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Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644042/a-review-on-recent-applications-of-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-in-metal-determination-and-speciation-analysis
#1
Susheela Rani, Neha Sharma, Ashok Kumar Malik
High performance liquid chromatography has several advantages over the conventional methods due to their operational simplicity. It is a vital tool to determine metal ions having same mass but different electronic configuration, to separate complex mixtures and to resolve ions that may be indistinguishable by mass spectrometry alone. Metal ions play vital role in many biological processes and involved in setting up of many diseases. Therefore the development of simple methods for the detection and quantification of metals in real samples might serve as diagnostic tools for various diseases...
June 23, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644038/critical-review-on-the-analytical-techniques-for-the-determination-of-the-oldest-statin-atorvastatin-in-bulk-pharmaceutical-formulations-and-biological-fluids
#2
K S Kokilambigai, R Seetharaman, K S Lakshmi
Statins are a group of medicines that can help to lower the level of low-density-lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol "bad cholesterol" in the blood. Having a high level of LDL cholesterol is potentially dangerous, as it can lead to a hardening and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), Atorvastatin is one of the oldest member of the statin family and is used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Atorvastatin was first made in August 1985 and from 1996 to 2012 under the trade name Lipitor, atorvastatin became the world's best selling drug...
June 23, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574278/problems-of-determining-the-content-of-cr-vi-in-raw-materials-and-materials-containing-chromite-ore
#3
Katarzyna Stec
Materials made with chromite ore are widely applied in the industry metallurgy as well as in the foundry industry. The oxidation number of chromium in these materials is both (III) and (VI). Currently there are no procedures allowing proper determination of chrome in chromite ores and ore-containing materials. The analytical methods applied, which are dedicated to a very narrow range of materials, e.g. cement, and cannot be applied in the case of materials which, apart from trace amounts of Cr(VI), contain mainly compounds of Cr(III), Fe(III) as well as trace compounds of Cu(II), Ni(II) and V(V)...
June 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548867/statins-determination-a-review-of-electrochemical-techniques
#4
I Antal, M Koneracka, V Zavisova, M Kubovcikova, Zh Kormosh, P Kopcansky
The use of electroanalytical techniques for the determination of statins (Atorvastatin, Fluvastatin, Lovastatin, Pitavastatin, Pravastatin, Rosuvastatin and Simvastatin) is reviewed covering the period from 1997 to 2016. Among all of the published electrochemical methods, voltammetry and polarography are the most popular techniques for determination of statins and both are used for the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples. Determination of statins by potentiometric method using ion-selective electrodes is reported in only few papers...
May 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541719/the-studies-of-archaeological-pottery-with-the-use-of-selected-analytical-techniques
#5
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Angelina Rosiak, Jacek Grams, Karolina Chałupka, Przemysław Makarowicz, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Elżbieta Szubiakiewicz
Modern analytical methods play an important role in archaeological objects, including ceramics. This review focuses on the use of analytical methods such as: gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) with thermal analysis (TGA-MS) to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of archaeological samples and organic residues preserved inside. In this paper, special attention was paid to the ToF-SIMS method, which allows the determination of characteristic ions on the surface of ceramic samples...
May 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541711/a-critical-review-on-ultrasensitive-spectroscopic-based-methods-for-high-throughput-monitoring-of-bacteria-during-infection-treatment
#6
Nicoleta Elena Dina, Alia Colniță, Tiberiu Szöke-Nagy, Alin Sebastian Porav
The world is in the midst of a pre-emptive public health emergency, one that is just as dramatic as the global aggressive viruses-related crises (Ebola, Zika, or SARS), but not as visible. The "superbugs" and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) don't cause much public alarm or awareness, but provoke financial losses of $100 trillion annually [1] . This status quo review offers an overview of ultrasensitive methods for high-throughput monitoring of bacteria during infection treatment, the effects of antibiotics on bacteria at single-cell level and the challenges we will need to face in their detection due to the extraordinary capability of these "superbugs" to gain and constantly improve multiresistance to antibiotics...
