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Toxics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757950/changes-in-arsenic-copper-iron-manganese-and-zinc-levels-resulting-from-the-application-of-poultry-litter-to-agricultural-soils
#1
Richard D Foust, Michael Phillips, Killian Hull, Dariia Yehorova
Twelve applications of poultry litter were made to a 2.1-ha field located in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, United States (USA), between March 1999 and August 2014. The field was planted with bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) and used as a pasture on an active farm. Copper, iron, manganese, zinc, and arsenic concentrations in the poultry litter were measured, and the application rates of these metals were calculated. The median application rates were: Cu, 1.32 kg/ha, Fe, 5.57 kg/ha, Mn, 1.80 kg/ha, Zn, 1...
May 14, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747411/mercury-lead-cadmium-cobalt-arsenic-and-selenium-in-the-blood-of-semipalmated-sandpipers-calidris-pusilla-from-suriname-south-america-age-related-differences-in-wintering-site-and-comparisons-with-a-stopover-site-in-new-jersey-usa
#2
Joanna Burger, David Mizrahi, Nellie Tsipoura, Christian Jeitner, Michael Gochfeld
It is essential to understand contaminant exposure and to compare levels of contaminants in organisms at different ages to determine if there is bioaccumulation, and to compare levels encountered in different geographical areas. In this paper, we report levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt, arsenic and selenium in the blood of semipalmated sandpipers ( Calidris pusilla ) wintering in Suriname as a function of age, and compare them to blood levels in northbound migrants at a stopover in Delaware Bay, New Jersey...
May 9, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723981/urinary-cadmium-threshold-to-prevent-kidney-disease-development
#3
Soisungwan Satarug, Werawan Ruangyuttikarn, Muneko Nishijo, Patricia Ruiz
The frequently observed association between kidney toxicity and long-term cadmium (Cd) exposure has long been dismissed and deemed not to be of clinical relevance. However, Cd exposure has now been associated with increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the link that may exist between kidney Cd toxicity markers and clinical kidney function measure such as estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). We analyzed data from 193 men to 202 women, aged 16−87 years [mean age 48...
May 1, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702608/liver-injury-by-carbon-tetrachloride-intoxication-in-16-patients-treated-with-forced-ventilation-to-accelerate-toxin-removal-via-the-lungs-a-clinical-report
#4
REVIEW
Rolf Teschke
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl₄ may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl₄...
April 27, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673137/herb-induced-liver-injuries-in-developing-nations-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
The last few decades have seen a rise in the use of herbal supplements, natural products, and traditional medicines. However, there are growing concerns related to the safety and toxicities of these medicines. These herbal medicines are associated with complications such as liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic cases with abnormal liver functions tests to sudden and severe liver failure necessitating liver transplantation. This work aimed to review the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and selected clinical case reports of herbal hepatotoxicity in developing nations...
April 17, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642374/cancer-mortality-in-residents-of-the-cadmium-polluted-jinzu-river-basin-in-toyama-japan
#6
Muneko Nishijo, Hideaki Nakagawa, Yasushi Suwazono, Kazuhiro Nogawa, Masaru Sakurai, Masao Ishizaki, Teruhiko Kido
After 26 years, we followed up 7348 participants in a 1979-1984 health screening survey in the Jinzu River basin, the heaviest cadmium-polluted area in Japan. We assessed the associations of cadmium exposure levels and mortality from cancer and renal damage, indicated by records of proteinuria and glucosuria in the original survey. Mortality risks (hazard ratios) were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by sex, after adjusting for age, smoking status, and hypertension, as indicated in the original survey records...
April 6, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614047/estimated-dietary-intake-of-trace-metals-from-swordfish-consumption-a-human-health-problem
#7
Grazia Barone, Angela Dambrosio, Arianna Storelli, Rita Garofalo, Vito Pietro Busco, Maria Maddalena Storelli
Trace element (Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr) occurrence was determined in the muscle tissue of swordfish collected in the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether the intakes complied with the recommended levels for essential metals and permissible levels for toxic elements. Metals were analyzed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Shimadzu AA 7000). The methodology of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) was also evaluated. The ranking order of toxic metal concentration was Hg > Cd > Pb, while for essential elements the distribution pattern followed the sequence Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr...
