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Dirk W Lachenmeier, Steffen Schwarz, Jan Teipel, Maren Hegmanns, Thomas Kuballa, Stephan G Walch, Carmen M Breitling-Utzmann
The four heat-induced coffee contaminants-acrylamide, furfuryl alcohol (FA), furan and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)-were analyzed in a collective of commercial samples as well as in Coffea a rabica seeds roasted under controlled conditions from very light Scandinavian style to very dark Neapolitan style profiles. Regarding acrylamide, average contents in commercial samples were lower than in a previous study in 2002 (195 compared to 303 µg/kg). The roasting experiment confirmed the inverse relationship between roasting degree and acrylamide content, i...
December 21, 2018: Toxics
Aminu Imam, Nafeesah Abdulkareem Sulaiman, Aboyeji Lukuman Oyewole, Samson Chengetanai, Victoria Williams, Musa Iyiola Ajibola, Royhaan Olamide Folarin, Asma'u Shehu Muhammad, Sheu-Tijani Toyin Shittu, Moyosore Salihu Ajao
The execution of agricultural activities on an industrial scale has led to indiscriminate deposition of toxic xenobiotics, including organophosphates, in the biome. This has led to intoxication characterized by deleterious oxidative and neuronal changes. This study investigated the consequences of oxidative and neurogenic disruptions that follow exposure to a combination of two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and dichlorvos (DDVP), on neuro-cognitive performance and anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats (150⁻170 g) were randomly divided into four groups, orally exposed to normal saline (NS), DDVP (8...
December 1, 2018: Toxics
Fatemeh Amiri, Masoud Neghab, Fatemeh Kargar Shouroki, Saeed Yousefinejad, Jafar Hassanzadeh
This study was undertaken to determine whether exposure of operating room personnel to inhalation anesthetics, nitrous oxide, isoflurane, and sevoflurane was associated with any hematological changes. This historical cohort study was performed in 2018 at a large public hospital in Shiraz, where 52 operating room personnel and 52 administrative staff were investigated. The blood sample was taken from all individuals for Complete Blood Count. Furthermore, demographic information was collected through questionnaires...
November 21, 2018: Toxics
Thanh-Thien Tran-Lam, Yen Hai Dao, Duong Thanh Nguyen, Hoi Kim Ma, Trung Quoc Pham, Giang Truong Le
A novel method was developed for the sensitive, cheap and fast quantitation of 10 phthalates in non-alcoholic beverages by liquid⁻liquid extraction (LLE) combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The best results were obtained when n -hexane was used as extraction solvent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to select the most appreciated operating condition. The method performance was evaluated according to the SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines and was linear in the 0.1 to 200 µg/L range for 10 phthalate compounds, with r ² > 0...
November 19, 2018: Toxics
Pritam Saha, Ebin Johny, Ashish Dangi, Sopan Shinde, Samuel Brake, Mathew Suji Eapen, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Vgm Naidu, Pawan Sharma
Air pollution has become an emerging invisible killer in recent years and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. More than 90% of the world's children breathe toxic air every day. India is among the top ten most highly polluted countries with an average PM10 level of 134 μg/m³ per year. It is reported that 99% of India's population encounters air pollution levels that exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline, advising a PM2.5 permissible level of 10 μg/m³. Maternal exposure to air pollution has serious health outcomes in offspring because it can affect embryonic phases of development during the gestation period...
November 16, 2018: Toxics
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
Studies suggest a relationship between exposure to endocrine disrupters, such as mercury (Hg), and premature puberty. Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine, administered at specific intervals within the first six months of life, and the child's long-term risk of being diagnosed with premature puberty (ICD-9 code: 259.1), was retrospectively examined, using a hypothesis-testing, longitudinal case-control design on prospectively collected data, in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). Cases diagnosed with premature puberty were significantly more likely to have received increased exposure to Hg from hepatitis B vaccines preserved with Thimerosal given in the first month after birth (odds ratio (OR) = 1...
