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ChukwuNonso Nwokoye, Ikechukwu Umeh
Modelers often apply analytical (differential equation-based) epidemic models that mostly characterize the behavior of the network compartments with passage of time. Beyond temporal characterization, agent modeling promises the achievement of relevant spatial (stochastic and heterogeneous) representations. Arising from the combination of the prevalent analytical and agent methods (gleaned from extant literature) is a new method called the Analytic-Agent Cyber Dynamical Systems Analysis and Design Method (A2 CDSADM); a modification of the Agent Oriented Analysis and Design (AOAD)...
2018: MethodsX
Hossein Najafi Saleh, Ali Kavosi, Manizhe Pakdel, Mahmood Yousefi, Farzaneh Baghal Asghari, Ali Akbar Mohammadi
This study was conducted to evaluate the health status of medical equipment's in Neyshabur hospital's intensive care units (ICU) before and after daily cleaning in order to compare the efficiency of the observational and microbial methods in evaluating hygienic conditions and cleaning of the environmental surfaces at the hospitals in Neyshabur. The study was performed in a ten-week period, twice a week before and after daily cleaning according to the ICNA observational method and the ACC microbial method were performed on the selected sites...
2018: MethodsX
Mohamad Annuar Assadat Husain, Suhairul Hashim, Norasalwa Zakaria, Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin
This paper describes the development of a custom-designed underwater scanner to support the experimental works for characterizing irradiated fuel stored in the TRIGA PUSPATI pool by means of radiography technique. Materials used to build the scanner are aluminum 6061, lead and teflon. Three main units that make up the scanner are rig structure, arm block and collimator. Collimator is designed to control radiation exposure by opening and closing the shutter. The experimental works were conducted underwater at 5-m depth hence water tightness is one of the main design criteria...
2018: MethodsX
Anton du Plessis, Philip Sperling, Andre Beerlink, Willie B du Preez, Stephan G le Roux
X-ray micro computed tomography (microCT) can be applied to analyse powder feedstock used in additive manufacturing. In this paper, we demonstrate a dedicated workflow for this analysis method, specifically for Ti6Al4V powder typically used in commercial powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) systems. The methodology presented includes sample size requirements, scan conditions and settings, reconstruction and image analysis procedures. We envisage this method will support standardization in powder analysis in the additive manufacturing community...
2018: MethodsX
Tomo Kitahashi, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Masashi Tsuchiya, Hideyuki Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Yamamoto
The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for investigating sediment-inhabiting meiobenthos using the Flow Cytometer And Microscope (FlowCAM). Meiobenthos are widely recognized as a useful indicator for assessing the effects of anthropogenic and natural disturbances in both shallow and deep ocean ecosystems. These small benthic invertebrates are traditionally investigated by individually counting and identifying specimens under a microscope, which is labor intensive and time consuming. However, FlowCAM, which was originally developed to semiautomatically analyze microplankton, has the potential to resolve these challenges...
2018: MethodsX
Elaine Ho
Resources allocated to natural resource management often fluctuate, requiring the types and numbers of parameters used in monitoring programs (e.g., indicators of ecosystem health) to be frequently reassessed. Conventional approaches to selecting monitoring indicators are often biased and non-inclusive. A new Criteria-based Ranking (CBR) process for selecting and/or prioritizing indicators was tested in the Muskoka River Watershed (Ontario, Canada). The CBR process is based on two environmental assessment tools, Simple Weighted and Leopold matrices...
2018: MethodsX
Xiangfei Sun, Carla A Ng, Mitchell J Small
A population-based bioaccumulation fugacity model is designed to simulate the continuous and dynamic transport of polychlorinated bisphenols (PCBs) in an aquatic environment. The extended model is developed based on a previous fugacity model by Campfens and Mackay. The new model identifies each biotic species as a populated compartment and constructs all the exchange routes between organisms and the environment based on known biological processes. The population-based design could assist to uncover the impacts of organism activities on PCB fate and transport in the ecosystem...
2018: MethodsX
Martin J Strand, Katja Fridh
This paper describes a de-icing salt-frost scaling test method for analysis of the salt-frost scaling behaviour in high-performance concrete with various binders. The method was therefore designed to result in considerable scaling damage for the concrete considered to be salt-frost resistant. In addition, the experimental set-up was designed to avoid leakage, and to allow testing of a large number of samples. The method was validated by testing concrete with three different binders with a water-binder ratio of 0...
2018: MethodsX
Mohammad Karimi Moridani, Yashar Haghighi Bardineh
Intensive care unit (ICU) experienced and skillful people in this field should be employed because the equipment, facilities, and admitted patients have more special conditions than other departments. Our goal provides the best quality according to the condition each patient and prevent many unnecessary costs for preventive treatment. In this paper, the proposed system will first receive the patient's vital signs, which are recorded by the ICU monitoring. After the necessary processing, in case of observing changes in the normal state, risk alarms are transmitted to the nursing station so that nurses become aware of this condition and take all equipment to return the patient to normal condition and prevent his death...
2018: MethodsX
Patricia Gadd, Karthik Gopi, Jesmond Sammut, Neil Saintilan, Jagoda Crawford, Debashish Mazumder
Determination of the elemental composition of soft biological tissue is a time-consuming and tedious process when using traditional analytical techniques. In this method, micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) via Itrax, a scanning instrument, was used to determine elemental abundance at a resolution of 200 μm. Itrax μXRF was initially designed for elemental profiling of geological cores, and the capability of this technique was extended to soft biological tissue samples. The samples were dried and ground into a fine powder before analysis...
