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Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI

Chuanshang Cheng, Mao Xia, Xiaming Zhang, Chao Wang, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
This study investigated the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to a reduced-protein diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal bacteria, intestinal morphology, and antioxidative capacity of growing-finishing pigs. Forty-eight barrows were randomly allotted to four treatments including normal-protein diet (NPD), reduced-protein, amino acid-supplemented diet (RPD), the same RPD supplemented with chlortetracycline (RPA), and RPD supplemented with OEO (RPO). The data showed that dietary OEO supplementation increased the average daily gain of pigs compared with NPD and RPD...
September 19, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Kristin Weineck, Andrew J Ray, Leo J Fleckenstein, Meagan Medley, Nicole Dzubuk, Elena Piana, Robin L Cooper
Stunning of edible crustaceans to reduce sensory perception prior and during slaughter is an important topic in animal welfare. The purpose of this project was to determine how neural circuits were affected during stunning by examining the physiological function of neural circuits. The central nervous system circuit to a cardiac or skeletal muscle response was examined. Three commercially important crustacean species were utilized for stunning by immersion in an ice slurry below 4 °C and by electrocution; both practices are used in the seafood industry...
September 18, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Angela M Lees, Jim M Lea, Hannah E Salvin, Linda M Cafe, Ian G Colditz, Caroline Lee
This study evaluated the relationship between rectal temperature (TREC , °C) and vaginal temperature (TVAG , °C) in grazing Bos taurus heifers, to develop an understanding of the reliability of these measures as estimates of core body temperature. Nineteen Angus heifers (BW = 232.2 ± 6.91 kg) were implanted with intra-rectal and intra-vaginal data loggers. Rectal temperature and TVAG were simultaneously recorded at 20 s intervals over 18.5 h. Heifers were housed as a singular cohort on grazing pastures for the duration of the study...
September 18, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Bernard E Rollin
Despite the fact that companion animals enjoy the status of "members of the family" in contemporary society, there are numerous diseases affecting the longevity of these animals and their quality of life. Some of the most pervasive and damaging problems accrue to pedigreed animals whose genetic lines contain many major and severe diseases which are detrimental to both the quality and length of life. If one considers the most popular dog breeds in the United States, the top 10 include the Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, French Bulldog, Beagle, Poodle, Rottweiler, Yorkshire Terrier, and German Shorthaired Pointer...
September 18, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Barbara Padalino, Daniele Tullio, Saverio Cannone, Giancarlo Bozzo
Statistics on animal transport and its implications for health and welfare are limited. This study documented the animals transiting through a control post and their welfare outcomes measured by mortality rate and the prevalence of animals considered unfit for further transport (i.e., morbidity). Reports filed by the director of the control post and Official Veterinarians from 2010 to 2015 were analyzed. A total of 60,454 (54.2%) sheep/goats, 45,749 (41.0%) cattle, and 5333 (4.8%) pigs travelled in 225 (16...
September 17, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Courtney Bir, Nicole Olynk Widmar, Candace Croney
Dogs are a popular companion animal in the United States; however, dog acquisition is often a contentious subject. Adoption is often cited as an ethical and popular method of acquisition but interpretation of the term 'adoption' may vary. In a nationally representative survey of the U.S., 767 respondents were asked questions regarding their opinions of dog acquisition and adoption. Within the sample, 45% had a dog; of those, 40% had adopted a dog, and 47% visited a veterinarian once a year. A best-worst choice experiment, where respondents were asked to choose the most ethical and least ethical method of acquiring a dog from a statistically determined set of choices, was used to elicit respondents' preferences for the most ethical method of dog adoption...
September 13, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Simona Normando, Ilaria Pollastri, Daniela Florio, Linda Ferrante, Elisabetta Macchi, Valentina Isaja, Barbara de Mori
In recent years, awareness of the controversial aspects connected with wild animal-visitor interactions (AVIs) in zoos and other facilities has increased due to cultural changes. Therefore, the need to apply transparent procedures to evaluate AVIs programs in zoos and similar facilities has also increased. This study presents results of animal welfare's assessment of a pilot test of a protocol based on six steps that aim to explore and assess the overall value of AVIs considering the impact both on animals and visitors...
