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Brilliance Onyinyechi Anyanwu, Anthonet Ndidiamaka Ezejiofor, Zelinjo Nkeiruka Igweze, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
The drive for development and modernization has come at great cost. Various human activities in developed and developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have given rise to environmental safety concerns. Increased artisanal mining activities, illegal refining, use of leaded petrol, airborne dust, arbitrary discarding and burning of toxic waste, absorption of production industries in inhabited areas, inadequate environmental legislation, and weak implementation of policies, have given rise to the incomparable contamination and pollution associated with heavy metals in recent decades...
November 2, 2018: Toxics
Renata Raina-Fulton, Aisha A Mohamad
The extraction of powdered nutraceuticals is challenging due to the low water content and high concentration of matrix components that can lead to significant matrix effects in liquid chromatography-positive ion electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI⁺-MS/MS). In this study we assess the feasibility of using pressurized solvent extraction with ethyl acetate to reduce the co-extraction of polar matrix components. Pigment attributed to chlorophyll was removed with in-cell clean-up utilizing Anasorb 747, Florisil® , and C18...
October 25, 2018: Toxics
Anna Maria Lavezzi
Among the neurotoxicants contained in tobacco smoke, if absorbed during pregnancy, nicotine significantly affects α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which play essential roles in the development of the brainstem regions receiving cholinergic projections in perinatal life. Immunohistochemical procedures for analysing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brainstem samples from 68 fetuses and early newborns, with smoking and non-smoking mothers, who died of known and unknown causes, were carried out in order to determine if nicotine had activated the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
October 18, 2018: Toxics
Mustafa Erkan Özgür, Ahmet Ulu, Sevgi Balcıoğlu, İmren Özcan, Süleyman Köytepe, Burhan Ateş
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of different doses (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/L) of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) at 4 °C for 24 h on the kinematics of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Walbaum, 1792) spermatozoon. Firstly, Fe₃O₄ NPs were prepared at about 30 nm from Iron (III) chloride, Iron (II) chloride, and NH₃ via a co-precipitation synthesis technique. Then, the prepared Fe₃O₄ NPs were characterized by different instrumental techniques for their chemical structure, purity, morphology, surface properties, and thermal behavior...
October 18, 2018: Toxics
Xiaoyang Yuan, Jing Wang, Hing Man Chan
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is known to be neurotoxic, particularly during fetal development. However, the mechanisms responsible for MeHg-induced changes in adult neuronal function, when their exposure occurred primarily during fetal development, are not yet understood. We hypothesized that fetal MeHg exposure could affect neural precursor development leading to long-term neurotoxic effects. Primary cortical precursor cultures obtained from embryonic day 12 were exposed to 0 nM, 0...
October 10, 2018: Toxics
Shazrul Fazry, Muhammad Akram Mohd Noordin, Salahuddin Sanusi, Mahanem Mat Noor, Wan Mohd Aizat, Azwan Mat Lazim, Herryawan Ryadi Eziwar Dyari, Nur Hidayah Jamar, Juwairiah Remali, Babul Airianah Othman, Douglas Law, Nik Marzuki Sidik, Yew Hoong Cheah, Yi Chieh Lim
Xanthone is an organic compound mostly found in mangosteen pericarp and widely known for its anti-proliferating effect on cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of xanthone crude extract (XCE) and α-mangostin (α-MG) on normoxic and hypoxic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and their toxicity towards zebrafish embryos. XCE was isolated using a mixture of acetone and water (80:20) and verified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both XCE and α-MG showed higher anti-proliferation effects on normoxic HepG2 cells compared to the control drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 50...
October 9, 2018: Toxics
Alberto Nuñez, Yelena Sapozhnikova, Steven J Lehotay
Structural isomeric pesticides are used in agriculture and may be challenging to differentiate for accurate identification in pesticide monitoring programs. Due to structural similarity, isomeric pesticides are difficult to separate chromatographically, and thus, their accurate identification may rely solely on mass spectrometric analysis (MS). In this study, we challenged the ability of high-resolution quadrupole-orbitrap (Q-Orbitrap) mass spectrometry to produce and evaluate the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ions for the selected five pairs of isomeric pesticides from different classes: Pebulate and vernolate, methiocarb and ethiofencarb, uniconazole and cyproconazole, sebuthylazine and terbuthylazine, and orbencarb and thiobencarb...
