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Annual Review of Animal Biosciences

Vydianathan Ravi, Byrappa Venkatesh
Boasting nearly 30,000 species, teleosts account for half of all extant vertebrates and approximately 98% of all ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii). Teleosts are also the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, exhibiting an astonishing level of morphological, physiological, and behavioral diversity. Previous studies had indicated that the teleost lineage has experienced an additional whole-genome duplication event. Recent comparative genomic analyses of teleosts and other bony vertebrates using spotted gar (a nonteleost ray-finned fish) and elephant shark (a cartilaginous fish) as outgroups have revealed several divergent features of teleost genomes...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Harris Lewin, Mike Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Allen D Smith, Kiran S Panickar, Joseph F Urban, Harry D Dawson
Vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) play an important role in regulating and shaping an immune response. Deficiencies generally result in inadequate or dysregulated cellular activity and cytokine expression, thereby affecting the immune response. Decreased levels of natural killer, granulocyte, and phagocytic cell activity and T and B cell proliferation and trafficking are associated with inadequate levels of micronutrients, as well as increased susceptibility to various adverse health conditions, including inflammatory disorders, infection, and altered vaccine efficacy...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Oliver A Ryder, Manabu Onuma
Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
H D Blackburn
Biobanking animal germplasm and tissues is a major component of conserving genetic resources. Effectively constructing such gene banks requires an understanding and evaluation of genetic resources, the ability to conserve various tissues through cryopreservation, and a robust information technology infrastructure to allow managers and potential users to fully understand and make use of the collection. Progress has been made internationally in developing national genetic resource collections. As these collections have been developed, it has become apparent that gene banks can serve a multitude of roles, thereby serving short- and long-term needs of research communities and industry...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Jennifer A Marshall Graves
Making my career in Australia exposed me to the tyranny of distance, but it gave me opportunities to study our unique native fauna. Distantly related animal species present genetic variation that we can use to explore the most fundamental biological structures and processes. I have compared chromosomes and genomes of kangaroos and platypus, tiger snakes and emus, devils (Tasmanian) and dragons (lizards). I particularly love the challenges posed by sex chromosomes, which, apart from determining sex, provide stunning examples of epigenetic control and break all the evolutionary rules that we currently understand...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
J P McNamara, K Huber
The adipose tissue serves an essential role for survival and reproduction in mammals, especially females. It serves primarily as an energy storage organ and is directly linked to the reproductive success of mammals. In wild animals, adipose tissue function is linked to seasonality of the food supply to support fetal growth and milk production. Adipose tissue depots in ruminants and non-ruminants can secrete many signal molecules (adipokines) that act as hormones and as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The visceral adipose tissue especially appears to be more endocrinologically active than other adipose depots...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Sandra K Kabagambe, Chelsey J Lee, Laura F Goodman, Y Julia Chen, Melissa A Vanover, Diana L Farmer
The International Fetal Medicine and Surgery Society was created in 1982 and proposed guidelines for fetal interventions that required demonstrations of the safety and feasibility of intended interventions in animal models prior to application in humans. Because of their short gestation and low cost, small animal models are useful in early investigation of fetal strategies. However, owing to the anatomic and physiologic differences between small animals and humans, repeated studies in large animal models are usually needed to facilitate translation to humans...
December 13, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Emma Teeling, Sonja Vernes, Liliana M Davalos, David A Ray, M Thomas P Gilbert, Eugene Myers, Bat K Consortium
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Eugeni Roura, Simon R Foster
Nutrient sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required decision-making dialogue between the gut and the brain by translating exogenous chemical stimuli into neuronal inputs, and vice versa, to translate the endogenous signals relevant to the nutritional status into specific appetites and the control of feed intake...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Anthony Blikslager, Liara Gonzalez
The equine intestinal mucosa is intimately involved in maintaining homeostasis both on a systemic level by controlling extracellular fluid movement and at the local level to maintain barrier function. Horses are particularly susceptible to the clinical syndrome of colic, with the most severe cases involving strangulating obstruction that induces ischemia. Because of the mucosal vascular architecture, the mucosal epithelium is particularly susceptible to ischemic injury. The potential for reperfusion injury has been investigated and found to play a minimal role...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Brian H Bird, Jonna A K Mazet
The emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges to global health security. The advent of increasingly sophisticated diagnostics tools has revolutionized our capacity to detect and respond to these health threats more rapidly than ever before. Yet, no matter how sophisticated these tools become, the initial identification of emerging infectious diseases begins at the local community level. It is here that the initial human or animal case resides, and it is here that early pathogen detection would have maximum benefit...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Christopher W Tubbs, Caitlin E McDonough
Wildlife have proven valuable to our understanding of the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health by contributing considerably to our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of EDC exposure. But the threats EDCs present to populations of wildlife species themselves are significant, particularly for endangered species whose existence is vulnerable to any reproductive perturbation. However, few studies address the threats EDCs pose to endangered species owing to challenges associated with their study...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Rupert P Amann, Richard G Saacke, Guy F Barbato, Dagmar Waberski
Fertility is a convenient but meaningless term unless the outcome measure is stipulated and accounts for dependence of male fertility on the female population. We describe outcome measures and detail the impacts of the physiological status of each female and her external environment, as well as management imposed by humans. We explain the dominant role of the female reproductive tract as a series of hurdles for sperm seeking an ovum. Each spermatozoon in an ejaculate is unique, although usually most are morphologically similar...
November 13, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Rahwa Osman, Nilusha Malmuthuge, Patricia Gonzalez-Cano, Philip Griebel
Respiratory infections remain the second most common cause of clinical disease and mortality in newborn calves, which has led to increased interest in using vaccines early in life to mitigate this risk. Intranasal vaccination of neonatal calves can be an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibody, but this raises questions regarding onset of immune competence in the upper respiratory tract (URT) following birth. Little is known, however, about the development and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the URT of newborn calves and what factors, including the commensal microbiome, contribute to this early development...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Rex A Dunham, Ahmed Elaswad
This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female × blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Stacey J Sukoff Rizzo, Jacqueline N Crawley
Animal models offer heuristic research tools to understand the causes of human diseases and to identify potential treatments. With rapidly evolving genetic engineering technologies, mutations identified in a human disorder can be generated in the mouse genome. Phenotypic outcomes of the mutation are then explicated to confirm hypotheses about causes and to discover effective therapeutics. Most neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders are diagnosed primarily by their prominent behavioral symptoms...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
W Barendse
There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
J E Butler, Nancy Wertz, Marek Sinkora
We describe the domestication of the species, explore its value to agriculture and bioscience, and compare its immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to those of other vertebrates. For encyclopedic information, we cite earlier reviews and chapters. We provide current gene maps for the heavy and light chain loci and describe their polygeny and polymorphy. B-cell and antibody repertoire development is a major focus, and we present findings that challenge several mouse-centric paradigms. We focus special attention on the role of ileal Peyer's patches, the largest secondary lymphoid tissues in newborn piglets and a feature of all artiodactyls...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Mike Roberts, Harris Lewin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
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