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Megan Steele, Converse Griffith, Christin Duran
Large-scale manufacturing of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the second half of the 20th century has led to their ubiquity in the environment, and their unique structure has made them persistent contaminants. A recent drinking water advisory level issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency lowered the advisory level concentration of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from 200 nanograms per liter and 400 nanograms per liter, respectively, to 70 nanograms per liter separately or combined...
September 14, 2018: Toxics
Victor Enrique Sarmiento-Ortega, Eduardo Brambila, José Ángel Flores-Hernández, Alfonso Díaz, Ulises Peña-Rosas, Diana Moroni-González, Violeta Aburto-Luna, Samuel Treviño
Previous studies have proposed that cadmium (Cd) is a metabolic disruptor, which is associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. This metal is not considered by international agencies for the study of metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigate the effect of metformin on Cd-exposed Wistar rats at a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) dose (32.5 ppm) in drinking water. Metabolic complications in the rats exposed to Cd were dysglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, dyslipoproteinemia, and imbalance in triglyceride and glycogen storage in the liver, muscle, heart, kidney, and adipose tissue...
September 10, 2018: Toxics
Todd Leff, Paul Stemmer, Jannifer Tyrrell, Ruta Jog
Although the increased incidence of type 2 diabetes since the 1950s is thought to be primarily due to coincident alterations in lifestyle factors, another potential contributing factor in industrialized countries is exposure of the population to environmental pollutants and industrial chemicals. Exposure levels of many environmental toxicants have risen in the same time-frame as the disease incidence. Of particular interest in this regard is the metal lead. Although overall lead exposure levels have diminished in recent decades, there is an under-recognized but persistent occurrence of lead exposure in poor underserved urban populations...
September 6, 2018: Toxics
Tania Jacobo-Estrada, Mariana Cardenas-Gonzalez, Mitzi Paola Santoyo-Sánchez, Frank Thevenod, Olivier Barbier
During embryonic development, some hypoxia occurs due to incipient vascularization. Under hypoxic conditions, gene expression is mainly controlled by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The activity of this transcription factor can be altered by the exposure to a variety of compounds; among them is cadmium (Cd), a nephrotoxic heavy metal capable of crossing the placenta and reaching fetal kidneys. The goal of the study was to determine Cd effects on HIF-1 on embryonic kidneys. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to a mist of isotonic saline solution or CdCl₂ (DDel = 1...
September 3, 2018: Toxics
Angela K Tiethof, Jason R Richardson, Ronald P Hart
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is the evolutionary counterpart to acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Both are expressed early in nervous system development prior to cholinergic synapse formation. The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) primarily exerts toxicity through the inhibition of AChE, which results in excess cholinergic stimulation at the synapse. We hypothesized that the inhibition of AChE and BChE by CPF may impair early neurogenesis in neural stem cells (NSCs). To model neurodevelopment in vitro, we used human NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with a focus on the initial differentiation mechanisms...
September 1, 2018: Toxics
Jiří Patocka, Tanos C C Franca, Qinghua Wu, Kamil Kuca
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS, tetramine) is a toxic organic compound that is used as an effective rodenticide. However, this neurotoxin is not only toxic to rodents, it also causes poisoning in humans. Due to its high level of toxicity for humans, the use of TETS as a rodenticide has been banned and its production has been discontinued. Despite this, human poisoning by this substance is unfortunately still very common. The largest number of poisonings are reported in China, but in the United States, dozens of poisonings still happen annually...
August 22, 2018: Toxics
Elena Fattore, Renzo Bagnati, Andrea Colombo, Roberto Fanelli, Roberto Miniero, Gianfranco Brambilla, Alessandro Di Domenico, Alessandra Roncarati, Enrico Davoli
The present study shows the results of perfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), brominated dioxins (PBDDs) and furans (PBDFs) measured in several marine fish and seafood of commercial interest at different trophic levels of the food chain. The aims were to investigate the level of the contamination in Mediterranean aquatic wildlife, and in farmed fish, to assess human exposure associated to fishery products consumption. Samples of wild fish were collected during three different sampling campaigns in different Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 37 areas of the Mediterranean Sea...
