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Basic and Clinical Neuroscience

Mohammad Torabi-Nami, Samrad Mehrabi, Sabri Derman
Sleep-related movement disorders should be differentiated from parasomnias, sleep-associated behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard in evaluating such disorders. Periodic leg movement disorder during sleep (PLMS), hypnic jerks, bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and nocturnal leg cramps have broadly been discussed in the literature. However, periodic arm movement disorder in sleep (PAMS) is a less-appreciated entity perhaps because arm surface electromyography is not an integral part of the standard polysomnography...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Maryam Raoof, Hamed Ebrahimnejad, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Ladan Amirkhosravi, Ramin Raoof, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Mohsen Ramazani, Noushin Shokouhinejad, Mehrfam Khoshkhounejad
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. METHODS: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Rabie Mohammadi, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie
INTRODUCTION: A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Shamseddin Ahmadi, Fatemeh Rafieenia, Jalal Rostamzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Morphine is a potent analgesic but its continual use results in analgesic tolerance. Mechanisms of this tolerance remain to be clarified. However, changes in the functions of μ-opioid and N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been proposed in morphine tolerance. We examined changes in gene expression of the NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1) at mRNA levels in rat striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC) after induction of morphine tolerance. METHODS: Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP)...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Sasan Gazerani, Jalal Zaringhalam, Homa Manaheji, Sahar Golabi
INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of peptidergic fibers activates microglia in the dorsal horn. Microglia activation causes fractalkine (FKN) release, a neuron-glia signal, which enhances pain. The transient vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) mediates the release of neuropeptides, which can subsequently activate glia. TRPV1 and TRPV2 are generally expressed on C and Aδ fibers, respectively. Expression of both proteins is upregulated during inflammation, but expression of TRPV3 after induction of inflammation is unclear...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Fanak Shahmohammadi, Mehrshad Golesorkhi, Mohammad Mansour Riahi Kashani, Mehrdad Sangi, Ahmad Yoonessi, Ali Yoonessi
INTRODUCTION: Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant that causes significant neurological impairments with long-lasting effects and has provoked serious international concerns about public health. Denial of drug abuse and drug craving are two important factors that make the diagnosis and treatment extremely challenging. Here, we present a novel and rapid noninvasive method with potential application for differentiation and monitoring methamphetamine abuse. METHODS: Visual stimuli comprised a series of images with neutral and methamphetamine-related content...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Narjes Soltani, Elham Mohammadi, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Ali Shamsizadeh, Ali Roohbakhsh, Abbas Haghparast
INTRODUCTION: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a chemical often used as a solvent for water-insoluble drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DMSO on neural response characteristics (in 1200-1500 μm depth) of the rat barrel cortex. METHODS: DMSO solution was prepared in 10% v/v concentration and injected into the lateral ventricle of rats. Neuronal spontaneous activity and neuronal responses to deflection of the principal whisker (PW) and adjacent whisker (AW) were recorded in barrel cortex...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Hossein Zeinali, Homa Manaheji, Jalal Zaringhalam, Zahra Bahari, Samad Nazemi, Mehdi Sadeghi
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have reported the involvement of age-related changes in the development of neuropathic pain behaviors. However, limited data are available on the role of age in establishing and maintaining chronic neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. METHODS: In the present study, we examined age-related neuropathic behavior among rats in 4 age groups: pups (4 weeks old; weight, 60-80 g), juvenile rats (6 weeks old; weight, 120-140 g), and mature rats (10-12 weeks old; weight, 200-250 g)...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Naser Osanloo, Akram Najafi-Abedi, Fatemeh Jafari, Farshid Javid, Mohsen Pirpiran, Mohammad-Reza Memar Jafari, Seyed Ali Mousavi Khosravi, Mohammad Rahimzadeh Behzadi, Mina Ranjbaran, Hedayat Sahraei
INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. METHODS: We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was used as standard antidepressant drug...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Ehsan Rezayat, Iman Ghodrati Toostani
