and companion animals during the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods is being rapidly transformed through new scientific knowledge generated with paleogenomics methods...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813678/animal-proteins-as-important-contributors-to-a-healthy-human-diet
#10
Ibrahim Elmadfa, Alexa L Meyer
Adequate protein intake is critical for health and development. Generally, protein of animal origin is of higher quality for humans owing to its amino acid pattern and good digestibility. When administered in mixtures it can enhance the quality of plant proteins, but it is often scarce in low-income communities, especially in young children, the elderly, and pregnant and lactating women, who have increased requirements and in whom high-quality protein also stimulates bone growth and maintenance. Although high protein intake was associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk, milk and seafood are good sources of branched chain amino acids and taurine, which act beneficially on glucose metabolism and blood pressure...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813679/the-role-of-biofuels-coproducts-in-feeding-the-world-sustainably
#11
Gerald C Shurson
One of the grand challenges facing our society today is finding solutions for feeding the world sustainably. The food-versus-fuel debate is a controversy embedded in this challenge, involving the trade-offs of using grains and oilseeds for biofuels production versus animal feed and human food. However, only 6% of total global grain produced is used to produce ethanol. Furthermore, biofuels coproducts contribute to sustainability of food production because only 1% to 2.5% of the overall energy efficiency is lost from converting crops into biofuels and animal feed, and approximately one-third of the corn used to produce ethanol is recovered as feed coproducts...
October 24, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732786/effect-of-heat-stress-on-reproduction-in-dairy-cows-insights-into-the-cellular-and-molecular-responses-of-the-oocyte
#12
Zvi Roth
Among the components of the female reproductive tract, the ovarian pool of follicles and their enclosed oocytes are highly sensitive to hyperthermia. Heat-induced alterations in small antral follicles can be expressed later as compromised maturation and developmental capacity of the ovulating oocyte. This review summarizes the most up-to-date information on the effects of heat stress on the oocyte with an emphasis on unclear points and open questions, some of which might involve new research directions, for instance, whether preantral follicles are heat resistant...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884105/introduction
#13
Harris Lewin, Mike Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884104/innovations-in-canine-and-feline-nutrition-technologies-for-food-and-nutrition-assessment
#14
Maria R C de Godoy, Marta Hervera, Kelly S Swanson, George C Fahey
Pet owners have increasing concerns about the nutrition of their pets, and they desire foods and treats that are safe, traceable, and of high nutritive value. To meet these high expectations, detailed chemical composition characterization of ingredients well beyond that provided by proximate analysis will be required, as will information about host physiology and metabolism. Use of faster and more precise analytical methodology and novel technologies that have the potential to improve pet food safety and quality will be implemented...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884103/bovine-tuberculosis-in-cattle-vaccines-diva-tests-and-host-biomarker-discovery
#15
H Martin Vordermeier, Gareth J Jones, Bryce M Buddle, R Glyn Hewinson, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos
Bovine tuberculosis remains a major economic and animal welfare concern worldwide. Cattle vaccination is being considered as part of control strategies. This approach, used alongside conventional control policies, also requires the development of vaccine-compatible diagnostic assays to distinguish vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). We discuss progress made on optimizing the only potentially available vaccine, bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and on strategies to improve BCG efficacy. We also describe recent advances in DIVA development based on the detection of host cellular immune responses by blood-testing or skin-testing approaches...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884102/perspectives-from-the-avian-phylogenomics-project-questions-that-can-be-answered-with-sequencing-all-genomes-of-a-vertebrate-class
#16
Erich D Jarvis
The rapid pace of advances in genome technology, with concomitant reductions in cost, makes it feasible that one day in our lifetime we will have available extant genomes of entire classes of species, including vertebrates. I recently helped cocoordinate the large-scale Avian Phylogenomics Project, which collected and sequenced genomes of 48 bird species representing most currently classified orders to address a range of questions in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. The consortium was able to answer questions not previously possible with just a few genomes...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884101/chromosome-aberrations-and-fertility-disorders-in-domestic-animals
#17
Terje Raudsepp, Bhanu P Chowdhary
The association between chromosomal abnormalities and reduced fertility in domestic animals is well recorded and has been studied for decades. Chromosome aberrations directly affect meiosis, gametogenesis, and the viability of zygotes and embryos. In some instances, balanced structural rearrangements can be transmitted, causing fertility problems in subsequent generations. Here, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of the current status and future prospects of clinical cytogenetics of animal reproduction by focusing on the advances in molecular cytogenetics during the genomics era...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26734888/persistent-infections-and-immunity-in-ruminants-to-arthropod-borne-bacteria-in-the-family-anaplasmataceae
#18
Wendy C Brown, Anthony F Barbet
Tick-transmitted gram-negative bacteria in the family Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales cause persistent infection and morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Whereas Anaplasma marginale infection is restricted to ruminants, Anaplasma phagocytophilum is promiscuous and, in addition to causing disease in sheep and cattle, notably causes disease in humans, horses, and dogs. Although the two pathogens invade and replicate in distinct blood cells (erythrocytes and neutrophils, respectively), they have evolved similar mechanisms of antigenic variation in immunodominant major surface protein 2 (MSP2) and MSP2(P44) that result in immune evasion and persistent infection...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26734887/brucella-spp-virulence-factors-and-immunity
#19
Mariana X Byndloss, Renee M Tsolis
Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is an important zoonotic infection that causes reproductive disease in domestic animals and chronic debilitating disease in humans. An intriguing aspect of Brucella infection is the ability of these bacteria to evade the host immune response, leading to pathogen persistence. Conversely, in the reproductive tract of infected animals, this stealthy pathogen is able to cause an acute severe inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss the different mechanisms used by Brucella to cause disease, with emphasis on its virulence factors and the dichotomy between chronic persistence and reproductive disease...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26667362/the-role-of-direct-fed-microbials-in-conventional-livestock-production
#20
J O Buntyn, T B Schmidt, D J Nisbet, T R Callaway
Supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as a means to improve the health and performance of livestock has generated significant interest over the past 15+ years. A driving force for this increased interest in DFM is to reduce or eliminate the use of low-dose antibiotics in livestock production. This increased attention toward DFM supplementation has generated an extensive body of research. This effort has resulted in conflicting reports. Although there has been considerable variation in the design of these studies, one of the main causes for this lack of consistency may be attributed to the variation in the experimental immune challenge incorporated to evaluate DFM supplementation...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
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