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Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285480/liquid-crystals-in-analytical-chemistry-a-review
#1
Mona Sargazi, Matthew R Linford, Massoud Kaykhaii
Nearing 130 years since their introduction, liquid crystals (LCs) have found diverse applications in different fields of science, including chemical analysis. This review encompasses the history of LCs, reviews various types of them, and presents their current applications in analytical chemistry. Since most applications of LCs in analytical chemistry are for the fabrication of biosensors, these applications are discussed first. The high sensitivity of LCs to changes in their environment makes them ideal for such sensors...
October 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285479/potentiometry-as-a-tool-for-monitoring-of-antioxidant-activity-and-oxidative-stress-estimation-in-medicine
#2
Y Kazakov, M Khodos, M Vidrevich, K Brainina
The complexity of biological objects and the rapid change in their composition after sampling, the variety of compounds of different chemical nature, possessing oxidative and antioxidant properties, make the task of its estimating extremely nontrivial and important for food, nutrients and human health characterization. The paper discusses the use of potentiometry in determining integral antioxidant/oxidant activity mainly of biological fluids and human skin. The source of information is the electrode potential shift that occurs when the analyzed object is inserted in the solution of the mediator system or when the mediator system is exposed to human skin...
October 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285474/electrochromic-sensors-based-on-conducting-polymers-metal-oxides-and-coordination-complexes
#3
Raimonda Celiesiute, Almira Ramanaviciene, Mindaugas Gicevicius, Arunas Ramanavicius
Electrochromic sensors offer multi-mode registration of analytical signal based on combination of electrochemical and optical techniques. This emerging direction of analytical chemistry is relatively new; therefore, it has very high potential for various applications in chemical and biochemical analysis. Properties of sensors based on various electrochromic materials such as polymers, polymer derivatives, polymer composites, metal oxides, metal oxide complexes, phthalocyanines, porphyrins, and dyes are critically overviewed, evaluated, and compared...
October 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285470/chromatographic-methods-for-determination-of-drugs-used-in-prostate-cancer-in-biological-and-pharmacological-samples
#4
Cafer Saka
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in men worldwide. This review article contains a summary of analyzes performed by chromatographic methods used for the determination of abiraterone acetate, bicalutamide, cabazitaxel, docetaxel, enzalutamide, flutamide, goserelin acetate, leuprolide acetate, and mitoxantrone hydrochloride drugs used in prostate cancer applications in biological and pharmacological samples. In this review, sample preparation procedures, chromatographic procedures, and detectors used for analytical determinations of these drugs are discussed...
October 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285467/chromatographic-methods-for-the-determination-of-emerging-contaminants-in-natural-water-and-wastewater-samples-a-review
#5
M T García-Córcoles, R Rodríguez-Gómez, B de Alarcón-Gómez, M Çipa, L Martín-Pozo, J-M Kauffmann, A Zafra-Gómez
This review is devoted to analytical methods published in the scientific literature in the last 10 years for the determination of emerging contaminants in aquatic media. The article is mainly focused on sample preparation and on instrumental techniques most used for the detection and quantification of the analytes of interest. The sample preparation techniques include classical liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, but also recent microextraction techniques such as solid-phase microextraction, stir-bar sorptive extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, or microextraction by packed sorbent...
October 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252504/a-critical-review-of-the-properties-and-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-curcumin-in-biological-and-pharmaceutical-matrices
#6
Renata Carolina Alves, Richard Perosa Fernandes, Bruno Fonseca-Santos, Francesca Damiani Victorelli, Marlus Chorilli
Curcumin, a natural compound extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been extensively studied because of its various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibiotic, antiprotozoal, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative, antitumor, and anticarcinogenic effects. However, low solubility in aqueous media has limited its therapeutic applications. To overcome these bioavailability issues, the use of drug delivery systems providing localized or targeted delivery of this drug may represent a more viable therapeutic option...
September 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701480/a-critical-review-of-properties-and-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-docetaxel-in-biological-and-pharmaceutical-matrices
#7
REVIEW
Gilmar Hanck da Silva, Mariza Aires Fernandes, Lucas Noboru Fatori Trevizan, Felipe Tita de Lima, Josimar O Eloy, Marlus Chorilli
Docetaxel (DTX) is an antineoplastic agent of the second generation of the taxoid family. It is a semi-synthetic drug prepared from a precursor extracted of the plant Taxus baccata. The commercial formulation of DTX, Taxotere®, employs the surfactant polysorbate 80, due to the low water solubility of the drug, causing several side effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop delivery systems to reduce the side effects of DTX. In addition, this drug has been qualitative and quantitatively analyzed in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples...
