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Basic and Clinical Neuroscience

Kai-Zheong Lim, Tony Goldschlager, Ronil V Chandra, Jonathan Hall, Brent Uren, Michael Pullar
INTRODUCTION: The co-existence of pituitary adenoma and meningioma is extremely rare. It is even rarer in patients with no previous known risk factors for either tumour. Here, we present a case of synchronous non-functioning pituitary adenoma with suprasellar and olfactory groove meningiomas in a patient without previous irradiation. METHODS: The tumours were diagnosed on MRI in the 65-year-old patient who presented with patchy visual deficits. The decision was made to undergo surgery for resection of the suprasellar meningioma and the pituitary adenoma, leaving the small olfactory groove meningioma intact...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Amit R Nayak, Seema D Shekhawat, Neha H Lande, Anuja P Kawle, Dinesh P Kabra, Nitin H Chandak, Shweta R Badar, Dhananjay V Raje, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra R Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the incidence and clinical outcome of patients with hypertensive acute ischemic stroke (AIS) admitted to a tertiary care center in Central India. In addition, we examined the status of stroke biomarkers namely neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial specific protein (S-100ββ), and inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4(ITIH4) in the serum of patients suffering from AIS with hypertension (HTN) and without HTN. METHODS: A total of 104 patients with AIS were enrolled for the study...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Ali Siahposht-Khachaki, Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast
INTRODUCTION: Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens is a component of drug-induced reward mechanism. In addition, NMDA receptors play a major role in brain reward system and activation of these receptors can change firing pattern of dopamine neurons. Blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission reduces the expression of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine. Therefore, in this study, by using an NMDA receptor antagonist, DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid sodium salt (AP5), the role of NMDA receptors on the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine-CPP was investigated...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Jalal Zaringhalam, Akhtar Akbari, Alireza Zali, Homa Manaheji, Vida Nazemian, Mahdi Shadnoush, Somayeh Ezzatpanah
INTRODUCTION: Immune system is involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of inflammation and vitamins are important sources of substances inducing nonspecific immunomodulatory effects. Given the proinflammatory role of cytokines in the inflammation and pain induction, this study aimed to assess the effects of long-term administration of vitamin B1 on the proinflammatory cytokines, edema, and hyperalgesia during the acute and chronic phases of adjuvant-induced arthritis. METHODS: On the first day of study, inflammation was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaws of rats...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mercedeh Samiei, Koorosh Hedayati, Arash Mirabzadeh Ardekani, Behrooz Dolatshahi, Reza Daneshmand, Roya Samadi
INTRODUCTION: Comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been reported among patients with schizophrenia in other countries. But, the literature is not well-documented on this issue in Iran (Persia). The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of OCD and some of its related factors in a group of patients with schizophrenia in Iran. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 150 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia were recruited at Razi Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Ahmad Ali Ghanbari, Kobra Shabani, Daryoush Mohammad Nejad
INTRODUCTION: Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can influence the biological system by the formation of free radicals in cells. The EMFs are able to deteriorate defense system against free radicals that leads to oxidative stress (OS). Lipid peroxidation process (LPO) is an index of oxidative stress, and the Malandialdehyde (MDA) is the final product of LPO. Vitamin E is the most important antioxidant which inhibits the LPO process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3MT EMF exposure on oxidative stress parameters in substantia nigra and the role of vitamin E in reducing oxidative stress and preventing of LPO process...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Somayeh Maleki-Balajoo, Gholam-Ali Hossein-Zadeh, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamed Ekhtiari
INTRODUCTION: A fixed hemodynamic response function (HRF) is commonly used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis. However, HRF may vary from region to region and subject to subject. We investigated the effect of locally estimated HRF (in functionally homogenous parcels) on activation detection sensitivity in a heroin cue reactivity study. METHODS: We proposed a novel exploratory method for brain parcellation based on a probabilistic model to segregate the brain into spatially connected and functionally homogeneous components...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Pouran Johari, Reza Najafipour, Farid Hajiali
INTRODUCTION: Kainic acid (KA) induces neuropathological changes in specific regions of the mouse hippocampus comparable to changes seen in patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). According to different studies, the expression of a number of genes are altered in the adult rat hippocampus after status epilepticus (SE) induced by KA. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate changes in the gene expression of brain neurotransmitter receptors one week after administration of kainic acid in the mouse hippocampus...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Amir Arash Motahari, Hedayat Sahraei, Gholam Hossein Meftahi