2018: MethodsX
Jessica A Stammeier, Bettina Purgstaller, Dorothee Hippler, Vasileios Mavromatis, Martin Dietzel
Amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca3 (PO4 )2 xnH2 O; n = 3-4.5; ACP) is a precursor phase of the mineral hydroxyapatite (Ca5 (PO4 )3 (OH); HAP) that in natural settings occurs during both authigenic and biogenic mineral formation. In aqueous solutions ACP transforms rapidly to the crystalline phase. The transformation rate is highly dependent on the prevailing physico-chemical conditions, most likely on: Ca & PO4 concentration, pH and temperature. In this study, we conducted a calcium phosphate precipitation experiment at 20 °C and pH 9...
2018: MethodsX
Adam D Herron, Shawn P Coleman, Khanh Q Dang, Douglas E Spearot, Eric R Homer
One of the limitations of atomistic simulations is that many of the computational tools used to extract structural information from atomic trajectories provide metrics that are not directly compatible with experiments for validation. In this work, to bridge between simulation and experiment, a method is presented to produce simulated Kikuchi diffraction patterns using data from atomistic simulations, without requiring a priori specification of the crystal structure or defect periodicity. The Kikuchi pattern simulation is based on the kinematic theory of diffraction, with Kikuchi line intensities computed via a discrete structure factor calculation...
2018: MethodsX
Wen Hao Kan, Carlos Albino, Daniel Dias-da-Costa, Kevin Dolman, Timothy Lucey, Xinhu Tang, Julie Cairney, Gwénaëlle Proust
Digital image correlation (DIC) is an optical technique commonly used for measuring displacement fields by tracking artificially applied random speckle patterns, which can sometimes be a problem for tracking small-scale displacements. DIC is particularly useful for tracking the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) of a notched metallic specimen subjected to three-point bending for fracture toughness determination because the edges of the notch provide the required textural features for DIC without the need for speckle patterns...
2018: MethodsX
Abdul Malik Khan, Naveed Iqbal, Muhammad Faisal Khan
With the increase in GNSS user base, the studies of threats and vulnerabilities of GNSS system are also increased. Among the threats, spoofing is of particular interest because of the risk associated with it. The studies on spoofing are generally limited to simulated scenarios as the real world spoofing attack is very difficult to create or spot and record for analysis. This paper presents a method of generating baseband spoofing data using real world signals by simultaneous recordings of GNSS signals using two separate receivers, where one of them simulates the receiver under attack and the other simulates the response the spoofer will be going to produce to fabricate the attack...
2018: MethodsX
Erica Bresciani, Elizabeth Broadbridge, Paul P Liu
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) has emerged as a powerful animal model to study developmental processes and human diseases. The introduction of CRISPR/Cas9 as a genome editing tool allowed the generation of genetic mutants with high-throughput (Varshney et al., 2015) and has opened the possibility to understand gene function not only during embryonic stages but also in larval stages. Therefore, there is an increasing need to optimize methods for embryo and larvae dissociation that allow the generation of single cell suspension for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), RNA extraction and single cell RNA-sequencing...
2018: MethodsX
Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Mohammed Al-Hawwas, Liang Liu, Donghui Liu, John Hayball, Xin-Fu Zhou
Intravenous injection is a standard procedure for delivering human stem cells and therapeutic agents. Currently, genetically modified severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice are used for engraftment studies using human cells. SCID neonates have better integration and survivability of human cells compared to adult SCID mice, as their immune system will not be developed in the first few days after birth. However, intravenous injections in neonates are difficult. This protocol describes a reliable and reproducible method for injecting cells into the facial vein of P3/P4 (3 or 4 days post-birth) SCID neonates to study their engraftment...
2018: MethodsX
V Maderich, R Bezhenar, Y Tateda, M Aoyama, D Tsumune, K T Jung, G de With
A detailed description of the advanced version of compartment model POSEIDON-R for the prediction of transport and fate of radionuclides in the marine environment is given. The equations of transfer of radionuclides in the water and bottom sediment compartments along with the dynamical food chain model are presented together with dose module to assess individual and collective doses to the population due to the regular and accidental releases of radionuclides. The method for the numerical solution of model equations is also presented...
2018: MethodsX
Ersilia D'Ambrosio, Anna Maria De Girolamo, Maria Cristina Rulli
In this work, a simple approach for calibrating the water footprint (WF) accounting of crops with in-stream measurements at the catchment scale was developed. The green and blue components of the WF were evaluated by performing a soil-water balance at a 10-day time-interval. The surface runoff was calibrated based on continuous streamflow measurements. Meanwhile, the grey component of the WF related to nitrogen use was quantified by means of the results from the in-stream monitoring activities. The methodology can be applied to any catchment where soil, land use, weather, agricultural practices, nitrogen balance and stream data are available...
2018: MethodsX
Grigoriy M Fedorenko, Aleksei G Fedorenko, Tatiana M Minkina, Saglara S Mandzhieva, Vishnu D Rajput, Aleksandr V Usatov, Svetlana N Sushkova
Nowadays there are no well-established, standard methods in electron microscopy despite its 50-year history. An excessive variety of research objects prompt researchers to modify and improve methodological approaches to sample preparation. One of the difficult objects to study by electron microscopy is hydrophytic plants, for example, Phragmites australis Cav. Traditional approaches to fixation and sample preparation do not give satisfactory results due to the peculiarities in structure and physiology of hydrophytic plants...
2018: MethodsX
Krzysztof Adamczyk, Gaute Stokkan, Marisa Di Sabatino
With multicrystalline silicon becoming the main material used for photovoltaic applications and dislocations being one of the main material limitations to better solar cell efficiency, etch pit density measurements are gaining more importance. Traditionally, etch pit density measurements are based on selective etching of silicon samples. The majority of the etchants have been developed for monocrystalline samples with known orientation, while those developed for multicrystalline samples have been less investigated and might need some optimization...
2018: MethodsX
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