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Basic and Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540000/response-of-the-pre-oriented-goal-directed-attention-to-usual-and-unusual-distractors-a-preliminary-study
#1
Golnaz Baghdadi, Farzad Towhidkhah, Reza Rostami, Mohsen Raza
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we investigated the distraction power of the unusual and usual images on the attention of 20 healthy primary school children. METHODS: Our study was different from previous ones in that the participants were asked to fix the initial position of their attention on a predefined location after being presented with unusual images as distractors. The goals were presented in locations, which were far from the attraction basin of distractors...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539999/assessment-of-executive-functions-in-methamphetamine-addicted-individuals-emphasis-on-duration-of-addiction-and-abstinence
#2
Majid Farhadian, Malahat Akbarfahimi, Peyman Hassani Abharian, Seyedeh Golaleh Hosseini, Susan Shokri
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have conducted on impairments of executive functions in individuals with methamphetamine addiction; however, only a few have investigated the relationship between executive functions and duration of addiction or abstinence. This study was designed to assess the executive functions in methamphetamine-addicted individuals in relation to the duration of addiction or abstinence. METHODS: A total of 161 subjects aged between 20 and 45 years were categorized into three subgroups: currently abusing (n=41), abstinent (n=60), and control healthy individuals (n=60)...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539998/correlation-between-cannabidiol-induced-reduction-of-infarct-volume-and-inflammatory-factors-expression-in-ischemic-stroke-model
#3
Sepideh Khaksar, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies demonstrated that cannabidiol had neuroprotective property. There is some evidence about effective role of cannabidiol in reduction of ischemic damages. It has been reported that infarct size is influenced by various factors after MCAO, including inflammatory factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cannabidiol on infarction volume and correlation of infarct size with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) expression...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539997/interaction-between-the-cannabinoid-and-vanilloid-systems-on-anxiety-in-male-rats
#4
Nafiseh Faraji, Alireza Komaki, Iraj Salehi
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the cannabinoid system is involved in anxiety. In addition, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels are new targets for the development of anxiolytics. The present study investigated the possible interaction between the cannabinoid and vanilloid systems on anxiety-like behavior in rats. METHODS: Four different groups of male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of (1) vehicle (DMSO+saline), (2) cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN) (1 mg/kg), (3) TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine (CPZ) (5 mg/kg), or (4) combined WIN (1 mg/kg) and CPZ (5 mg/kg) treatment 30 minutes before testing in the elevated plus maze...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539996/transient-inactivation-of-shell-part-of-nucleus-accumbens-inhibits-and-exacerbates-stress-induced-metabolic-alterations-in-wistar-rats
#5
Mina Ranjbaran, Hassan Aghaei, Vahdat Hajihoseinlou, Hedayat Sahraei, Katayoon Ranjbaran
INTRODUCTION: The role of different parts of the extended amygdala in metabolic signs of stress is not well understood. In the present study, we decided to evaluate the impact of the shell part of nucleus accumbens (NAc) on metabolic disturbance induced by electro foot shock stress using transient inactivation method in the rat. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (W: 230-250 g) were canuulated unilaterally in the shell part of nucleus accumbens and left one week for recovery...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539995/the-effect-of-luteinizing-hormone-reducing-agent-on-anxiety-and-novel-object-recognition-memory-in-gonadectomized-rats
#6
Paria Arfa-Fatollahkhani, Arezo Nahavandi, Hossein Abtahi, Shabnam Anjidani, Sahar Borhani, Seyed Behnam Jameie, Mohammad Shabani, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ali Shahbazi
INTRODUCTION: Mood disorders such as anxiety and depression are common following menopause and andropause. Lack of sex steroid hormones is suggested as the primary cause of these disturbances. The level of luteinizing hormone (LH) would also rise 3-4 times than normal in these people. The potential effects of LH on mood and cognitive symptoms following menopause and andropause are still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased LH on novel object discrimination (NOD) memory and anxiety like behavior in gonadectomized rats...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539994/the-prevalence-of-restless-legs-syndrome-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-study
#7
REVIEW
Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh, Mohammad Farajzadeh, Mozhdeh Zarei, Vajiheh Baghi, Sahar Dalvand, Kourosh Sayehmiri