August 22, 2018: Toxics
Nozomi Tatsuta, Kunihiko Nakai, Mineshi Sakamoto, Katsuyuki Murata, Hiroshi Satoh
Seafood is an important component in a healthy diet and may contain methylmercury or other contaminants. It is important to recognize the risks and benefits of consuming seafood. A longitudinal prospective birth cohort study has been conducted to clarify the effects of neurotoxicants on child development-the Tohoku Study of Child Development (TSCD) in Japan. TSCD comprises two cohorts; a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) cohort (urban area) and a methylmercury cohort (coastal area). Our previous results from the coastal area showed prenatal methylmercury exposure affected psychomotor development in 18-month-olds, and boys appear to be more vulnerable to the exposure than girls...
August 21, 2018: Toxics
Jin-Yong Lee, Maki Tokumoto, Gi-Wook Hwang, Min-Seok Kim, Tsutomu Takahashi, Akira Naganuma, Minoru Yoshida, Masahiko Satoh
Mercury compounds are known to cause central nervous system disorders; however the detailed molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Methylmercury increases the expression of several chemokine genes, specifically in the brain, while metallothionein-III (MT-III) has a protective role against various brain diseases. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MT-III in chemokine gene expression changes in response to methylmercury and mercury vapor in the cerebrum and cerebellum of wild-type mice and MT-III null mice...
August 12, 2018: Toxics
Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Beatriz Ferrer, Filipe Marques Gonçalves, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Elisavet A Renieri, Anatoly V Skalny, Marcelo Farina, João B T Rocha, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a hazardous environmental pollutant, which elicits significant toxicity in humans. The accumulation of MeHg through the daily consumption of large predatory fish poses potential health risks, and the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target of toxicity. Despite well-described neurobehavioral effects (i.e., motor impairment), the mechanisms of MeHg-induced toxicity are not completely understood. However, several lines of evidence point out the oxidative stress as an important molecular mechanism in MeHg-induced intoxication...
August 9, 2018: Toxics
Vera Samburova, Chiranjivi Bhattarai, Matthew Strickland, Lyndsey Darrow, Jeff Angermann, Yeongkwon Son, Andrey Khlystov
Several studies have shown the presence of aldehydes (i.e., formaldehyde, acrolein) in mainstream emissions of some e-cigarettes. For this reason, concerns have been raised regarding potential toxicity. The purpose of this research was to measure levels of carbonyls in exhaled breath of e-cigarette users during "vaping" sessions and estimate the respiratory tract (RT) uptake of specific aldehydes, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. We measured concentrations of 12 carbonyls in e-cigarette aerosols produced directly by e-cigarettes and in the exhaled breath of 12 participants (19 sessions)...
August 7, 2018: Toxics
Mineshi Sakamoto, Nozomi Tatsuta, Kimiko Izumo, Phuong Thanh Phan, Loi Duc Vu, Megumi Yamamoto, Masaaki Nakamura, Kunihiko Nakai, Katsuyuki Murata
The main chemical forms of mercury are elemental mercury, inorganic divalent mercury, and methylmercury, which are metabolized in different ways and have differing toxic effects in humans. Among the various chemical forms of mercury, methylmercury is known to be particularly neurotoxic, and was identified as the cause of Minamata disease. It bioaccumulates in fish and shellfish via aquatic food webs, and fish and sea mammals at high trophic levels exhibit high mercury concentrations. Most human methylmercury exposure occurs through seafood consumption...
August 3, 2018: Toxics
Robin Johns, Zhao-Feng Chen, Lufei Young, Flordelis Delacruz, Nien-Tzu Chang, Chong Ho Yu, S Pamela K Shiao
The purpose of this updated meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of nitric oxide synthase-3 ( NOS3) G894T polymorphisms, air pollution and their interaction on ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk across populations worldwide. Recursive partition trees, nonlinear association curve fit and geographic information system maps were incorporated to verify results of conventional pooled analyses for sources of heterogeneity. Results from 61 studies (16,219 cases, 12,222 controls) revealed a significant increased relative risk (RR) of IHD associated with NOS3 894 polymorphisms TT (RR = 1...
