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Biotechnology Reports

Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Menghour Huy, Péter Bakonyi, Katalin Bélafi-Bakó, Sang-Hyoun Kim
This study investigated mixed microalgae consortia cultivation in a fed batch reactor using textile wastewater. The results showed 95% of total phosphorus (TP) and 70% of total nitrogen (TN) depletion during the operational period. Algal biomass growth, pollutant removal, and biomass constituents were examined for five cycles of the fed batch operation. The length of the cycles decreased from 30 days to 10 days as the cycle repeated, which implied gradual adaptation of microalgae to textile wastewater. Color of textile wastewater was removed in the range of 68-72% in all the cycles experimented...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Abdul Basit, Faiza Asghar, Saima Sadaf, M Waheed Akhtar
Hair, being one of the most important components of the beauty care processes, attracts the use of a variety of hair treating cosmetics. Conventional hair treating cosmetics are not satisfactory for one reason or the other. Commercially used keratins are isolated from wool or chicken feathers. As these lack complete sequence identity with human hair keratin, are likely to be less efficient than the human hair keratin. K31, a type I acidic keratin, is a major protein of human hair keratin complex and it is essential for maintaining the hair tensile strength...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Rebeca Castro, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, Rodrigo Bórquez
Chitin extraction from Allopetrolisthes punctatus , a crab species proliferating in Chile and Peru seashores, was carried out applying preliminary lactic ensilation. For this purpose, Lactobacillus plantarum sp. 47 isolated from Coho salmon was inoculated in crab biomass. Previously, fermentation parameters (carbon source, inoculum concentration and incubation temperature) to obtain peak lactic acid production and bacterial growth were studied. The optimal fermentation conditions were 10% inoculum, 15% sucrose and 85% crab biomass, producing 17 mg lactic acid/ g silage...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
M Alejandro Dinamarca, Johana Eyzaguirre, Patricio Baeza, Paulina Aballay, Christian Canales, Juan Ojeda
Biocatalyst systems based on biofilms were developed to remove nitrogen and sulfur-containing heterocyclic hydrocarbons using Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous . The curli overproducers mutants CM1 and CM4 were derived from C obetia sp. strain and used to build monostrain biofilms to remove quinoline; and together with R. rhodochrous to simultaneously remove quinoline and dibenzothiophene using mixed biofilms. The quinoline removal using biofilms were 96% and 97% using CM1 or CM4 curli overproducers respectively, whereas bacterial suspensions assays yielded 19% and 24% with the same strains...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Crisbel M Artuz, Alexander J Knights, Alister P W Funnell, Thomas J Gonda, Katya Ravid, Richard C M Pearson, Kate G R Quinlan, Merlin Crossley
The ability of transcriptional regulators to drive lineage conversion of somatic cells offers great potential for the treatment of human disease. To explore the concept of switching on specific target genes in heterologous cells, we developed a model system to screen candidate factors for their ability to activate the archetypal megakaryocyte-specific chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) in fibroblasts. We found that co-expression of the transcriptional regulators GATA1 and FLI1 resulted in a significant increase in levels of PF4, which became magnified over time...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Ala'a H Al-Muhtaseb, Farrukh Jamil, Lamya Al-Haj, Myo Tay Zar Myint, Eyas Mahmoud, Mohammad N M Ahmad, Ahmad O Hasan, Sikander Rafiq
Date palms are predominately produced in arid regions and the date pits, or seeds, produced from them are sometimes considered to be a waste. Date pits, ground to powder following an oil extraction, were used to synthesize a renewable heterogeneous catalyst. The green carbon catalyst was modified by an alkaline earth metal oxide (CaO). The oil extracted from date pits was transformed into biodiesel. The biodiesel process was optimized and the optimal yield was 98.2 wt% at a reaction temperature of 70 °C, reaction time ∼120 min, methanol to oil molar ratio of 12 and catalyst loading of 4...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Vanesa Ruiz, Josefina Baztarrica, Edward P Rybicki, Ann E Meyers, Andrés Wigdorovitz
