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Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry

Paula Scanavez Ferreira, Francesca Damiani Victorelli, Bruno Fonseca-Santos, Marlus Chorilli
p-Coumaric acid (p-CA), also known as 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, is a phenolic acid, which has been widely studied due to its beneficial effects against several diseases and its wide distribution in the plant kingdom. This phenolic compound can be found in the free form or conjugated with other molecules; therefore, its bioavailability and the pathways via which it is metabolized change according to its chemical structure. p-CA has potential pharmacological effects because it has high free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, and antimicrobial activities, among other biological properties...
May 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Tiago Monteiro, Maria Gabriela Almeida
Worldwide legislation is driving the development of novel and highly efficient analytical tools for assessing the composition of every material that interacts with Consumers or Nature. The biosensor technology is one of the most active R&D domains of Analytical Sciences focused on the challenge of taking analytical chemistry to the field. Electrochemical biosensors based on redox enzymes, in particular, are highly appealing due to their usual quick response, high selectivity and sensitivity, low cost and portable dimensions...
May 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Xinhui Zhou, Jiaran Zhang, Zhongli Pan, Daoliang Li
Malachite green (MG) has been widely used in the aquaculture industry as a fungicide and parasiticide because of its high efficiency and low cost, and it is commonly found in aquatic products and environmental water. However, MG and its primary metabolite, leuco-malachite green (LMG), are also toxic inorganic contaminants that are hazardous to the health of humans and other organisms. A variety of methods have been proposed in recent years for detecting and monitoring MG and LMG. This article was compiled as a general review of the methods proposed for MG and LMG detection, and several important detection parameters, such as the limit of detection, recovery and relative standard deviation, were tabulated...
May 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Anjum Gahlaut, Vinita Hooda, Ashish Gothwal, Vikas Hooda
In the present era of rapid international globalization and industrialization, intensive use of nitrite as a fertilizing agent in agriculture, preservative, dyeing agent, food additive and as corrosion inhibitor in industrial sectors is adversely effecting environment, natural habitats and human health. The issue of toxicity and carcinogenicity due to excessive ingestion of nitrites via the dietary intake has led to an imminent need for its efficient real-time monitoring in situ. Nitrite detection employing electrochemical biosensors has been gaining high credibility in the field of clinical research...
May 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Gilmar Hanck da Silva, Mariza Aires Fernandes, Lucas Noboru Fatori Trevizan, Felipe Tita de Lima, Josimar O Eloy, Marlus Chorilli
Docetaxel (DTX) is an antineoplastic agent of the second generation of the taxoid family. It is a semi-synthetic drug prepared from a precursor extracted of the plant Taxus baccata. The commercial formulation of DTX, Taxotere®, employs the surfactant polysorbate 80, due to the low water solubility of the drug, causing several side effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop delivery systems to reduce the side effects of DTX. In addition, this drug has been qualitative and quantitatively analyzed in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples...
April 27, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Maider Greño, María Luisa Marina, María Castro-Puyana
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one of the most widely employed analytical techniques to achieve enantiomeric separations. In spite of the fact that there are many chiral selectors commercially available to perform enantioseparations by CE, one of the most relevant topics in this field is the search for new selectors capable of providing high enantiomeric resolutions. Chiral ionic liquids (CILs) have interesting characteristics conferring them a high potential in chiral separations although only some of them are commercially available...
April 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Hanna Barchanska, Magdalena Danek, Marcin Sajdak, Marian Turek
The aim of this article is to present the trends in extraction techniques applied for the isolation of pesticides from plant matrix. To fully compare the effectiveness of different extraction techniques, it was required to analyze compounds with possibly wide spectrum of physicochemical properties. Hence, compounds representing neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, sulfonylureas and phenylamides were selected. Based on literature studies, it may be concluded that there are three main approaches to make the analytical procedures for pesticides determination more effective: (i) the optimization of extraction conditions, however, according to ANOVA conducted on the collected literature data, not all parameters influence the extraction process equally; chemometric studies based on literature reports may lead to the conclusion that the most favorable conditions (criterion: analyte recovery, repeatability) for neonicotinoid, pyrethroid and sulfonylurea herbicide extraction from plant tissues are provided by QuEChERS - extraction with acetonitrile, while the mixtures of PSA and GCB (for neonicotinoids), and PSA, GCB, C18 (for pyrethroids) should be used in d-SPE step...
April 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Tulshidas S Patil, Ashwini S Deshpande, Shirish Deshpande
Clofazimine (CFZ), a riminophenazine derivative and a crucial drug in the treatment of lepromatous leprosy, has been reintroduced clinically to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. CFZ holds both antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. But, due to its highly hydrophobic, polar and photosensitive nature, it is challenging to extract and quantify the drug from different biological fluids and its pharmaceutical formulations. This has also hampered the pharmacokinetic evaluation of the CFZ. This article accentuates various analytical methods viz...
April 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Robina Begum, Zahoor H Farooqi, Khalida Naseem, Faisal Ali, Madeeha Batool, Jianliang Xiao, Ahmad Irfan
Noble metal nanoparticles loaded smart polymer microgels have gained much attention due to fascinating combination of their properties in a single system. These hybrid systems have been extensively used in biomedicines, photonics, and catalysis. Hybrid microgels are characterized by using various techniques but UV/Vis spectroscopy is an easily available technique for characterization of noble metal nanoparticles loaded microgels. This technique is widely used for determination of size and shape of metal nanoparticles...
