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Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350995/a-review-of-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-clopidogrel-in-pharmaceuticals-and-biological-matrices
#1
Kavitha J, K S Kokilambigai, R Seetharaman, Harini R R, A A Kaaviya, Sowndaravel P, Lakshmi K S
P2Y12 belongs to a group of G protein - coupled (GPCR) purinergic receptors and is a receptor for adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The P2Y12 receptor is involved in platelet aggregation and acts as a biological target for treating thromboembolisms and other clotting disorders. The use of Clopidogrel (CLO) has improved the morbidity and mortality endpoints including cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke at 30 days after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CLO is one such drug that specifically and irreversibly inhibits the P2Y12 subtype of ADP receptor...
January 19, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345957/besifloxacin-a-critical-review-of-its-characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods
#2
Eliane Gandolpho Tótoli, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Bacterial conjunctivitis has high impact on the health of the population, since it represents more than a third of ocular pathologies reported by health services worldwide. There is a high incidence of bacterial resistance to the antimicrobials most commonly used for the treatment of conjunctivitis. In this context, besifloxacin stands out, since it is a fluoroquinolone developed exclusively for topical ophthalmic use, presenting a low risk of developing resistance due to its reduced systemic exposure. Bausch & Lomb markets it as ophthalmic suspension, under the trade name Besivance™...
January 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337594/solid-phase-microextraction-techniques-in-determination-of-biomarkers
#3
Samin Hamidi, Nastaran Alipour-Ghorbani, Aliasghar Hamidi
The detection and quantification of biomarkers is gaining attention in medical research and diagnostics communities. Biomarkers cover a range from gases to biological macromolecules. Because of the nanomolar range levels of typical biomarkers in plasma, blood, urine, exhalation samples, and other biological fluids as well as complex matrix of biological media, adequate sample preparation methods should be used for quantification of biomarkers. The performance of an analytical method for biomarkers should support reproducible and accurate data...
January 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337589/critical-review-on-the-analytical-mechanistic-steps-in-the-evaluation-of-antioxidant-activity
#4
Anantharaman Shivakumar, M S Yogendra Kumar
Electrophysiological systems are prone to release free radicals for functioning of biological system with proper balancing of antioxidant-prooxidant ratio for establishing a healthy living system. The biostress condition releases different reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl, alkoxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxyl, ozone, singlet oxygen, hypochlorus acid, thiyl radical, etc. This review tries to discuss the general aspects of the antioxidant assay methodologies that are currently used for the detection of antioxidant property...
January 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314902/analytical-applications-of-lectins
#5
O D Hendrickson, A V Zherdev
This review is devoted to the analytical application of carbohydrate-binding proteins called lectins. The nature of lectins and the regularities of their specificity with respect to simple sugars and complex carbohydrate-containing biomolecules are discussed. The main areas of the modern analytical application of lectins are described. Lectin-affinity chromatography, histo- and cytochemical approaches, lectin blotting, microarray, and biosensor technologies as well as microplate analysis are considered in detail...
January 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309211/composites-based-on-conducting-polymers-and-carbon-nanomaterials-for-heavy-metal-ion-sensing-review
#6
Megha A Deshmukh, Mahendra D Shirsat, Almira Ramanaviciene, Arunas Ramanavicius
Current review signifies, recent trends and challenges in the development of electrochemical sensors based on organic conducting polymers (OCPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their composites for the determination of trace heavy metal ions in water are reviewed. OCPs and CNTs have some suitable properties, such as good electrical, mechanical, chemical and structural properties as well as environmental stability etc. However, some of these materials still have significant limitations towards selective and sensitive detection of trace heavy metal ions...