November 15, 2018: Toxics
Ola Wasel, Jennifer L Freeman
Tungsten is a refractory metal that is used in a wide range of applications. It was initially perceived that tungsten was immobile in the environment, supporting tungsten as an alternative for lead and uranium in munition and military applications. Recent studies report movement and detection of tungsten in soil and potable water sources, increasing the risk of human exposure. In addition, experimental research studies observed adverse health effects associated with exposure to tungsten alloys, raising concerns on tungsten toxicity with questions surrounding the safety of exposure to tungsten alone or in mixtures with other metals...
November 9, 2018: Toxics
Brilliance Onyinyechi Anyanwu, Anthonet Ndidiamaka Ezejiofor, Zelinjo Nkeiruka Igweze, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
The drive for development and modernization has come at great cost. Various human activities in developed and developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have given rise to environmental safety concerns. Increased artisanal mining activities, illegal refining, use of leaded petrol, airborne dust, arbitrary discarding and burning of toxic waste, absorption of production industries in inhabited areas, inadequate environmental legislation, and weak implementation of policies, have given rise to the incomparable contamination and pollution associated with heavy metals in recent decades...
November 2, 2018: Toxics
Renata Raina-Fulton, Aisha A Mohamad
The extraction of powdered nutraceuticals is challenging due to the low water content and high concentration of matrix components that can lead to significant matrix effects in liquid chromatography-positive ion electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI⁺-MS/MS). In this study we assess the feasibility of using pressurized solvent extraction with ethyl acetate to reduce the co-extraction of polar matrix components. Pigment attributed to chlorophyll was removed with in-cell clean-up utilizing Anasorb 747, Florisil® , and C18...
October 25, 2018: Toxics
Anna Maria Lavezzi
Among the neurotoxicants contained in tobacco smoke, if absorbed during pregnancy, nicotine significantly affects α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which play essential roles in the development of the brainstem regions receiving cholinergic projections in perinatal life. Immunohistochemical procedures for analysing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brainstem samples from 68 fetuses and early newborns, with smoking and non-smoking mothers, who died of known and unknown causes, were carried out in order to determine if nicotine had activated the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
October 18, 2018: Toxics
Mustafa Erkan Özgür, Ahmet Ulu, Sevgi Balcıoğlu, İmren Özcan, Süleyman Köytepe, Burhan Ateş
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of different doses (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/L) of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) at 4 °C for 24 h on the kinematics of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Walbaum, 1792) spermatozoon. Firstly, Fe₃O₄ NPs were prepared at about 30 nm from Iron (III) chloride, Iron (II) chloride, and NH₃ via a co-precipitation synthesis technique. Then, the prepared Fe₃O₄ NPs were characterized by different instrumental techniques for their chemical structure, purity, morphology, surface properties, and thermal behavior...
October 18, 2018: Toxics
Xiaoyang Yuan, Jing Wang, Hing Man Chan
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is known to be neurotoxic, particularly during fetal development. However, the mechanisms responsible for MeHg-induced changes in adult neuronal function, when their exposure occurred primarily during fetal development, are not yet understood. We hypothesized that fetal MeHg exposure could affect neural precursor development leading to long-term neurotoxic effects. Primary cortical precursor cultures obtained from embryonic day 12 were exposed to 0 nM, 0...
October 10, 2018: Toxics
Shazrul Fazry, Muhammad Akram Mohd Noordin, Salahuddin Sanusi, Mahanem Mat Noor, Wan Mohd Aizat, Azwan Mat Lazim, Herryawan Ryadi Eziwar Dyari, Nur Hidayah Jamar, Juwairiah Remali, Babul Airianah Othman, Douglas Law, Nik Marzuki Sidik, Yew Hoong Cheah, Yi Chieh Lim
Xanthone is an organic compound mostly found in mangosteen pericarp and widely known for its anti-proliferating effect on cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of xanthone crude extract (XCE) and α-mangostin (α-MG) on normoxic and hypoxic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and their toxicity towards zebrafish embryos. XCE was isolated using a mixture of acetone and water (80:20) and verified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both XCE and α-MG showed higher anti-proliferation effects on normoxic HepG2 cells compared to the control drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 50...
