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MethodsX

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225206/adapting-open-source-drone-autopilots-for-real-time-iceberg-observations
#1
Daniel F Carlson, Søren Rysgaard
Drone autopilots are naturally suited for real-time iceberg tracking as they measure position and orientation (pitch, roll, and heading) and they transmit these data to a ground station. We powered an ArduPilot Mega (APM) 2.6 with a 5V 11 Ah lithium ion battery (a smartphone power bank), placed the APM and battery in a waterproof sportsman's box, and tossed the box and its contents by hand onto an 80 m-long iceberg from an 8 m boat. The data stream could be viewed on a laptop, which greatly enhanced safety while collecting conductivity/temperature/depth (CTD) profiles from the small boat in the iceberg's vicinity...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225205/performance-evaluation-of-friction-stir-welding-using-machine-learning-approaches
#2
Shubham Verma, Meenu Gupta, Joy Prakash Misra
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential of sophisticated machine learning methodologies, i.e. Gaussian process (GPR) regression, support vector machining (SVM), and multi-linear regression (MLR) for ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of friction stir welded joint. Three regression models are developed on the above methodologies. These models are projected to study the incongruity between the experimental and predicted outcomes and preferred the preeminent model according to their evaluation parameter performances...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225204/aberration-correction-for-low-voltage-optimized-transmission-electron-microscopy
#3
Jaromír Bačovský
Further development of low voltage electron microscopy leads to an aberration correction of the device in order to improve its spatial resolution. The integration of a corrector to a desktop transmission electron microscope with exclusively low-voltage design seems to be a challenging task. The benefits and potential of the Rose hexapole corrector implemented to such a system are critically considered in this paper. The feasibility of miniaturized corrector suitable for desktop LVEM is especially discussed, including the aspect of corrector contribution to chromatic aberration that appears to be crucial...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225203/efficient-enrichment-cloning-of-tal-effector-genes-from-xanthomonas
#4
T T Tran, H Doucouré, M Hutin, L M Jaimes Niño, B Szurek, S Cunnac, R Koebnik
Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads use a type III secretion system to translocate Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors into eukaryotic host cells where they act as transcription factors. Target genes are induced upon binding of a TAL effector to double-stranded DNA in a sequence-specific manner. DNA binding is governed by a highly repetitive protein domain, which consists of an array of nearly identical repeats of ca. 102 base pairs. Many species and pathovars of Xanthomonas , including pathogens of rice, cereals, cassava, citrus and cotton, encode multiple TAL effectors in their genomes...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211015/cleaning-and-sampling-protocol-for-analysis-of-mercury-and-dissolved-organic-matter-in-freshwater-systems
#5
Andrea G Bravo, Dolly N Kothawala, Katrin Attermeyer, Emmanuel Tessier, Pascal Bodmer, David Amouroux
Mercury (Hg), and in particular its methylated form (methylmercury, MeHg), is a hazardous substance with the potential to produce significant adverse neurological and other health effects. Enhanced anthropogenic emissions and long-range transport of atmospheric Hg have increased Hg concentrations above background levels in aquatic systems. In this context, the Minamata Convention, a global legally binding agreement that seeks to prevent human exposure to Hg, was signed and enforced by 128 countries, and today more than 90 Parties have ratified it...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211014/method-for-the-simplistic-modelling-of-the-acoustic-footprint-of-the-vessels-in-the-shallow-marine-area
#6
Donatas Bagočius, Aleksas Narščius
The definitions of the 11th descriptor of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) "Underwater noise and other forms of energy" outlines the standards for the continuous noise evaluation and monitoring in the European seas. Long lasting fluctuations of the continuous underwater noise at the shallow marine areas in the low frequency bands (<1 kHz) are mostly associated with the shipping noise, where these fluctuations are sensitive to changes in the spatial distribution of human activities, or changes of environmental and climatic variables...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197869/methods-of-determing-biokinetics-of-arsenate-accumulation-and-release-in-microcystis-aeruginosa-regulated-by-common-environmental-factors-practical-implications-for-enhanced-bioremediation
#7
Zhenhong Wang, Zhuanxi Luo, Changzhou Yan, Ricki R Rosenfeldt, Frank Seitz, Herong Gui
