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Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry

Cafer Saka
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were the first type of antidepressant developed. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, and several other disorders. Therefore, it is very important to develop efficient analytical methods for monitoring and management. There are two isoforms of monoamine oxidase, MAO-A and MAO-B. In this article, analyses of MAOIs in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids were reviewed from 2000 to the present, including all types of chromatographic, spectrophotometric, electrophoretic, and voltammetric techniques, focusing on isoniazid, tranylcypromine, moclobemide, rasagiline, and selegiline...
October 7, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
M Kątny, M Frankowski
Analytical methods should be selective and fast. In modern times, scientists strive to meet the criteria of green chemistry, so they choose analytical procedures that are as short as possible and use the least toxic solvents. It is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption should be characterized as completely as possible. The safety of a drug is dependent mainly on the impurities that it contains. High pressure liquid chromatography and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography have been proposed as the main techniques for forced degradation and impurity profiling...
September 29, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Massoud Kaykhaii, Matthew R Linford
Here, we discuss the newly developed micro and solventless sample preparation techniques SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) and MESI (Membrane Extraction with a Sorbent Interface) as applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thermal oxidative degradation products of polymers and their stabilizers. The coupling of these systems to analytical instruments is also described. Our comprehensive literature search revealed that there is no previously published review article on this topic. It is shown that these extraction techniques are valuable sample preparation tools for identifying complex series of degradation products in polymers...
September 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Rúbia Adrieli Sversut, Adriane Andrade da Silva, Teófilo Fernando Mazon Cardoso, Nájla Mohamad Kassab, Marcos Serrou do Amaral, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Antibiotics have an unquestionable importance in the treatment of many infections. Oxytetracycline is an antibiotic belonging to the class of tetracyclines, available for use in human and veterinary medicine. Development of analytical methods that prove the quality and efficacy of these drugs is fundamentally important to the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, the research presents an overview of the analytical profile of oxytetracycline, describing its chemical and pharmacological properties, and analytical methods for quantification of this drug in biological samples and pharmaceutical products...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Michael J Kangas, Raychelle M Burks, Jordyn Atwater, Rachel M Lukowicz, Pat Williams, Andrea E Holmes
There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes...
September 16, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Xin Ding, Qinli Liu, Xiongpo Hou, Tao Fang
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), as a new green extraction technology, has been used in extracting various metal species. The solubilities of chelating agents and corresponding metal chelates are the key factors which influence the efficiency of SFE. Other main properties of them such as stability and selectivity are also reviewed. The extraction mechanisms of mainly used chelating agents are explained by typical examples in this paper. This is the important aspect of SFE of metal ions. Moreover, the extraction efficiencies of metal species also depends on other factors such as temperature, pressure, extraction time and matrix effect...
August 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Geaneth Pertunia Mashile, Philiswa N Nomngongo
Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this article, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed...
August 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Sayyed Hossein Hashemi, Massoud Kaykhaii
Naphthalene sulfonates are highly water-soluble compounds, indicating a high mobility in aquatic systems along with high temperature stability which are important substances in the chemical industry. This review covers analytical methods, instruments and techniques used for the pre-concentration and analysis of naphthalene sulfonates in different matrices. All analytical steps including the extraction from real samples, their detection by spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques, as well as methods of identification of this class of compounds are described in detail...
August 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Bianca Aparecida de Marco, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Infections are the second leading cause of mortality worldwide and there are many reasons justifying the need for further studies of antimicrobial agents. The cefadroxil is a drug that has bactericidal activity and broad spectrum of action. Quantitative analyzes about cefadroxil are essential for the understanding of bioavailability, bioequivalence and therapeutic control, which will ensure the product characteristics and patient safety. Thus, this study highlights a brief literature review about drug and existing methods developed for the determination of cefadroxil found in official and scientific papers...