November 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641220/enantioseparation-by-capillary-electrophoresis-using-ionic-liquids-as-chiral-selectors
#8
REVIEW
Maider Greño, María Luisa Marina, María Castro-Puyana
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one of the most widely employed analytical techniques to achieve enantiomeric separations. In spite of the fact that there are many chiral selectors commercially available to perform enantioseparations by CE, one of the most relevant topics in this field is the search for new selectors capable of providing high enantiomeric resolutions. Chiral ionic liquids (CILs) have interesting characteristics conferring them a high potential in chiral separations although only some of them are commercially available...
November 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621408/review-of-sample-preparation-techniques-for-the-analysis-of-selected-classes-of-pesticides-in-plant-matrices
#9
REVIEW
Hanna Barchanska, Magdalena Danek, Marcin Sajdak, Marian Turek
The aim of this article is to present the trends in extraction techniques applied for the isolation of pesticides from plant matrix. To fully compare the effectiveness of different extraction techniques, it was required to analyze compounds with possibly wide spectrum of physicochemical properties. Hence, compounds representing neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, sulfonylureas and phenylamides were selected. Based on literature studies, it may be concluded that there are three main approaches to make the analytical procedures for pesticides determination more effective: (i) the optimization of extraction conditions, however, according to ANOVA conducted on the collected literature data, not all parameters influence the extraction process equally; chemometric studies based on literature reports may lead to the conclusion that the most favorable conditions (criterion: analyte recovery, repeatability) for neonicotinoid, pyrethroid and sulfonylurea herbicide extraction from plant tissues are provided by QuEChERS - extraction with acetonitrile, while the mixtures of PSA and GCB (for neonicotinoids), and PSA, GCB, C18 (for pyrethroids) should be used in d-SPE step...
November 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621407/critical-review-on-the-analytical-methods-for-the-estimation-of-clofazimine-in-bulk-biological-fluids-and-pharmaceutical-formulations
#10
REVIEW
Tulshidas S Patil, Ashwini S Deshpande, Shirish Deshpande
Clofazimine (CFZ), a riminophenazine derivative and a crucial drug in the treatment of lepromatous leprosy, has been reintroduced clinically to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. CFZ holds both antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. But, due to its highly hydrophobic, polar and photosensitive nature, it is challenging to extract and quantify the drug from different biological fluids and its pharmaceutical formulations. This has also hampered the pharmacokinetic evaluation of the CFZ. This article accentuates various analytical methods viz...
November 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601210/applications-of-uv-vis-spectroscopy-in-characterization-and-catalytic-activity-of-noble-metal-nanoparticles-fabricated-in-responsive-polymer-microgels-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Robina Begum, Zahoor H Farooqi, Khalida Naseem, Faisal Ali, Madeeha Batool, Jianliang Xiao, Ahmad Irfan
Noble metal nanoparticles loaded smart polymer microgels have gained much attention due to fascinating combination of their properties in a single system. These hybrid systems have been extensively used in biomedicines, photonics, and catalysis. Hybrid microgels are characterized by using various techniques but UV/Vis spectroscopy is an easily available technique for characterization of noble metal nanoparticles loaded microgels. This technique is widely used for determination of size and shape of metal nanoparticles...
November 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580065/status-of-rifaximin-a-review-of-characteristics-uses-and-analytical-methods
#12
REVIEW
Ana Carolina Kogawa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Rifaximin, an oral antimicrobial, has many advantages because it is selective intestine, has minimal adverse effects and is used for the treatment of some diseases such as hepatic encephalopathy, irritable bowel syndrome, travelers' diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Clostridium difficile and acute diarrhea. Rifaximin in the form of 200 mg tablets is commercially available. The crystalline α form is therapeutically safe and effective. In most of the official compendia, rifaximin has no monograph and in none of them is there a monograph for rifaximin tablets...
November 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557667/problems-and-challenges-to-determine-pesticide-residues-in-bumblebees
#13
REVIEW
Żaneta Bargańska, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Jacek Namieśnik
Bumblebees play an important role in the pollination process of many crops and flowers. Therefore, taking action to protect and assess the impact of pesticides on these insects is fully justified. Pesticides may cause mortality and also sub-lethal effects that are not always directly visible. Bumblebees, like honeybees, can be used as indicators for environmental monitoring contamination. Two approaches are mainly used for the determination of pesticide residues in pollinating insects: a toxicological test (to know effects) and multi-stage analytical methodologies (to know exposure)...