Brain stimulation techniques are important in both basic and clinical studies. Majority of well-known brain stimulating techniques have low spatial resolution or entail invasive processes. Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) seems to be a proper candidate for dealing with such deficiencies. This review recapitulates studies which explored the effects of LIFU on brain structures and its function, in both research and clinical areas. Although the mechanism of LIFU action is still unclear, its different effects from molecular level up to behavioral level can be explored in animal and human brain...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Seyed Kazem Malakouti, Seyed Reza Mahdavi, Borzooyeh Naji, Mina Asadi, Shamsoddin Kahani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Borzooyeh Naji, Hamed Ekhtiari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mostafa Deilami, Asghar Jahandideh, Yousef Kazemnejad, Yousef Fakour, Shiva Alipoor, Fatemeh Rabiee, Ghazal Saadat Pournesaie, Rosemarie Noot Heidari, Seyed Aliasghar Mosavi
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of neurofeedback on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental study without a control group. The study population included all children aged 5 to 12 years old affected with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Tehran, Iran who were referred to psychiatric clinics and given the diagnosis. The sample included 12 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were selected based on their availability (non-random sampling)...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Sunil Gothwal, Swati Nayan
Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a disorder characterized by dystonia, parkinsonism, and iron accumulation in the brain. The disease is caused by mutations in gene encoding pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) and patients have pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We present an 8-year-old boy with progressive muscle dystonia, neuroregression, frequent fall and multiple injury marks of different stages. Seizures are rare with PANK2. This child had seizure onset at 4 years of age and seizure free on valproate and levetricetam...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Ghodratollah Maddah, Hossein Shabahang, Vahid Zehi, Nouriyeh Sharifi Sistani, Hossein Mashhadi Nejad
INTRODUCTION: Meningioma is a benign and slowly-growing tumor that is responsible for 20% of brain neoplasms. It can be accompanied by some genetic disorders such as neurofibromatosis type 2 and is more common among women. As a space occupying lesion, it produces a wide range of signs and symptoms by compressing the adjacent and underlying tissues in the brain. Trauma and viruses are possible etiologies for meningioma. The ideal treatment of benign meningioma is surgical resection. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report, we present a middle-aged man with a seeding metastasis of the cranial meningioma (after its removal) in the left thigh...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Hengameh Marzbani, Hamid Reza Marateb, Marjan Mansourian
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mohammad Hasan Davami, Rasoul Baharlou, Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani, Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Mitra Keshtkar, Iman Dezhkam, Mohammad Reza Atashzar
INTRODUCTION: Depression is a mental disorder that highly associated with immune system. Therefore, this study compares the serum concentrations of IL-21, IL-17, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) between patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 healthy age-matched controls with no history of malignancies or autoimmune disorders. The subjects were interviewed face to face according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Fatemeh Talaei
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally known as a manageable but not yet curable autoimmune disease affecting central nervous system. A potential therapeutic approach should possess several properties: Prevent immune system from damaging the brain and spinal cord, promote differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into mature oligodendrocytes to produce myelin, prevent the formation of fibronectin aggregates by astrocytes to inhibit scar formation, and enhance function of healthy endothelial cells (ECs)...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Sanaz Eftekhari, Soraya Mehrabi, Fariba Karimzadeh, Mohammad-Taghi Joghataei, Mojtaba Khaksarian, Mahmoud Reza Hadjighassem, Majid Katebi, Mansooreh Soleimani
INTRODUCTION: Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory property, which has been considered as an essential risk factor in the inflammatory process of Ischemic Stroke (IS), by involving in the pathophysiological progression of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and lipid metabolisms. -509C/T TGF-β1 gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the risk of IS. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a relatively comprehensive account of the relation between -509C/T gene polymorphisms of TGF-β1 and susceptibility to IS...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Abbas Pourhedayat, Yashar Sarbaz
INTRODUCTION: Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which affects movement control system of the brain. HD symptoms lead to patient's gait change and influence stride time intervals. In this study, we present a grey box mathematical model to simulate HD disorders. This model contains main physiological findings about BG. METHODS: We used artificial neural networks (ANN) and predetermined data to model healthy state behavior, and then we trained patients with HD with this model...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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