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Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering

M Karimi, H Mostaghimi, S F Shams, A R Mehdizadeh
The aim of this report is to present a new two-piece thyroid-neck phantom produced by the concurrent use of epoxy resin and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA: plexiglass) soft tissue equivalent materials. Accordingly, mass attenuation coefficients of the epoxy resin and the plexiglass compounds were obtained from simulation (NIST XCOM 3.1) and measurements (practical dosimetry) and compared to those related to human soft tissue (ICRU 44). The thyroid-neck phantom and thyroid gland dimensions were derived from scientific references and the atlas of human anatomy, respectively...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
P Ghasemi, T Sahraee, A Mohammadi
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known as the most effective technique in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Parkinson disease (PD) and epilepsy. Relative healing and effective control of disease symptoms are the most significant reasons for the tangible tendency in use and development of this technology. Nevertheless, more cellular and molecular investigations are required to reveal the detailed mechanism of DBS. Here, we reviewed the methods, challenges and the ways to overcome the limitations of DBS...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
A Q Alneami, E Gh Khalil, R A Mohsien, A F Albeldawi
Background: This work evaluated the efficiency of common ultrasound stimulation (U.S.S) types on bacterial growth in vitro using clinically relevant conditions. Objective: To estimate different frequencies ultrasound bactericidal ability on bacteria in bacteria of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Material and Methods: Six types of U.S.S (continuous wave, 7w/cm2 , 20 KHz; continuous wave, 35w/0.8L, 40 KHz; continuous wave, 5w/cm2 , 1.1 MHz; pulsed wave, 5w/cm2 , 3...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
S Ebrahimi, F Kamali, M Razeghi, S A Haghpanah
Background: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) disability has been particularly frustrating because its treatment has been a great therapeutic challenge. Disability has been suggested to depend on different factors that should be found and considered in the medical management. The inter-segmental coordination is often impaired in CLBP subjects; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence about the relationship between the existence of coordination problems and disability in CLBP patients...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Mahmoudi A, Shojaeifard M B, Nematollahii S, Mortazavi S M J, Mehdizadeh A R
Background: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) with different intensities are widely used at home, offices and public places.Today, there is a growing global concern about the effects of human exposure to EMFs. Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases, affecting 50 million people of all ages worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi radiation on epileptic behavior of rats. Materials and Methods: 147 male rats, weighing 200-250 g, were divided into seven groups; negative control (no intervention), sham 1(distilled water), positive control (Pentylentetrazol [PTZ]), intervention group 1 (PTZ + Wi-Fi "off"), sham 2 (distilled water + Wi-Fi "off"), sham 3 (distilled water + Wi-Fi "on"), and intervention group 2 (PTZ + Wi-Fi "on")...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
M S Alavi, M A Okhovat, M Atefi, F Khajeh Rahimi, S Mortazavi, F Ebadi
Introduction: With increasing the usage of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, we aimed to evaluate the side effects of low-dose radiation induced by this technique on blood elements, especially proteins and liver function factors. Material and Methods: 40 eligible patients (Mean age: 54.62±10.35, 22 female and 18 male), who had referred to the nuclear medicine department for MPI from May till August 2014, were enrolled in the study...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
M Negahdary, M Behjati-Ardakani, N Sattarahmady, H Heli
Background: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for one third of deaths. Cardiac troponin I (TnI) is a reliable biomarker of cardiac muscle tissue injury and is employed in the early diagnosis of MI. Objective: In this study, a molecular method is introduced to early diagnosis of MI by rapid detection of TnI. Materials and Methods: The detection method was based on electrochemical aptasensing, being developed using different methods and evaluation steps...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
H Dowlatabadi, A A Mowlavi, M Ghorbani, S Mohammadi, F Akbari
Background: Radiation therapy using electron beams is a promising method due to its physical dose distribution. Monte Carlo (MC) code is the best and most accurate technique for forespeaking the distribution of dose in radiation treatment of patients. Material and Methods: We report an MC simulation of a linac head and depth dose on central axis, along with profile calculations. The purpose of the present research is to carefully analyze the application of MC methods for the calculation of dosimetric parameters for electron beams with energies of 8-14 MeV at a Siemens Primus linac...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
J J Bevelacqua, S M J Mortazavi
In 2016, scientists reported that human exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (CT scans of the brain) might relieve symptoms of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). The findings were unbelievable for those who were not familiar with neurohormesis. X-ray stimulation of the patient's adaptive protection systems against neurodegenerative diseases was the mechanism proposed by those authors. Now, some more recent studies performed in the field of neurobiological research confirm that low levels of stress can produce protective responses against the pathogenic processes...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
S M J Mortazavi, S A R Mortazavi, M Paknahad
Miranda-Filho et al. in their recently published paper entitled "Cancers of the brain and CNS: global patterns and trends in incidence" provided a global status report of the geographic and temporal variations in the incidence of brain and CNS cancers in different countries across continents worldwide. While the authors confirm the role of genetic risk factors and ionizing radiation exposures, they claimed that no firm conclusion could be drawn about the role of exposure to non-ionizing radiation...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
M Ghahramanifar, M Haghani, A Ghadimi Moghadam, A K Ghadimi Moghadam
