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Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718787/a-note-on-suckling-behavior-and-laterality-in-nursing-humpback-whale-calves-from-underwater-observations
#1
Ann M Zoidis, Kate S Lomac-MacNair
We investigated nursing behavior on the Hawaiian breeding grounds for first year humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves. We observed and video-documented underwater events with nursing behavior from five different whale groups. The observed nursing events include behaviors where a calf positions itself at a 30-45° angle to the midline of the mother's body, with its mouth touching her mammary slit (i.e., suckling position). On two occasions, milk in the water column was recorded in close proximity to a mother/calf pair, and on one occasion, milk was recorded 2...
July 18, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704949/surrendered-and-stray-dogs-in-australia-estimation-of-numbers-entering-municipal-pounds-shelters-and-rescue-groups-and-their-outcomes
#2
Diana Chua, Jacquie Rand, John Morton
There is no national system for monitoring numbers of dogs entering municipal council pounds and shelters in Australia, or their outcomes. This limits understanding of the surrendered and stray dog issue, and prevents the evaluation of management strategies. We aimed to estimate these in 2012-2013. Dog intake and outcome data were collected for municipal councils and animal welfare organizations using annual reports, publications, primary peer-reviewed journal articles, websites and direct correspondence. More comprehensive data were obtained for New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Australian Capital Territory, whereas it was necessary to impute some or all data for Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and Tasmania, as data were incomplete/unavailable...
July 12, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671609/a-survey-of-public-opinion-on-cat-felis-catus-predation-and-the-future-direction-of-cat-management-in-new-zealand
#3
Jessica K Walker, Stephanie J Bruce, Arnja R Dale
Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively)...
July 3, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665336/factors-that-influence-intake-to-one-municipal-animal-control-facility-in-florida-a-qualitative-study
#4
Terry Spencer, Linda Behar-Horenstein, Joe Aufmuth, Nancy Hardt, Jennifer W Applebaum, Amber Emanuel, Natalie Isaza
This qualitative study identified a study area by visualizing one year of animal intake from a municipal animal shelter on geographic information systems (GIS) maps to select an area of high stray-dog intake to investigate. Researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with residents of the selected study area to elucidate why there were high numbers of stray dogs coming from this location. Using grounded theory, three themes emerged from the interviews: concerns, attitudes, and disparities. The residents expressed concerns about animal welfare, personal safety, money, and health...
June 30, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629177/exnotic-should-we-be-keeping-exotic-pets
#5
Rachel A Grant, V Tamara Montrose, Alison P Wills
There has been a recent trend towards keeping non-traditional companion animals, also known as exotic pets. These pets include parrots, reptiles, amphibians and rabbits, as well as small species of rodent such as degus and guinea pigs. Many of these exotic pet species are not domesticated, and often have special requirements in captivity, which many owners do not have the facilities or knowledge to provide. Keeping animals in settings to which they are poorly adapted is a threat to their welfare. Additionally, owner satisfaction with the animal may be poor due to a misalignment of expectations, which further impacts on welfare, as it may lead to repeated rehoming or neglect...
June 19, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574465/trap-neuter-return-activities-in-urban-stray-cat-colonies-in-australia
#6
Kuan Tan, Jacquie Rand, John Morton
Trap, neuter and return (TNR) describes a non-lethal approach to the control of urban stray cat populations. Currently, in Australia, lethal control is common, with over 85% of cats entering some municipal pounds euthanized. No research has been published describing TNR activities in Australia. Adults involved with TNR in Australia were invited to participate. Data from 53 respondents were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Most respondents were females 36 to 65 years of age, and slightly more participated in TNR as individuals than as part of an organization...
June 2, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574435/exploring-the-role-of-farm-animals-in-providing-care-at-care-farms
#7
Jan Hassink, Simone R De Bruin, Bente Berget, Marjolein Elings
We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with animals compared to a therapeutic healthcare setting. We performed a literature review, conducted focus group meetings and carried out secondary data-analysis of qualitative studies involving care farmers and different types of participants...
June 2, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587152/long-term-physiologic-and-behavioural-effects-of-housing-density-and-environmental-resource-provision-for-adult-male-and-female-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Christopher J Pinelli, Francesco Leri, Patricia V Turner
There is considerable interest in refining laboratory rodent environments to promote animal well-being, as well as research reproducibility. Few studies have evaluated the long term impact of enhancing rodent environments with resources and additional cagemates. To that end, male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were housed singly (n = 8/sex), in pairs (n = 16/sex), or in groups of four (n = 16/sex) for five months. Single and paired rats were housed in standard cages with a nylon chew toy, while group-housed rats were kept in double-wide cages with two PVC shelters and a nylon chew toy and were provided with food enrichment three times weekly...
June 1, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556821/a-national-census-of-birth-weight-in-purebred-dogs-in-italy
#9
Debora Groppetti, Alessandro Pecile, Clara Palestrini, Stefano P Marelli, Patrizia Boracchi
Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0...
May 30, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556816/salmonid-jumping-and-playing-potential-cultural-and-welfare-implications
#10
Robert M Fagen
Salmonids of several species and other fishes can jump into the air from the water. This behavior has been used in net pen culture applications to control parasitic sea lice. The reasons that salmonids jump remain a topic for speculation. Research on these behaviors has focused on Atlantic salmon in net pen culture in Northwest Europe. Jumping in salmonids is a heterogeneous behavioral category with diverse functional outcomes. Additional research is needed from broad perspectives spanning indigenous and institutional science, cultural wisdom, and ethological direct observation...
