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Plant Pathology Journal

Alexis Salazar-Iribe, Esther Zúñiga-Sánchez, Emma Zavaleta Mejía, Alicia Gamboa-deBuen
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infects a variety of plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana. During migration, root-knot nematodes secrete different proteins to modify cell walls, which include pectolytic enzymes. However, the contribution of host cell wall proteins has not been described during this process. The function of two DUF642 cell wall proteins, BIIDXI (BDX, At4g32460) and TEEBE (TEB, At2g41800), in plant development could be related to the regulation of pectin methyl esterification status in the cell walls of different tissues...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Ik-Hyun Kim, Jae-Yeong Han, In-Sook Cho, HyeKyoung Ju, Jae Sun Moon, Eun-Young Seo, Hong Gi Kim, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
The full-length sequence of a new isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from Korea was divergent, but most closely related to the Japanese isolate A4, at 84% nucleotide identity. The full-length cDNA of the Korean isolate of ACLSV was cloned into a binary vector downstream of the bacteriophage T7 RNA promoter and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Chenopodium quinoa was successfully infected using in vitro transcripts synthesized using the T7 promoter, detected at 20 days post inoculation (dpi), but did not produce obvious symptoms...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Hye-Jee Park, Sang-Wook Han
Segregation and condensation protein B (ScpB) is essential for replication and segregation in living organisms. Here, we reported the functions of ScpBXv (ScpB-like protein in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) using phenotypic and proteomic analyses. Growth of XcvΔscpBXv (ScpBXv knockout mutant) was reduced under both slow and fast growth conditions in rich medium, but comparable to this of the wild-type in plant-mimic conditions. Interestingly, the mutant was significantly less virulent than the wild-type in tomato, indicating that ScpBXv is involved in virulence...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Jin-Xin Gao, Jie Chen
The clpks18 gene was first cloned and identified in Curvularia lunata. It contains 6571 base pairs (bp) and an 6276 bp open reading frame encoding 2091 amino acids. The ClPKS18 deletion mutant displayed an albino phenotype, and almost lost the ability to product 5-(hydroxymethyl) furan-2-carboxylate (M5HF2C) toxin, implying that clpks18 gene in C. lunata is not only involved in 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin synthesis, but also relatively associated with M5HF2C toxin biosynthesis of the pathogen. The pathogenicity assays revealed that ΔClPKS18 was impaired in colonizing the maize leaves, which corresponds to the finding that ClPKS18 controls the production of melanin and M5HF2C in C...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Ji Won Lee, Jihye Choi, Jin-Won Kim
Chemical management of dollar spot in turf may lead to the development of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa populations with reduced fungicide sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance of S. homoeocarpa isolates to triazole fungicides and to test cross-resistance among three triazole fungicides. A total of 66 isolates of S. homoeocarpa were collected from 15 golf courses across Korea, and tested via in vitro sensitivity assay against hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole. EC50 values of the isolates to these fungicides were distributed in the range of 0...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Jin Young Park, Su Hyeon Kim, Na Hee Kim, Sang Woo Lee, Yong-Chull Jeun, Jeum Kyu Hong
The objective of this study was to determine inhibitory activities of four volatile plant essential oils (cinnamon oil, fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil) on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae causing Fusarium wilt of strawberry plants. Results showed that these essential oils inhibited in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in a dose-dependent manner. Cinnamon oil was found to be most effective one in suppressing conidial germination while fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil showed moderate inhibition of conidial germination at similar levels...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Lidia Elena Ayón-Reyna, José Ángel López-Valenzuela, Francisco Delgado-Vargas, Martha Edith López-López, Francisco Javier Molina-Corral, Armando Carrillo-López, Misael Odín Vega-García
Anthracnose of papaya fruit caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most economically important postharvest diseases. Hot water immersion (HW) and calcium chloride (Ca) treatments have been used to control papaya postharvest diseases; however, the effect of the combination HW-Ca on the pathogen growth and the development of the disease in infected papaya fruit has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the HW-Ca treatment on the in vitro growth of C...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Badra Bouamama-Gzara, Ilhem Selmi, Samir Chebil, Imene Melki, Ahmed Mliki, Abdelwahed Ghorbel, Angela Carra, Francesco Carimi, Naima Mahfoudhi