Only little information is available on combined effects of abiotic environmental factors on algal arsenate ( AsV ) metabolic biokinetics. Herein, we demonstrated the methods of using the Taguchi statistical method to investigate four environmental factors including AsV , nitrate (N), orthophosphate (P) and pH for their combined effects on algal growth and arsenic ( As ) uptake but also extracellular adsorption of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as As release from dead algal cells. Results showed that an increase of N facilitated M...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197868/development-of-a-new-equation-in-fuzzy-logic-analysis-for-ascertaining-appropriate-dose-of-gamma-irradiation-of-virgin-coconut-oil
#8
Anupama Bose, Paramita Bhattacharjee
Our previous investigation had established 4.2 kGy to be the appropriate dosage of gamma irradiation for removal of obnoxious rancid-acid-odor of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the basis of sensory and electronic nose (e nose) studies. This study endeavored to revalidate the sensory data employing fuzzy logic analysis. An equation has been developed for the first time for deriving defuzzified scores, when the sum of the first and third coordinates of the triplet (a b c) of overall sensory score was greater than 100, i...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197867/a-hand-held-power-free-microfluidic-device-for-monodisperse-droplet-generation
#9
I-Jane Chen, Tao Wu, Shuhuan Hu
Here we develop a microfluidic device to generate monodispersion sub-nanoliter size droplets. Our system reaches steady state within 3 s after the flow starts and generates 100,000 droplets in 28 s with high size consistency (CV < 8%). This low cost device is composed with a microfluidic chip, 2 tubings, a collection vial, a syringe and a station; and is in the size of an iPad Mini (4" × 6" × 3/4"). In this system, all incoming reagents share the same pressure drop across the fluidic passage to generator droplets...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181960/maximizing-the-information-obtained-from-chamber-based-greenhouse-gas-exchange-measurements-in-remote-areas
#10
Haifa Debouk, Núria Altimir, Maria-Teresa Sebastià
Measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes, particularly methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) in mountain ecosystems are scarce due to the complexity and unpredictable behavior of these gases, in addition to the remoteness of these ecosystems. In this context, we measured CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O fluxes in four semi-natural pastures in the Pyrenees to investigate their magnitude and range of variability. Our interest was to study GHG phenomena at the patch-level, therefore we chose to measure the gas-exchange using a combination of a gas analyzer and manual chambers...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181959/method-for-obtaining-the-knudsen-diffusion-coefficient
#11
Yoshihiko Hibi
Recently, we developed a method for obtaining the Knudsen diffusion coefficient from the results of tracer experiments with a binary gas system and a porous medium in a column. The developed method employs dusty gas model (DGM) equations that consider molecular diffusion, nonequimolar fluxes, and Knudsen diffusion. The equations derived from the DGM equations for the calculation of the Knudsen diffusion coefficient can also be used to obtain the molecular diffusion coefficient and the ratio of the Knudsen diffusion coefficients of the two chemicals composing the binary gas system...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181958/determination-of-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-multiple-matrices-of-arctic-using-gas-chromatography-electron-capture-negative-ion-low-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#12
Huijuan Li, Jianjie Fu, Wenxiao Pan, Pu Wang, Yingming Li, Qinghua Zhang, Yawei Wang, Aiqian Zhang, Yong Liang, Guibin Jiang
Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) was used for the quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multiple matrices of Arctic. Samples were spiked with surrogate standards (13 C10 - trans -chlordane) and extracted with dichloromethane and hexane (1:1, v/v ) using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extract was cleaned using a multilayer Silica-Florisil column and ε-HCH was added before instrument analysis. The SCCPs were analyzed using a gas chromatograph (GC) in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) mode coupled with a 7000B triple quadruple mass spectrometer (MS) in single quad mode...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167385/soil-pedostructure-based-method-for-calculating-the-soil-water-holding-properties
#13
Amjad T Assi, Rabi H Mohtar, Erik Braudeau
Soil aggregates structure (pedostructure) plays a pivotal role in regulating water and nutrient circulation, and consequently defines soil health, productivity, and water use efficiency. However, the soil aggregates structure is not currently considered in the quantification of soil-water holding properties. The authors applied a thermodynamic and soil structure-based approach to quantify soil-water holding properties. The paper provides a methodology, based on pedostructure concept, to quantify field capacity (FC), permanent wilting point (PWP), and available water (AW)...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167384/a-global-visual-method-for-measuring-the-deterioration-of-strawberries-in-map
#14
Céline Matar, Sébastien Gaucel, Nathalie Gontard, Stéphane Guilbert, Valérie Guillard
