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Basic and Clinical Neuroscience

Azar Yadegari, Mohammad Azim Karami, Mohammad Reza Daliri
Implantable image sensors have several biomedical applications due to their miniature size, light weight, and low power consumption achieved through sub-micron standard CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) technologies. The main applications are in specific cell labeling, neural activity detection, and biomedical imaging. In this paper the recent research studies on implantable CMOS image sensors for neural activity monitoring of brain are being quantified and reviewed. Based on the results, the suitable implantable image sensors for brain neural monitoring should have high signal to noise ratio of above 60 dB, high dynamic range of near 88 dB and low power consumption than the safety threshold of 4W/cm2 ...
May 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad, Emily Piven
Introduction: Campus life tends to make social and academic demands on college students. To cope with these demands, students are required to use their neurocognitive skills of problem-solving and planning intentional actions that target towards adaptation to college. This paper presents an illuminating perspective that would inform understanding of a new approach to cognitive neuroscience. The linkage between cognition and adaptation was sought in the context of a cognitive neurodynamic approach proposed by the Intention, Meaning, and Perception (IMP) model of neuro-occupation...
May 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Fatemeh Saeidienik, Mohammad Reza Shahraki, Hamed Fanaei, Fereshteh Badini
Introduction: Depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for one to several weeks. Several studies have shown that iron nanoparticles have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to evaluate anti-depressive effect of iron nanoparticles in male rats. Methods: Depression was induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) adminstration. Rats were randomly assigned into six groups (10 in each group): 1) control (sterile saline solution; 200 μL, IP); 2) LPS (LPS;100 μg/kg, IP); 3) Low dose Iron Nanoparticle (LINP) (1 mg/kg, IP); 4) High dose Iron Nanoparticle (HINP), 5 mg/kg IP); 5) LPS/LINP (LPS; 100μg/kg IP+INP 1 mg/kg IP); and 6) LPS/HINP (LPS; 100 μg/kg IP+INP 5 mg/kg IP)...
May 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Elizabeth Toyin Olonode, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Olusegun Adebayo Adeoluwa, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi
Introduction: As stress affects the brain both physiologically and chemically, researchers try to find novel anti-stress compounds with beneficial therapeutic effects. In this regard, the effect of stress and its modulation by Morin hydrate was studied using different acute models in mice. Methods: The models employed were anoxic tolerance, swimming endurance, and acute restraint test. Morin hydrate or the vehicle was administered 30 minutes prior to each stress exposure while in the acute restraint test; the animals were pretreated for 7 days with Morin hydrate, vehicle, imipramine, or diazepam before stress exposure...
May 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mona Zamanian Azodi, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Afsaneh Arefi Oskouie, Vahid Mansouri, Mostafa Hamdieh, Naser Nejati, Mohsen Hamid-Pour, Alireza Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Rostami-Nejat, Majid Rezaei Tavirani, Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi Tabatabaei
Introduction: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) as one of the important mental problems is valuable topic for proteomic research studies to better understand the underlying mechanisms of this disorder. Methods: In this paper, gel-based proteomic was used to investigate the proteome profile of 16 female patients with OCD, washing subtype before and after treatment with fluoxetine and comparing them with 20 healthy female controls. Results: One of the abnormally expressed protein spots in this study was introduced and examined for protein-protein interaction network analysis via Cytoscape and its plug-ins...
May 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Hamed Aliyari, Hedayat Sahraei, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Behrouz Minaei-Bidgoli, Masoomeh Kazemi, Hassan Agaei, Mohammad Sahraei, Seyed Mohammad Ali Seyed Hosseini, Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour, Mohammad Mohammadi, Zahra Dehghanimohammadabadi
Introduction: Video games are common cultural issues with great influence in all societies. One of the important cognitive effects of video games is on creating stress on video players. The present research objective was to study different types of stress in players based on video game styles. Methods: A total of 80 players, aged 18 to 30 years, played four types of video games; Runner game, Excitement game, Fear game, and Puzzle game. In the beginning, the players filled in the form of personal information as well as some general and specialized information on the games...