Prospecting of local grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) and Grapevine virus A (GVA), were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Irene Donati, Sofia Mauri, Giampaolo Buriani, Antonio Cellini, Francesco Spinelli
After 20 years of steady increase, kiwifruit industry faced a severe arrest due to the pandemic spread of the bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa). The bacterium penetrates the host plant primarily via natural openings or wounds, and its spread is mainly mediated by atmospheric events and cultural activities. Since the role of sucking insects as vectors of bacterial pathogens is widely documented, we investigated the ability of Metcalfa pruinosa Say (1830), one of the most common kiwifruit pests, to transmit Psa to healthy plants in laboratory conditions...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Brian Gagosh Nayyar, Steve Woodward, Luis A J Mur, Abida Akram, Muhammad Arshad, S M Saqlan Naqvi, Shaista Akhund
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is an important oil seed crop of Asia. Yields can be negatively impacted by various factors, including disease, particularly those caused by fungi which create problems in both production and storage. Foliar diseases of sesame such as Alternaria leaf blight may cause significant yield losses, with reductions in plant health and seed quality. The work reported here determined the incidence of Alternaria species infecting sesame seeds grown in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 428 Alternaria isolates were obtained from 105 seed samples and grouped into 36 distinct taxonomic groups based on growth pattern and morphological characters...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Gnanendra Shanmugam, Junhyun Jeon
Control of plant diseases is largely dependent on use of agrochemicals. However, there are widening gaps between our knowledge on plant diseases gained from genetic/mechanistic studies and rapid translation of the knowledge into target-oriented development of effective agrochemicals. Here we propose that the time is ripe for computer-aided drug discovery/design (CADD) in molecular plant pathology. CADD has played a pivotal role in development of medically important molecules over the last three decades. Now, explosive increase in information on genome sequences and three dimensional structures of biological molecules, in combination with advances in computational and informational technologies, opens up exciting possibilities for application of CADD in discovery and development of agrochemicals...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Bong Nam Chung, Sang Wook Koh, Kyung San Choi, Jae Ho Joa, Chun Hwan Kim, Gopal Selvakumar
We determined the effects of atmospheric temperature (10-30 ± 2°C in 5°C increments) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels (400 ± 50 ppm, 540 ± 50 ppm, and 940 ± 50 ppm) on the infection of Solanum tuberosum cv. Chubaek by Potato leafroll virus (PLRV). Below CO2 levels of 400 ± 50 ppm, the PLRV infection rate and RNA content in plant tissues increased as the temperature increased to 20 ± 2°C, but declined at higher temperatures. At high CO2 levels (940 ± 50 ppm), more plants were infected by PLRV at 30 ± 2°C than at 20 or 25 ± 2°C, whereas PLRV RNA content was unchanged in the 20-30 ± 2°C temperature range...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Muhammad Nouman Tahir, Amir Hameed, Imran Amin, Shahid Mansoor
Spinach is a vegetable crop which is widely grown over a large area especially in Punjab province of Pakistan. Leaf curling and enations on spinach plant collected shown to be associated with the begomovirus Pedilanthus leaf curl virus (PeLCV) and Shahdadpur strain of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB(Sha)). Defective molecules of half and quarter size derived from monopartite begomoviruses are usually generated by the deletion of virion-sense sequences. Characterization of defective molecules of PeLCV from spinach revealed that the molecules of half the size are derived from the deletion of complementary-sense genes while quarter size molecule appears to have evolved by further deletion...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Nina Sihelská, Zuzana Vozárová, Lukáš Predajňa, Katarína Šoltys, Martina Hudcovicová, Daniel Mihálik, Ján Kraic, Michaela Mrkvová, Otakar Kúdela, Miroslav Glasa
The complete genome sequence of a Slovak SL-1 isolate of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was determined from the next generation sequencing (NGS) data, further confirming a limited sequence divergence in this tobamovirus species. Tomato genotypes Monalbo, Mobaci and Moperou, respectively carrying the susceptible tm-2 allele or the Tm-1 and Tm-2 resistant alleles, were tested for their susceptibility to ToMV SL-1. Although the three tomato genotypes accumulated ToMV SL-1 to similar amounts as judged by semi-quantitative DAS-ELISA, they showed variations in the rate of infection and symptomatology...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Theresa Lee, Dami Park, Kihyun Kim, Seong Mi Lim, Nan Hee Yu, Sosoo Kim, Hwang-Yong Kim, Kyu Seok Jung, Ja Yeong Jang, Jong-Chul Park, Hyeonheui Ham, Soohyung Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Jin-Cheol Kim
