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Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI

Nicolau Casal, Maria Font-I-Furnols, Marina Gispert, Xavier Manteca, Emma Fàbrega
Animal welfare can be considered an ethical attribute of product quality, but consumers should appreciate its added value. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumer's acceptability, preference, and the meat and carcass quality of pigs reared with two stress-reducing strategies: supplementation of an herbal compound (HC) containing Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora incarnata , and environmental enrichment (EE) by the provision of hemp ropes, sawdust, and rubber balls. A total of 56 pigs were divided in four treatments in two pens of seven pigs per treatment (2 × 2 factorial design)...
July 16, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Mehdi Qorbanpour, Taha Fahim, Faramin Javandel, Mehran Nosrati, Erwin Paz, Alireza Seidavi, Marco Ragni, Vito Laudadio, Vincenzo Tufarelli
A total of 225 day-old male broiler chicks (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to five treatment groups, with three replicates in a completely randomized design for 42 days. Birds were fed a basal-diet supplemented with: no additive (control-diet), multi-strain probiotic ( Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium thermophilum ), or 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25% ginger ( Z. officinale ) powder, respectively. The results show no significant differences among treatments for growth traits and carcass characteristics, whereas using probiotics and ginger at all levels resulted in a significant decrease of gizzard weight and abdominal fat compared to the control group...
July 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Bethany L Krebs, Debra Marrin, Amy Phelps, Lana Krol, Jason V Watters
Improvements in veterinary care, nutrition, and husbandry of animals living in zoos have led to an increase in the longevity of these animals over the past 30 years. In this same time period, the focus of animal welfare science has shifted from concerns over mitigating negative welfare impacts to promoting positive welfare experiences for animals. For instance, providing opportunities for animals to exert agency, solve problems, or acquire rewards are all associated with positive welfare outcomes. Many common age-related changes result in limitations to opportunities for positive welfare experiences, either due to pain or other physical, cognitive, or behavioral limitations...
July 13, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Megan Verdon, Richard Rawnsley, Pieter Raedts, Mark Freeman
Research into the effects of intense grazing regimes on cattle behaviour and productivity will support the ethical intensification of pastoral dairy production. Two treatments were applied to two herds of 30 mid-lactation cows over 28 days. Cows were offered an estimated 12 kg DM/cow (above 5 cm from ground level) of irrigated pasture per day. The control herd received their daily pasture allocation in two equal grazings while the experimental herd received theirs over seven smaller grazings. Backgrazing beyond the current allocation (morning or afternoon) was prevented...
July 11, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Nienke van Staaveren, Caitlin Decina, Christine F Baes, Tina M Widowski, Olaf Berke, Alexandra Harlander-Matauschek
Canadian laying hen farms are transitioning from conventional cage housing to furnished cage and non-cage housing systems to improve laying hen welfare. However, little is known about the current housing and management systems in Canada. This study addresses this knowledge gap by describing different housing and management practices used on farms where laying hens were housed in furnished cages or non-cage housing systems. A questionnaire covering farm and housing conditions, litter management, nutrition and feeding, environmental control, flock characteristics, rearing and placement, health, egg production and performance were distributed through provincial egg boards to 122 producers across Canada...
July 11, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Domenico Ventrella, Alberto Elmi, Francesca Barone, Giacomo Carnevali, Nadia Govoni, Maria Laura Bacci
The roe deer is a seasonally breeding species with a reproductive cycle regulated by endogenous rhythms and photoperiod-sensitivity. Sexually mature bucks show hormonal and testicular activation during the reproductive season, with a peak in the rut period, and following gradual involution. Hair is a good matrix for non-invasive endocrinological analyses that provide long-term information without being influenced by the hormones’ pulsating release patterns in blood. The aim of the work was to quantify hair concentrations of testosterone and cortisol in wild roe deer bucks hunted during the pre- and post-rut period, using a radioimmunoassay methodology, and to look for differences between the two periods...
