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Plant Pathology Journal

Huin Lee, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Hong-Soo Choi, Jin-Ho Kang, Ho-Jong Ju, Jang-Kyun Seo
Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, has caused an epidemic disease in tomato worldwide. ToCV is phloem-limited and transmitted by whiteflies in a semi-persistent manner, but not by mechanical inoculation. Experimental propagation of ToCV has been performed primarily by using whitefly-mediated inoculation. To develop a simple and convenient method for transmission of ToCV, we investigated grafting single-leaflets from tomato plants infected with ToCV to recipient tomato seedlings...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Teak Soo Shin, Nan Hee Yu, Jaeho Lee, Gyung Ja Choi, Jin-Cheol Kim, Chul Soo Shin
To develop a commercial product using the mycoparasitic fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP, the scaleup of conidia production from a 5-l jar to a 5,000-l pilot bioreactor, optimization of the freeze-drying of the fermentation broth, and preparation of a wettable powder-type formulation were performed. Then, its disease control efficacy was evaluated against gray mold diseases of tomato and ginseng plants in field conditions. The final conidial yields of S. lamellicola BCP were 3.3 × 10(9) conidia/ml for a 5-l jar, 3...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva Campos, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa da Silva, Adriana Mayumi Yano-Melo, Natoniel Franklin de Melo, Leonor Costa Maia
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of micropropagated and mycorrhized alpinia plants to the parasite Meloidogyne arenaria. The experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of four inoculation treatments with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Gigaspora albida, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Acaulospora longula, and a non-inoculated control) in the presence or absence of M. arenaria with five replicates. The following characteristics were evaluated after 270 days of mycorrhization and 170 days of M...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Yong Hwan Kim, Seur Kee Park, Jin Young Hur, Young Cheol Kim
Chitinase-producing Paenibacillus elgii strain HOA73 has been used to control plant diseases. However, the antimicrobial activity of its extracellular chitinase has not been fully elucidated. The major extracellular chitinase gene (PeChi68) from strain HOA73 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in this study. This gene had an open reading frame of 2,028 bp, encoding a protein of 675 amino acid residues containing a secretion signal peptide, a chitin-binding domain, two fibronectin type III domains, and a catalytic hydrolase domain...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Jae Wook Hyun, Rok Yeon Hwang, Kyung Eun Jung
Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) or Citrus mosaic sadwavirus (CiMV) were not consistently detected in RT-PCR assay with the primer sets based on gene of Japan isolates. SDV and CiMV isolates were distinctively divided into two groups based on phylogenetic analysis of PP2 gene cloned from 22 Korean isolates, and the Korean CiMV and SDV isolates shared 95.5-96.2% and 97.1-97.7% sequence identity with Japanese isolate, respectively. We developed PP2-1 primer set based on the PP2 gene sequence of Korean isolates to simultaneously and effectively detect SDV and CiMV...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Zohreh Moradi, Ehsan Nazifi, Mohsen Mehrvar
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is one of the most damaging viruses infecting sugarcane, maize and some other graminaceous species around the world. To investigate the genetic diversity of SCMV in Iran, the coat protein (CP) gene sequences of 23 SCMV isolates from different hosts were determined. The nucleotide sequence identity among Iranian isolates was more than 96%. They shared nucleotide identities of 75.5-99.9% with those of other SCMV isolates available in GenBank, the highest with the Egyptian isolate EGY7-1 (97...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Chokri Bayoudh, Manel Elair, Rahma Labidi, Afifa Majdoub, Naima Mahfoudhi, Messaoud Mars
Fig mosaic disease (FMD) is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A) of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29) and 80.0% (12/15) of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus) and 24...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Min Keun Kim, Sun Mi Lee, Su Won Seuk, Jae San Ryu, Hee Dae Kim, Jin Hyeuk Kwon, Yong Jo Choi, Han Dae Yun
RcsA is a positive activator of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis in the Enterobacteriaceae. The rcsA gene of the soft rot pathogen Pantoea sp. strain PPE7 in Pleurotus eryngii was cloned by PCR amplification, and its role in EPS synthesis and virulence was investigated. The RcsA protein contains 3 highly conserved domains, and the C-terminal end of the open reading frame shared significant amino acid homology to the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif of bacterial activator proteins. The inactivation of rcsA by insertional mutagenesis created mutants that had decreased production of EPS compared to the wild-type strain and abolished the virulence of Pantoea sp...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Dae-Sun Kang, Kyong-Jin Min, A-Min Kwak, Sang-Yeop Lee, Hee-Wan Kang
The spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of Lentinula edodes that was derived from sawdust bag cultivation was used as materials for controlling Phytophthora blight disease of pepper. Water extract from SMS (WESMS) of L. edodes inhibited mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici, suppressed Phytophthora blight disease of pepper seedlings by 65% and promoted growth of the plant over 30%. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, oxalic acid was detected as the main organic acid compound in WESMS and inhibited the fungal mycelium at a minimum concentration of 200 mg/l...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Yunhee Seo, Young Ho Kim
This study aims to examine the potential reasons for the current prevalence of the fusarium wilt in the oriental melon. Twenty-seven Fusarium isolates obtained from oriental melon greenhouses in 2010-2011 were identified morphologically and by analysis of elongation factor-1 alpha gene (EF-1α) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences as 6 Fusarium species (8 isolates of F. oxysporum, 8 F. commune, 5 F. proliferatum, 3 F. equiseti, 2 F. delphinoides, and 1 F. andiyazi), which were classified as same into 6 EF-1α sequence-based phylogenetic clades...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Angelyn Hilton, Huanming Zhang, Wenying Yu, Won-Bo Shim
