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Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083931/comprehensive-gas-chromatography-food-and-metabolomocs-applications-in-analysis-of-volatile-biologically-important-compounds-in-different-matrices
#1
Grzegorz Strączyński, Tomasz Ligor
Since the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) technique is becoming more and more available for scientists as well as for laboratories performing routine analyses, the most successful field of applications are petrochemical, food and essential oil analysis. However, this technique coupled with TOF-MS (P.1, l. 27) could be even more successfully used in the field of metabolomics. The review presents briefly the concept of comprehensive 2D GC and the principles of the technique. Certain specific applications are discussed to show the usefulness of GC × GC combined with different detectors for determination of compounds not always easy to measure with other techniques...
October 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053338/disaccharides-determination-a-review-of-analytical-methods
#2
Marta Pokrzywnicka, Robert Koncki
Disaccharides are determined mainly for dietetic purposes, hence the most analyses are carried out for food and drink samples. Its content can also be used to profile groceries in order to identify the origin and quality of the products. They also can be an indicator of the rate of metabolism as well as for the control of some technological and biotechnological processes. Unfortunately most of technological analysis are performed with nonselective polarimetry methods. Sugars due to specific physicochemical properties of compounds are difficult to determine with classical analytical techniques...
October 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039968/characteristics-biological-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-ursolic-acid-a-review
#3
Andressa Maria Pironi, Patricia Rocha de Araújo, Mariza Aires Fernandes, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Marlus Chorilli
Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally occurring triterpenoid which is a promising candidate for the development of new therapeutic approaches and for the prevention and treatment of several diseases owing to its pharmacological importance. However, its low solubility in aqueous medium affects its therapeutic application. Several strategies have been used to overcome this obstacle. In this study, the incorporation of UA in to different drug delivery systems was found to be highly efficient. In addition, important investigations were performed about methods for qualitative and quantitative analyses of UA in various raw materials, including plants, biological fluids, and drug delivery systems, were investigated...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960087/preparation-and-application-of-porous-materials-based-on-deep-eutectic-solvents
#4
Xiaoxia Li, Jinsub Choi, Wha-Seung Ahn, Kyung Ho Row
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a common successor to ionic liquids (ILs) with similar physicochemical properties. DESs have attracted considerable interest in related chemical research based on the superiority of DESs over ILs and in the preparation of porous materials. In addition, DESs-based materials have been applied widely in chemical research. This review highlights the preparation and properties of DESs. The application of DES in the preparation of silica and polymers is also discussed. The available data and references in this field are reviewed to summarize the applications and developments of DESs...
September 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892402/metformin-a-review-of-characteristics-properties-analytical-methods-and-impact-in-the-green-chemistry
#5
Mariana Teixeira da Trindade, Ana Carolina Kogawa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a public health problem. The initial treatment consists of improving the lifestyle and making changes in the diet. When these changes are not enough, the use of medication becomes necessary. The metformin aims to reduce the hepatic production of glucose and is the preferred treatment for type 2. The objective is to survey the characteristics and properties of metformin, as well as hold a discussion on the existing analytical methods to green chemistry and their impacts for both the operator and the environment...
September 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857621/analytical-approaches-for-determining-chemical-oxygen-demand-in-water-bodies-a-review
#6
Ji Li, Guobing Luo, LingJun He, Jing Xu, Jinze Lyu
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter for water quality assessment. COD represents the degree of organic pollution in water bodies. However, the standard analytical methods for COD are time-consuming and possess low oxidation efficiency, chloride interference, and severe secondary pollution. Works performed during the last two decades have resulted in several technologies, including modified standard methods (e.g., microwave-assisted method) and new technologies or methods (e.g., electro- and photo-oxidative methods based on advanced oxidation processes) that are less time-consuming, environment friendly, and more reliable...