January 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239659/characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-paclitaxel-a-review
#7
Renata Carolina Alves, Richard Perosa Fernandes, Josimar O Eloy, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Marlus Chorilli
Paclitaxel is a diterpenoid pseudoalkaloid, isolated from Taxus brevifolia, and is largely used as an antitumoral drug. The formulation of paclitaxel known as Taxol® employs a mixture of Cremophor EL and dehydrated ethanol, due the low drug water solubility. However, Taxol® causes some unwanted side effects due to the presence of Cremophor EL and ethanol in the formulation. Based on this, there is a need for the development of drug delivery systems to enhance the solubility, permeability and stability of paclitaxel and to promote a controlled and targeted delivery for better therapeutic effect and reduced side effects...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235880/a-critical-review-of-physicochemical-properties-and-analytical-methods-applied-to-quantitative-determination-of-ebastine
#8
Rafael Giorgetti Frare, Anil Kumar Singh
Allergic diseases are the most common conditions in children and the second most frequent in adults. Currently, there are two well-defined generations of antihistamines, those belonging to first generation, with inherent side effects such as drowsiness and anticholinergic effects. These side effects are often attributed to their high lipophilicity and high affinity for brain H1 receptors. The ebastine is a modern antihistaminic drug belongs to the second generation and has lower lipophilicity, which diminish the undesirable side effects...
December 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185796/two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-in-food-analysis
#9
Tomasz Dymerski
The development of instrumental analytical techniques provided the opportunity for in-depth characterization of many food matrices. In particular, the use of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry gives impressive results in terms of quality and authenticity testing, conducting food freshness evaluations and contamination assessments. A new variant of gas chromatography, namely two-dimensional gas chromatography, and various versions of mass spectrometry have been developed since last 15 years and they still remain at the time of their renaissance...
November 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185791/recovery-of-anthocyanins-using-membrane-technologies-a-review
#10
Julia Martín, Enrique Jacobo Díaz Montaña, Agustin G Asuero
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds and give many flowers, fruits and vegetable their orange, red, purple, and blue colors. Besides their color attributes, anthocyanins have received much attention in recent years due to the growing evidence of their antioxidant capacity and health benefits on humans. However, these compounds usually occur in low concentrations in mixtures of complex matrices, and therefore large-scale harvesting is needed to obtain sufficient amounts for their practical usage...
November 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083931/comprehensive-gas-chromatography-food-and-metabolomocs-applications-in-analysis-of-volatile-biologically-important-compounds-in-different-matrices
#11
Grzegorz Strączyński, Tomasz Ligor
Since the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) technique is becoming more and more available for scientists as well as for laboratories performing routine analyses, the most successful field of applications are petrochemical, food and essential oil analysis. However, this technique coupled with TOF-MS (P.1, l. 27) could be even more successfully used in the field of metabolomics. The review presents briefly the concept of comprehensive 2D GC and the principles of the technique. Certain specific applications are discussed to show the usefulness of GC × GC combined with different detectors for determination of compounds not always easy to measure with other techniques...
October 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665683/multi-phase-equilibrium-and-solubilities-of-aromatic-compounds-and-inorganic-compounds-in-sub-and-supercritical-water-a-review
#12
Qinli Liu, Xin Ding, Bowen Du, Tao Fang
Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), as a novel and efficient technology, has been applied to wastewater treatment processes. The use of phase equilibrium data to optimize process parameters can offer a theoretical guidance for designing SCWO processes and reducing the equipment and operating costs. In this work, high-pressure phase equilibrium data for aromatic compounds+water systems and inorganic compounds+water systems are given. Moreover, thermodynamic models, equations of state (EOS) and empirical and semi-empirical approaches are summarized and evaluated...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644042/a-review-on-recent-applications-of-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-in-metal-determination-and-speciation-analysis
#13
Heena Rekhi, Susheela Rani, Neha Sharma, Ashok Kumar Malik
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has several advantages over the conventional methods due to their operational simplicity. It is a vital tool to determine metal ions having same mass but different electronic configuration, to separate complex mixtures and to resolve ions that may be indistinguishable by mass spectrometry alone. Metal ions play vital role in many biological processes and involved in setting up of many diseases. Therefore, the development of simple methods for the detection and quantification of metals in real samples might serve as diagnostic tools for various diseases...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644038/critical-review-on-the-analytical-techniques-for-the-determination-of-the-oldest-statin-atorvastatin-in-bulk-pharmaceutical-formulations-and-biological-fluids
#14
K S Kokilambigai, R Seetharaman, K S Lakshmi
