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Plant Pathology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904467/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-bacteriophage-preying-an-antifungal-bacterium
#1
Aryan Rahimi-Midani, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Seon-Woo Lee, Sang Bong Jung, Tae-Jin Choi
Several Bacillus species were isolated from rice field soils, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that Bacillus cereus was the most abundant. A strain named BC1 showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Bacteriophages infecting strain BC1 were isolated from the same soil sample. The isolated phage PK16 had an icosahedral head of 100 ± 5 nm and tail of 200 ± 5 nm, indicating that it belonged to the family Myoviridae. Analysis of the complete linear dsDNA genome revealed a 158,127-bp genome with G + C content of 39...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904466/genetic-similarity-between-cotton-leafroll-dwarf-virus-and-chickpea-stunt-disease-associated-virus-in-india
#2
Arup Kumar Mukherjee, Prasun Kumar Mukherjee, Sandhya Kranthi
The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV)...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904465/simultaneous-detection-of-three-bacterial-seed-borne-diseases-in-rice-using-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#3
In Jeong Kang, Mi-Hyung Kang, Tae-Hwan Noh, Hyeong Kwon Shim, Dong Bum Shin, Suggi Heu
Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904464/effectiveness-of-different-classes-of-fungicides-on-botrytis-cinerea-causing-gray-mold-on-fruit-and-vegetables
#4
Joon-Oh Kim, Jong-Hwan Shin, Adiyantara Gumilang, Keun Chung, Ki Young Choi, Kyoung Su Kim
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen causing a major problem in the export and post-harvest of strawberries. Inappropriate use of fungicides leads to resistance among fungal pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of B. cinerea to various classes of fungicide and to determine the effectiveness of different concentrations of commonly used fungicides. We thus evaluated the effectiveness of six classes of fungicide in inhibiting the growth and development of this pathogen, namely, fludioxonil, iprodione, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, fenpyrazamine, and boscalid...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904463/digital-infrared-thermal-imaging-of-crape-myrtle-leaves-infested-with-sooty-mold
#5
Jiyeon Kim, Si-Gyun Kweon, Junhyung Park, Harim Lee, Ki Woo Kim
The spatial patterns for temperature distribution on crape myrtle leaves infested with sooty mold were investigated using a digital infrared thermal imaging camera. The mean temperatures of the control and sooty regions were 26.98°C and 28.44°C, respectively. In the thermal images, the sooty regions appeared as distinct spots, indicating that the temperatures in these areas were higher than those in the control regions on the same leaves. This suggests that the sooty regions became warmer than their control regions on the adaxial leaf surface...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904462/overexpression-of-a-pathogenesis-related-protein-10-enhances-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-rice
#6
Jingni Wu, Sang Gon Kim, Kyu Young Kang, Ju-Gon Kim, Sang-Ryeol Park, Ravi Gupta, Yong Hwan Kim, Yiming Wang, Sun Tae Kim
Pathogenesis-related proteins play multiple roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we characterize a rice defense related gene named "jasmonic acid inducible pathogenesis-related class 10" (JIOsPR10) to gain an insight into its functional properties. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of JIOsPR10 under salt and drought stress conditions. Constitutive over-expression JIOsPR10 in rice promoted shoot and root development in transgenic plants, however, their productivity was unaltered...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904461/outbreak-and-spread-of-bacterial-canker-of-kiwifruit-caused-by-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-actinidiae-biovar-3-in-korea
#7
Gyoung Hee Kim, Kwang-Hyung Kim, Kyeong In Son, Eu Ddeum Choi, Young Sun Lee, Jae Sung Jung, Young Jin Koh
A bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), is a causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker worldwide. Psa biovar 3 (Psa3) was first detected in 2011 at an orchard in Dodeok-myeon, Goheunggun, Jeonnam Province in Korea. In this study, we present the results of an epidemiological study regarding Psa3 occurrence on kiwifruit orchards in Korea for the period of 2013 to 2015. Since the first detection of Psa3 in 2011, there was no further case reported by 2013. However, Psa3 was rapidly spreading to 33 orchards in 2014; except for three orchards in Sacheonsi, Gyeongnam Province, most cases were reported in Jeju Island...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904460/d-psa-k-a-model-for-estimating-the-accumulated-potential-damage-on-kiwifruit-canes-caused-by-bacterial-canker-during-the-growing-and-overwintering-seasons
#8
Ki Seok Do, Bong Nam Chung, Jae Ho Joa
