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Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry

Zhichao Zhang, Hefa Cheng
Used heavily in food animal production, quinolones occur widely in food products of animal origin. Development of highly sensitive and selective analytical techniques for the detection of quinolone residues, often at trace levels, in food samples is necessary to ensure food safety and understand their public health risk. With complex matrices, food samples typically require a series of pretreatment steps, such as powdering, homogenization, deproteinization, and filtration. This review summarizes the recent advances in extraction, concentration, and detection techniques for quinolones in food product samples, and briefly compares the advantages and limitations of major techniques...
December 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Maciej Milanowski, Paweł Pomastowski, Tomasz Ligor, Bogusław Buszewski
Saliva is an aqueous fluid found in the oral cavity playing fundamental role in the preservation and maintenance of oral health. Apart from higher-molecular-weight constituents it contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may origin from such sources as blood or be result of bacterial metabolism. They can also reach the oral fluid through dissolving of volatiles from breath and consumed foods. Some of them may serve as biomarkers of various diseases, such as dimethyl disulfide (halitosis), pyridine (periodontal disease) and trimethylamine (trimethylaminuria) or occupational exposure...
December 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Hanna Męczykowska, Paulina Kobylis, Piotr Stepnowski, Magda Caban
Passive sampling is one of the most efficient methods of monitoring pharmaceuticals in environmental water. The reliability of the process relies on a correctly performed calibration experiment and a well-defined sampling rate (Rs) for target analytes. Therefore, in this review the state-of-the-art methods of passive sampler calibration for the most popular pharmaceuticals: antibiotics, hormones, β-blockers and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), along with the sampling rate variation, were presented...
November 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Andrei A Bunaciu, Vu Dang Hoang, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared and Raman), and in particular micro-spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopic imaging has been used to characterize developmental changes in tissues, to monitor these changes in cell cultures, and to detect disease and drug-induced modifications. The conventional methods for biochemical and histophatological tissue characterisation necessitate complex and "time consuming" sample manipulations and the results are rarely quantifiable. The spectroscopy of molecular vibrations using mid-infrared or Raman techniques has been applied to samples of human tissue...
October 27, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Cafer Saka
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were the first type of antidepressant developed. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, and several other disorders. Therefore, it is very important to develop efficient analytical methods for monitoring and management. There are two isoforms of monoamine oxidase, MAO-A and MAO-B. In this article, analyses of MAOIs in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids were reviewed from 2000 to the present, including all types of chromatographic, spectrophotometric, electrophoretic, and voltammetric techniques, focusing on isoniazid, tranylcypromine, moclobemide, rasagiline, and selegiline...
October 7, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
M Kątny, M Frankowski
Analytical methods should be selective and fast. In modern times, scientists strive to meet the criteria of green chemistry, so they choose analytical procedures that are as short as possible and use the least toxic solvents. It is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption should be characterized as completely as possible. The safety of a drug is dependent mainly on the impurities that it contains. High pressure liquid chromatography and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography have been proposed as the main techniques for forced degradation and impurity profiling...
September 29, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Massoud Kaykhaii, Matthew R Linford
Here, we discuss the newly developed micro and solventless sample preparation techniques SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) and MESI (Membrane Extraction with a Sorbent Interface) as applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thermal oxidative degradation products of polymers and their stabilizers. The coupling of these systems to analytical instruments is also described. Our comprehensive literature search revealed that there is no previously published review article on this topic. It is shown that these extraction techniques are valuable sample preparation tools for identifying complex series of degradation products in polymers...
September 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Rúbia Adrieli Sversut, Adriane Andrade da Silva, Teófilo Fernando Mazon Cardoso, Nájla Mohamad Kassab, Marcos Serrou do Amaral, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Antibiotics have an unquestionable importance in the treatment of many infections. Oxytetracycline is an antibiotic belonging to the class of tetracyclines, available for use in human and veterinary medicine. Development of analytical methods that prove the quality and efficacy of these drugs is fundamentally important to the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, the research presents an overview of the analytical profile of oxytetracycline, describing its chemical and pharmacological properties, and analytical methods for quantification of this drug in biological samples and pharmaceutical products...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Michael J Kangas, Raychelle M Burks, Jordyn Atwater, Rachel M Lukowicz, Pat Williams, Andrea E Holmes
There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes...
