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Annual Review of Animal Biosciences

Zvi Roth
Among the components of the female reproductive tract, the ovarian pool of follicles and their enclosed oocytes are highly sensitive to hyperthermia. Heat-induced alterations in small antral follicles can be expressed later as compromised maturation and developmental capacity of the ovulating oocyte. This review summarizes the most up-to-date information on the effects of heat stress on the oocyte with an emphasis on unclear points and open questions, some of which might involve new research directions, for instance, whether preantral follicles are heat resistant...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Harris Lewin, Mike Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Maria R C de Godoy, Marta Hervera, Kelly S Swanson, George C Fahey
Pet owners have increasing concerns about the nutrition of their pets, and they desire foods and treats that are safe, traceable, and of high nutritive value. To meet these high expectations, detailed chemical composition characterization of ingredients well beyond that provided by proximate analysis will be required, as will information about host physiology and metabolism. Use of faster and more precise analytical methodology and novel technologies that have the potential to improve pet food safety and quality will be implemented...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
H Martin Vordermeier, Gareth J Jones, Bryce M Buddle, R Glyn Hewinson, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos
Bovine tuberculosis remains a major economic and animal welfare concern worldwide. Cattle vaccination is being considered as part of control strategies. This approach, used alongside conventional control policies, also requires the development of vaccine-compatible diagnostic assays to distinguish vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). We discuss progress made on optimizing the only potentially available vaccine, bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and on strategies to improve BCG efficacy. We also describe recent advances in DIVA development based on the detection of host cellular immune responses by blood-testing or skin-testing approaches...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Erich D Jarvis
The rapid pace of advances in genome technology, with concomitant reductions in cost, makes it feasible that one day in our lifetime we will have available extant genomes of entire classes of species, including vertebrates. I recently helped cocoordinate the large-scale Avian Phylogenomics Project, which collected and sequenced genomes of 48 bird species representing most currently classified orders to address a range of questions in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. The consortium was able to answer questions not previously possible with just a few genomes...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Terje Raudsepp, Bhanu P Chowdhary
The association between chromosomal abnormalities and reduced fertility in domestic animals is well recorded and has been studied for decades. Chromosome aberrations directly affect meiosis, gametogenesis, and the viability of zygotes and embryos. In some instances, balanced structural rearrangements can be transmitted, causing fertility problems in subsequent generations. Here, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of the current status and future prospects of clinical cytogenetics of animal reproduction by focusing on the advances in molecular cytogenetics during the genomics era...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Wendy C Brown, Anthony F Barbet
Tick-transmitted gram-negative bacteria in the family Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales cause persistent infection and morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Whereas Anaplasma marginale infection is restricted to ruminants, Anaplasma phagocytophilum is promiscuous and, in addition to causing disease in sheep and cattle, notably causes disease in humans, horses, and dogs. Although the two pathogens invade and replicate in distinct blood cells (erythrocytes and neutrophils, respectively), they have evolved similar mechanisms of antigenic variation in immunodominant major surface protein 2 (MSP2) and MSP2(P44) that result in immune evasion and persistent infection...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Mariana X Byndloss, Renee M Tsolis
Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is an important zoonotic infection that causes reproductive disease in domestic animals and chronic debilitating disease in humans. An intriguing aspect of Brucella infection is the ability of these bacteria to evade the host immune response, leading to pathogen persistence. Conversely, in the reproductive tract of infected animals, this stealthy pathogen is able to cause an acute severe inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss the different mechanisms used by Brucella to cause disease, with emphasis on its virulence factors and the dichotomy between chronic persistence and reproductive disease...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
J O Buntyn, T B Schmidt, D J Nisbet, T R Callaway
Supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as a means to improve the health and performance of livestock has generated significant interest over the past 15+ years. A driving force for this increased interest in DFM is to reduce or eliminate the use of low-dose antibiotics in livestock production. This increased attention toward DFM supplementation has generated an extensive body of research. This effort has resulted in conflicting reports. Although there has been considerable variation in the design of these studies, one of the main causes for this lack of consistency may be attributed to the variation in the experimental immune challenge incorporated to evaluate DFM supplementation...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Joan K Lunney, Ying Fang, Andrea Ladinig, Nanhua Chen, Yanhua Li, Bob Rowland, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis, and control. Worldwide, PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic mechanisms, and host immunity, with a special focus on immune factors that modulate PRRSV infections during the acute and chronic/persistent disease phases. We address genetic control of host resistance and probe effects of PRRSV infection on reproductive traits...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Heather L Gardner, Joelle M Fenger, Cheryl A London
Spontaneous cancers in client-owned dogs closely recapitulate their human counterparts with respect to clinical presentation, histological features, molecular profiles, and response and resistance to therapy, as well as the evolution of drug-resistant metastases. In several instances the incorporation of dogs with cancer into the preclinical development path of cancer therapeutics has influenced outcome by helping to establish pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics relationships, dose/regimen, expected clinical toxicities, and ultimately the potential for biologic activity...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Patrick Lonergan, Trudee Fair
