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Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304192/direct-analysis-of-samples-of-various-origin-and-composition-using-specific-types-of-mass-spectrometry
#1
Hubert Byliński, Jacek Gębicki, Tomasz Dymerski, Jacek Namieśnik
One of the major sources of error that occur during chemical analysis utilizing the more conventional and established analytical techniques is the possibility of losing part of the analytes during the sample preparation stage. Unfortunately, this sample preparation stage is required to improve analytical sensitivity and precision. Direct techniques have helped to shorten or even bypass the sample preparation stage; and in this review, we comment of some of the new direct techniques that are mass-spectrometry based...
March 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287269/a-critical-review-of-analytical-methods-for-quantification-of-cefotaxime
#2
Lívia Paganini Consortti, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing phenomenon in the world. Considering the relevance of antimicrobials for population and the reduction in the registration of new antimicrobials by regulatory, proper quality control is required in order to minimize the spread of bacterial resistance and ensure the effectiveness of a treatment, as well as safety for the patient. Among the antimicrobials is cefotaxime, a drug belonging to third-generation cephalosporins, which is highly active against Gram-negative bactéria and is used to treat central nervous system infections such as meningitis and septicemia...
March 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282223/analytical-methods-for-metformin-estimation
#3
Durgawati Patel, Puspendra Kumar, Jaya Dwivedi, Swapnil Sharma
Metformin is a widely prescribed oral anti-hyperglycemic agent used in the management of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type II diabetes. This article accentuates various analytical methods viz. HPLC, HPTLC, spectrophotometric, electrochemical, capillary electrophoresis and LC-MS for the estimation of metformin in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological matrices.
March 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266865/ionic-liquids-in-hplc-and-ce-a-hope-for-future
#4
Imran Ali, Mohd Suhail, Mohd Marsin Sanagi, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
The ionic liquids (ILs) are salts with melting points below 100°C. These are called as ionic fluids, ionic melts, liquid electrolytes, fused salts, liquid salts, ionic glasses, designer solvents, green solvents and solvents of the future. These have a wide range of applications, including medical, pharmaceutical and chemical sciences. Nowadays, their use is increasing greatly in separation science, especially in chromatography and capillary electrophoresis due to their remarkable properties. The present article describes the importance of ILs in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis...
February 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128965/a-review-of-extraction-and-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-tartrazine-e-102-in-foodstuffs
#5
Kobun Rovina, Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee, Sharifudin Md Shaarani
Tartrazine is an azo food dye, orange-coloured and water soluble that usually used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles. Tartrazine possess adverse health effect to human such as hyperactivity in children, allergy and asthma. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA) and EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) standardized the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for Tartrazine is at 7.5 mg kg(-1) body weight. Many researchers have been detected the presence of Tartrazine for monitoring the quality and safety of food products...
January 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080136/isoniazid-a-review-of-characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods
#6
Guilherme Felipe Dos Santos Fernandes, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Jean Leandro Dos Santos
Isoniazid is a synthetic antimicrobial and one of the most important first-line drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Since it was introduced in the therapy in 1952, the drug remains at the front line of the antituberculosis treatment mainly due to its potency and high selectivity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pharmaceutical analysis and therapeutic drug monitoring of isoniazid in both, pharmaceuticals and biological samples, plays an important role to comprehend aspects regarding to bioavailability, bioequivalence and therapeutic monitoring during patients following-up...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080135/characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-amoxicillin-a-review-with-green-approach
#7
Bianca Aparecida de Marco, Jéssica Sayuri Hisano Natori, Stefany Fanelli, Eliane Gandolpho Tótoli, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Bacterial infections are the second leading cause of global mortality. Considering this fact, it is extremely important studying the antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin is an antimicrobial agent that belongs to the class of penicillins; it has bactericidal activity and is widely used in the Brazilian health system. In literature, some analytical methods are found for the identification and quantification of this penicillin, which are essential for its quality control, which ensures maintaining the product characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and patient's safety...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681987/application-of-microextraction-techniques-including-spme-and-mesi-to-the-thermal-degradation-of-polymers-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Massoud Kaykhaii, Matthew R Linford
Here, we discuss the newly developed micro and solventless sample preparation techniques SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) and MESI (Membrane Extraction with a Sorbent Interface) as applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thermal oxidative degradation products of polymers and their stabilizers. The coupling of these systems to analytical instruments is also described. Our comprehensive literature search revealed that there is no previously published review article on this topic. It is shown that these extraction techniques are valuable sample preparation tools for identifying complex series of degradation products in polymers...
March 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650368/a-critical-review-of-properties-and-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-oxytetracyline-in-biological-and-pharmaceutical-matrices
#9
REVIEW
Rúbia Adrieli Sversut, Adriane Andrade da Silva, Teófilo Fernando Mazon Cardoso, Nájla Mohamad Kassab, Marcos Serrou do Amaral, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Antibiotics have an unquestionable importance in the treatment of many infections. Oxytetracycline is an antibiotic belonging to the class of tetracyclines, available for use in human and veterinary medicine. Development of analytical methods that prove the quality and efficacy of these drugs is fundamentally important to the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, the research presents an overview of the analytical profile of oxytetracycline, describing its chemical and pharmacological properties, and analytical methods for quantification of this drug in biological samples and pharmaceutical products...
March 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636675/colorimetric-sensor-arrays-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-chemical-weapons-and-explosives
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Kangas, Raychelle M Burks, Jordyn Atwater, Rachel M Lukowicz, Pat Williams, Andrea E Holmes
There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes...