September 16, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Jyoti Boken, Sarvesh K Soni, Dinesh Kumar
We present an extensive overview of the evolution and progress made in the field of microstructures and nanostructures preparation using microfluidic techniques in recent times. A microfluidic system creates particles that are within a narrow range of shape and size distribution. It enables controlling the shape, size and composition of nanomaterials (NMs) for various applications. A brief evaluation of the advantages of both droplet-based and continuous flow synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is discussed in detail and compared with the traditional wet chemical batch synthesis approach...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Sze Y Tan, Caleb Acquah, Amandeep Sidhu, Clarence M Ongkudon, L S Yon, Michael K Danquah
The quest to improve the detection of biomolecules and cells in health and life sciences has led to the discovery and characterization of various affinity bioprobes. Libraries of synthetic oligonucleotides (ssDNA/ssRNA) with randomized sequences are employed during Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) to select highly specific affinity probes called aptamers. With much focus on the generation of aptamers for a variety of target molecules, conventional SELEX protocols have been modified to develop new and improved SELEX protocols yielding highly specific and stable aptamers...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Vasilica Ţucureanu, Alina Matei, Andrei Marius Avram
Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a versatile technique for the characterization of materials belonging to the carbon family. Based on the interaction of the IR radiation with matter this technique may be used for the identification and characterization of chemical structures. Most important features of this method are: non-destructive, real-time measurement and relatively easy to use. Carbon basis for all living systems has found numerous industrial applications from carbon coatings (i.e. amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films: diamond-like carbon (DLC) films) to nanostructured materials (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene) and carbon materials at nanoscale or carbon dots (CDots)...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
B Ramachandra
Modafinil is a synthetic molecule used for the treatment of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder, due to which people experience frequent excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Nevertheless, there are some concerns about modafnil quality control. The modafinil enantiomers are both biologically active. However, it has been reported that the pharmacological properties of the both enantiomers are different and that the S-enantiomer is eliminated three times faster than the R-enantiomer. Therefore, most of the pharmaceutical companies have shifted to produce armodafinil (R-enantiomer) instead of the racemate...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Elodie Lussac, Regis Barattin, Pascal Cardinael, Valerie Agasse
Over 30 years, portable systems for fast and reliable gas analysis are at the core of both academic and industrial research. Miniaturized systems can be helpful in several domains. The way to make it possible is to miniaturize the whole gas chromatograph. Micro-system conception by etching silicon channel is well known. The main objective is to obtain similar or superior efficiencies to those obtained from laboratory chromatographs. However, stationary phase coatings on silicon surface and micro-detector conception with a low limit of detection remain a challenge...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Bin Yang, Jianping Li, Huan Deng, Lianming Zhang
The need to develop innovative and reformative approaches to synthesize chemical sensors has increased in recent years because of demands for selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Mimetic enzymes provide an efficient and convenient method for chemical sensors. This review summarizes the application of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors. Mimetic enzymes can be classified into five categories: hydrolases, oxidoreductases, transferases, isomerases, and induced enzymes. Potential and recent applications of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors are reviewed in detail, and the outlook of profound development has been illustrated...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
N T Brannelly, J P Hamilton-Shield, A J Killard
Ammonia is an important component of metabolism and is involved in many physiological processes. During normal physiology, levels of blood ammonia are between 11 and 50 µM. Elevated blood ammonia levels are associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as liver and kidney dysfunction, Reye's syndrome and a variety of inborn errors of metabolism including urea cycle disorders (UCD), organic acidaemias and hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia syndrome in which ammonia may reach levels in excess of 1 mM...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Cyprian Fijało, Tomasz Dymerski, Jacek Gębicki, Jacek Namieśnik
For many years there has been growing demand for gaseous reference materials, which is connected with development in many fields of science and technology. As a result, new methodological and instrumental solutions appear that can be used for this purpose. Appropriate quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) must be used to make sure that measurement data are a reliable source of information. Reference materials are a significant element of such systems. In the case of gas samples, such materials are generally called reference gas mixtures...
September 2, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Mohammad Asaduddin Laskar, Sana Siddiqui, Aminul Islam
1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) is a heterocyclic azo compound that forms inner, mostly reddish colored, water-insoluble chelates with many transition metal ions with metal ion-ligand ratios of 1:1 or 1:2. PAN is rather unselective but it does not form complexes with the alkali and alkaline earth metals, Ge(IV), As, Se and Te. Numerous reported techniques of pre-concentration have been considered for analyzing the role of PAN on the physiochemical outcome of the procedures. PAN been used as a chelating precipitant, flocculant, auxiliary complexing agent, as a ligand for anchoring on other supports with the purpose of introducing chelating property as well as selectivity...
September 2, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Susheela Rani, Ashok Kumar Malik, Ramandeep Kaur, Ripneel Kaur
The analysis of drugs in various biological fluids is an important criterion for the determination of the physiological performance of a drug. After sampling of the biological fluid, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Sample preparation is essential for isolation of desired components from complex biological matrices and greatly influences their reliable and accurate determination. The complexity of biological fluids adds to the challenge of direct determination of the drug by chromatographic analysis, therefore demanding a sample preparation step that is often time consuming, tedious and frequently overlooked...
September 2, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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