INTRODUCTION: Restless legs syndrome is a sensory-motor disorder that causes sleep disorder. The syndrome in patients undergoing hemodialysis associates with depression, sleep deprivation, performance disorder, day fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, stress, anxiety, and higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this systematic meta-analysis study was to estimate prevalence of restless legs syndrome in patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: Twenty-six relevant articles published between 2000 and 2015 indexed in Iranian (MagIran and IranMedex) and international databases (SID, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Pre Quest, and Scopus) were selected...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539993/effectiveness-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-on-stereotyped-and-repetitive-behaviors-of-pre-school-children-with-autism-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Hadi Zarafshan, Maryam Salmanian, Soudeh Aghamohammadi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Seyed-Ali Mostafavi
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to review the literature on non-pharmacological interventions used to treat stereotyped and repetitive behaviors by a systematic method. METHODS: Two authors independently performed a search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO on English articles published up to April 23, 2014 with relevant search keywords. We also reviewed the bibliographies of retrieved articles and conference proceedings to obtain additional citations and references...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446954/comment-on-the-effect-of-endocannabinoid-system-on-rat-behavior
#9
COMMENT
Ali Roohbakhsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446953/neuroprotective-effects-of-exercise-on-brain-edema-and-neurological-movement-disorders-following-the-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-rats
#10
Nabi Shamsaei, Soheila Erfani, Masoud Fereidoni, Ali Shahbazi
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion causes physiological and biochemical changes in the neuronal cells that will eventually lead to cell damage. Evidence indicates that exercise reduces the ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain damages in animal models of stroke. In the present study, the effect of exercise preconditioning on brain edema and neurological movement disorders following the cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats was investigated. METHODS: Twenty-one adult male wistar rats (weighing 260-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups: sham operated, exercise plus ischemia, and ischemia group (7 rats per group)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446952/the-effect-of-group-based-occupational-therapy-on-performance-and-satisfaction-of-stroke-survivors-pilot-trail-neuro-occupational-view
#11
Maryam Mehdizadeh, Afsoon Hassani Mehraban, Roohollah Zahediyannasab
INTRODUCTION: Stroke imposes limitations on performing activities of daily living (ADL) and their level. Different therapeutic approaches are used for improving the level of performance after a stroke. This study was performed with the aim of evaluating the effect of group-based occupational therapy on improving the performance of ADL and satisfaction of its performance in patients with chronic strokes. METHODS: Fourteen chronic stroke patients with the mean age of 52 years participated in the study...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446951/power-spectral-density-analysis-of-purkinje-cell-tonic-and-burst-firing-patterns-from-a-rat-model-of-ataxia-and-riluzole-treated
#12
Samira Abbasi, Ataollah Abbasi, Yashar Sarbaz, Mahyar Janahmadi
INTRODUCTION: Purkinje Cell (PC) output displays a complex firing pattern consisting of high frequency sodium spikes and low frequency calcium spikes, and disruption in this firing behavior may contribute to cerebellar ataxia. Riluzole, neuroprotective agent, has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in cerebellar ataxia. Here, the spectral analysis of PCs firing in control, 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP), neurotoxin agent, treated alone and riluzole plus 3-AP treated were investigated to determine changes in the firing properties...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446950/analgesic-effect-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-nucleus-paragigantocellularis-lateralis-of-male-rats-mediated-via-gabaa-receptors
#13
Roghaieh Khakpay, Maryam Azaddar, Fatemeh Khakpay, Homeira Hatami Nemati
INTRODUCTION: Beside its autonomic functions, the nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (LPGi) is involved in the descending pain modulation. 17β-Estradiol is a neuroactive steroid found in several brain areas such as LPGi. Intra-LPGi microinjection of 17β-estradiol can elicit the analgesic responses. 17β-Estradiol modulates nociception by binding to estrogenic receptors as well as allosteric interaction with other membrane-bound receptors like GABAA receptors. This study aimed to examine the role of GABAA receptors in the pain modulating effect of intra-LPGi injection of 17β-estradiol...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446949/reliability-of-motor-evoked-potentials-induced-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-the-effects-of-initial-motor-evoked-potentials-removal
#14