August 30, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Becca Franks, Courtney Graham, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Zebrafish, a highly-social species of freshwater fish, are widely studied across many fields of laboratory science including developmental biology, neuroscience, and genomics. Nevertheless, as standard housing for zebrafish typically consists of small and simplistic environments, less is known about their social behavioral repertoire in more naturalistic settings. In particular, spontaneously occurring, socio-positive affiliative behaviors (e.g., social coordination and cohesion) that may be indicative of positive emotional experiences have rarely been reported or studied deliberately in zebrafish...
August 24, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Anna Scandurra, Alessandra Alterisio, Anna Di Cosmo, Biagio D'Aniello
In this paper, we review the scientific reports of sex-related differences in dogs as compared to the outcomes described for wild animals. Our aim was to explore whether the differences in male and female dogs were affected by the domestication process, in which artificial selection is the main driver. For this purpose, we used information regarding personality traits, cognitive processes, and perception, for which there is a wide theoretical framework in behavioral ecology. Aggressiveness and boldness, described as a behavioral syndrome, were reported as being higher in males than females...
August 23, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Chiara Mariti, Federica Pirrone, Mariangela Albertini, Angelo Gazzano, Silvana Diverio
We investigated the attitudes of veterinary students towards animals and their welfare in Italy. Regression analyses revealed predictors that are significant in differentiating students' scoring tendency based on their gender, familiarity, and intention to work with a specific animal species, type of diet, and membership in an animal rights association. Female students, who were mostly familiar with pets and aspired to work with species other than livestock, following an animal-free diet and being a member of an animal rights association, had a significantly greater odds of having a high Animal Attitude Scale score (AAS), i...
August 22, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Angela Henzen, Lorenz Gygax
Positive and negative stimuli have asymmetric fitness consequences. Whereas, a missed opportunity may be compensated, an unattended threat can be fatal. This is why it has been hypothesised that habituation to positive stimuli is fast while it may be difficult to habituate to negative stimuli, at least for primary (innate) stimuli. However, learning of secondary stimuli may delay the process of habituation. Here, we tested 64 weaned piglets in pairs. In three phases, lasting one week each, piglets were exposed five times to a stimulus of presumed negative, intermediate, or positive valence...
August 22, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Shixin Lin, Jianxin Liu, Kaiying Wang, Diming Wang
The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of stocking density (SD) on the milk fatty acid profile and oxidation stability in mid- and late-lactating cows. Twenty-four multiparous mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (milk yield = 34.5 kg/d (standard deviation 0.68), days in milk = 106 (standard deviation 2.2)) and 24 multiparous late-lactating animals (milk yield = 31.8 kg/d (standard deviation 0.98), DIM = 201 (standard deviation 3.5)) were allocated into 12 blocks based on parity, milk yield, and DIM and were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: mid-lactating cows with high SD (HSD, 100%), mid-lactating cows with low SD (LSD, 75%), late-lactating cows with HSD, and late-lactating cows with LSD...
August 21, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Rebecca Heim, Gaye Krebs
To improve the protein nutritional quality of canola ( Brassica napus L.) meal, further investigation of the effects of processing conditions and post-production treatments is desirable. The impact of barrel dry heat temperature (20 °C (cold press) and 100 °C (expeller)) and moist heat pressure (MHP) duration time on general nutritional properties, Maillard reaction product (MRP) formation, in vitro protein degradability, and molecular and microscopic structural characteristics of canola meals were investigated...
