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Annual Review of Animal Biosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220198/biobanking-genetic-material-for-agricultural-animal-species
#1
H D Blackburn
Biobanking animal germplasm and tissues is a major component of conserving genetic resources. Effectively constructing such gene banks requires an understanding and evaluation of genetic resources, the ability to conserve various tissues through cryopreservation, and a robust information technology infrastructure to allow managers and potential users to fully understand and make use of the collection. Progress has been made internationally in developing national genetic resource collections. As these collections have been developed, it has become apparent that gene banks can serve a multitude of roles, thereby serving short- and long-term needs of research communities and industry...
December 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215911/weird-animals-sex-and-genome-evolution
#2
Jennifer A Marshall Graves
Making my career in Australia exposed me to the tyranny of distance, but it gave me opportunities to study our unique native fauna. Distantly related animal species present genetic variation that we can use to explore the most fundamental biological structures and processes. I have compared chromosomes and genomes of kangaroos and platypus, tiger snakes and emus, devils (Tasmanian) and dragons (lizards). I particularly love the challenges posed by sex chromosomes, which, apart from determining sex, provide stunning examples of epigenetic control and break all the evolutionary rules that we currently understand...
December 7, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195063/metabolic-and-endocrine-role-of-adipose-tissue-during-lactation
#3
J P McNamara, K Huber
The adipose tissue serves an essential role for survival and reproduction in mammals, especially females. It serves primarily as an energy storage organ and is directly linked to the reproductive success of mammals. In wild animals, adipose tissue function is linked to seasonality of the food supply to support fetal growth and milk production. Adipose tissue depots in ruminants and non-ruminants can secrete many signal molecules (adipokines) that act as hormones and as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The visceral adipose tissue especially appears to be more endocrinologically active than other adipose depots...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166127/bat-biology-genomes-and-the-bat1k-project-to-generate-chromosome-level-genomes-for-all-living-bat-species
#4
Emma Teeling, Sonja Vernes, Liliana M Davalos, David A Ray, M Thomas P Gilbert, Eugene Myers, Bat K Consortium
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166126/nutrient-sensing-biology-in-mammals-and-birds
#5
Eugeni Roura, Simon R Foster
Nutrient sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required decision-making dialogue between the gut and the brain by translating exogenous chemical stimuli into neuronal inputs, and vice versa, to translate the endogenous signals relevant to the nutritional status into specific appetites and the control of feed intake...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144770/equine-intestinal-mucosal-pathobiology
#6
Anthony Blikslager, Liara Gonzalez
The equine intestinal mucosa is intimately involved in maintaining homeostasis both on a systemic level by controlling extracellular fluid movement and at the local level to maintain barrier function. Horses are particularly susceptible to the clinical syndrome of colic, with the most severe cases involving strangulating obstruction that induces ischemia. Because of the mucosal vascular architecture, the mucosal epithelium is particularly susceptible to ischemic injury. The potential for reperfusion injury has been investigated and found to play a minimal role...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144769/detection-of-emerging-zoonotic-pathogens-an-integrated-one-health-approach
#7
Brian H Bird, Jonna A K Mazet
The emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges to global health security. The advent of increasingly sophisticated diagnostics tools has revolutionized our capacity to detect and respond to these health threats more rapidly than ever before. Yet, no matter how sophisticated these tools become, the initial identification of emerging infectious diseases begins at the local community level. It is here that the initial human or animal case resides, and it is here that early pathogen detection would have maximum benefit...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140722/reproductive-impacts-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-wildlife-species-implications-for-conservation-of-endangered-species
#8
Christopher W Tubbs, Caitlin E McDonough
Wildlife have proven valuable to our understanding of the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health by contributing considerably to our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of EDC exposure. But the threats EDCs present to populations of wildlife species themselves are significant, particularly for endangered species whose existence is vulnerable to any reproductive perturbation. However, few studies address the threats EDCs pose to endangered species owing to challenges associated with their study...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131658/measuring-male-to-male-differences-in-fertility-or-effects-of-semen-treatments
#9
Rupert P Amann, Richard G Saacke, Guy F Barbato, Dagmar Waberski
Fertility is a convenient but meaningless term unless the outcome measure is stipulated and accounts for dependence of male fertility on the female population. We describe outcome measures and detail the impacts of the physiological status of each female and her external environment, as well as management imposed by humans. We explain the dominant role of the female reproductive tract as a series of hurdles for sperm seeking an ovum. Each spermatozoon in an ejaculate is unique, although usually most are morphologically similar...