May 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Masoomeh Kazemi, Hedayat Sahraei, Hamed Aliyari, Elaheh Tekieh, Mehdi Saberi, Hassan Tavacoli, Gholam Hossein Meftahi, Hossein Ghanaati, Maryam Salehi, Mostafa Hajnasrollah
Introduction: The present research aimed to examine Visual Working Memory (VWM) test scores, as well as hormonal, genomic, and brain anatomic changes in the male rhesus macaques exposed to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field (ELF-MF). Methods: Four monkeys were exposed to two different ELF-MF frequencies: 1 Hz (control) and 12 Hz (experiment) with 0.7 μT (magnitude) 4 h/d for 30 consecutive days. Before and after the exposure, VWM test was conducted using a coated devise on a movable stand...
May 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Zahra Taslimi, Alireza Komaki, Abbas Haghparast, Abdolrahman Sarihi
Introduction: Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic psychostimulant with highly addictive potential that leads to compulsive drug use and vulnerability to relapse. Environmental cues, such as drug exposure, peer influence, and social stress, are the powerful triggers of drug relapse. In this study, we tried to find out the effect of acute and chronic restraint stress on reinstatement of extinguished METH-induced Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) in rats. Methods: Subcutaneous (SC) administration of METH (0...
May 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Kaveh Shahveisi, Amir Jalali, Mohammad Raman Moloudi, Shahla Moradi, Azad Maroufi, Habibolah Khazaie
Introduction: This study aimed to investigate sleep architecture in patients with primary snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Methods: In this study, we analyzed polysomnographic data of 391 clients who referred to Sleep Disorders Research Center (SDRS). These people were classified into three groups based on their Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and snoring; control, Primary Snoring (PS), and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) group. Sleep architecture variables were then assessed in all groups...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Hamidreza Ghaffari, Ali Yoonessi, Mohammad Javad Darvishi, Akbar Ahmadi
Introduction: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a non-invasive method to increase the plasticity of brain. Growing evidence has shown several brain disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndrome are improved following tDCS. In patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), increased brain rhythm activity particularly in the frontal lobe has been reported in several studies using Eectroencephalogram (EEG). To our knowledge, no research has been done on the effects of electrical stimulation on brain signals of patients with OCD...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mohammadreza Moradi, Massoud Saidijam, Reza Yadegarazari, Leila Jahangard, Maryam Seifi, Nasrin Matinnia, Ali Ghaleiha
Introduction: According to the cumulative evidence, genes encoding GABA receptors inhibit neurotransmitters in CNS and are intricately involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Based on this hypothesis, these genes may be expressed in bipolar patients. As a result, we evaluated the gene expressions of GABA-β3 and HT1D receptors to assess their associations with bipolar mood disorder. Methods: In this study, 22 patients with bipolar I disorder (single manic episode) and 22 healthy individuals were enrolled...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Houssein Darwish, Usamah El-Hadi, Georges Haddad, Marwan Najjar
Introduction: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas and other sellar lesions is quickly becoming the procedure of choice in their surgical management. The most common approach is binostril three-hand technique which requires a large exposure and subjects both nasal cavities to potential trauma. To reduce nasal morbidity, we employ a mononostril two-hand technique with the help of the endoscope holder. In this research, we review our series to determine efficacy of this approach in the management of pituitary adenomas...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Reza Khosrowabadi
Introduction: Long-term stressful situations can drastically influence one's mental life. However, the effect of mental stress on recognition of emotional stimuli needs to be explored. In this study, recognition of emotional stimuli in a stressful situation was investigated. Four emotional conditions, including positive and negative states in both low and high levels of arousal were analyzed. Methods: Twenty-six healthy right-handed university students were recruited within or after examination period...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Sara Soleimani Asl, Amir Roointan, Hugo Bergen, Shayan Amiri, Parastoo Mardani, Niloufar Ashtari, Ronak Shabani, Mehdi Mehdizadeh