May 30, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587125/equine-welfare-during-exercise-an-evaluation-of-breathing-breathlessness-and-bridles
#11
REVIEW
David J Mellor, Ngaio J Beausoleil
Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses...
May 26, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505141/a-decade-of-progress-toward-ending-the-intensive-confinement-of-farm-animals-in-the-united-states
#12
Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew Rowan
In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates...
May 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505095/behavioural-profiles-of-brown-and-sloth-bears-in-captivity
#13
Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Yiannis Christodoulides, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Mariangela Albertini, Richard Preziosi, Silvia Michela Mazzola
Three brown bear (Ursusarctosarctos) individuals and two sloth bear (Melursusursinusinornatus) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress...
May 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475139/intake-procedures-in-colorado-animal-shelters
#14
Anna Fagre, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Rebecca Ruch-Gallie
The purpose of this study was to describe intake procedures in Colorado animal shelters, compare infectious disease screening protocols in shelters taking in animals from out-of-state to shelters only accepting animals from Colorado, and analyze perceived risk of diseases in Colorado by responding shelter personnel. A questionnaire was designed and administered to shelter personnel across the state of Colorado via the survey tool SurveyMonkey© (http://www.surveymonkey.com) or a mailed hard copy. Information collected concerned general shelter characteristics and intake procedures performed in various circumstances as reported by responding shelter personnel...
May 5, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468329/practices-for-alleviating-heat-stress-of-dairy-cows-in-humid-continental-climates-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Sébastien Fournel, Véronique Ouellet, Édith Charbonneau
Heat stress negatively affects the health and performance of dairy cows, resulting in considerable economic losses for the industry. In future years, climate change will exacerbate these losses by making the climate warmer. Physical modification of the environment is considered to be the primary means of reducing adverse effects of hot weather conditions. At present, to reduce stressful heat exposure and to cool cows, dairy farms rely on shade screens and various forms of forced convection and evaporative cooling that may include fans and misters, feed-line sprinklers, and tunnel- or cross-ventilated buildings...
May 2, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468261/exploration-feeding-and-higher-space-allocation-improve-welfare-of-growing-finishing-pigs
#16
Herman M Vermeer, Nienke C P M M Dirx-Kuijken, Marc B M Bracke
Lack of environmental enrichment and high stocking densities in growing-finishing pigs can lead to adverse social behaviors directed to pen mates, resulting in skin lesions, lameness, and tail biting. The objective of the study was to improve animal welfare and prevent biting behavior in an experiment with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design on exploration feeding, stocking density, and sex. We kept 550 pigs in 69 pens from 63 days to 171 days of life. Pigs were supplemented with or without exploration feeding, kept in groups of seven (1...
April 29, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448430/family-dog-assisted-adapted-physical-activity-a-case-study
#17
Amanda Tepfer, Samantha Ross, Megan MacDonald, Monique A R Udell, Craig Ruaux, Wendy Baltzer
Purpose: The aim of this case study was to examine the individual effects of an adapted physical activity, animal-assisted intervention (APA-AAI) with the family dog on motor skills, physical activity, and quality of life of a child with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: This study used an A-B-A single-subject design. The assessment phase (phase A) occurred pre- and post-intervention. This consisted of standardized assessments of motor skills, quality of life questionnaires, physical activity (measured using the GT3X+ accelerometer) and the human-animal bond...
April 27, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441333/how-are-service-dogs-for-adults-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-integrated-with-rehabilitation-in-denmark-a-case-study
#18
Chalotte Glintborg, Tia G B Hansen
A severe mental illness like Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is known to have psychosocial consequences that can lead to a decreased quality of life. Research in Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) has revealed that the presence of a dog can have a positive effect on health, e.g., increase quality of life and lessen depression and anxiety. However, canine companionship is not a catch-all solution. Previous research has revealed methodological limitations that prohibit any clear conclusions, as well as a sparsity of critical reflection in anecdotal reports and case studies, which means that more research is needed to contextualize the findings...
April 25, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441332/pregnant-sheep-in-a-farm-environment-did-not-develop-anaemia
#19
Gabrielle C Musk, Amanda James, Matthew W Kemp, Sara Ritchie, Andrew Ritchie, Michael Laurence
The aim of this study was to document the haematological profile of pregnant ewes throughout gestation. Sheep were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group): non-pregnant, singleton, or twin pregnancy. Blood samples were collected every 14 days from day 55 of gestation for haemoglobin concentration; packed cell volume; total protein; and albumin concentration. On days 55 and 125 of gestation blood was collected for trace element estimation: soluble copper and zinc; glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx); and methylmalonic acid (MMA)...
April 25, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420107/prepartum-lying-behavior-of-holstein-dairy-cows-housed-on-pasture-through-parturition
#20
Christa A Rice, Nicole L Eberhart, Peter D Krawczel
Utilizing pasture-based systems may increase cow comfort during late gestation and calving as it lacks the constraints of confinement housing. The objective of this study was to quantify lying behavior and activity of Holstein dairy cows housed on pasture during the 6 d before calving. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows were moved to pasture 3 weeks before their projected calving date. Data loggers were attached 14 d prior to projected calving date. Behavior was evaluated 6 d before calving for all cows (n = 16) and 6 h prior to calving for a subset of cows (n = 6) with known calving times...
April 14, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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