Only a fraction of oocytes present in the ovaries at birth are ever ovulated during the lifetime of a female mammal. In vitro maturation (IVM) offers the possibility to exploit what is a largely untapped biological resource. Although IVM is used routinely for the in vitro production of embryos in domestic species, especially cattle, its clinical use in human-assisted reproduction is still evolving. The successful recapitulation in vitro of the events associated with successful oocyte maturation is not always achieved, with the majority of immature oocytes typically failing to develop to the blastocyst stage...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Toshihiko Ezashi, Ye Yuan, R Michael Roberts
This review deals with the latest advances in the study of embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from domesticated species, with a focus on pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, horses, cats, and dogs. Whereas the derivation of fully pluripotent ESC from these species has proved slow, reprogramming of somatic cells to iPSC has been more straightforward. However, most of these iPSC depend on the continued expression of the introduced transgenes, a major drawback to their utility. The persistent failure in generating ESC and the dependency of iPSC on ectopic genes probably stem from an inability to maintain the stability of the endogenous gene networks necessary to maintain pluripotency...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Lingling Li, Robab Katani, Megan Schilling, Vivek Kapur
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of severe chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in ruminants, termed Johne's disease, and can infect many other animal species, including humans. MAP has a long incubation period prior to manifestation of clinical signs including diarrhea, weight loss, and loss of production. MAP has a high prevalence in dairy herds and results in considerable adverse impacts on animal health and productivity throughout the world. Recent investigations have leveraged the characterization of the MAP genome for the development of powerful new molecular techniques for MAP strain differentiation...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
D P Berry, N C Friggens, M Lucy, J R Roche
Evolutionary biology provides reasons for why the intensive selection for milk production reduces reproductive success rates. There is considerable exploitable genetic variation in reproductive performance in both dairy and beef cattle, and examination of national genetic trends demonstrates that genetic gain for both reproductive performance and milk production is possible in a well-structured breeding program. Reproductive failure is often postulated to be a consequence of the greater negative energy balance associated with the genetic selection for increased milk production...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
William V Holt, Alireza Fazeli
The capacity for sperm storage within the female reproductive tract occurs widely across all groups of vertebrate species and is exceptionally well developed in some reptiles (maximum duration seven years) and fishes (maximum duration >1 year). Although there are many reports on both the occurrence of female sperm storage in diverse species and its adaptive benefits, few studies have been directed toward explaining the mechanisms involved. In this article we review recent findings in birds and mammals in an effort to develop hypotheses that could be translated into research applications in animal breeding technologies...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Laurent Frantz, Erik Meijaard, Jaime Gongora, James Haile, Martien A M Groenen, Greger Larson
The Suidae are a family of Cetartiodactyla composed of 17 species classified in a minimum of five extant genera that originated at least 20 million years ago. Their success is evident in the multitude of habitats in which they are found as both natural and feral populations in tropical Island Southeast Asia, the high plateau of the Himalayas, Siberia, North Africa, the Pacific Islands, Australia, and the Americas. Morphological and molecular analyses of these species have revealed numerous aspects of their biology, including the ease with which many lineages have and continue to hybridize...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Guofan Zhang, Li Li, Jie Meng, Haigang Qi, Tao Qu, Fei Xu, Linlin Zhang
Oysters that occupy estuarine and intertidal habitats have well-developed stress tolerance mechanisms to tolerate harsh and dynamically changing environments. In this review, we summarize common pathways and genomic features in oyster that are responsive to environmental stressors such as temperature, salinity, hypoxia, air exposure, pathogens, and anthropogenic pollutions. We first introduce the key genes involved in several pathways, which constitute the molecular basis for adaptation to stress. We use genome analysis to highlight the strong cellular homeostasis system, a unique adaptive characteristic of oysters...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
William C Campbell
The twentieth century's arsenal of chemical anthelmintics brought manifold improvement in human health and, more abundantly, in animal health. The benefits were not only in health per se but also in agricultural economics, livestock management, and the overall production of food and fiber to support expanding human populations. Nevertheless, there remains (due in large part to drug resistance and paucity of available vaccines) a great need for new means of controlling disease caused by parasitic worms. Prudence should persuade us to look to our past for lessons that might help in our quest for new drugs...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Sarah J Mitchell, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Dan L Longo, Rafael de Cabo
Aging is characterized by an increasing morbidity and functional decline that eventually results in the death of an organism. Aging is the largest risk factor for numerous human diseases, and understanding the aging process may thereby facilitate the development of new treatments for age-associated diseases. The use of humans in aging research is complicated by many factors, including ethical issues; environmental and social factors; and perhaps most importantly, their long natural life span. Although cellular models of human disease provide valuable mechanistic information, they are limited in that they may not replicate the in vivo biology...
2015: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
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