Evaluating the quality changes of packed strawberries during storage requires multiple, time consuming and costly measurements such as sensorial, chemical and decay identification. In order to efficiently assess the quality of strawberries in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) while reducing the number of analysis done, we propose to gather the main visual quality changes under one unique, overall measurement. For this end, a protocol associated to a deterioration grid was built to evaluate surface deterioration as a function of time considering color change, texture softening and microorganism development...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167383/a-method-of-single-reference-image-based-scene-relighting
#15
Xin Jin, Yannan Li, Ri Xu, Xiaokun Zhang, Xiaodong Li
Image relighting is to change the illumination of an image to a target illumination effect without known the original scene geometry, material information and illumination condition. We propose a novel outdoor scene relighting method, which needs only a single reference image and is based on material constrained layer decomposition. Firstly, the material map is extracted from the input image. Then, the reference image is warped to the input image through patch match based image warping. Lastly, the input image is relit using material constrained layer decomposition...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167382/a-3d-printed-mechanical-bioreactor-for-investigating-mechanobiology-and-soft-tissue-mechanics
#16
Abigail R Raveling, Sophia K Theodossiou, Nathan R Schiele
Mechanical loading is an important cue for directing stem cell fate and engineered tissue formation in vitro . Stem cells cultured on 2-dimensional (D) substrates and in 3D scaffolds have been shown to differentiate toward bone, tendon, cartilage, ligament, and skeletal muscle lineages depending on their exposure to mechanical stimuli. To apply this mechanical stimulus in vitro , mechanical bioreactors are needed. However, current bioreactor systems are challenged by their high cost, limited ability for customization, and lack of force measurement capabilities...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151351/synthesis-of-mg-al-layered-double-hydroxides-by-electrocoagulation
#17
Marena Molano-Mendoza, Dayana Donneys-Victoria, Nilson Marriaga-Cabrales, Miguel Angel Mueses, Gianluca Li Puma, Fiderman Machuca-Martínez
Recently, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have attracted much consideration due to their versatility and easily manipulating properties and their potential applications such as anion exchangers, support of catalysts, flame retardants, biomedical drug delivery. A novel method for the in-situ preparation in situ of LDHs, using electrocoagulation (EC) processes was developed, the EC process was performed under two different conditions, at 5 mA m-2 , changing polarity of the electrodes to find out the composition that leads to LDHs generation...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151350/microbial-assay-of-n-2-fixation-rate-a-simple-alternate-for-acetylene-reduction-assay
#18
Subhajit Das, Tarun Kumar De
Nitrogen is an essential element for living creatures in every ecosystem but nitrogen cannot be absorbed by the plant itself directly from the atmosphere, so for nitrogen, plant depends on both free living and symbiotic microbes present in the soil. Nitrogen fixation potentiality of the soil thus reveals its fertility with respect to nitrogen. Researchers developed and modified techniques for measuring nitrogen fixation rate of the soil and acetylene reduction assay (ARA) technique became the most popular till now...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151349/performance-evaluation-of-fuzzy-logic-and-bp-ann-methods-for-wedm-of-aeronautics-super-alloy
#19
Somvir Singh Nain, Parveen Sihag, Sunil Luthra
The main purpose of this research is to check the relative importance of methods fuzzy-logic and back-propagation neural network to evaluate the performance of wire electric discharge machine (WEDM) of aeronautics super alloy. It has been confirmed that BP-ANN method reveals significant result over the fuzzy logic method for the evaluation of surface roughness and waviness of the WEDM of aeronautic super alloy. On the basis of Taguchi analysis, it has been established that the variable pulse-on, interaction amid the pulse-on and pulse-off time, wire tension and spark-gap voltage have a superlative influence on the surface roughness...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151348/use-of-coagulation-factor-xiii-f13-gene-as-an-internal-control-for-normalization-of-genomic-dna-s-for-hla-typing
#20
Anupama Cheleri Neduvat, Prerana Madhusudhana Murthy, Sudarson Sundarrajan, Sriram Padmanabhan
Genomic DNA (gDNA) obtained from whole blood samples is a critical element for genomic research and clinical diagnosis. PCR efficiencies of the targeted genes like HLA-A, -B, -C, DPB1 and DRB1 using such isolated gDNAs were variable in spite of having similar amounts of gDNA taken for PCR. We addressed such PCR variabilities by normalizing the gDNA's using an internal control of human coagulation factor XIII that was found to be variable with all samples and did not correlate with the observed A260 nm readings...
2018: MethodsX
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