November 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565638/biosensors-for-gmo-testing-nearly-25-years-of-research
#14
REVIEW
Marta Sánchez-Paniagua López, Carmen Lorena Manzanares-Palenzuela, Beatriz López-Ruiz
In the nearly two decades since genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were first commercialized, genetically engineered crops have gained ground on their conventional counterparts, reaching 185 million hectares worldwide in 2016. The technology has bestowed most of its benefits on enhancing crop productivity with two main traits currently dominating the market: insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops. Despite their rapid and vast adoption by farmers worldwide, GMOs have generated heated debates, especially in European countries (EU), driven mostly by consumers concerned about safety of transgenic foods and about the potential impact on the environment...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561642/multidimensional-gas-chromatography-for-chiral-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Abdalla Ahmed Elbashir, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
Multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) is well-established GC method used for a diverse range of applications. Enantioselective MDGC (enantio-MDGC) has been suggested as the method of preference for the separation of extremely overlapping enantiomers. An extensive number of literatures describe enantio-MDGC of polychlorinated biphenyls, essential oils and flavor and fragrance and amino acids were reported. In this review, the applications of MDGC approaches both, heart cutting GC-GC and comprehensive GC × GC in chiral analysis is presented...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561631/selection-of-optimum-strategies-for-the-fabrication-of-plant-mediated-metal-nanoparticles-emerging-problems-in-sustainability
#16
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Din, Aneela Rani
The green fabrication of nanoparticles (NPs) by using plants as reducing and capping agents involves energy efficient, less toxic, safer and simpler pathways. These pathways have been related to the rational use of numerous substances in fabrication of NPs and synthetic strategies, which have been mainly discussed in this article. The subject matter of this review is to discuss how a chemist can follow the green chemistry principles in terms of selection of substances and protocols used for NPs fabrication...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533075/analysis-of-the-precursors-simulants-and-degradation-products-of-chemical-warfare-agents
#17
REVIEW
Zygfryd Witkiewicz, Slawomir Neffe, Ewa Sliwka, Javier Quagliano
Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997)...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437467/the-analytical-challenge-in-the-determination-of-cathinones-key-players-in-the-worldwide-phenomenon-of-novel-psychoactive-substances
#18
REVIEW
Rosa A S Couto, Luís Moreira Gonçalves, Félix Carvalho, José A Rodrigues, Cecília M P Rodrigues, M Beatriz Quinaz
Since the turn of the century, the synthesis, availability, and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly reported worldwide, being considered a complex global phenomenon. As most NPS are not detected in routine drug screening, extra efforts have been made to develop new analytical methods for the detection of these compounds, with several approaches being successfully applied and reported in the literature. The increased traffic of NPS is often related to the limited capacity for detecting and monitoring these compounds, which makes it essential to explore in detail both conventional and more recent approaches to prospect novel sensing strategies and develop in-the-field sensors that are able to detect NPS in a time-efficient manner, within a wide range of concentrations, and in a variety of sample matrices, such as biological samples, wastewater, powders, crystals, and post-mortem specimens...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557670/luminescent-organometallic-nanomaterials-with-aggregation-induced-emission
#19
REVIEW
Tong Shu, Jianxing Wang, Lei Su, Xueji Zhang
Recent researches in metal nanoclusters (NCs) have prompted their promising practical applications in biomedical fields as novel inorganic luminophores. More recently, to further improve the photoluminescence (PL) performance of NCs, the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect has been introduced to develop highly luminescent metal NCs and metal complex materials. In this review, we start our discussion from recent progresses on AIE materials developments. Then, we address our understandings on the PL properties of thiolated metal NCs...
July 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533074/analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-rosuvastatin-in-pharmaceutical-formulations-and-biological-fluids-a-critical-review
#20
REVIEW
Marilene Lopes Ângelo, Fernanda de Lima Moreira, André Luís Morais Ruela, Ana Laura Araújo Santos, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Magali Benjamim de Araújo
Rosuvastatin calcium (ROS), ( Figure 1 ) belongs to the "statins" group, which is the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. This drug is indicated for dyslipidemias treatment and can help to decrease the level of "bad cholesterol" and can consequently reduce the development of atherosclerosis and the risk of heart diseases. ROS was developed by Astra-Zeneca and it was approved in 2003 by the FDA in the United States. In 2015, under the trade name Crestor®, it was the fourth largest selling drug in the United States with sales above $5 billion...
July 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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