August 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665683/multi-phase-equilibrium-and-solubilities-of-aromatic-compounds-and-inorganic-compounds-in-sub-and-supercritical-water-a-review
#7
Qinli Liu, Xin Ding, Bowen Du, Tao Fang
Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), as a novel and efficient technology, has been applied to wastewater treatment processes. The use of phase equilibrium data to optimize process parameters can offer a theoretical guidance for designing SCWO processes and reducing the equipment and operating costs. In this work, high-pressure phase equilibrium data for aromatic compounds+water systems and inorganic compounds+water systems are given. Moreover, thermodynamic models, equations of state (EOS) and empirical and semi-empirical approaches are summarized and evaluated...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644042/a-review-on-recent-applications-of-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-in-metal-determination-and-speciation-analysis
#8
Heena Rekhi, Susheela Rani, Neha Sharma, Ashok Kumar Malik
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has several advantages over the conventional methods due to their operational simplicity. It is a vital tool to determine metal ions having same mass but different electronic configuration, to separate complex mixtures and to resolve ions that may be indistinguishable by mass spectrometry alone. Metal ions play vital role in many biological processes and involved in setting up of many diseases. Therefore, the development of simple methods for the detection and quantification of metals in real samples might serve as diagnostic tools for various diseases...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644038/critical-review-on-the-analytical-techniques-for-the-determination-of-the-oldest-statin-atorvastatin-in-bulk-pharmaceutical-formulations-and-biological-fluids
#9
K S Kokilambigai, R Seetharaman, K S Lakshmi
Statins are a group of medicines that can help to lower the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol "bad cholesterol" in the blood. Having a high level of LDL cholesterol is potentially dangerous, as it can lead to a hardening and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), atorvastatin is one of the oldest member of the statin family and is used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of CVD. Atorvastatin was first made in August 1985 and from 1996 to 2012 under the trade name Lipitor, atorvastatin became the world's best-selling drug...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574278/problems-of-determining-the-content-of-cr-vi-in-raw-materials-and-materials-containing-chromite-ore
#10
Katarzyna Stec
Materials made with chromite ore are widely applied in the industry metallurgy as well as in the foundry industry. The oxidation number of chromium in these materials is both (III) and (VI). Currently there are no procedures allowing proper determination of chrome in chromite ores and ore-containing materials. The analytical methods applied, which are dedicated to a very narrow range of materials, e.g., cement, and cannot be applied in the case of materials which, apart from trace amounts of Cr(VI), contain mainly compounds of Cr(III), Fe(III) as well as trace compounds of Cu(II), Ni(II) and V(V)...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548867/statins-determination-a-review-of-electrochemical-techniques
#11
I Antal, M Koneracka, V Zavisova, M Kubovcikova, Zh Kormosh, P Kopcansky
The use of electroanalytical techniques for the determination of statins (Atorvastatin, Fluvastatin, Lovastatin, Pitavastatin, Pravastatin, Rosuvastatin and Simvastatin) is reviewed covering the period from 1997 to 2016. Among all of the published electrochemical methods, voltammetry and polarography are the most popular techniques for the determination of statins, and both are used for the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples. The determination of statins by a potentiometric method using ion-selective electrodes is reported in only few papers...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541719/the-studies-of-archaeological-pottery-with-the-use-of-selected-analytical-techniques
#12
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Angelina Rosiak, Jacek Grams, Karolina Chałupka, Przemysław Makarowicz, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Elżbieta Szubiakiewicz
Modern analytical methods play an important role in archaeological objects, including ceramics. This review focuses on the use of analytical methods such as: gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), powder X-ray diffraction with thermal analysis to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of archaeological samples and organic residues preserved inside. In this paper, special attention was paid to the ToF-SIMS method, which allows the determination of characteristic ions on the surface of ceramic samples...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541711/a-critical-review-on-ultrasensitive-spectroscopic-based-methods-for-high-throughput-monitoring-of-bacteria-during-infection-treatment
#13
Nicoleta Elena Dina, Alia Colniţă, Tiberiu Szöke-Nagy, Alin Sebastian Porav
The world is in the midst of a pre-emptive public health emergency, one that is just as dramatic as the global aggressive viruses-related crises (Ebola, Zika, or SARS), but not as visible. The "superbugs" and their antimicrobial resistance do not cause much public alarm or awareness, but provoke financial losses of $100 trillion annually (WHO, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/commentaries/superbugs-action-now/en/ ). This status quo review offers an overview of ultrasensitive methods for high-throughput monitoring of bacteria during infection treatment, the effects of antibiotics on bacteria at single-cell level and the challenges we will face in their detection due to the extraordinary capability of these "superbugs" to gain and constantly improve multiresistance to antibiotics...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453309/combination-of-cyclodextrin-and-ionic-liquid-in-analytical-chemistry-current-and-future-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Boon Yih Hui, Muggundha Raoov, Nur Nadhirah Mohamad Zain, Sharifah Mohamad, Hasnah Osman
The growth in driving force and popularity of cyclodextrin (CDs) and ionic liquids (ILs) as promising materials in the field of analytical chemistry has resulted in an exponentially increase of their exploitation and production in analytical chemistry field. CDs belong to the family of cyclic oligosaccharides composing of α-(1,4) linked glucopyranose subunits and possess a cage-like supramolecular structure. This structure enables chemical reactions to proceed between interacting ions, radical or molecules in the absence of covalent bonds...