November 13, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106820/development-and-function-of-the-mucosal-immune-system-in-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-neonatal-calves
#10
Rahwa Osman, Nilusha Malmuthuge, Patricia Gonzalez-Cano, Philip Griebel
Respiratory infections remain the second most common cause of clinical disease and mortality in newborn calves, which has led to increased interest in using vaccines early in life to mitigate this risk. Intranasal vaccination of neonatal calves can be an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibody, but this raises questions regarding onset of immune competence in the upper respiratory tract (URT) following birth. Little is known, however, about the development and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the URT of newborn calves and what factors, including the commensal microbiome, contribute to this early development...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106819/catfish-biology-and-farming
#11
Rex A Dunham, Ahmed Elaswad
This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female × blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199172/behavioral-phenotyping-assays-for-genetic-mouse-models-of-neurodevelopmental-neurodegenerative-and-psychiatric-disorders
#12
Stacey J Sukoff Rizzo, Jacqueline N Crawley
Animal models offer heuristic research tools to understand the causes of human diseases and to identify potential treatments. With rapidly evolving genetic engineering technologies, mutations identified in a human disorder can be generated in the mouse genome. Phenotypic outcomes of the mutation are then explicated to confirm hypotheses about causes and to discover effective therapeutics. Most neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders are diagnosed primarily by their prominent behavioral symptoms...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199171/climate-adaptation-of-tropical-cattle
#13
W Barendse
There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199170/antibody-repertoire-development-in-swine
#14
J E Butler, Nancy Wertz, Marek Sinkora
We describe the domestication of the species, explore its value to agriculture and bioscience, and compare its immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to those of other vertebrates. For encyclopedic information, we cite earlier reviews and chapters. We provide current gene maps for the heavy and light chain loci and describe their polygeny and polymorphy. B-cell and antibody repertoire development is a major focus, and we present findings that challenge several mouse-centric paradigms. We focus special attention on the role of ileal Peyer's patches, the largest secondary lymphoid tissues in newborn piglets and a feature of all artiodactyls...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199169/introduction
#15
Mike Roberts, Harris Lewin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199168/my-scientific-journey-from-an-agrarian-start-to-an-academic-setting
#16
Janice M Bahr
This article is a combination of an autobiography and a review of outstanding research done by over 70 graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and visiting scientists along with excellent collaborators during my over-40-year career as a professor of reproductive physiology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. I have also shared thoughts on mentoring, how research has changed over the years, and the future of reproductive physiology. I provide the reader with a snapshot of the challenges faced by a woman eager to obtain a PhD under the guidance of renowned professors in the early 1970s and to be hired as the first woman, and the only permanent female faculty member, for more than 20 years on a faculty of 40 men...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959670/preattachment-embryos-of-domestic-animals-insights-into-development-and-paracrine-secretions
#17
Olivier Sandra, Gilles Charpigny, Laurent Galio, Isabelle Hue
In mammalian species, endometrial receptivity is driven by maternal factors independently of embryo signals. When pregnancy initiates, paracrine secretions of the preattachment embryo are essential both for maternal recognition and endometrium preparation for implantation and for coordinating development of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues of the conceptus. This review mainly focuses on domestic large animal species. We first illustrate the major steps of preattachment embryo development, including elongation in bovine, ovine, porcine, and equine species...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959669/impacts-of-petroleum-derived-pollutants-on-fish-development
#18
Gary N Cherr, Elise Fairbairn, Andrew Whitehead
The teleost fish embryo is particularly sensitive to petroleum hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) at two distinct stages of development. The first is early during cleavage stages when PAHs alter normal signaling associated with establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis. This disruption involves the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and results in hyperdorsalized embryos that do not survive to hatching. The second, more sensitive period is during heart development, when oil and PAHs cause abnormal development of the heart as well as cardiac edema and arrhythmia...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912244/environmental-sustainability-analysis-and-nutritional-strategies-of-animal-production-in-china
#19
Bie Tan, Yulong Yin
Animal production in China has achieved considerable progress and contributes to 46% of the total agriculture output value of the country. However, this fast expansion of animal production has led to environmental pollution. In this article, we review the status of soil, water, and air pollution associated with animal production in China and analyze the main sources of the pollutants. The government has promulgated regulations and standards, and effective models and technologies have been developed to control pollution during the last 10 years...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912243/vomeronasal-receptors-in-vertebrates-and-the-evolution-of-pheromone-detection
#20
Liliana Silva, Agostinho Antunes
Pheromones were identified as chemical signals used for intraspecific communication in insects (e.g., sexual attraction) in the 1950s. However, only almost 40 years later the vomeronasal receptors type-1 (V1R) and type-2 (V2R) were identified, usually associated with the presence of a vomeronasal organ (VNO). VRs are widespread in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but birds lost the VNO. Similarly, fishes lack VRs and a VNO but can still detect pheromones, instead using the olfactory receptors related to class A and class C G protein-coupled receptors...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
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