August 21, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Simona Cannas, Clara Palestrini, Elisabetta Canali, Bruno Cozzi, Nicola Ferri, Eugenio Heinzl, Michela Minero, Matteo Chincarini, Giorgio Vignola, Emanuela Dalla Costa
No data have been published on the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate sheep emotions. We assessed whether this technique can be used as a non-invasive measure of negative emotions. Two voluntary animal approach (VAA) tests were conducted (and filmed) on five ewes before and after being restrained. The restraining process was performed by a handler for five minutes. IRT was used during restraint and the VAA tests. The lacrimal caruncle temperature was significantly higher during restraint and in the VAA test after the restraint compared with the VAA test before the restraint (Wilcoxon's test; p = 0...
August 21, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Habtamu Abera Goshu, Xiaoyun Wu, Min Chu, Pengjia Bao, Xuezhi Ding, Ping Yan
Copy number variation (CNV) is a significant marker of the genetic and phenotypic diversity among individuals that accounts for complex quantitative traits of phenotype and diseases via modulating gene dosage and disrupting coding regions in the genome. Biochemically, Kruppel-like factor 6 ( KLF6 ) genes plays a significant role in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation and muscle development. The aim of this study was to detect the distributions of KLF6 copy number variations (CNVs) in five breeds of domestic yak and to explore their effect on growth traits and gene expression...
August 21, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Catalina González, José Manuel Yáñez, Tamara Tadich
Fur-chewing is a common behavioral disorder developed by chinchillas kept in confinement that can indicate a past or present welfare problem. It also has a negative productive impact associated. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic component of fur-chewing, and the effect of this undesired behavior on fur price in a commercial fur-farming system of chinchillas ( Chinchilla lanigera ). The data for the analysis was derived from a commercial population of 10,196 chinchillas, recorded between the years 1990 and 2011...
August 21, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Barry S Kipperman, Alexander J German
Obesity is a modern-day epidemic in both people and companion animals. A summary of the current research on the causes, risk factors, consequences, and implications of overweight and obesity, and the compliance of small-animal practitioners in recognizing and addressing pet obesity, is provided. Ethical and animal welfare concerns are raised regarding these findings. We argue that a patient advocacy posture compels the veterinary profession to confront this issue more reliably. Evidence is presented to support obesity as a One-Health problem, and discrete and practical recommendations for preventing and addressing companion animal obesity are proposed...
August 21, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Dinakaran Venkatachalam, Paul Chambers, Kavitha Kongara, Preet Singh
This study determined the convulsant plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters following cornual nerve block and compared the results to recommend a safe dose of lidocaine hydrochloride for goat kids. The plasma concentrations of lidocaine and monoethylglycinexylidide (MGX) were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total dose of 7 mg/kg body weight (BW) was tolerated and should therefore be safe for local and regional anesthesia in goat kids. The mean plasma concentration and mean total dose that produced convulsions in goat kids were 13...
August 20, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Käthe Elise Kittelsen, Erik Georg Granquist, Agnete Lien Aunsmo, Randi Oppermann Moe, Elisiv Tolo
Catching is the first step in the pre-slaughter chain for broiler chickens. The process may be detrimental for animal welfare due to the associated handling. The aim of this pilot study was to compare two different methods to manually catch broilers: Catching the broilers by two legs and carrying them inverted (LEGS) or catching the broilers under the abdomen and carrying them in an upright position (UPRIGHT). Wing and leg fractures upon arrival at the abattoir, animal density in the drawers, birds on their back, broilers dead-on-arrival and time to fill the transport modules were investigated...
August 15, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Melanie Connor, Alistair B Lawrence, Sarah M Brown
Oxytocin has been well researched in association with psychological variables and is widely accepted as a key modulator of human social behaviour. Previous work indicates involvement of oxytocin receptor gene ( OXTR ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human-human empathy, however little is known about associations of OXTR SNPs with empathy and affective reactions of humans towards animals. Five OXTR SNPs previously found to associate with human social behaviour were genotyped in 161 students. Empathy towards animals and implicit associations were evaluated...
August 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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