May 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453309/combination-of-cyclodextrin-and-ionic-liquid-in-analytical-chemistry-current-and-future-perspectives
#7
Boon Yih Hui, Muggundha Raoov, Nur Nadhirah Mohamad Zain, Sharifah Mohamad, Hasnah Osman
The growth in driving force and popularity of cyclodextrin (CDs) and ionic liquids (ILs) as promising materials in the field of analytical chemistry has resulted in an exponentially increase of their exploitation and production in analytical chemistry field. CDs belong to the family of cyclic oligosaccharides composing of α-(1,4) linked glucopyranose subunits and possess a cage-like supramolecular structure. This structure enables chemical reactions to proceed between interacting ions, radical or molecules in the absence of covalent bonds...
April 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448158/corrigendum
#8
Rúbia Sversut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441028/application-of-gc-ms-soft-ionization-for-isomeric-biological-compound-analysis
#9
Takeshi Furuhashi, Koji Okuda
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula. Many different types of isomers are ubiquitous and play important roles in living organisms. Despite their early discovery, the actual analysis of isomers has been tricky and has confounded researchers. Using mass spectrometry (MS) to distinguish or identify isomers is an emergent topic and challenge for analytical chemists. We review some techniques for analyzing isomers with emphasis on MS, e.g., the roles of ion reaction, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, ion mobility mass spectrometry, ion spectroscopy, and energy change in producing isomer-specific fragments...
April 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426249/non-enzymatic-electrochemistry-in-characterization-and-analysis-of-steroid-compounds
#10
Jan Klouda, Jiří Barek, Karel Nesměrák, Karolina Schwarzová-Pecková
This review summarizes achievements in electrochemistry-related research of steroid-based compounds in clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. Special attention is paid to compounds possessing none or only isolated double bonds at the steroid core. Their direct redox activity is limited to far positive/negative potentials under variety of conditions and electrode materials and relies on the functional groups attached to the steroid skeleton, or as the case may be its double bond or moieties present at the side chain...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398080/new-polymeric-materials-for-solid-phase-extraction
#11
Justyna Płotka-Wasylka, Mariusz Marć, Natalia Szczepańska, Jacek Namieśnik
Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a popular sample preparation technique, which can be applied directly in gas-solid phase and liquid-solid phase, or indirectly to solid samples by using, e.g., thermodesorption with subsequent chromatographic analysis. Although SPE can be described as a physical extraction process involving a liquid phase and a solid phase, the increased use of packed sorbent formats seems to have led to a bias toward packed sorbent SPE devices. Without any doubt, the heart of the SPE technique is the sorbent material as it has a direct influence on the selectivity, sorptive capacity, and the format or the configuration of the resultant SPE device...
April 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080135/characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-amoxicillin-a-review-with-green-approach
#12
REVIEW
Bianca Aparecida de Marco, Jéssica Sayuri Hisano Natori, Stefany Fanelli, Eliane Gandolpho Tótoli, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Bacterial infections are the second leading cause of global mortality. Considering this fact, it is extremely important studying the antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin is an antimicrobial agent that belongs to the class of penicillins; it has bactericidal activity and is widely used in the Brazilian health system. In literature, some analytical methods are found for the identification and quantification of this penicillin, which are essential for its quality control, which ensures maintaining the product characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and patient's safety...
May 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905857/recent-development-in-sample-preparation-and-analytical-techniques-for-determination-of-quinolone-residues-in-food-products
#13
REVIEW
Zhichao Zhang, Hefa Cheng
Used heavily in food animal production, quinolones occur widely in food products of animal origin. Development of highly sensitive and selective analytical techniques for the detection of quinolone residues, often at trace levels, in food samples is necessary to ensure food safety and understand their public health risk. With complex matrices, food samples typically require a series of pre-treatment steps, such as powdering, homogenization, deproteinization, and filtration. This review summarizes the recent advances in extraction, concentration, and detection techniques for quinolones in food product samples, and briefly compares the advantages and limitations of major techniques...