October 2, 2018: Toxics
Diego Castanares-Zapatero, Valérie Dinant, Ilaria Ruggiano, Harold Willem, Pierre-François Laterre, Philippe Hantson
Acute paracetamol poisoning due to a single overdose may be effectively treated by the early administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antidote. The prognosis may be different in the case of intoxication due to multiple ingestions or when the antidote is started with delay. The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome of paracetamol poisoning according to the pattern of ingestion and determine the factors associated with the outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis over the period 2007⁻2017 of the patients who were referred to a tertiary hospital for paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity...
September 29, 2018: Toxics
Karin Brenda Moejes, Reshma Sulthana Rahiman Sherif, Simone Dürr, Sheelagh Conlan, Alex Mason, Olga Korostynska
Biological water pollution, including organic pollutants and their possible transportation, via biofouling and ballast water, has the potential to cause severe economic and health impacts on society and environment. Current water pollution monitoring methods are limited by transportation of samples to the laboratory for analysis, which could take weeks. There is an urgent need for a water quality monitoring technique that generates real-time data. The study aims to assess the feasibility of three sensing techniques to detect and monitor the concentrations of the model species Tetraselmis suecica in real-time using eleven samples for each method...
September 28, 2018: Toxics
Megan Steele, Converse Griffith, Christin Duran
Large-scale manufacturing of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the second half of the 20th century has led to their ubiquity in the environment, and their unique structure has made them persistent contaminants. A recent drinking water advisory level issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency lowered the advisory level concentration of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from 200 nanograms per liter and 400 nanograms per liter, respectively, to 70 nanograms per liter separately or combined...
September 14, 2018: Toxics
Victor Enrique Sarmiento-Ortega, Eduardo Brambila, José Ángel Flores-Hernández, Alfonso Díaz, Ulises Peña-Rosas, Diana Moroni-González, Violeta Aburto-Luna, Samuel Treviño
Previous studies have proposed that cadmium (Cd) is a metabolic disruptor, which is associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. This metal is not considered by international agencies for the study of metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigate the effect of metformin on Cd-exposed Wistar rats at a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) dose (32.5 ppm) in drinking water. Metabolic complications in the rats exposed to Cd were dysglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, dyslipoproteinemia, and imbalance in triglyceride and glycogen storage in the liver, muscle, heart, kidney, and adipose tissue...
September 10, 2018: Toxics
Todd Leff, Paul Stemmer, Jannifer Tyrrell, Ruta Jog
Although the increased incidence of type 2 diabetes since the 1950s is thought to be primarily due to coincident alterations in lifestyle factors, another potential contributing factor in industrialized countries is exposure of the population to environmental pollutants and industrial chemicals. Exposure levels of many environmental toxicants have risen in the same time-frame as the disease incidence. Of particular interest in this regard is the metal lead. Although overall lead exposure levels have diminished in recent decades, there is an under-recognized but persistent occurrence of lead exposure in poor underserved urban populations...
September 6, 2018: Toxics
Tania Jacobo-Estrada, Mariana Cardenas-Gonzalez, Mitzi Paola Santoyo-Sánchez, Frank Thevenod, Olivier Barbier
During embryonic development, some hypoxia occurs due to incipient vascularization. Under hypoxic conditions, gene expression is mainly controlled by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The activity of this transcription factor can be altered by the exposure to a variety of compounds; among them is cadmium (Cd), a nephrotoxic heavy metal capable of crossing the placenta and reaching fetal kidneys. The goal of the study was to determine Cd effects on HIF-1 on embryonic kidneys. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to a mist of isotonic saline solution or CdCl₂ (DDel = 1...
September 3, 2018: Toxics
Angela K Tiethof, Jason R Richardson, Ronald P Hart
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is the evolutionary counterpart to acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Both are expressed early in nervous system development prior to cholinergic synapse formation. The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) primarily exerts toxicity through the inhibition of AChE, which results in excess cholinergic stimulation at the synapse. We hypothesized that the inhibition of AChE and BChE by CPF may impair early neurogenesis in neural stem cells (NSCs). To model neurodevelopment in vitro, we used human NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with a focus on the initial differentiation mechanisms...