Statins are a group of medicines that can help to lower the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol "bad cholesterol" in the blood. Having a high level of LDL cholesterol is potentially dangerous, as it can lead to a hardening and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), atorvastatin is one of the oldest member of the statin family and is used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of CVD. Atorvastatin was first made in August 1985 and from 1996 to 2012 under the trade name Lipitor, atorvastatin became the world's best-selling drug...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574278/problems-of-determining-the-content-of-cr-vi-in-raw-materials-and-materials-containing-chromite-ore
#15
Katarzyna Stec
Materials made with chromite ore are widely applied in the industry metallurgy as well as in the foundry industry. The oxidation number of chromium in these materials is both (III) and (VI). Currently there are no procedures allowing proper determination of chrome in chromite ores and ore-containing materials. The analytical methods applied, which are dedicated to a very narrow range of materials, e.g., cement, and cannot be applied in the case of materials which, apart from trace amounts of Cr(VI), contain mainly compounds of Cr(III), Fe(III) as well as trace compounds of Cu(II), Ni(II) and V(V)...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548867/statins-determination-a-review-of-electrochemical-techniques
#16
I Antal, M Koneracka, V Zavisova, M Kubovcikova, Zh Kormosh, P Kopcansky
The use of electroanalytical techniques for the determination of statins (Atorvastatin, Fluvastatin, Lovastatin, Pitavastatin, Pravastatin, Rosuvastatin and Simvastatin) is reviewed covering the period from 1997 to 2016. Among all of the published electrochemical methods, voltammetry and polarography are the most popular techniques for the determination of statins, and both are used for the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples. The determination of statins by a potentiometric method using ion-selective electrodes is reported in only few papers...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541719/the-studies-of-archaeological-pottery-with-the-use-of-selected-analytical-techniques
#17
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Angelina Rosiak, Jacek Grams, Karolina Chałupka, Przemysław Makarowicz, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Elżbieta Szubiakiewicz
Modern analytical methods play an important role in archaeological objects, including ceramics. This review focuses on the use of analytical methods such as: gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), powder X-ray diffraction with thermal analysis to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of archaeological samples and organic residues preserved inside. In this paper, special attention was paid to the ToF-SIMS method, which allows the determination of characteristic ions on the surface of ceramic samples...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541711/a-critical-review-on-ultrasensitive-spectroscopic-based-methods-for-high-throughput-monitoring-of-bacteria-during-infection-treatment
#18
Nicoleta Elena Dina, Alia Colniţă, Tiberiu Szöke-Nagy, Alin Sebastian Porav
The world is in the midst of a pre-emptive public health emergency, one that is just as dramatic as the global aggressive viruses-related crises (Ebola, Zika, or SARS), but not as visible. The "superbugs" and their antimicrobial resistance do not cause much public alarm or awareness, but provoke financial losses of $100 trillion annually (WHO, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/commentaries/superbugs-action-now/en/ ). This status quo review offers an overview of ultrasensitive methods for high-throughput monitoring of bacteria during infection treatment, the effects of antibiotics on bacteria at single-cell level and the challenges we will face in their detection due to the extraordinary capability of these "superbugs" to gain and constantly improve multiresistance to antibiotics...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053338/disaccharides-determination-a-review-of-analytical-methods
#19
Marta Pokrzywnicka, Robert Koncki
Disaccharides are determined mainly for dietetic purposes, hence the most analyses are carried out for food and drink samples. Its content can also be used to profile groceries in order to identify the origin and quality of the products. They also can be an indicator of the rate of metabolism as well as for the control of some technological and biotechnological processes. Unfortunately most of technological analysis are performed with nonselective polarimetry methods. Sugars due to specific physicochemical properties of compounds are difficult to determine with classical analytical techniques...
October 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039968/characteristics-biological-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-ursolic-acid-a-review
#20
Andressa Maria Pironi, Patricia Rocha de Araújo, Mariza Aires Fernandes, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Marlus Chorilli
Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally occurring triterpenoid which is a promising candidate for the development of new therapeutic approaches and for the prevention and treatment of several diseases owing to its pharmacological importance. However, its low solubility in aqueous medium affects its therapeutic application. Several strategies have been used to overcome this obstacle. In this study, the incorporation of UA in to different drug delivery systems was found to be highly efficient. In addition, important investigations were performed about methods for qualitative and quantitative analyses of UA in various raw materials, including plants, biological fluids, and drug delivery systems, were investigated...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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