May 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905825/saliva-volatile-biomarkers-and-profiles
#14
REVIEW
Maciej Milanowski, Paweł Pomastowski, Tomasz Ligor, Bogusław Buszewski
Saliva is an aqueous fluid found in the oral cavity playing fundamental role in the preservation and maintenance of oral health. Apart from higher molecular-weight constituents, it contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may origin from such sources such as blood or be a result of bacterial metabolism. They can also reach the oral fluid through dissolving of volatiles from breath and consumed foods. Some of them may serve as biomarkers of various diseases, such as dimethyl disulfide (halitosis), pyridine (periodontal disease) and trimethylamine (trimethylaminuria) or occupational exposure...
May 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841672/calibration-of-passive-samplers-for-the-monitoring-of-pharmaceuticals-in-water-sampling-rate-variation
#15
REVIEW
Hanna Męczykowska, Paulina Kobylis, Piotr Stepnowski, Magda Caban
Passive sampling is one of the most efficient methods of monitoring pharmaceuticals in environmental water. The reliability of the process relies on a correctly performed calibration experiment and a well-defined sampling rate (Rs) for target analytes. Therefore, in this review the state-of-the-art methods of passive sampler calibration for the most popular pharmaceuticals: antibiotics, hormones, β-blockers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), along with the sampling rate variation, were presented...
May 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786540/vibrational-micro-spectroscopy-of-human-tissues-analysis-review
#16
REVIEW
Andrei A Bunaciu, Vu Dang Hoang, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared (IR) and Raman) and, in particular, micro-spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopic imaging have been used to characterize developmental changes in tissues, to monitor these changes in cell cultures and to detect disease and drug-induced modifications. The conventional methods for biochemical and histophatological tissue characterization necessitate complex and "time-consuming" sample manipulations and the results are rarely quantifiable. The spectroscopy of molecular vibrations using mid-IR or Raman techniques has been applied to samples of human tissue...
May 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686474/impurities-in-drug-products-and-active-pharmaceutical-ingredients
#17
REVIEW
M Kątny, M Frankowski
Analytical methods should be selective and fast. In modern times, scientists strive to meet the criteria of green chemistry, so they choose analytical procedures that are as short as possible and use the least toxic solvents. It is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption should be characterized as completely as possible. The safety of a drug is dependent mainly on the impurities that it contains. High pressure liquid chromatography and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography have been proposed as the main techniques for forced degradation and impurity profiling...
May 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340309/analytical-techniques-in-lipidomics-state-of-the-art
#18
Kamil Jurowski, Kamila Kochan, Justyna Walczak, Małgorzata Barańska, Wojciech Piekoszewski, Bogusław Buszewski
Current studies related to lipid identification and determination, or lipidomics in biological samples, are one of the most important issues in modern bioanalytical chemistry. There are many articles dedicated to specific analytical strategies used in lipidomics in various kinds of biological samples. However, in such literature, there is a lack of articles dedicated to a comprehensive review of the actual analytical methodologies used in lipidomics. The aim of this article is to characterize the lipidomics methods used in modern bioanalysis according to the methodological point of view: (1) chromatography/separation methods, (2) spectroscopic methods and (3) mass spectrometry and also hyphenated methods...
March 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304192/direct-analysis-of-samples-of-various-origin-and-composition-using-specific-types-of-mass-spectrometry
#19
Hubert Byliński, Jacek Gębicki, Tomasz Dymerski, Jacek Namieśnik
One of the major sources of error that occur during chemical analysis utilizing the more conventional and established analytical techniques is the possibility of losing part of the analytes during the sample preparation stage. Unfortunately, this sample preparation stage is required to improve analytical sensitivity and precision. Direct techniques have helped to shorten or even bypass the sample preparation stage; and in this review, we comment of some of the new direct techniques that are mass-spectrometry based...
March 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287269/a-critical-review-of-analytical-methods-for-quantification-of-cefotaxime
#20
Lívia Paganini Consortti, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing phenomenon in the world. Considering the relevance of antimicrobials for population and the reduction in the registration of new antimicrobials by regulatory, proper quality control is required in order to minimize the spread of bacterial resistance and ensure the effectiveness of a treatment, as well as safety for the patient. Among the antimicrobials is cefotaxime, a drug belonging to third-generation cephalosporins, which is highly active against Gram-negative bactéria and is used to treat central nervous system infections such as meningitis and septicemia...
March 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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