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Basic and Clinical Neuroscience

Kaveh Shahveisi, Amir Jalali, Mohammad Raman Moloudi, Shahla Moradi, Azad Maroufi, Habibolah Khazaie
Introduction: This study aimed to investigate sleep architecture in patients with primary snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Methods: In this study, we analyzed polysomnographic data of 391 clients who referred to Sleep Disorders Research Center (SDRS). These people were classified into three groups based on their Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and snoring; control, Primary Snoring (PS), and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) group. Sleep architecture variables were then assessed in all groups...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Hamidreza Ghaffari, Ali Yoonessi, Mohammad Javad Darvishi, Akbar Ahmadi
Introduction: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a non-invasive method to increase the plasticity of brain. Growing evidence has shown several brain disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndrome are improved following tDCS. In patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), increased brain rhythm activity particularly in the frontal lobe has been reported in several studies using Eectroencephalogram (EEG). To our knowledge, no research has been done on the effects of electrical stimulation on brain signals of patients with OCD...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mohammadreza Moradi, Massoud Saidijam, Reza Yadegarazari, Leila Jahangard, Maryam Seifi, Nasrin Matinnia, Ali Ghaleiha
Introduction: According to the cumulative evidence, genes encoding GABA receptors inhibit neurotransmitters in CNS and are intricately involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Based on this hypothesis, these genes may be expressed in bipolar patients. As a result, we evaluated the gene expressions of GABA-β3 and HT1D receptors to assess their associations with bipolar mood disorder. Methods: In this study, 22 patients with bipolar I disorder (single manic episode) and 22 healthy individuals were enrolled...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Houssein Darwish, Usamah El-Hadi, Georges Haddad, Marwan Najjar
Introduction: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas and other sellar lesions is quickly becoming the procedure of choice in their surgical management. The most common approach is binostril three-hand technique which requires a large exposure and subjects both nasal cavities to potential trauma. To reduce nasal morbidity, we employ a mononostril two-hand technique with the help of the endoscope holder. In this research, we review our series to determine efficacy of this approach in the management of pituitary adenomas...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Reza Khosrowabadi
Introduction: Long-term stressful situations can drastically influence one's mental life. However, the effect of mental stress on recognition of emotional stimuli needs to be explored. In this study, recognition of emotional stimuli in a stressful situation was investigated. Four emotional conditions, including positive and negative states in both low and high levels of arousal were analyzed. Methods: Twenty-six healthy right-handed university students were recruited within or after examination period...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Sara Soleimani Asl, Amir Roointan, Hugo Bergen, Shayan Amiri, Parastoo Mardani, Niloufar Ashtari, Ronak Shabani, Mehdi Mehdizadeh
Introduction: Genes often have multiple polymorphisms that interact with each other and the environment in different individuals. Variability in the opioid receptors can influence opiate withdrawal and dependence. In humans, A118G Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) on μ-Opioid Receptor (MOR), 36 G>T in κ-Opioid Receptor (KOR), and T921C in the δ-Opioid Receptor (DOR) have been found to associate with substance dependence. Methods: To investigate the association between opioid receptors gene polymorphism and heroin addiction, 100 control subjects with no history of opioid use, and 100 heroin addicts (50% males and 50% females) in Tehran (capital of Iran), were evaluated...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Babak Khodaie, Valiallah Saba
Introduction: Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD) is a propagating wave of neural and glial cell depolarization with important role in several clinical disorders. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a potential tool with preventive treatment effects in psychiatric and neuronal disorders. In this paper, we study the effects of rTMS on CSD by using behavioral and histological approaches in hippocampus and cortical regions. Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Alia Saberi, Seyed-Ali Roudbary, Amirreza Ghayeghran, Samaneh Kazemi, Mozaffar Hosseininezhad
Introduction: Bacterial meningitis is an acute infectious inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain. Its early diagnosis is vital because of its high morbidity and mortality. It is mostly diagnosed by a gold standard diagnostic tool i.e. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis. However, it is sometimes difficult and or impossible to do this procedure and an alternative diagnostic tool is needed. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can detect the pus or other changes in subarachnoid space...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mahsa Zare, Fariborz Faeghi, Ashrafsadat Hosseini, Mohammad Sobhan Ardekani, Mohammad Hossein Heidari, Ehsan Zarei
Introduction: The present study aims to evaluate the Three-Dimensional Diffusion-Weighted reversed fast imaging with steady state free precession (3D DW-PSIF) sequence with respect to imaging of the peripheral nerves; the tibial, medial, and lateral plantar nerves in the lower extremity, ulnar and median nerve in the upper extremity, sciatic nerve, brachial plexus, and lumbosacral plexus, and also to compare its usefulness with the current two-dimensional sequences on a 1.5 T MR scanner...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mohammad Vahedi, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Mehrdad Hajilooi, Maryam Farhadian, Yasamin Barakian, Parastoo Sadr
Introduction: Tension-type headache is the most common type of headache across the world. Saliva as a non-invasive medium is used to detect a wide range of diseases. Salivary Alpha-Amylase (SAA) levels has been suggested as a potential indirect marker for detecting Sympathoadrenal Medullary (SAM) activity, which is activated by pain. Significant correlation was found between SAA levels and pain scale in patients with chronic pain. The purpose of the present study was to measure SAA activity in Frequent Episodic Tension-Type Headache (FETTH)...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Vahid Sheibani, Mohammad Shabani, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Zeinab Akbarnejad