Pokkah Boeng is a serious disease of sugarcane, which can lead to devastating yield losses in crop-producing regions, including southern China. However, there is still uncertainty about the causal agent of the disease. Our aim was to isolate and characterize the pathogen through morphological, physiological, and molecular analyses. We isolated sugarcane-colonizing fungi in Fujian, China. Isolated fungi were first assessed for their cell wall degrading enzyme capabilities, and five isolates were identified for further analysis...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Sidrat Abdullah, Sunish K Sehgal, Karl D Glover, Shaukat Ali
Rye (Secale cereale L.) serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (PTR) the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Jin-Sung Hong, Ho-Jong Ju
Plasmodesmata (PDs) are specialized intercellular channels that facilitate the exchange of various molecules, including sugars, ribonucleoprotein complexes, transcription factors, and mRNA. Their diameters, estimated to be 2.5 nm in the neck region, are too small to transfer viruses or viral genomes. Tobacco mosaic virus and Potexviruses are the most extensively studied viruses. In viruses, the movement protein (MP) is responsible for the PD gating that allows the intercellular movement of viral genomes. Various host factors interact with MP to regulate complicated mechanisms related to PD gating...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Kyung San Choi, Francisco Del Toro, Francisco Tenllado, Tomas Canto, Bong Nam Chung
The effect of temperature on the rate of systemic infection of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Chu-Baek) by Potato virus Y (PVY) was studied in growth chambers. Systemic infection of PVY was observed only within the temperature range of 16°C to 32°C. Within this temperature range, the time required for a plant to become infected systemically decreased from 14 days at 20°C to 5.7 days at 28°C. The estimated lower thermal threshold was 15.6°C and the thermal constant was 65.6 degree days. A systemic infection model was constructed based on experimental data, using the infection rate (Lactin-2 model) and the infection distribution (three-parameter Weibull function) models, which accurately described the completion rate curves to systemic infection and the cumulative distributions obtained in the PVY-potato system, respectively...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Aram Huh, Akanksha Dubey, Seongbeom Kim, Junhyun Jeon, Yong-Hwan Lee
Histone methylation plays important roles in regulating chromatin dynamics and transcription in eukaryotes. Implication of histone modifications in fungal pathogenesis is, however, beginning to emerge. Here, we report identification and functional analysis of a putative JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase in Magnaporthe oryzae. Through bioinformatics analysis, we identified seven genes, which encode putative histone demethylases containing JmjC domain. Deletion of one gene, MoJMJ1, belonging to JARID group, resulted in defects in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, appressorium formation as well as invasive growth in the fungus...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Zhi-Qiang Song, Ju-E Cheng, Fei-Xue Cheng, De-Yong Zhang, Yong Liu
Tylenchulus semipenetrans is an important and widespread plant-parasitic nematode of citrus worldwide and can cause citrus slow decline disease leading to significant reduction in tree growth and yield. Rapid and accurate detection of T. semipenetrans in soil is important for the disease forecasting and management. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect T. semipenetrans using DNA extracted from soil. A set of five primers was designed from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) of rDNA, and was highly specific to T...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Mahesh Adhikari, Dil Raj Yadav, Sang Woo Kim, Young Hyun Um, Hyun Seung Kim, Seong Chan Lee, Jeong Young Song, Hong Gi Kim, Youn Su Lee
Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), which is caused by Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious threat to watermelon growers around the world. The present study was conducted to screen effective rhizobacterial isolates against 35 different A. citrulli isolates and determine their efficacy on BFB and growth parameters of watermelon. Two rhizobacterial isolates viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa (SN-22), Sinomonas atrocyanea (NSB-27) showed high inhibitory activity in the preliminary screening and were further evaluated for their effect on BFB and growth parameters of three different watermelon varieties under greenhouse conditions...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
In Sun Hwang, Jen Brady, Gregory B Martin, Chang-Sik Oh
SlMAPKKKα, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is a positive regulator of Pto-mediated effector-triggered immunity, which elicits programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In this study, we examined whether putative phosphorylation sites in the conserved activation segment of the SlMAPKKKα kinase domain are critical for eliciting PCD. Three amino acids, threonine(353), serine(360) (Ser(360)), or serine(364) (Ser(364)), in the conserved activation segment of SlMAPKKKα kinase domain were substituted to alanine (T353A, S360A, or S364A), and these variants were transiently expressed in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Thao Thi Nguyen, Hyun-Hee Lee, Jungwook Park, Inmyoung Park, Young-Su Seo
As a step towards discovering novel pathogenesis-related proteins, we performed a genome scale computational identification and characterization of secreted and transmembrane (TM) proteins, which are mainly responsible for bacteria-host interactions and interactions with other bacteria, in the genomes of six representative Burkholderia species. The species comprised plant pathogens (B. glumae BGR1, B. gladioli BSR3), human pathogens (B. pseudomallei K96243, B. cepacia LO6), and plant-growth promoting endophytes (Burkholderia sp...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Ji-Su Kim, Nam Jun Kang, Youn-Sig Kwak, Choungkeun Lee
Fusarium wilts of strawberry, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, is a serious soil-borne disease. Fusarium wilt causes dramatic yield losses in commercial strawberry production and it is a very stubborn disease to control. Reliable chemical control of strawberry Fusarium wilt disease is not yet available. Moreover, other well-known F. oxysporum have different genetic information from F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae. This analysis investigates the genetic diversity of strawberry Fusairum wilt pathogen...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
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