September 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441028/application-of-gc-ms-soft-ionization-for-isomeric-biological-compound-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Takeshi Furuhashi, Koji Okuda
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula. Many different types of isomers are ubiquitous and play important roles in living organisms. Despite their early discovery, the actual analysis of isomers has been tricky and has confounded researchers. Using mass spectrometry (MS) to distinguish or identify isomers is an emergent topic and challenge for analytical chemists. We review some techniques for analyzing isomers with emphasis on MS, e.g., the roles of ion reaction, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, ion mobility mass spectrometry, ion spectroscopy, and energy change in producing isomer-specific fragments...
September 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426249/non-enzymatic-electrochemistry-in-characterization-and-analysis-of-steroid-compounds
#16
REVIEW
Jan Klouda, Jiří Barek, Karel Nesměrák, Karolina Schwarzová-Pecková
This review summarizes achievements in electrochemistry-related research of steroid-based compounds in clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. Special attention is paid to compounds possessing none or only isolated double bonds at the steroid core. Their direct redox activity is limited to far positive/negative potentials under variety of conditions and electrode materials and relies on the functional groups attached to the steroid skeleton, or as the case may be its double bond or moieties present at the side chain...
September 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398080/new-polymeric-materials-for-solid-phase-extraction
#17
REVIEW
Justyna Płotka-Wasylka, Mariusz Marć, Natalia Szczepańska, Jacek Namieśnik
Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a popular sample preparation technique, which can be applied directly in gas-solid phase and liquid-solid phase, or indirectly to solid samples by using, e.g., thermodesorption with subsequent chromatographic analysis. Although SPE can be described as a physical extraction process involving a liquid phase and a solid phase, the increased use of packed sorbent formats seems to have led to a bias toward packed sorbent SPE devices. Without any doubt, the heart of the SPE technique is the sorbent material as it has a direct influence on the selectivity, sorptive capacity, and the format or the configuration of the resultant SPE device...
September 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340309/analytical-techniques-in-lipidomics-state-of-the-art
#18
REVIEW
Kamil Jurowski, Kamila Kochan, Justyna Walczak, Małgorzata Barańska, Wojciech Piekoszewski, Bogusław Buszewski
Current studies related to lipid identification and determination, or lipidomics in biological samples, are one of the most important issues in modern bioanalytical chemistry. There are many articles dedicated to specific analytical strategies used in lipidomics in various kinds of biological samples. However, in such literature, there is a lack of articles dedicated to a comprehensive review of the actual analytical methodologies used in lipidomics. The aim of this article is to characterize the lipidomics methods used in modern bioanalysis according to the methodological point of view: (1) chromatography/separation methods, (2) spectroscopic methods and (3) mass spectrometry and also hyphenated methods...
September 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282223/analytical-methods-for-metformin-estimation
#19
REVIEW
Durgawati Patel, Puspendra Kumar, Swapnil Sharma, Jaya Dwivedi
Metformin is a widely prescribed oral anti-hyperglycemic agent used in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type II diabetes. This article accentuates various analytical methods viz. HPLC, HPTLC, spectrophotometric, electrochemical, capillary electrophoresis and LC-MS for the estimation of metformin in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological matrices.
September 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777019/multiple-versus-single-set-validation-of-multivariate-models-to-avoid-mistakes
#20
Peter de Boves Harrington
Validation of multivariate models is of current importance for a wide range of chemical applications. Although important, it is neglected. The common practice is to use a single external validation set for evaluation. This approach is deficient and may mislead investigators with results that are specific to the single validation set of data. In addition, no statistics are available regarding the precision of a derived figure of merit (FOM). A statistical approach using bootstrapped Latin partitions is advocated...
August 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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