We developed a model, termed D-PSA-K, to estimate the accumulated potential damage on kiwifruit canes caused by bacterial canker during the growing and overwintering seasons. The model consisted of three parts including estimation of the amount of necrotic lesion in a non-frozen environment, the rate of necrosis increase in a freezing environment during the overwintering season, and the amount of necrotic lesion on kiwifruit canes caused by bacterial canker during the overwintering and growing seasons. We evaluated the model's accuracy by comparing the observed maximum disease incidence on kiwifruit canes against the damage estimated using weather and disease data collected at Wando during 1994-1997 and at Seogwipo during 2014-2015...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904459/management-of-powdery-mildew-in-squash-by-plant-and-alga-extract-biopesticides
#9
Shouan Zhang, Zelalem Mersha, Gary E Vallad, Cheng-Hua Huang
Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly (P < 0.05) reduced powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole)...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904458/identification-of-novel-source-of-resistance-and-differential-response-of-allium-genotypes-to-purple-blotch-pathogen-alternaria-porri-ellis-ciferri
#10
Satyabrata Nanda, Subodh Kumar Chand, Purander Mandal, Pradyumna Tripathy, Raj Kumar Joshi
Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession 'CBT-Ac77' and cultivar 'Arka Kalyan' were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904457/altering-conidial-dispersal-of-alternaria-solani-by-modifying-microclimate-in-tomato-crop-canopy
#11
Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar, Nitiprasad Jambhulkar, Madanlal Meghwal, Gauri Shankar Ameta
Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01) involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH) displayed significant (P < 0...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904456/methylome-analysis-of-two-xanthomonas-spp-using-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing
#12
Hoon Je Seong, Hye-Jee Park, Eunji Hong, Sung Chul Lee, Woo Jun Sul, Sang-Wook Han
Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing allows identification of methylated DNA bases and methylation patterns/motifs at the genome level. Using SMRT sequencing, diverse bacterial methylomes including those of Helicobacter pylori, Lactobacillus spp., and Escherichia coli have been determined, and previously unreported DNA methylation motifs have been identified. However, the methylomes of Xanthomonas species, which belong to the most important plant pathogenic bacterial genus, have not been documented. Here, we report the methylomes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904455/profiling-of-disease-related-metabolites-in-grapevine-internode-tissues-infected-with-agrobacterium-vitis
#13
Sung-Min Jung, Youn-Young Hur, John E Preece, Oliver Fiehn, Young-Ho Kim
Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS) evaluated by gall incidence (GI) and gall diameter (GD), which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD), SR (high GI and small GD), and SS (high GI and large GD), corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721698/feasible-management-of-southern-corn-leaf-blight-via-induction-of-systemic-resistance-by-bacillus-cereus-c1l-in-combination-with-reduced-use-of-dithiocarbamate-fungicides
#14
Yi-Ru Lai, Pei-Yu Lin, Chao-Ying Chen, Chien-Jui Huang
Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721697/differential-control-efficacies-of-vitamin-treatments-against-bacterial-wilt-and-grey-mould-diseases-in-tomato-plants
#15
Jeum Kyu Hong, Hyeon Ji Kim, Heesoo Jung, Hye Ji Yang, Do Hoon Kim, Chang Hyun Sung, Chang-Jin Park, Seog Won Chang
Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3)...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721696/postharvest-disease-control-of-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-and-penicillium-expansum-on-stored-apples-by-gamma-irradiation-combined-with-fumigation
#16
Wonsu Cheon, Young Soo Kim, Kotnala Balaraju, Bong-Su Kim, Byeong-Ho Lee, Yongho Jeon
To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721695/production-of-polyclonal-antibody-against-grapevine-fanleaf-virus-movement-protein-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Davoud Koolivand, Nemat Sokhandan Bashir, Seyed Aliakbar Behjatnia, Raziallah Jafari Joozani
The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) encoding the movement protein (MP) was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM) each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blotting...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721694/deep-sequencing-analysis-of-apple-infecting-viruses-in-korea
#18
In-Sook Cho, Davaajargal Igori, Seungmo Lim, Gug-Seoun Choi, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim, Jae Sun Moon
Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721693/xanthomonas-euvesicatoria-causes-bacterial-spot-disease-on-pepper-plant-in-korea
#19
Min-Seong Kyeon, Soo-Hyeong Son, Young-Hee Noh, Yong-Eon Kim, Hyok-In Lee, Jae-Soon Cha
In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX) were reclassified into 4 species-Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721692/pathotype-classification-of-plasmodiophora-brassicae-isolates-using-clubroot-resistant-cultivars-of-chinese-cabbage
#20
Hun Kim, Eun Ju Jo, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Gyung Ja Choi
Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams' hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
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