July 6, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Elly Hiby, Kadek Karang Agustina, Kate Nattras Atema, Gusti Ngurah Bagus, Janice Girardi, Mike Harfoot, Yacinta Haryono, Lex Hiby, Hendra Irawan, Levin Kalalo, Sang Gede Purnama, I Made Subrata, Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita, Ni Wayan Arya Utami, Pande Putu Januraga, Dewa Nyoman Wirawan
This study gained an understanding of dog demographics, owner behaviour, and knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to rabies in three villages in Sanur, Bali, providing insights for an intervention to improve responsible dog ownership. A combination of a census of all dogs, street surveys of roaming dogs, and a Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey was used to study both dogs and people. A total of 6009 dogs were recorded, of which only 3.3% appeared to be unowned; unowned dogs had poorer welfare and were more likely to be wary of attempted approaches by people...
July 5, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Marina Salas, Xavier Manteca, Teresa Abáigar, Maria Delclaux, Conrad Enseñat, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Miguel Ángel Quevedo, Hugo Fernández-Bellon
There is a lack of protocols specifically developed for the assessment of welfare of wild animals in captivity, even when it is known that providing good standards of welfare is important. The aim of this study was the development and the application of a protocol for the assessment of welfare in captive dorcas gazelles. The protocol was mainly developed taking into account the protocol for the assessment of welfare in cattle from the Welfare Quality® project, the available literature of the biology of this species and the Husbandry Guidelines developed for captive breeding and management of this species...
July 5, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Sarah Wolfensohn, Justine Shotton, Hannah Bowley, Siân Davies, Sarah Thompson, William S M Justice
Zoos are required to maintain a high standard of animal welfare, and this can be assessed using a combination of resource-based and animal-based indices usually divided into behavioural indicators, physiological indicators and clinical/pathological signs. Modern animal welfare assessments should aim to encompass positive affective states and the indicators that are useful in assessing these are discussed. When developing factors to be scored for each species, there is huge variability in the available information about the natural biology for some zoo species and even less information concerning those animals in captivity...
July 4, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Anne Fawcett, Siobhan Mullan, Paul McGreevy
Ethically challenging situations are common in veterinary practice, and they may be a source of moral stress, which may in turn impact the welfare of veterinarians. Despite recognition of the importance of ethical reasoning, some veterinary students may struggle to apply theoretical ethical frameworks. Fraser developed a “practical” ethic consisting of four principles that can be applied to ethically challenging situations. We apply Fraser’s “practical” ethic to three cases that veterinarians may encounter: animal hoarding, animal neglect, and treatment of wildlife...
July 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Ali Raza, Jacquie Rand, Abdul Ghaffar Qamar, Abdul Jabbar, Steven Kopp
Dogs entering shelters can carry gastrointestinal parasites that may pose serious risks to other animals, shelter staff and visitors. Shelters provide an environment that could facilitate the spread of parasitic infections between animals. Nematodes and protozoa that transmit through ingestion or skin penetration are major enteric parasites of concern in shelter settings. Ancylostoma spp., Uncinaria stenocephala , Toxocara canis , Toxascaris leonina , Trichuris vulpis and Dipylidium caninum are the major helminths while Giardia , Cryptosporidium , Isospora spp...
July 2, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Bence Varga, Anna Gergely, Ágoston Galambos, Anna Kis
The domestic dog ( Canis familiaris ) has been shown to both excel in recognising human emotions and produce emotion-related vocalisations and postures that humans can easily recognise. However, little is known about the effect of emotional experiences on subsequent sleep physiology, a set of phenomena heavily interrelated with emotions in the case of humans. The present paper examines heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during dogs' sleep, measures that are influenced by both positive and negative emotions in awake dogs...
July 2, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Michelle Sinclair, Tessa Derkley, Claire Fryer, Clive J C Phillips
The long distance export of livestock from Australia to Asia has long aroused controversy for suspected animal welfare concerns during and after the voyage. However, there is little or no information on the attitude of the Australian public towards this trade. A total of 522 Australians were surveyed in Brisbane to find out about their understanding of the trade, their attitudes towards it and the influence of demographic factors. Approximately one half of respondents were surveyed just before a media exposé of cruelty on sheep shipments in 2017 from Australia to the Middle East and one half just after the exposé, to see the impact of media depiction of cruel treatment of live export sheep...