Fahimeh Hashemirad, Maryam Zoghi, Paul B Fitzgerald, Shapour Jaberzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a useful tool for assessment of corticospinal excitability (CSE) changes in both healthy individuals and patients with brain disorders. The usefulness of TMS-elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the assessment of CSE in a clinical context depends on their intra-and inter-session reliability. This study aimed to evaluate if removal of initial MEPs elicited by using two types of TMS techniques influences the reliability scores and whether this effect is different in blocks with variable number of MEPs...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446948/characterization-of-nociceptive-behaviors-induced-by-formalin-in-the-glabrous-and-hairy-skin-of-rats
#15
Elaheh Erami, Hassan Azhdari-Zarmehri, Keiji Imoto, Hidemasa Furue
INTRODUCTION: Glabrous skin and hairy skin are innervated by different types of noxious fibers. However, the different nociceptive behaviors induced by formalin, a commonly used model of acute inflammatory pain, have not yet been systematically examined in the glabrous and hairy skin. METHODS: In this study, we compared nociceptive behaviors induced by formalin injections (2%, 4%, and 8%) into either glabrous skin (plantar surface) of the hind paw or hairy skin of the hind limb in adult rats...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446947/event-related-potentials-of-bottom-up-and-top-down-processing-of-emotional-faces
#16
Afsane Moradi, Seyed Abolghasem Mehrinejad, Mohammad Ghadiri, Farzin Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Emotional stimulus is processed automatically in a bottom-up way or can be processed voluntarily in a top-down way. Imaging studies have indicated that bottom-up and top-down processing are mediated through different neural systems. However, temporal differentiation of top-down versus bottom-up processing of facial emotional expressions has remained to be clarified. The present study aimed to explore the time course of these processes as indexed by the emotion-specific P100 and late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential (ERP) components in a group of healthy women...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446946/neural-imaging-using-single-photon-avalanche-diodes
#17
Mohammad Azim Karami, Misagh Ansarian
INTRODUCTION: This paper analyses the ability of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for neural imaging. The current trend in the production of SPADs moves toward the minimum dark count rate (DCR) and maximum photon detection probability (PDP). Moreover, the jitter response which is the main measurement characteristic for the timing uncertainty is progressing. METHODS: The neural imaging process using SPADs can be performed by means of florescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), time correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446945/diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-glioma-grading-analysis-of-fiber-density-index
#18
Fariba Davanian, Fariborz Faeghi, Sohrab Shahzadi, Zahra Farshifar
INTRODUCTION: The most common primary tumors of brain are gliomas and tumor grading is essential for designing proper treatment strategies. The gold standard choice to determine grade of glial tumor is biopsy which is an invasive method. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of fiber density index (FDi) by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (as a noninvasive method) in glial tumor grading. METHODS: A group of 20 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of gliomas were evaluated in this study...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446944/protective-effects-of-proline-rich-peptide-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-disease-an-electrophysiological-study
#19
Naser Khalaji, John Sarkissian, Vergine Chavushyan, Vaghinak Sarkisian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly that slowly destroys memory and cognitive functions. The disease has no cure and leads to significant structural and functional brain abnormalities. To facilitate the treatment of this disease, we aimed to investigate proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) action of hypothalamus on hippocampal (HP) neurons and dynamics of their recovery, after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of amyloid-β (Aβ). METHODS: Experiments were carried out on 24 adult, male Albino rats (average weight: 230±30 g)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872697/co-occurrence-of-pituitary-adenoma-with-suprasellar-and-olfactory-groove-meningiomas
#20
Kai-Zheong Lim, Tony Goldschlager, Ronil V Chandra, Jonathan Hall, Brent Uren, Michael Pullar
INTRODUCTION: The co-existence of pituitary adenoma and meningioma is extremely rare. It is even rarer in patients with no previous known risk factors for either tumour. Here, we present a case of synchronous non-functioning pituitary adenoma with suprasellar and olfactory groove meningiomas in a patient without previous irradiation. METHODS: The tumours were diagnosed on MRI in the 65-year-old patient who presented with patchy visual deficits. The decision was made to undergo surgery for resection of the suprasellar meningioma and the pituitary adenoma, leaving the small olfactory groove meningioma intact...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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