The catastrophic effects of opioids use on public health and the economy are documented clearly in numerous studies. Repeated morphine administration can lead to either a decrease (tolerance) or an increase (sensitization) in its behavioral and rewarding effects. Morphine-induced sensitization is a major problem and plays an important role in abuse of the opioid drugs. Studies reported that morphine may exert its effects by the release of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a potent neuromodulator, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS)...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Mohammad Torabi-Nami, Samrad Mehrabi, Sabri Derman
Sleep-related movement disorders should be differentiated from parasomnias, sleep-associated behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard in evaluating such disorders. Periodic leg movement disorder during sleep (PLMS), hypnic jerks, bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and nocturnal leg cramps have broadly been discussed in the literature. However, periodic arm movement disorder in sleep (PAMS) is a less-appreciated entity perhaps because arm surface electromyography is not an integral part of the standard polysomnography...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Maryam Raoof, Hamed Ebrahimnejad, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Ladan Amirkhosravi, Ramin Raoof, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Mohsen Ramazani, Noushin Shokouhinejad, Mehrfam Khoshkhounejad
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. METHODS: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Rabie Mohammadi, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie
INTRODUCTION: A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Shamseddin Ahmadi, Fatemeh Rafieenia, Jalal Rostamzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Morphine is a potent analgesic but its continual use results in analgesic tolerance. Mechanisms of this tolerance remain to be clarified. However, changes in the functions of μ-opioid and N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been proposed in morphine tolerance. We examined changes in gene expression of the NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1) at mRNA levels in rat striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC) after induction of morphine tolerance. METHODS: Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP)...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Sasan Gazerani, Jalal Zaringhalam, Homa Manaheji, Sahar Golabi
INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of peptidergic fibers activates microglia in the dorsal horn. Microglia activation causes fractalkine (FKN) release, a neuron-glia signal, which enhances pain. The transient vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) mediates the release of neuropeptides, which can subsequently activate glia. TRPV1 and TRPV2 are generally expressed on C and Aδ fibers, respectively. Expression of both proteins is upregulated during inflammation, but expression of TRPV3 after induction of inflammation is unclear...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Fanak Shahmohammadi, Mehrshad Golesorkhi, Mohammad Mansour Riahi Kashani, Mehrdad Sangi, Ahmad Yoonessi, Ali Yoonessi
INTRODUCTION: Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant that causes significant neurological impairments with long-lasting effects and has provoked serious international concerns about public health. Denial of drug abuse and drug craving are two important factors that make the diagnosis and treatment extremely challenging. Here, we present a novel and rapid noninvasive method with potential application for differentiation and monitoring methamphetamine abuse. METHODS: Visual stimuli comprised a series of images with neutral and methamphetamine-related content...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Narjes Soltani, Elham Mohammadi, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Ali Shamsizadeh, Ali Roohbakhsh, Abbas Haghparast
INTRODUCTION: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a chemical often used as a solvent for water-insoluble drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DMSO on neural response characteristics (in 1200-1500 μm depth) of the rat barrel cortex. METHODS: DMSO solution was prepared in 10% v/v concentration and injected into the lateral ventricle of rats. Neuronal spontaneous activity and neuronal responses to deflection of the principal whisker (PW) and adjacent whisker (AW) were recorded in barrel cortex...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Hossein Zeinali, Homa Manaheji, Jalal Zaringhalam, Zahra Bahari, Samad Nazemi, Mehdi Sadeghi
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have reported the involvement of age-related changes in the development of neuropathic pain behaviors. However, limited data are available on the role of age in establishing and maintaining chronic neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. METHODS: In the present study, we examined age-related neuropathic behavior among rats in 4 age groups: pups (4 weeks old; weight, 60-80 g), juvenile rats (6 weeks old; weight, 120-140 g), and mature rats (10-12 weeks old; weight, 200-250 g)...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Naser Osanloo, Akram Najafi-Abedi, Fatemeh Jafari, Farshid Javid, Mohsen Pirpiran, Mohammad-Reza Memar Jafari, Seyed Ali Mousavi Khosravi, Mohammad Rahimzadeh Behzadi, Mina Ranjbaran, Hedayat Sahraei
INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. METHODS: We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was used as standard antidepressant drug...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Ehsan Rezayat, Iman Ghodrati Toostani
Brain stimulation techniques are important in both basic and clinical studies. Majority of well-known brain stimulating techniques have low spatial resolution or entail invasive processes. Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) seems to be a proper candidate for dealing with such deficiencies. This review recapitulates studies which explored the effects of LIFU on brain structures and its function, in both research and clinical areas. Although the mechanism of LIFU action is still unclear, its different effects from molecular level up to behavioral level can be explored in animal and human brain...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Seyed Kazem Malakouti, Seyed Reza Mahdavi, Borzooyeh Naji, Mina Asadi, Shamsoddin Kahani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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