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most feared viral diseases affecting cloven-hoofed animals, and results in severe economic losses. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV). The use of recombinant FMDV-like particles (VLPs) as subunit vaccines has gained importance because of their immunogenic properties and safety. We evaluated the production of FMD VLPs, via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, and the immunogenicity of these structures in mice. Leaves were infiltrated with pEAQ-HT and pRIC 3...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
N Venkateswarulu, S Shameer, P V Bramhachari, S K Thaslim Basha, C Nagaraju, T Vijaya
The rationale of the present study was to isolate and identify endophytic fungi from endemic medicinal plants in Eastern Ghats and screened for antimicrobial potential of isolated fungal crude extracts. A total of 329 endophytic strains were isolated from 600 infected leaves and stem cuttings of endemic plants. The diversity and species richness was analyzed statistically and found to be higher in leaf segments than in stem segments. From isolated fungal strains, Cladosporium delicatulum was identified using molecular identification methods and selected as the most potent plumbagin-producing endophytic strain...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Fortunato Palma Esposito, Colin J Ingham, Raquel Hurtado-Ortiz, Chantal Bizet, Deniz Tasdemir, Donatella de Pascale
Microbes are prolific sources of bioactive molecules; however, the cultivability issue has severely hampered access to microbial diversity. Novel secondary metabolites from as-yet-unknown or atypical microorganisms from extreme environments have realistic potential to lead to new drugs with benefits for human health. Here, we used a novel approach that mimics the natural environment by using a Miniaturized Culture Chip allowing the isolation of several bacterial strains from Antarctic shallow water sediments under near natural conditions...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Ratana Chaiklahan, Nattayaporn Chirasuwan, Veara Loha, Suvit Tia, Boosya Bunnag
Arthrospira ( Spirulina ) consists of diverse high-value chemicals, such as phycocyanin, lipids/total fatty acids (TFA), and polysaccharides, which have been used for food, cosmetic and pharmacological applications. This study compared various stepwise extraction processes for these high-value chemicals. Considering the yield and properties of extracts, the most suitable extraction order was phycocyanin, lipid/TFA and polysaccharides. The yield of the main product (food-grade phycocyanin) was 8.66% of the biomass dry weight, whereas the yields of the subsequent lipid/TFA and polysaccharide coproducts were 3...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Silvia Hüttner, Zoraide Granchi, Thanh Thuy Nguyen, Sake van Pelt, Johan Larsbrink, Vu Nguyen Thanh, Lisbeth Olsson
We report here the annotated draft genome sequence of the thermophilic zygomycete Rhizomucor pusillus strain FCH 5.7, isolated from compost soil in Vietnam. The genome assembly contains 25.59 Mb with an overall GC content of 44.95%, and comprises 10,898 protein coding genes. Genes encoding putative cellulose-, xylan- and chitin-degrading proteins were identified, including two putative endoglucanases (EC from glycoside hydrolase family 9, which have so far been mostly assigned to bacteria and plants...
December 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Zahid Ur Rehman, Intikhab Alam, Allan Anthony Kamau, Vladimir B Bajic, TorOve Leiknes
With antimicrobial resistance on the rise, the discovery of new compounds with novel structural scaffolds exhibiting antimicrobial properties has become an important area of research. Such compounds can serve as starting points for the development of new antimicrobials. In this report, we present the draft genome sequence of the Zooshikella ganghwensis strain VG4, isolated from Red Sea sediments, that produces metabolites with antimicrobial properties. A genomic analysis reveals that it carries at least five gene clusters that have the potential to direct biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites such as polyketides and nonribosomal peptides...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
A M V N Prathyusha, G Mohana Sheela, P V Bramhachari
A filamentous fungi F. equiseti strain ANP2 with good exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield, apparent viscosity was screened and isolated from Krishna estuarine mangrove sediments. Based on molecular characteristics the selected strain was confirmed as F. equiseti, yielded EPS (4.9 ± 0.25 g/L) and whole cell biomass (3.5 ± 0.2 g/L) in MSM during early stationary phase. The crude EPS was purified by chromatography of Q-Sepharose and Superdex-75, affording Ms and MF-1 fractions were obtained, respectively...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Junyoung Sim, Robertson Reid, Abid Hussain, Junyeong An, Hyung-Sool Lee