April 3, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596321/transcriptomic-analysis-of-gonadal-adipose-tissue-in-male-mice-exposed-perinatally-to-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-47
#8
Aser Abrha, Alexander Suvorov
For the majority of lipophilic compounds, adipose tissue is traditionally considered as a storage depot and only rarely as a target organ. Meanwhile, abnormalities in adipose tissue physiology induced by chemical exposure may contribute to the current epidemic of obesity and metabolic diseases. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of lipophilic flame retardants found in the majority of human samples in North America. Their ability to alter the physiology of adipose tissue is unknown. We exposed pregnant mice to 0...
March 29, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565305/mitochondrial-morphology-and-function-of-the-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-ins-1-model-upon-chronic-exposure-to-sub-lethal-cadmium-doses
#9
Adeline Jacquet, Cécile Cottet-Rousselle, Josiane Arnaud, Kevin Julien Saint Amand, Raoua Ben Messaoud, Marine Lénon, Christine Demeilliers, Jean-Marc Moulis
The impact of chronic cadmium exposure and slow accumulation on the occurrence and development of diabetes is controversial for human populations. Islets of Langerhans play a prominent role in the etiology of the disease, including by their ability to secrete insulin. Conversion of glucose increase into insulin secretion involves mitochondria. A rat model of pancreatic β-cells was exposed to largely sub-lethal levels of cadmium cations applied for the longest possible time. Cadmium entered cells at concentrations far below those inducing cell death and accumulated by factors reaching several hundred folds the basal level...
March 22, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565296/determinants-of-hair-manganese-lead-cadmium-and-arsenic-levels-in-environmentally-exposed-children
#10
Thomas Jursa, Cheryl R Stein, Donald R Smith
Biomarkers of environmental metal exposure in children are important for elucidating exposure and health risk. While exposure biomarkers for As, Cd, and Pb are relatively well defined, there are not yet well-validated biomarkers of Mn exposure. Here, we measured hair Mn, Pb, Cd, and As levels in children from the Mid-Ohio Valley to determine within and between-subject predictors of hair metal levels. Occipital scalp hair was collected in 2009-2010 from 222 children aged 6-12 years (169 female, 53 male) participating in a study of chemical exposure and neurodevelopment in an industrial region of the Mid-Ohio Valley...
March 22, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562670/design-of-stripping-columns-applied-to-drinking-water-to-minimize-carcinogenic-risk-from-trihalomethanes-thms
#11
Joel Canosa, Vicenç Martí
The aim of this study is the application of a software tool to the design of stripping columns to calculate the removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) from drinking water. The tool also allows calculating the rough capital cost of the column and the decrease in carcinogenic risk indeces associated with the elimination of THMs and, thus, the investment to save a human life. The design of stripping columns includes the determination, among other factors, of the height ( HOG ), the theoretical number of plates ( NOG ), and the section ( S ) of the columns based on the study of pressure drop...
March 19, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547509/county-level-radon-and-incidence-of-female-thyroid-cancer-in-iowa-new-jersey-and-wisconsin-usa
#12
Caroline Oakland, Jaymie R Meliker
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between radon and thyroid cancer despite the sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. Our goal is to investigate the association between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in the US States of Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. METHODS: Thyroid cancer incidence data were provided by individual state cancer registries and span 1990-2013. Radon data come from a publicly available third-party database, AirChek, accessed in 2017...
March 16, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543730/cadmium-nephrotoxicity-is-associated-with-altered-microrna-expression-in-the-rat-renal-cortex
#13
Michael J Fay, Lauren A C Alt, Dominika Ryba, Ribhi Salamah, Ryan Peach, Alexander Papaeliou, Sabina Zawadzka, Andrew Weiss, Nil Patel, Asad Rahman, Zyaria Stubbs-Russell, Peter C Lamar, Joshua R Edwards, Walter C Prozialeck
Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Even though the effects of Cd on the kidney have been well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular and physiologic function by modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The goal of the present study was to determine if Cd affects renal cortex miRNA expression in a well-established animal model of Cd-induced kidney injury...