March 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547997/supercritical-fluid-extraction-of-metal-chelate-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Xin Ding, Qinli Liu, Xiongpo Hou, Tao Fang
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), as a new green extraction technology, has been used in extracting various metal species. The solubilities of chelating agents and corresponding metal chelates are the key factors which influence the efficiency of SFE. Other main properties of them such as stability and selectivity are also reviewed. The extraction mechanisms of mainly used chelating agents are explained by typical examples in this paper. This is the important aspect of SFE of metal ions. Moreover, the extraction efficiencies of metal species also depend on other factors such as temperature, pressure, extraction time and matrix effect...
March 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541433/recent-application-of-solid-phase-based-techniques-for-extraction-and-preconcentration-of-cyanotoxins-in-environmental-matrices
#12
REVIEW
Geaneth Pertunia Mashile, Philiswa N Nomngongo
Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed...
March 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541207/developments-in-methods-of-analysis-for-naphthalene-sulfonates
#13
REVIEW
Sayyed Hossein Hashemi, Massoud Kaykhaii
Naphthalene sulfonates are highly water-soluble compounds, indicating a high mobility in aquatic systems along with high temperature stability, which are important substances in the chemical industry. This review covers analytical methods, instruments and techniques used for the pre-concentration and analysis of naphthalene sulfonates in different matrices. All analytical steps including the extraction from real samples, their detection by spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques, as well as methods of identification of this class of compounds are described in detail...
March 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494757/characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-cefadroxil-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Bianca Aparecida de Marco, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Infections are the second leading cause of mortality worldwide and there are many reasons justifying the need for further studies of antimicrobial agents. Cefadroxil is a drug that has bactericidal activity and broad spectrum of action. Quantitative analyzes about cefadroxil are essential for the understanding of bioavailability, bioequivalence, and therapeutic control, which will ensure the product's characteristics and patients' safety. Thus, this study highlights a brief literature review about the drug and the existing methods developed for the determination of cefadroxil found in official and scientific papers...
March 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715253/an-overview-of-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-monoamine-oxidase-inhibitors-in-pharmaceutical-formulations-and-biological-fluids
#15
REVIEW
Cafer Saka
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were the first type of antidepressant developed. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, and several other disorders. Therefore, it is very important to develop efficient analytical methods for monitoring and management. There are two isoforms of monoamine oxidase, MAO-A and MAO-B. In this article, analyses of MAOIs in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids were reviewed from 2000 to the present, including all types of chromatographic, spectrophotometric, electrophoretic, and voltammetric techniques, focusing on isoniazid, tranylcypromine, moclobemide, rasagiline, and selegiline...
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404790/carbon-nanotubes-application-in-the-extraction-techniques-of-pesticides-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Aleksandra Jakubus, Monika Paszkiewicz, Piotr Stepnowski
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently one of the most promising groups of materials with some interesting properties, such as lightness, rigidity, high surface area, high mechanical strength in tension, good thermal conductivity or resistance to mechanical damage. These unique properties make CNTs a competitive alternative to conventional sorbents used in analytical chemistry, especially in extraction techniques. The amount of work that discusses the usefulness of CNTs as a sorbent in a variety of extraction techniques has increased significantly in recent years...
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404559/vibrational-spectroscopy-in-body-fluids-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Andrei A Bunaciu, Şerban Fleschin, Vu Dang Hoang, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
Vibrational spectroscopy offers a unique opportunity to investigate the composition of unknown substances on a molecular basis. The spectroscopy of molecular vibrations using mid-infrared or Raman techniques has been applied to samples of body fluids. This review presents some applications related to body fluids published in the period 2005-2015.
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105173/the-use-of-sensory-analysis-techniques-to-assess-the-quality-of-indoor-air
#18
REVIEW
Paulina Lewkowska, Tomasz Dymerski, Jacek Gębicki, Jacek Namieśnik
The quality of indoor air is one of the significant elements that influences people's well-being and health inside buildings. Emissions of pollutants, which may cause odor nuisance, are the main reason for people's complaints regarding the quality of indoor air. As a result, it is necessary to perform tests aimed at identifying the sources of odors inside buildings. The article contains basic information on the characteristics of the sources of indoor air pollution and the influence of the odor detection threshold on people's health and comfort...
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077504/a-review-of-methods-for-detecting-melamine-in-food-samples
#19
REVIEW
Yang Lu, Yinqiang Xia, Guozhen Liu, Mingfei Pan, Mengjuan Li, Nanju Alice Lee, Shuo Wang
Melamine is a synthetic chemical used in the manufacture of resins, pigments, and superplasticizers. Human beings can be exposed to melamine through various sources such as migration from related products into foods, pesticide contamination, and illegal addition to foods. Toxicity studies suggest that prolonged consumption of melamine could lead to the formation of kidney stones or even death. Therefore, reliable and accurate detection methods are essential to prevent human exposure to melamine. Sample preparation is of critical importance, since it could directly affect the performance of analytical methods...
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070830/development-of-impurity-profiling-methods-using-modern-analytical-techniques
#20
REVIEW
Bondigalla Ramachandra
This review gives a brief introduction about the process- and product-related impurities and emphasizes on the development of novel analytical methods for their determination. It describes the application of modern analytical techniques, particularly the ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). In addition to that, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was also discussed for the characterization of impurities and degradation products...
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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