A pilot-scale dual-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) equipped with a carbon gas-diffusion cathode was evaluated for H2 O2 production using acetate medium as the electron donor. To assess the effect of cathodic pH on H2 O2 yield, the MEC was tested with an anion exchange membrane (AEM) and a cation exchange membrane (CEM), respectively. The maximum current density reached 0.94-0.96 A/m2 in the MEC at applied voltage of 0.35-1.9 V, regardless of membranes. The highest H2 O2 conversion efficiency was only 7...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Manar El Samak, Samar M Solyman, Amro Hanora
Marine invertebrates-associated microorganisms were considered to be important sources of marine bioactive products. This study aims to isolate marine invertebrates associated bacteria with antimicrobial activity from the Red Sea and test their biosynthetic potential through the detection of PKS and NRPS gene clusters involved with the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. In this respect, fifty bacterial strains were isolated from eight different Red Sea marine invertebrates and screened for their antimicrobial activity against standard pathogenic bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and yeast ( Candida albicans ATCC 10231) using the standard well diffusion assay...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Sudarson Sundarrajan, Sreesada Parambath, Swetha Suresh, Sneha Rao, Sriram Padmanabhan
Using Sso7d from Sulfolobus solfataricus as the DNA binding protein fused to Taq DNA polymerase at its amino terminus, we report the hyper-expression and a novel purification methodology of Sso7d-Taq polymerase (S-Taq) using aqueous two-phase extraction system followed by Ni-affinity chromatography. The utility of such a fusion enzyme in carrying out PCR of human genes from whole blood directly and in detecting hepatitis B virus from clinical samples is demonstrated in this article. We present data on the enhanced thermo-stability of S-Taq DNA polymerase over Taq DNA polymerase and also provide evidence of its higher stability with detergents in comparison to Taq polymerase...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Qiang Yan, Stephen S Fong
Being capable of hydrolyzing chitin, chitinases have various applications such as production of N -acetylchitooligosaccharides (COSs) and N -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), degrading chitin as a consolidated bioprocessing, and bio-control of fungal phytopathogens. Here, a putative chitinase in Thermobifida fusca , Tfu_0580, is characterized. Tfu_0580 was purified by homogeneity with a molecular weight of 44.9 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Tfu_0580 displayed a clear activity against colloidal chitin, which is comparable to a commercial Streptomyces griseus chitinase...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Khadijeh Babaei Sheli, Masoud Ghorbani, Azadeh Hekmat, Bita Soltanian, Alireza Mohammadian, Reza Jalalirad
Circular dichroism (CD) in far-UV region was employed to study the extent of changes occurred in the secondary structures of recombinant streptokinase (rSK), solubilized from inclusion bodies (IBs) by different chemicals and refolded/purified by chromatographic techniques. The secondary structure distribution of rSK, obtained following different chemical solubilization systems, was varied and values in the range of 12.4-14.5% α-helices, 40-51% β-sheets and 35.5-48.3% turns plus residual structures were found...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Jianghui Li, Qinxia Han, Tao Zhang, Jing Du, Qianqian Sun, Yilin Pang
At present, approximately 30% of eukaryotic proteins can be expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli . In this study, a pCold-SUMOa plasmid was constructed in order to express heterologous proteins fused with SUMO by a cold-shock expression vector. The human cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and a chimeric cysteine desulfurase namely, EH-IscS were successfully expressed in E. coli . The proteins were particularly difficult to be produced functionally, due to their readily sequestered nature. The recombinant cysteine desulfurases that were generated by pCold-SUMOa exhibited higher activity, solubility and stability compared with the well-known plasmid pCold I...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Ruijuan Hao, Zhe Zheng, Xiaodong Du, Qingheng Wang, Junhui Li, Yuewen Deng, Weiyao Chen
Pinctada fucata martensii is cultured for pearl production. Growth improvement has received considerable research interest. Transforming growth factor β type Ⅰ receptor (TβR-I), which is involved in signals transmission of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), participates in cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we characterized a Tgfbr1 gene which encoded TβR-I from P. fucata martensii ( Pmtgfbr1 ). Pmtgfbr1 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1569 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 522 amino acids (aa)...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
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