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Plant Pathology Journal

Gnanendra Shanmugam, Akanksha Dubey, Lakshmi Narayanan Ponpandian, Soon Ok Rim, Sang-Tae Seo, Hanhong Bae, Junhyun Jeon
Pine wilt disease, caused by the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , is one of the most devastating conifer diseases decimating several species of pine trees on a global scale. Here, we report the draft genome of Raoultella ornithinolytica MG, which is isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng plant as an bacterial endophyte and shows nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus . Our analysis of R. ornithinolytica MG genome showed that it possesses many genes encoding potential nematicidal factors in addition to some secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters that may contribute to the observed nematicidal activity of the strain...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Hyo Song Nam, Anne J Anderson, Young Cheol Kim
Commercial biocontrol of microbial plant diseases and plant pests, such as nematodes, requires field-effective formulations. The isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is a Gram-negative bacterium that controls microbial plant pathogens both directly and indirectly. This bacterium also has nematocidal activity. In this study, we report on the efficacy of a wettable powder-type formulation of P. chlororaphis O6. Culturable bacteria in the formulated product were retained at above 1 × 108 colony forming units/g after storage of the powder at 25 °C for six months...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Dohyeok Oh, Jae-Hyun Ryu, Sehee Oh, Hoejeong Jeong, Jisung Park, Rae-Dong Jeong, Wonsik Kim, Jaeil Cho
Crop yield is critically related to the physiological responses and disease resistance of the crop, which could be strongly affected by high temperature conditions. We observed the changes in the growth of barley under higher than ambient air-temperature conditions using a temperature gradient field chamber (TGFC) during winter and spring. Before the stem extension stage of barley growth, Cladosporium sp. spontaneously appeared in the TGFC. The severity of disease became serious under warmer temperature conditions...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytic bacteria were isolated from different varieties of turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) from South India. Totally 50 strains representing, 30 PGPR and 20 endophytic bacteria were identified based on biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric, by dual culture and liquid culture assays...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Faegheh Etminani, Behrouz Harighi
In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees ( Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas , Stenotrophomonas , Bacillus , Pantoea and Serratia genus...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Ye-Ji Lee, Eui-Joon Kil, Hae-Ryun Kwak, Mikyeong Kim, Jang-Kyun Seo, Sukchan Lee, Hong-Soo Choi
Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is a whitefly-transmitted and phloem-limited crinivirus. In 2013, severe interveinal chlorosis and bronzing on tomato leaves, known symptoms of ToCV infection, were observed in greenhouses in Korea. To identify ToCV infection in symptomatic tomato plants, RT-PCR with ToCV-specific primers was performed on leaf samples collected from 11 tomato cultivating areas where ToCV-like symptoms were observed in 2013 and 2014. About half of samples (45.18%) were confirmed as ToCV-infected, and the complete genome of 10 different isolates were characterized...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Doo-San Shin, Gwang-Il Heo, Soo-Hyeong Son, Chang-Sik Oh, Young-Kee Lee, Jae-Soon Cha
Fast and accurate diagnosis is needed to eradicate and manage economically important and invasive diseases like fire blight. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is known as the best on-site diagnostic, because it is fast, highly specific to a target, and less sensitive to inhibitors in samples. In this study, LAMP assay that gives more consistent results for on-site diagnosis of fire blight than the previous developed LAMP assays was developed. Primers for new LAMP assay (named as DS-LAMP) were designed from a histidine-tRNA ligase gene (EAMY_RS32025) of E...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Ye-Ji Hong, Mohammad Rashed Hossain, Hoy-Taek Kim, Jong-In Park, Ill-Sup Nou
Powdery mildew caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Podosphaera xanthii poses a serious threat to melon ( Cucumis melo L.) production worldwide. Frequent occurrences of the disease in different regions of South Korea hints at the potential existence of several races which need to be identified. The races of five isolates collected from different powdery mildew affected regions were identified based on the pathogenicity tests of these isolates on eight known differential melon cultigens namely, SCNU1154, PMR 45, WMR 29, PMR 5, MR-1, PI124112, Edisto 47 and PI414723...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
José Francisco Díaz Nájera, Jaime Sahagún Castellanos, Mateo Vargas Hernández, Sergio Ayvar Serna, Omar Guadalupe Alvarado Gómez, Clemente Villanueva Verduzco, Marcelo Acosta Ramos
Fruit rot is the principal phytopathological problem of pipiana pumpkin ( Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber) in the state of Guerrero. The aims of this research were to 1) identify the causal agent of southern blight on pumpkin fruits by morphological, pathogenic, and molecular analysis (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2); 2) evaluate in vitro Trichoderma spp. strains and chemical fungicides; and 3) evaluate under rainfed field conditions, the strains that obtained the best results in vitro , combined with fungicides during two crop cycles...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Sung Won Hong, Da-Ran Kim, Ji Su Kim, Gyeongjun Cho, Chang Wook Jeon, Youn-Sig Kwak
Strawberry Fusarium wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae , is the most devastating disease in strawberry production. The pathogen produces chlamydospores which tolerate against harsh environment, fungicide and survive for decades in soil. Development of detection and quantification techniques are regarded significantly in many soilborne pathogens to prevent damage from diseases. In this study, we improved specific-quantitative primers for F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae to reveal correlation between the pathogen density and the disease severity...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Camila Vilela Vasconcelos, Fabíola Teodoro Pereira, Elizabeth Amélia Alves Duarte, Thiago Alves Santos de Oliveira, Nei Peixoto, Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho
The objective of this work was to accomplish the isolation, molecular identification and characterizing the physiology of the causal agent of the algal spot in mango trees. For this purpose, the pathogen growth was assessed in different culture media, with subsequent observation and measurements of the filamentous cells. The molecular identification was made using mycelium obtained from leaf lesions and pure algae colonies grown in culture medium. Descriptions based on DNA sequencing indicated that the algae is Cephaleuros virescens ...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Dongbin Park, Chul Jun Goh, Hyein Kim, Yoonsoo Hahn
The genome sequences of two novel monopartite RNA viruses were identified in a common eelgrass ( Zostera marina ) transcriptome dataset. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two novel viruses belong to the genus Amalgavirus in the family Amalgaviridae . They were named Zostera marina amalgavirus 1 (ZmAV1) and Zostera marina amalgavirus 2 (ZmAV2). Genomes of both ZmAV1 and ZmAV2 contain two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative replication factory matrix-like protein, while ORF2 encodes a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Min-Jung Kim, Chang-Wook Jeon, Gyongjun Cho, Da-Ran Kim, Yong-Bum Kwack, Youn-Sig Kwak
Flowers of kiwifruit are morphologically hermaphroditic and survivable binucleate pollen is produced by the male flowers. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity in kiwifruit pollens by analyzing amplicon sequences of 16S rRNA. Four pollen samples were collected: 'NZ' was imported from New Zealand, 'CN' from China in year of 2014, respectively. 'KR13' and 'KR14' were collected in 2013' and 2014' in South Korea. Most of the identified bacterial phyla in the four different pollens were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Hamida Benslimane
Pyrenophoratritici-repentis is the causal agent of tan spot. According to their ability to produce necrosis and/or chlorosis on a set of four differential bread wheats, the isolates of this fungus are currently grouped into eight races. When durum wheat genotypes were added to the differential set, a new virulence type was identified in Algeria. The isolates showing this virulence pattern are unable to attack bread wheat while they cause necrosis in durum genotypes. In this work, characterization of those isolates was based on pathological and molecular aspects...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Narayanappa Amruta, M K Prasanna Kumar, M E Puneeth, Gowdiperu Sarika, Hemanth Kumar Kandikattu, K Vishwanath, Sonnappa Narayanaswamy
Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease. In the present study, we aimed to identify and evaluate the novel bacterial isolates from rice rhizosphere for biocontrol of M. oryzae pathogen. Sixty bacterial strains from the rice plant's rhizosphere were tested for their biocontrol activity against M. oryzae under in vitro and in vivo . Among them, B. amyloliquefaciens had significant high activity against the pathogen. The least disease severity and highest germination were recorded in seeds treated with B...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Vinod Kumar Malik, Manjeet Singh, Karambir Singh Hooda, Naresh Kumar Yadav, Prashant Kumar Chauhan
Maize ( Zea mays L.; 2N=20) is major staple food crop grown worldwide adapted to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Maydis leaf blight (MLB) and banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) are serious foliar fungal diseases may cause up to 40% and 100% grain yield loss, respectively. The present studies were undertaken to work out the efficacy of chemicals, botanicals and bioagents for the management of MLB and BLSB under field condition for two seasons Kharif 2014 and 2015. Five molecules (propiconazole 25 EC, hexaconazole 25 EC, carbendazim 50 WP, mancozeb 75 WP and carbedazim 12 WP + mancozeb 63 WP), two bioagents i...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Su Jeung Kim, Eun Ju Ko, Jeum Kyu Hong, Yong Chull Jeun
Chlorella , one single-cell green algae organism that lives autotrophically by photosynthesis, can directly suppress some plant diseases. The objective of this study was to determine whether pre-spraying with Chlorella fusca suspension could induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in cucumber plants against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare . In order to illustrate SAR induced by algae, infection structures in host cells were observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cytological changes as defense responses of host mesophyll cells such as accumulation of vesicles, formation of sheath around penetration hyphae, and thickness of cell wells adjoining with intracellular hyphae were demonstrated in cucumber leaves...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Kwang Yeol Baek, Hyun-Hee Lee, Geun Ju Son, Pyeong An Lee, Nazish Roy, Young-Su Seo, Seon-Woo Lee
Accurate and rapid detection of bacterial plant pathogen is the first step toward disease management and prevention of pathogen spread. Bacterial plant pathogens Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis ( Cmn ), Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii ( Pss ), and Rathayibacter tritici ( Rt ) cause Goss's bacterial wilt and blight of maize, Stewart's wilt of maize and spike blight of wheat and barley, respectively. The bacterial diseases are not globally distributed and not present in Korea. This study adopted comparative genomics approach and aimed to develop specific primer pairs to detect these three bacterial pathogens...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Sabiha Sultana, Sanjoy Kumar Adhikary, Md Monirul Islam, Sorder Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman
Leaf blotch of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a major constraint to wheat production, causing significant yield reduction resulting in severe economic impact. The present study characterizes to determine and compare pathogenic variability exist/not based on components of leaf blotch disease development and level of aggressiveness due to agroclimatic condition of B. sorokiniana in wheat. A total of 169 virulent isolates of B. sorokiniana isolated from spot blotch infected leaf from different wheat growing agroclimate of Bangladesh...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Sungyeap Hong, Cheolho Lee
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), widely used for the detection of plant viruses, are not easily performed, resulting in a demand for an innovative and more efficient diagnostic method. This paper summarizes the characteristics and research trends of biosensors focusing on the physicochemical properties of both interface elements and bioconjugates. In particular, the topological and photophysical properties of quantum dots (QDs) are discussed, along with QD-based biosensors and their practical applications...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
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