August 5, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Jyoti Boken, Sarvesh K Soni, Dinesh Kumar
We present an extensive overview of the evolution and progress made in the field of microstructures and nanostructures preparation using microfluidic techniques in recent times. A microfluidic system creates particles that are within a narrow range of shape and size distribution. It enables controlling the shape, size and composition of nanomaterials (NMs) for various applications. A brief evaluation of the advantages of both droplet-based and continuous flow synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is discussed in detail and compared with the traditional wet chemical batch synthesis approach...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Sze Y Tan, Caleb Acquah, Amandeep Sidhu, Clarence M Ongkudon, L S Yon, Michael K Danquah
The quest to improve the detection of biomolecules and cells in health and life sciences has led to the discovery and characterization of various affinity bioprobes. Libraries of synthetic oligonucleotides (ssDNA/ssRNA) with randomized sequences are employed during Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) to select highly specific affinity probes called aptamers. With much focus on the generation of aptamers for a variety of target molecules, conventional SELEX protocols have been modified to develop new and improved SELEX protocols yielding highly specific and stable aptamers...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Vasilica Ţucureanu, Alina Matei, Andrei Marius Avram
Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a versatile technique for the characterization of materials belonging to the carbon family. Based on the interaction of the IR radiation with matter this technique may be used for the identification and characterization of chemical structures. Most important features of this method are: non-destructive, real-time measurement and relatively easy to use. Carbon basis for all living systems has found numerous industrial applications from carbon coatings (i.e. amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films: diamond-like carbon (DLC) films) to nanostructured materials (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene) and carbon materials at nanoscale or carbon dots (CDots)...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
B Ramachandra
Modafinil is a synthetic molecule used for the treatment of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder, due to which people experience frequent excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Nevertheless, there are some concerns about modafnil quality control. The modafinil enantiomers are both biologically active. However, it has been reported that the pharmacological properties of the both enantiomers are different and that the S-enantiomer is eliminated three times faster than the R-enantiomer. Therefore, most of the pharmaceutical companies have shifted to produce armodafinil (R-enantiomer) instead of the racemate...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Elodie Lussac, Regis Barattin, Pascal Cardinael, Valerie Agasse
Over 30 years, portable systems for fast and reliable gas analysis are at the core of both academic and industrial research. Miniaturized systems can be helpful in several domains. The way to make it possible is to miniaturize the whole gas chromatograph. Micro-system conception by etching silicon channel is well known. The main objective is to obtain similar or superior efficiencies to those obtained from laboratory chromatographs. However, stationary phase coatings on silicon surface and micro-detector conception with a low limit of detection remain a challenge...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Bin Yang, Jianping Li, Huan Deng, Lianming Zhang
The need to develop innovative and reformative approaches to synthesize chemical sensors has increased in recent years because of demands for selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Mimetic enzymes provide an efficient and convenient method for chemical sensors. This review summarizes the application of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors. Mimetic enzymes can be classified into five categories: hydrolases, oxidoreductases, transferases, isomerases, and induced enzymes. Potential and recent applications of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors are reviewed in detail, and the outlook of profound development has been illustrated...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
N T Brannelly, J P Hamilton-Shield, A J Killard
Ammonia is an important component of metabolism and is involved in many physiological processes. During normal physiology, levels of blood ammonia are between 11 and 50 µM. Elevated blood ammonia levels are associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as liver and kidney dysfunction, Reye's syndrome and a variety of inborn errors of metabolism including urea cycle disorders (UCD), organic acidaemias and hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia syndrome in which ammonia may reach levels in excess of 1 mM...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Cyprian Fijało, Tomasz Dymerski, Jacek Gębicki, Jacek Namieśnik
For many years there has been growing demand for gaseous reference materials, which is connected with development in many fields of science and technology. As a result, new methodological and instrumental solutions appear that can be used for this purpose. Appropriate quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) must be used to make sure that measurement data are a reliable source of information. Reference materials are a significant element of such systems. In the case of gas samples, such materials are generally called reference gas mixtures...
September 2, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Mohammad Asaduddin Laskar, Sana Siddiqui, Aminul Islam
1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) is a heterocyclic azo compound that forms inner, mostly reddish colored, water-insoluble chelates with many transition metal ions with metal ion-ligand ratios of 1:1 or 1:2. PAN is rather unselective but it does not form complexes with the alkali and alkaline earth metals, Ge(IV), As, Se and Te. Numerous reported techniques of pre-concentration have been considered for analyzing the role of PAN on the physiochemical outcome of the procedures. PAN been used as a chelating precipitant, flocculant, auxiliary complexing agent, as a ligand for anchoring on other supports with the purpose of introducing chelating property as well as selectivity...
September 2, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Susheela Rani, Ashok Kumar Malik, Ramandeep Kaur, Ripneel Kaur
The analysis of drugs in various biological fluids is an important criterion for the determination of the physiological performance of a drug. After sampling of the biological fluid, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Sample preparation is essential for isolation of desired components from complex biological matrices and greatly influences their reliable and accurate determination. The complexity of biological fluids adds to the challenge of direct determination of the drug by chromatographic analysis, therefore demanding a sample preparation step that is often time consuming, tedious and frequently overlooked...
September 2, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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