Introduction: Genes often have multiple polymorphisms that interact with each other and the environment in different individuals. Variability in the opioid receptors can influence opiate withdrawal and dependence. In humans, A118G Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) on μ-Opioid Receptor (MOR), 36 G>T in κ-Opioid Receptor (KOR), and T921C in the δ-Opioid Receptor (DOR) have been found to associate with substance dependence. Methods: To investigate the association between opioid receptors gene polymorphism and heroin addiction, 100 control subjects with no history of opioid use, and 100 heroin addicts (50% males and 50% females) in Tehran (capital of Iran), were evaluated...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Babak Khodaie, Valiallah Saba
Introduction: Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD) is a propagating wave of neural and glial cell depolarization with important role in several clinical disorders. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a potential tool with preventive treatment effects in psychiatric and neuronal disorders. In this paper, we study the effects of rTMS on CSD by using behavioral and histological approaches in hippocampus and cortical regions. Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Alia Saberi, Seyed-Ali Roudbary, Amirreza Ghayeghran, Samaneh Kazemi, Mozaffar Hosseininezhad
Introduction: Bacterial meningitis is an acute infectious inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain. Its early diagnosis is vital because of its high morbidity and mortality. It is mostly diagnosed by a gold standard diagnostic tool i.e. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis. However, it is sometimes difficult and or impossible to do this procedure and an alternative diagnostic tool is needed. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can detect the pus or other changes in subarachnoid space...
March 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mahsa Zare, Fariborz Faeghi, Ashrafsadat Hosseini, Mohammad Sobhan Ardekani, Mohammad Hossein Heidari, Ehsan Zarei
Introduction: The present study aims to evaluate the Three-Dimensional Diffusion-Weighted reversed fast imaging with steady state free precession (3D DW-PSIF) sequence with respect to imaging of the peripheral nerves; the tibial, medial, and lateral plantar nerves in the lower extremity, ulnar and median nerve in the upper extremity, sciatic nerve, brachial plexus, and lumbosacral plexus, and also to compare its usefulness with the current two-dimensional sequences on a 1.5 T MR scanner...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mohammad Vahedi, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Mehrdad Hajilooi, Maryam Farhadian, Yasamin Barakian, Parastoo Sadr
Introduction: Tension-type headache is the most common type of headache across the world. Saliva as a non-invasive medium is used to detect a wide range of diseases. Salivary Alpha-Amylase (SAA) levels has been suggested as a potential indirect marker for detecting Sympathoadrenal Medullary (SAM) activity, which is activated by pain. Significant correlation was found between SAA levels and pain scale in patients with chronic pain. The purpose of the present study was to measure SAA activity in Frequent Episodic Tension-Type Headache (FETTH)...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Vahid Sheibani, Mohammad Shabani, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Zeinab Akbarnejad
Introduction: The life quality of patients with epileptic seizures is highly affected by cognitive deficits. Low Frequency Stimulation (LFS) is a novel approach for the treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The main goal of this research is investigating the possible effect of LFS on seizure-induced cognitive dysfunction. Methods: To this end, the kindled animal were prepared via CA1 electrical stimulation in a semi-rapid way (12 stimulations/day). A group of animals were stimulated with LFS, 4 times at 30 s, 6 h, 24 h, and 30 h after the last kindling stimulation...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Kazuhiro Hayashi, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Takefumi Ueno, Young-Chang Park Arai, Kazuhiro Shimo, Makoto Nishihara, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Takahiro Ushida
Introduction: Facial expression to pain is an important pain indicator; however, facial movements look unresponsive when perceiving mild pain. The present study investigates whether pain magnitude modulates the relationship between subjective pain rating and an observer's evaluation of facial expression. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited to obtain 108 samples for pain rating with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Subjects underwent three different mechanical painful stimuli (monofilament forces of 100 g, 300 g, and 600 g) over three sessions and their facial expressions were videotaped throughout all sessions...
January 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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