March 15, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534455/dietary-cadmium-intake-and-its-effects-on-kidneys
#14
REVIEW
Soisungwan Satarug
Cadmium (Cd) is a food-chain contaminant that has high rates of soil-to-plant transference. This phenomenon makes dietary Cd intake unavoidable. Although long-term Cd intake impacts many organ systems, the kidney has long been considered to be a critical target of its toxicity. This review addresses how measurements of Cd intake levels and its effects on kidneys have traditionally been made. These measurements underpin the derivation of our current toxicity threshold limit and tolerable intake levels for Cd...
March 10, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425141/proposal-for-a-monitoring-concept-for-veterinary-medicinal-products-with-pbt-properties-using-parasiticides-as-a-case-study
#15
Jörg Römbke, Karen Duis
The aim of this work is to prepare a proposal for the post-authorization monitoring (PAM) of veterinary medicinal products (VMP), in particular parasiticides. Such a monitoring might especially be useful for parasiticides identified as Persistence Bioaccumulation Toxicity (PBT) substances, i.e., chemicals that are toxic (T), persist in the environment (P) and bioaccumulate (B) in food chains and, thus, pose a hazard to ecosystems. Based on a literature search, issues to be considered when performing such a PAM are discussed (e...
February 9, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414880/hematological-abnormality-oxidative-stress-and-genotoxicity-induction-in-the-greenhouse-pesticide-sprayers-investigating-the-role-of-nqo1-gene-polymorphism
#16
Nahid Ahmadi, Ali Mandegary, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Mohaddeseh Mohammadi-Sardoo, Mohammadreza Mohammadi-Sardo, Elham Salari, Leyla Pourgholi
The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture represents a threat to the human populations exposed to them. In this cross-sectional study, the hematological and biochemical parameters, plasma cholinesterase (PChE) activity, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T polymorphism were measured in 100 greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixture and 104 normal healthy controls. There was a decrease in erythrocytes (5.45%, p = 0.026) and hemoglobin (3...
February 7, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401738/cytotoxicity-enhancement-in-breast-cancer-cells-with-carbonate-apatite-facilitated-intracellular-delivery-of-anti-cancer-drugs
#17
Tahereh Fatemian, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
Pharmacotherapy as the mainstay in the management of breast cancer has demonstrated various drawbacks, including non-targeted bio distribution and narrow therapeutic and safety windows. Thus, enhancements in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of the classical anti-cancer drugs could lead to improved efficacy against cancer cells. Therefore, inorganic pH-dependent carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles were utilized to efficiently deliver various drugs into cancer cells. Following characterization and various modifications in the structure of CA complexes with different drugs, lifted outcomes were achieved...
February 5, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393904/degradation-of-organophosphorus-and-pyrethroid-insecticides-in-beverages-implications-for-risk-assessment
#18
Samantha A Radford, Parinya Panuwet, Ronald E Hunter, Dana Boyd Barr, P Barry Ryan
Since urinary insecticide metabolites are commonly used as biomarkers of exposure, it is important that we quantify whether insecticides degrade in food and beverages in order to better perform risk assessment. This study was designed to quantify degradation of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, orange juice, and red wine were fortified with 500 ng/mL diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin, and aliquots were extracted several times over a 15-day storage period at 2...
February 2, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385677/announcing-the-2018-toxics-travel-award-for-post-doctoral-fellows
#19
EDITORIAL
David Bellinger
This year we enjoyed a large number of very highly meritorious applications for our annual Toxics Travel Award.
January 30, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320457/evaluating-the-joint-toxicity-of-two-benzophenone-type-uv-filters-on-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-with-response-surface-methodology
#20
Feijian Mao, Yiliang He, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
The widespread occurrence of benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filter has raised the public concerns over the ecotoxicological effects of these chemicals. The present study assessed the joint toxicity of two representative benzophenones, benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using response surface methodologies (RSM). Specific growth rate and photosynthetic pigments were used as endpoints to evaluate the toxic effects. Generally, exposure to the combined BP-1 and BP-3 negatively affected cell growth and pigments production, with higher inhibitions at higher exposure concentrations...
January 10, 2018: Toxics
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