Introduction: The life quality of patients with epileptic seizures is highly affected by cognitive deficits. Low Frequency Stimulation (LFS) is a novel approach for the treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The main goal of this research is investigating the possible effect of LFS on seizure-induced cognitive dysfunction. Methods: To this end, the kindled animal were prepared via CA1 electrical stimulation in a semi-rapid way (12 stimulations/day). A group of animals were stimulated with LFS, 4 times at 30 s, 6 h, 24 h, and 30 h after the last kindling stimulation...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Kazuhiro Hayashi, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Takefumi Ueno, Young-Chang Park Arai, Kazuhiro Shimo, Makoto Nishihara, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Takahiro Ushida
Introduction: Facial expression to pain is an important pain indicator; however, facial movements look unresponsive when perceiving mild pain. The present study investigates whether pain magnitude modulates the relationship between subjective pain rating and an observer's evaluation of facial expression. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited to obtain 108 samples for pain rating with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Subjects underwent three different mechanical painful stimuli (monofilament forces of 100 g, 300 g, and 600 g) over three sessions and their facial expressions were videotaped throughout all sessions...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Salime Jafari, Amin Modarresszadeh, Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi, John Hodges, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Cristian Leyton, Maryam Noroozian
Introduction: Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurological condition characterized by progressive dissolution of language capabilities. The Progressive Aphasia Language Scale (PALS) is an easy-to-apply bedside clinical scale capable of capturing and grading the key language features essential for the classification of PPA. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate the Persian version of the PALS (PALS-P) as a clinical language assessment test. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, PALS was translated and adapted into Persian according to the international guidelines...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Hengameh Dortaj, Maryam Yadegari, Mohammad Hosseini Sharif Abad, Abolghasem Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Morteza Anvari
Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR) consumption is increasing all over the world. There are some evidence on the literature about its neurotoxic effect on mature animals, but the effects of ACR on postnatal development have been less studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ACR on development of cortical layer, white matter, and number of Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in rat newborns. Methods: This study was carried out on 20 female Wistar rats (average weight: 180 g, aged: two months)...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Afsane Zadnia, Hamid Reza Kobravi, Mania Sheikh, Hossein Asghar Hosseini
Introduction: Application of biofeedback techniques in rehabilitation has turned into an exciting research area during the recent decade. Providing an appropriate visual or auditory biofeedback signal is the most critical requirement of a biofeedback technique. In this regard, changes in Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals during wrist movement can be used to generate an indictable visual biofeedback signal for wrist movement rehabilitation via SEMG biofeedback. This paper proposes a novel methodology for selecting the most appropriate features out of wrist muscle SEMG signals...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Milad Rahimzadegan, Maliheh Soodi
Introduction: Scopolamine, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to induce memory impairment in experimental animals. The present study aims to compare memory impairment and oxidative stress following single and repeated doses administration of scopolamine. Methods: A group of rats received a single shot of scopolamine in different doses (0.5, 1, or 3 mg/kg, IP) 24 hours after the passive avoidance training. Then the memory retrieval test was performed 30 minutes and 7 days after the injection...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Lorenzo Curtò, Salvatore Cannavò
Recently, Basic and Clinical Neuroscience published an article by Lim et al. (2016) entitled Co-occurence of Pituitary Adenoma with Suprasellar and Olfactory Groove Meningiomas . They claimed it as the first case of co-occurence of these two malignancies. However, to our knowledge, this is not the first case reported in this regard. We reported the same case scenario in a 61-year-old woman referred to our outpatient clinic in 2007. In this commentary, we are going to discuss our reported case and present a brief review over co-occurence of intracranial meningioma with pituitary adenoma...
November 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mohammad Abid, Ashok Kumar Gosh, Najam Ali Khan
Introduction: In our modern era, life style of human being changes and updates every day that may affect their health status. There is an incredible expectation that natural origin drugs lack undesirable effects not like synthetic drugs, though have the same potency and efficacy. No scientific data is available about the antianxiety properties of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves. In this regard, the present study was designed to carry out comparative and combined study on antianxiety properties of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves...
November 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Malihe Ghasemi, Kataneh Abrari, Iran Goudarzi, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Introduction: This study investigates the effects of cannabinoid agonist WIN55-212-2 on acquisition and consolidation phases of the fear memory extinction and also on anxiety and motor activity. Methods: In this study, we used SPS & S model to induce post-traumatic stress disorder. One week after SPS, to establish a conditioned fear memory, rats received an electric foot shock within shock chamber. After 24 h, for extinction training, the rats were placed back to the chamber for 9 min, without receiving any shock...
November 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Seyyed Abed Hosseini
Introduction: This paper proposes a reliable and efficient technique to recognize different epilepsy states, including healthy, interictal, and ictal states, using Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Methods: The proposed approach consists of pre-processing, feature extraction by higher order spectra, feature normalization, feature selection by genetic algorithm and ranking method, and classification by support vector machine with Gaussian and polynomial radial basis function kernels...
November 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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