June 29, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Cécile Bienboire-Frosini, Muriel Alnot-Perronin, Camille Chabaud, Pietro Asproni, Céline Lafont-Lecuelle, Alessandro Cozzi, Patrick Pageat
Despite being undomesticated, African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) are commonly found in captivity, in zoos or as pets. Captivity can be an ongoing stressor. Non-invasive glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measurements from bird droppings are of interest for assessing stress but require careful evaluation in each newly studied species. This study describes the assessment of such methods for Psittacus erithacus to provide tools for evaluating stress and monitoring welfare. We evaluated 12 method combinations of GCM extraction and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) from a pool of African Grey Parrot droppings, through the validation of several analytical parameters...
June 28, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Isabella L K Clegg
Cognitive bias testing measures how emotional states can affect cognitive processes, often described using the “glass half-full/half-empty” paradigm. Classical or operant conditioning is used to measure responses to ambiguous cues, and it has been reported across many species and contexts that an animal’s cognitive bias can be directly linked to welfare state, e.g., those in better welfare make more optimistic judgements. Cognitive bias testing has only recently been applied to animals and represents a key milestone in welfare science: it is currently one of the only accurate methods available to measure welfare...
June 27, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Heather Bacon
The field of zoo animal welfare science has developed significantly over recent years. However despite this progress in terms of scientific research, globally, zoo animals still face many welfare challenges. Recently, animal welfare frameworks such as the five domains or five needs have been developed and suggested to improve the welfare of zoo animals, but without practical guidance, such tools may remain abstract from the daily experience of zoo animals. Similarly specific practical strategies such as those for enrichment development exist, but their lack of holistic integration with other aspects of animal husbandry and behavioral medicine means that overall, good zoo animal welfare may still be lacking...
June 27, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Shara Sheldon, Monica Aleman, Lais Costa, A Cristina Santoyo, Quinn Howey, John Madigan
Trigeminal-nerve-mediated headshaking represents a major welfare challenge for owners and veterinarians and is caused by a low threshold firing of the trigeminal nerve resulting in pain manifested as violent head jerking that often terminates the horse’s career and life due to poor quality of life and suffering. As metabolic changes such as acid⁻base status and electrolytes play a role in nerve firing, this study sought to assess the effects following administration of hypertonic solutions on headshaking behavior in affected horses...
June 25, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Rebecca A Ledger, David J Mellor
Conceptual frameworks for understanding animal welfare scientifically are widely influential. An early “biological functioning” framework still influences expert opinions prepared for Courts hearing animal cruelty cases, despite deficiencies in it being revealed by the later emergence and wide scientific adoption of an “affective state” framework. According to “biological functioning” precepts, indices of negative welfare states should predominantly be physical and/or clinical and any that refer to animals’ supposed subjective experiences, i...
June 25, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Jacquie Rand, Emily Lancaster, Georgina Inwood, Carolyn Cluderay, Linda Marston
Using euthanasia to manage dog and cat overpopulation causes health issues and emotional stress in employees involved, increases staff turnover, and has financial, moral and ethical ramifications for communities. Welfare agencies and local government agencies (councils) share responsibility for managing companion animal populations. This study investigated Australian councils in the state of Victoria, to identify strategies used to reduce euthanasia. Statistics regarding animal populations, registration, intake, reclaim, rehome and euthanasia were obtained from the Domestic Animal Management Plan of each council...
June 21, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Lesley J Rogers, Leanne Stewart, Gisela Kaplan
We studied three calls of common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus , elicited in the context of food. Call A, but not B or C, had been described previously as a food call. We presented insects (live mealworms or crickets) and fruit (banana or blueberries) and used playbacks of calls. We found that Call C was produced only in response to seeing insects, and not fruit; it consistently signaled the availability of insects (includes mealworms), and more so when this food could be seen but not consumed. Playback of Call C caused the marmosets to stop feeding on a less preferred food (banana) and, instead, go to inspect a location where mealworms had been found previously, providing evidence that it has referential meaning...
June 21, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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