As regards the significant role of stethoscopes in the diagnosis of congenital and adventitious heart diseases and prevention of irreparable complications of these diseases, the quality of hearing sound of these stethoscopes by a physician has a significant impact on the disease diagnosis. This device plays an important role in the early diagnosis of congenital heart and respiratory diseases and provides this feasibility since birth. Also, the importance of this device performance in the diagnosis of heart, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases at different age periods is not a secret...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Gh Mortazavi, S A R Mortazavi, A R Mehdizadeh
A large body of evidence now indicates that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings can be significantly accelerated by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as common mobile phones and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Studies performed on the increased microleakage of dental amalgam restorations after exposure to RF-EMFs have further supported these findings. Although the accelerated microleakage induced by RF-EMFs is clinically significant, the entire mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clearly understood...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
S Rahgoshai, M Mohammadi, S Refahi, M Oladghaffari, S M R Aghamiri
Radiation damage is to a large extent caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Radioprotectors are agents or substances that reduce the effects of radiation in healthy normal tissues while maintaining the sensitivity to radiation damage in tumor cells. Radioprotectors are agents or substances that reduce the effects of radiation in healthy normal tissues while maintaining the sensitivity to radiation damage in tumor cells Cimetidine was found more effective when used in vivo; this effect might be due to the augmentation of the presence of Sulphur atom in the compound which is ýimportant for their scavenging activity...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Hamed Ebrahimnejad, Hadi Ebrahimnejad, A Salajegheh, H Barghi
Modern challenges of food science require a new understanding of the determinants of food quality and safety. Application of advanced imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has seen impressive successes and fast growth over the past decade. Since MRI does not have any harmful ionizing radiation, it can be considered as a magnificent tool for the quality control of food products. MRI allows the structure of foods to be imaged noninvasively and nondestructively. Magnetic resonance images can present information about several processes and material properties in foods...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
E Meskini, M S Helfroush, K Kazemi, M Sepaskhah
Background: With advances in medical imaging systems, digital dermoscopy has become one of the major imaging modalities in the analysis of skin lesions. Thus, automated segmentation or border detection has a great impact on the subsequent steps of skin cancer computer-aided diagnosis using demoscopy images. Since dermoscopy images suffer from artifacts such as shading and hair, there is a need for automated and robust artifact attenuation removal and lesion border detection. Methods: method for segmentation of dermoscopy images is proposed based on active contour...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
S Navaei Lavasani, A Mostaar, M Ashtiyani
Background: Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides functional information on the microcirculation in tissues by analyzing the enhancement kinetics which can be used as biomarkers for prostate lesions detection and characterization. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate spatiotemporal patterns of tumors by extracting semi-quantitative as well as wavelet-based features, both extracted from pixel-based time-signal intensity curves to segment prostate lesions on prostate DCE-MRI...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
S Nabavi, A Mehri Dehnavi, A Vard, S Mohammad Pour
Background: The major limitation in human vision is refractive error. Auxiliary equipment and methods for these people are not always available. In addition, limited range of accommodation in adult people when switching from a far point to a near point is not simply possible. In this paper, we are looking for solutions to use the facilities of digital image processing and displaying to improve visual acuity when using digital display devices. We quantitatively investigate the effect of edge enhancement on improving the visual acuity at different levels of contrast...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
A A Haghnegahdar, S Kolahi, L Khojastepour, F Tajeripour
Background: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) might be manifested as structural changes in bone through modification, adaptation or direct destruction. We propose to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) characteristics and histogram-oriented gradients on the recorded images as a diagnostic tool in TMD assessment. Material and Methods: CBCT images of 66 patients (132 joints) with TMD and 66 normal cases (132 joints) were collected and 2 coronal cut prepared from each condyle, although images were limited to head of mandibular condyle...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
A Salehi Sahl Abadi, A Mazloumi, G Nasl Saraji, H Zeraati, M R Hadian, A H Jafari
Background: In spite of the increasing degree of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The aim of the current study was to determine the maximum acceptable weight of lift using psychophysical and electromyography indices. Methods: This experimental study was conducted among 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks which involved three lifting frequencies, three lifting heights and two box sizes...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
M B Tavakoli, M Maleki, A Akhavan, T Hadisinia, I Abedi, A Amouheidari
Background: Radiotherapy with large mantle field is an effective technique in increasing the risk of secondary cancers among HL (Hodgkin Lymphoma) patients; therefore, it is essential to choose an effective treatment field including the least medical conditions in radiotherapy. Objective: The present study aimed to plan separate fields for neck and mediastinum using various energies, to compare dose distribution with MLC and to block field formation. Materials and Methods: In this study, 3D conformal treatments, Siemens Oncor accelerator equipped with multi-leaf collimator (MLC) were performed to create anterior-posterior fields...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
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