October 9, 2018: Toxics
Alberto Nuñez, Yelena Sapozhnikova, Steven J Lehotay
Structural isomeric pesticides are used in agriculture and may be challenging to differentiate for accurate identification in pesticide monitoring programs. Due to structural similarity, isomeric pesticides are difficult to separate chromatographically, and thus, their accurate identification may rely solely on mass spectrometric analysis (MS). In this study, we challenged the ability of high-resolution quadrupole-orbitrap (Q-Orbitrap) mass spectrometry to produce and evaluate the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ions for the selected five pairs of isomeric pesticides from different classes: Pebulate and vernolate, methiocarb and ethiofencarb, uniconazole and cyproconazole, sebuthylazine and terbuthylazine, and orbencarb and thiobencarb...
October 2, 2018: Toxics
Diego Castanares-Zapatero, Valérie Dinant, Ilaria Ruggiano, Harold Willem, Pierre-François Laterre, Philippe Hantson
Acute paracetamol poisoning due to a single overdose may be effectively treated by the early administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antidote. The prognosis may be different in the case of intoxication due to multiple ingestions or when the antidote is started with delay. The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome of paracetamol poisoning according to the pattern of ingestion and determine the factors associated with the outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis over the period 2007⁻2017 of the patients who were referred to a tertiary hospital for paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity...
September 29, 2018: Toxics
Karin Brenda Moejes, Reshma Sulthana Rahiman Sherif, Simone Dürr, Sheelagh Conlan, Alex Mason, Olga Korostynska
Biological water pollution, including organic pollutants and their possible transportation, via biofouling and ballast water, has the potential to cause severe economic and health impacts on society and environment. Current water pollution monitoring methods are limited by transportation of samples to the laboratory for analysis, which could take weeks. There is an urgent need for a water quality monitoring technique that generates real-time data. The study aims to assess the feasibility of three sensing techniques to detect and monitor the concentrations of the model species Tetraselmis suecica in real-time using eleven samples for each method...
September 28, 2018: Toxics
Megan Steele, Converse Griffith, Christin Duran
Large-scale manufacturing of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the second half of the 20th century has led to their ubiquity in the environment, and their unique structure has made them persistent contaminants. A recent drinking water advisory level issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency lowered the advisory level concentration of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from 200 nanograms per liter and 400 nanograms per liter, respectively, to 70 nanograms per liter separately or combined...
September 14, 2018: Toxics
Victor Enrique Sarmiento-Ortega, Eduardo Brambila, José Ángel Flores-Hernández, Alfonso Díaz, Ulises Peña-Rosas, Diana Moroni-González, Violeta Aburto-Luna, Samuel Treviño
Previous studies have proposed that cadmium (Cd) is a metabolic disruptor, which is associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. This metal is not considered by international agencies for the study of metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigate the effect of metformin on Cd-exposed Wistar rats at a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) dose (32.5 ppm) in drinking water. Metabolic complications in the rats exposed to Cd were dysglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, dyslipoproteinemia, and imbalance in triglyceride and glycogen storage in the liver, muscle, heart, kidney, and adipose tissue...
September 10, 2018: Toxics
Todd Leff, Paul Stemmer, Jannifer Tyrrell, Ruta Jog
Although the increased incidence of type 2 diabetes since the 1950s is thought to be primarily due to coincident alterations in lifestyle factors, another potential contributing factor in industrialized countries is exposure of the population to environmental pollutants and industrial chemicals. Exposure levels of many environmental toxicants have risen in the same time-frame as the disease incidence. Of particular interest in this regard is the metal lead. Although overall lead exposure levels have diminished in recent decades, there is an under-recognized but persistent occurrence of lead exposure in poor underserved urban populations...
September 6, 2018: Toxics
Tania Jacobo-Estrada, Mariana Cardenas-Gonzalez, Mitzi Paola Santoyo-Sánchez, Frank Thevenod, Olivier Barbier
During embryonic development, some hypoxia occurs due to incipient vascularization. Under hypoxic conditions, gene expression is mainly controlled by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The activity of this transcription factor can be altered by the exposure to a variety of compounds; among them is cadmium (Cd), a nephrotoxic heavy metal capable of crossing the placenta and reaching fetal kidneys. The goal of the study was to determine Cd effects on HIF-1 on embryonic kidneys. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to a mist of isotonic saline solution or CdCl₂ (DDel = 1...
September 3, 2018: Toxics
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