In an attempt to develop a biological control agent against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species, we isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain DA12 from soil and explored its antimicrobial activities. DA12 was active against the growth of mycotoxigenic F. asiaticum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides both in vitro and in planta (maize). Further screening using dual culture extended the activity range of strain DA12 against other fungal pathogens including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Endothia parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Rhizoctonia solani...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Seong Mi Lim, Mi-Young Yoon, Gyung Ja Choi, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Teak Soo Shin, Hae Woong Park, Nan Hee Yu, Young Ho Kim, Jin-Cheol Kim
The aim of this study was to identify volatile and agar-diffusible antifungal metabolites produced by Bacillus sp. G341 with strong antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi. Strain G341 isolated from four-year-old roots of Korean ginseng with rot symptoms was identified as Bacillus velezensis based on 16S rDNA and gyrA sequences. Strain G341 inhibited mycelial growth of all phytopathogenic fungi tested. In vivo experiment results revealed that n-butanol extract of fermentation broth effectively controlled the development of rice sheath blight, tomato gray mold, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, barley powdery mildew, and red pepper anthracnose...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Yeonhwa Jo, Hoseong Choi, Miah Bae, Sang-Min Kim, Sun-Lim Kim, Bong Choon Lee, Won Kyong Cho, Kook-Hyung Kim
Soybean is the most important legume crop in the world. Several diseases in soybean lead to serious yield losses in major soybean-producing countries. Moreover, soybean can be infected by diverse viruses. Recently, we carried out a large-scale screening to identify viruses infecting soybean using available soybean transcriptome data. Of the screened transcriptomes, a soybean transcriptome for soybean seed development analysis contains several virus-associated sequences. In this study, we identified five viruses, including soybean mosaic virus (SMV), infecting soybean by de novo transcriptome assembly followed by blast search...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Jaedeok Kim, Jung Wook Yang, Hae-Ryun Kwak, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Jang-Kyun Seo, Mi-Nam Chung, Hyeong-Un Lee, Kyeong-Bo Lee, Sang Sik Nam, Chang-Seok Kim, Gwan-Seok Lee, Jeong-Soo Kim, Sukchan Lee, Hong-Soo Choi
A nationwide survey was performed to investigate the current incidence of viral diseases in Korean sweet potatoes for germplasm and growing fields from 2011 to 2014. A total of 83.8% of the germplasm in Korea was infected with viruses in 2011. Commercial cultivars that were used to supply growing fields were infected at a rate of 62.1% in 2012. Among surveyed viruses, the incidence of five Potyvirus species that infect sweet potato decreased between 2012 and 2013, and then increased again in 2014. Representatively, the incidence of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) was 87...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
So Eui Lee, Ravi Gupta, Ramesha H Jayaramaiah, Seo Hyun Lee, Yiming Wang, Sang-Ryeol Park, Sun Tae Kim
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causative agent of bacterial blight, is a major threat to rice productivity. Here, we performed RNA-Seq based transcriptomic analysis of Xoo transcripts isolated under in planta growth (on both susceptible and resistant hosts) and in vitro culture conditions. Our in planta extraction method resulted in successful enrichment of Xoo cells and provided RNA samples of high quality. A total of 4,619 differentially expressed genes were identified between in planta and in vitro growth conditions...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Gyoung Hee Kim, Kyoung Youn Jo, Jong Sup Shin, Gil Ho Shin, Young Jin Koh
Scabs caused by Venturia carpophila greatly reduce the quality of the fruits of the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) when the disease is not properly managed. The disease produces a superficial blemish that is unlikely to affect the overall yield of processed fruit, but reduce the value of fruit intended for the fresh market. Incidence rates of scab at sprayed and unsprayed orchards range from 0% to 21.5% and from 30.2% to 100%, respectively, in the major cultivation regions of Jeonnam Province during the growing season of 2009...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
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