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Plant Pathology Journal

Yi-Ru Lai, Pei-Yu Lin, Chao-Ying Chen, Chien-Jui Huang
Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Jeum Kyu Hong, Hyeon Ji Kim, Heesoo Jung, Hye Ji Yang, Do Hoon Kim, Chang Hyun Sung, Chang-Jin Park, Seog Won Chang
Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3)...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Wonsu Cheon, Young Soo Kim, Kotnala Balaraju, Bong-Su Kim, Byeong-Ho Lee, Yongho Jeon
To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Davoud Koolivand, Nemat Sokhandan Bashir, Seyed Aliakbar Behjatnia, Raziallah Jafari Joozani
The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) encoding the movement protein (MP) was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM) each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blotting...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
In-Sook Cho, Davaajargal Igori, Seungmo Lim, Gug-Seoun Choi, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim, Jae Sun Moon
Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Min-Seong Kyeon, Soo-Hyeong Son, Young-Hee Noh, Yong-Eon Kim, Hyok-In Lee, Jae-Soon Cha
In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX) were reclassified into 4 species-Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Hun Kim, Eun Ju Jo, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Gyung Ja Choi
Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams' hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Tian-Min Qiao, Jing Zhang, Shu-Jiang Li, Shan Han, Tian-Hui Zhu
Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium, has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1) and beta-tubulin gene in this study...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Theresa Lee, Ji-Seon Paek, Kyung Ah Lee, Soohyung Lee, Jung-Hye Choi, Hyeonheui Ham, Sung Kee Hong, Jae-Gee Ryu
Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) causes Fusarium head blight in small grain cereals. To date, four species (F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, F. boothii, and F. meridionale ) belonging to FGSC frequently occur in Korean cereals. In addition, we first reported the occurrence of additional species (F. vorosii ) within FGSC, which was isolated from barley, corn, and rice in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the Fusarium isolates of this group using combined multi-gene sequences confirmed species identification...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
M Shahul Hamid Rahamah Bivi, Adamu Saidu Paiko, Ahmad Khairulmazmi, M S Akhtar, Abu Seman Idris
Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Laura Gálvez, Jéssica Gil-Serna, Marta García, Concepción Iglesias, Daniel Palmero
The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Namgyu Kim, Jinnyun Kim, Bongjun Bang, Inyoung Kim, Hyun-Hee Lee, Jungwook Park, Young-Su Seo
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, is one of the most important viruses of cultivated tomatoes worldwide, mainly causing yellowing and curling of leaves with stunting in plants. TYLCV causes severe problems in sub-tropical and tropical countries, as well as in Korea. However, the mechanism of TYLCV infection remains unclear, although the function of each viral component has been identified. TYLCV C4 codes for a small protein involved in various cellular functions, including symptom determination, gene silencing, viral movement, and induction of the plant defense response...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Sang-Ho Park, Hoseong Choi, Semin Kim, Won Kyong Cho, Kook-Hyung Kim
Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP), but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the necrotic cell death on the infiltrated leaves...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Yu-Rim Song, Min-Seon Choi, Geun-Won Choi, Il-Kwon Park, Chang-Sik Oh
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Ga Young Jung, Ju Yeon Park, Hyo Ju Choi, Sung-Je Yoo, Jung-Kwon Park, Ho Won Jung
ALD1 (ABERRANT GROWTH AND DEATH2 [AGD2]-LIKE DEFENSE1) is one of the key defense regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. In these model plants, ALD1 is responsible for triggering basal defense response and systemic resistance against bacterial infection. As well ALD1 is involved in the production of pipecolic acid and an unidentified compound(s) for systemic resistance and priming syndrome, respectively. These previous studies proposed that ALD1 is a potential candidate for developing genetically modified (GM) plants that may be resistant to pathogen infection...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Md Zaherul Islam, Hae Keun Yun
Plants protect themselves from pathogen attacks via several mechanisms, including hypersensitive cell death. Recognition of pathogen attack by the plant resistance gene triggers expression of carboxylesterase genes associated with hypersensitive response. We identified six transcripts of carboxylesterase genes, Vitis flexuosa carboxylesterase 5585 (VfCXE5585), VfCXE12827, VfCXE13132, VfCXE17159, VfCXE18231, and VfCXE47674, which showed different expression patterns upon transcriptome analysis of V. flexuosa inoculated with Elsinoe ampelina...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Joung A Son, Chan Sik Jung, Hye Rim Han
To understand how Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills pine trees, the differences between the effects of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus on pine trees are usually compared. In this study, the migration and attacking ability of a non-pathogenic B. mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii were investigated. The distribution of B. mucronatus and the number of dead epithelial cells resulting from inoculation were compared with those of the pathogenic B. xylophilus. Although B. mucronatus is non-pathogenic in pines, its distribution pattern in P...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Byeong-Yong Park, Jae-Kook Lee, Hee-Myong Ro, Young Ho Kim
The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/4(2), 1/4(3), and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Bong Nam Chung, Tomas Canto, Francisco Tenllado, Kyung San Choi, Jae Ho Joa, Jeong Joon Ahn, Chun Hwan Kim, Ki Seck Do
We examined the effects of temperature on acquisition of Potato virus Y-O (PVY-O), Potato virus A (PVA), and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae by performing transmission tests with aphids that acquired each virus at different temperatures. Infection by PVY-O/PVA and PLRV increased with increasing plant temperature in Nicotiana benthamiana and Physalis floridana, respectively, after being transmitted by aphids that acquired them within a temperature range of 10-20°C. However, infection rates subsequently decreased...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Sung Pae Chang, Yong Ho Jeon, Young Ho Kim
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag ) is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of the soybean that causes bacterial pustules and is a nonhost pathogen of the chili pepper. In the current study, chili pepper fruit wound inoculated in planta with Xag 8ra formed necrotic lesions on the fruit surface and induced several structural and chemical barriers systemically in the fruit tissue. The initial defense response included programmed cell death of necrotizing and necrotized cells, which was characterized by nuclear DNA cleavage, as detected by TUNEL-confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and phosphatidylserine exposure on cell walls distal to the infection site, as detected by Annexin V FLUOS-CLSM...
August 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
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