March 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Ana Carolina Kogawa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Rifaximin, an oral antimicrobial, has many advantages because it is selective intestine, has minimal adverse effects and is used for the treatment of some diseases such as hepatic encephalopathy, irritable bowel syndrome, travelers' diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Clostridium difficile and acute diarrhea. Rifaximin in the form of 200 mg tablets is commercially available. The crystalline α form is therapeutically safe and effective. In most of the official compendia, rifaximin has no monograph and in none of them is there a monograph for rifaximin tablets...
March 26, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Marta Sánchez-Paniagua López, Carmen Lorena Manzanares-Palenzuela, Beatriz López-Ruiz
In the nearly two decades since genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were first commercialized, genetically engineered crops have gained ground on their conventional counterparts, reaching 185 million hectares worldwide in 2016. The technology has bestowed most of its benefits on enhancing crop productivity with two main traits currently dominating the market: insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops. Despite their rapid and vast adoption by farmers worldwide, GMOs have generated heated debates, especially in European countries (EU), driven mostly by consumers concerned about safety of transgenic foods and about the potential impact on the environment...
March 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Abdalla Ahmed Elbashir, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
Multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) is well-established GC method used for a diverse range of applications. Enantioselective MDGC (enantio-MDGC) has been suggested as the method of preference for the separation of extremely overlapping enantiomers. An extensive number of literatures describe enantio-MDGC of polychlorinated biphenyls, essential oils and flavor and fragrance and amino acids were reported. In this review, the applications of MDGC approaches both, heart cutting GC-GC and comprehensive GC × GC in chiral analysis is presented...
March 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Muhammad Imran Din, Aneela Rani
The green fabrication of nanoparticles (NPs) by using plants as reducing and capping agents involves energy efficient, less toxic, safer and simpler pathways. These pathways have been related to the rational use of numerous substances in fabrication of NPs and synthetic strategies, which have been mainly discussed in this article. The subject matter of this review is to discuss how a chemist can follow the green chemistry principles in terms of selection of substances and protocols used for NPs fabrication...
March 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Tong Shu, Jianxing Wang, Lei Su, Xueji Zhang
Recent researches in metal nanoclusters (NCs) have prompted their promising practical applications in biomedical fields as novel inorganic luminophores. More recently, to further improve the photoluminescence (PL) performance of NCs, the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect has been introduced to develop highly luminescent metal NCs and metal complex materials. In this review, we start our discussion from recent progresses on AIE materials developments. Then, we address our understandings on the PL properties of thiolated metal NCs...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Żaneta Bargańska, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Jacek Namieśnik
Bumblebees play an important role in the pollination process of many crops and flowers. Therefore, taking action to protect and assess the impact of pesticides on these insects is fully justified. Pesticides may cause mortality and also sub-lethal effects that are not always directly visible. Bumblebees, like honeybees, can be used as indicators for environmental monitoring contamination. Two approaches are mainly used for the determination of pesticide residues in pollinating insects: a toxicological test (to know effects) and multi-stage analytical methodologies (to know exposure)...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Zygfryd Witkiewicz, Slawomir Neffe, Ewa Sliwka, Javier Quagliano
Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997)...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Rosa A S Couto, Luís Moreira Gonçalves, Félix Carvalho, José A Rodrigues, Cecília M P Rodrigues, M Beatriz Quinaz
Since the turn of the century, the synthesis, availability, and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly reported worldwide, being considered a complex global phenomenon. As most NPS are not detected in routine drug screening, extra efforts have been made to develop new analytical methods for the detection of these compounds, with several approaches being successfully applied and reported in the literature. The increased traffic of NPS is often related to the limited capacity for detecting and monitoring these compounds, which makes it essential to explore in detail both conventional and more recent approaches to prospect novel sensing strategies and develop in-the-field sensors that are able to detect NPS in a time-efficient manner, within a wide range of concentrations, and in a variety of sample matrices, such as biological samples, wastewater, powders, crystals, and post-mortem specimens...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Marilene Lopes Ângelo, Fernanda de Lima Moreira, André Luís Morais Ruela, Ana Laura Araújo Santos, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Magali Benjamim de Araújo
Rosuvastatin calcium (ROS), ( Figure 1 ) belongs to the "statins" group, which is the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. This drug is indicated for dyslipidemias treatment and can help to decrease the level of "bad cholesterol" and can consequently reduce the development of atherosclerosis and the risk of heart diseases. ROS was developed by Astra-Zeneca and it was approved in 2003 by the FDA in the United States. In 2015, under the trade name Crestor®, it was the fourth largest selling drug in the United States with sales above $5 billion...
July 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Eric Carmona, Yolanda Picó
The consumption of compounds that improve the human health and wellness is increasing, and as a result, the residues of these substances reach the environment or food chain. For this reason, the scientific community is looking for new analytical methods that are more accurate and can detect the greatest number of compounds in different matrices. This manuscript compares different studies in abiotic and biotic matrices, where most of them (92%) uses Liquid Chromatography to separate the compounds. For the detection, most of the studies for both matrices uses, coupled to the chromatograph, a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (50%) due to the precision to quantify the concentration of these compounds...
July 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Samin Hamidi, Nastaran Alipour-Ghorbani, Aliasghar Hamidi
The detection and quantification of biomarkers is gaining attention in medical research and diagnostics communities. Biomarkers cover a range from gases to biological macromolecules. Because of the nanomolar range levels of typical biomarkers in plasma, blood, urine, exhalation samples, and other biological fluids as well as complex matrix of biological media, adequate sample preparation methods should be used for quantification of biomarkers. The performance of an analytical method for biomarkers should support reproducible and accurate data...
July 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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