August 1, 2018: Toxics
Gerard Li, Sonia Saad, Brian G Oliver, Hui Chen
Maternal smoking during pregnancy leads to gestational complications and organ disorders in the offspring. As nicotine replacement therapy is often ineffective for smoking cessation, pregnant women turn to alternatives such as heat-not-burn tobacco and e-cigarettes. Recently, the popularly of e-cigarettes has been increasing especially among the youth and pregnant women, mainly due to the advertisements claiming their safety. This has even led to some clinicians recommending their use during pregnancy. E-cigarettes heat e-liquid to produce an aerosol (e-vapor), delivering flavorings and nicotine to the user...
August 1, 2018: Toxics
Emmanuel Obeng-Gyasi
Lead exposure and a marker of oxidative stress (gamma-glutamyl transferase-GGT), and their effects on life course variables (age, country of birth, education levels, gender, ethnicity, income, and occupation) were explored in this cross-sectional study of United States (U.S.) adults' ≥ 20 years of age via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007⁻2010 datasets. Country of birth, education levels, gender, ethnicity, income, and occupation showed significant differences depending on the degree of lead exposure, with higher levels of exposure resulting in worse outcomes...
August 1, 2018: Toxics
Chenxiao Ling, Zeyan Liew, Ondine S von Ehrenstein, Julia E Heck, Andrew S Park, Xin Cui, Myles Cockburn, Jun Wu, Beate Ritz
Findings from studies of prenatal exposure to pesticides and adverse birth outcomes have been equivocal so far. We examined prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides in relation to preterm birth and term low birthweight, respectively, in children born between 1998 and 2010, randomly selected from California birth records. We estimated residential exposure to agriculturally applied pesticides within 2 km of residential addresses at birth by pregnancy trimester for 17 individual pesticides and three chemical classes (organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamates)...
July 21, 2018: Toxics
Inger Aakre, Sigrun Henjum, Elin Lovise Folven Gjengedal, Camilla Risa Haugstad, Marie Vollset, Khalil Moubarak, Tecber Saleh Ahmed, Jan Alexander, Marian Kjellevold, Marianne Molin
Poor water quality has been reported along with a variety of negative health outcomes in the Saharawi refugee camps in Algeria. We assessed the concentration of elements in drinking water and urine in refugee women and children. Twenty-four samples of distributed public drinking water were collected, along with urine samples from 77 women and 296 children. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we analyzed water and urine for 31 and 10 elements, respectively. In addition, the water samples were analyzed for five anions by ion-exchange chromatography...
July 21, 2018: Toxics
Shigeru Takaoka, Tadashi Fujino, Yoshinobu Kawakami, Shin-Ichi Shigeoka, Takashi Yorifuji
In 1956 methylmercury poisoning, known as Minamata disease, was discovered among the inhabitants around the Shiranui Sea, Kyushu, Japan. Although about five hundred thousand people living in the area had supposedly been exposed to methylmercury, administrative agencies and research institutes had not performed any subsequent large scale, continuous health examination, so the actual extent of the negative health effects was not clearly documented. In 2009, we performed health surveys in order to examine residents in the polluted area and to research the extent of the polluted area and period of pollution...
July 20, 2018: Toxics
Kanae Karita, Toyoto Iwata, Eri Maeda, Mineshi Sakamoto, Katsuyuki Murata
After the European Food Safety Authority reviewed reports of methylmercury and heart rate variability (HRV) in 2012, the panel concluded that, although some studies of cardiac autonomy suggested an autonomic effect of methylmercury, the results were inconsistent among studies and the implications for health were unclear. In this study, we reconsider this association by adding a perspective on the physiological context. Cardiovascular rhythmicity is usually studied within different frequency domains of HRV. Three spectral components are usually detected; in humans these are centered at <0...
July 20, 2018: Toxics
Giovanna Tranfo, Daniela Pigini, Enrico Paci, Lisa Bauleo, Francesco Forastiere, Carla Ancona
BACKGROUND: Benzene is an important component of cigarette smoke and car exhaust. Products containing benzene in concentrations greater than 0.1% are prohibited in Europe, but 1% of benzene is still allowed in gasoline. The purpose of the study was to assess the levels of urine benzene biomarkers in a sample of the general population not occupationally exposed to benzene, resident in the period 2013⁻2014 in Central Italy, compared to other groups. METHODS: The urinary levels of the benzene metabolites S-phenyl-mercapturic acid (SPMA) and cotinine (nicotine metabolite) were determined by means of HPLC with mass spectrometric detection in 1076 subjects...
July 11, 2018: Toxics
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