September 1, 2018: Toxics
Jiří Patocka, Tanos C C Franca, Qinghua Wu, Kamil Kuca
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS, tetramine) is a toxic organic compound that is used as an effective rodenticide. However, this neurotoxin is not only toxic to rodents, it also causes poisoning in humans. Due to its high level of toxicity for humans, the use of TETS as a rodenticide has been banned and its production has been discontinued. Despite this, human poisoning by this substance is unfortunately still very common. The largest number of poisonings are reported in China, but in the United States, dozens of poisonings still happen annually...
August 22, 2018: Toxics
Elena Fattore, Renzo Bagnati, Andrea Colombo, Roberto Fanelli, Roberto Miniero, Gianfranco Brambilla, Alessandro Di Domenico, Alessandra Roncarati, Enrico Davoli
The present study shows the results of perfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), brominated dioxins (PBDDs) and furans (PBDFs) measured in several marine fish and seafood of commercial interest at different trophic levels of the food chain. The aims were to investigate the level of the contamination in Mediterranean aquatic wildlife, and in farmed fish, to assess human exposure associated to fishery products consumption. Samples of wild fish were collected during three different sampling campaigns in different Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 37 areas of the Mediterranean Sea...
August 22, 2018: Toxics
Nozomi Tatsuta, Kunihiko Nakai, Mineshi Sakamoto, Katsuyuki Murata, Hiroshi Satoh
Seafood is an important component in a healthy diet and may contain methylmercury or other contaminants. It is important to recognize the risks and benefits of consuming seafood. A longitudinal prospective birth cohort study has been conducted to clarify the effects of neurotoxicants on child development-the Tohoku Study of Child Development (TSCD) in Japan. TSCD comprises two cohorts; a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) cohort (urban area) and a methylmercury cohort (coastal area). Our previous results from the coastal area showed prenatal methylmercury exposure affected psychomotor development in 18-month-olds, and boys appear to be more vulnerable to the exposure than girls...
August 21, 2018: Toxics
Jin-Yong Lee, Maki Tokumoto, Gi-Wook Hwang, Min-Seok Kim, Tsutomu Takahashi, Akira Naganuma, Minoru Yoshida, Masahiko Satoh
Mercury compounds are known to cause central nervous system disorders; however the detailed molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Methylmercury increases the expression of several chemokine genes, specifically in the brain, while metallothionein-III (MT-III) has a protective role against various brain diseases. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MT-III in chemokine gene expression changes in response to methylmercury and mercury vapor in the cerebrum and cerebellum of wild-type mice and MT-III null mice...
August 12, 2018: Toxics
Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Beatriz Ferrer, Filipe Marques Gonçalves, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Elisavet A Renieri, Anatoly V Skalny, Marcelo Farina, João B T Rocha, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a hazardous environmental pollutant, which elicits significant toxicity in humans. The accumulation of MeHg through the daily consumption of large predatory fish poses potential health risks, and the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target of toxicity. Despite well-described neurobehavioral effects (i.e., motor impairment), the mechanisms of MeHg-induced toxicity are not completely understood. However, several lines of evidence point out the oxidative stress as an important molecular mechanism in MeHg-induced intoxication...
August 9, 2018: Toxics
Vera Samburova, Chiranjivi Bhattarai, Matthew Strickland, Lyndsey Darrow, Jeff Angermann, Yeongkwon Son, Andrey Khlystov
Several studies have shown the presence of aldehydes (i.e., formaldehyde, acrolein) in mainstream emissions of some e-cigarettes. For this reason, concerns have been raised regarding potential toxicity. The purpose of this research was to measure levels of carbonyls in exhaled breath of e-cigarette users during "vaping" sessions and estimate the respiratory tract (RT) uptake of specific aldehydes, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. We measured concentrations of 12 carbonyls in e-cigarette aerosols produced directly by e-cigarettes and in the exhaled breath of 12 participants (19 sessions)...
August 7, 2018: Toxics
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