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Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI

Christian Visscher, Jasmin Mischok, Saara Sander, Jutta Verspohl, Eva-Ursula Peitzmeier, Isabel von dem Busche, Josef Kamphues
Lawsonia intracellularis infections are a common reason for antibiotic treatment in pig production. Experimental studies in animals naturally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis comparing the course of an experimental Salmonella infection in piglets previously treated with tylosin or vaccinated against Lawsonia intracellularis are scarce. A total of 72 seven-week-old Salmonella -free pigs were taken from a herd with a Lawsonia intracellularis history in piglet rearing. The pigs were divided into two groups with three replicates each...
November 12, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Julia Hartwiger, Melanie Schären, Sarah Potthoff, Liane Hüther, Susanne Kersten, Dirk von Soosten, Andreas Beineke, Ulrich Meyer, Gerhard Breves, Sven Dänicke
In spring, transition from a total mixed ration (TMR) to pasture requires rumen adaptions for the cow. It had been shown that transition period does not necessarily mean an increased risk for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). After adaption to pasture, however, supplying low amounts of concentrate did indicate increased risk, but caused no adverse effects on rumen morphology and absorption capacity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of transition, and how a supply of 4.5 kg dry matter concentrate·cow-1 · day-1 during fulltime grazing influenced different rumen parameters...
November 10, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Rosaria Marino, Mariangela Caroprese, Giovanni Annicchiarico, Francesco Ciampi, Maria Giovanna Ciliberti, Antonella Della Malva, Antonella Santillo, Agostino Sevi, Marzia Albenzio
In the last years several studies have investigated the strong relation between nutrition and immune response in the livestock production, particularly in dairy cattle and sheep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation based on linseed, quinoa seeds and their combination on welfare, productivity and quality of meat from merinos derived lambs. 32 weaned lambs were divided into 4 experimental groups: quinoa (Q), linseed (LS) and combination of quinoa and linseed (LS + Q) that received the respective supplementation and control group (C) without supplementation...
November 10, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Yijie Xiong, Richard S Gates, Angela R Green-Miller
Extreme weather conditions challenge pig thermoregulation during transport and are addressed by the National Pork Board (NPB) Transport Quality Assurance® (TQA) program that provides guidelines for trailer boarding, bedding, and misting. These guidelines are widely applied, yet very little is known about the microenvironment within the trailer. In this study, TQA guidelines (V4) were evaluated via extensive thermal environment measurements during transport in order to evaluate spatial variability and implications on ventilation pattern...
November 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Barry S Kipperman, Alexander J German
We appreciate the interest [1] in our opinion paper [2] regarding companion animal obesity and, although there is limited published evidence, agree that some pet owners might respond negatively when this issue is addressed [...].
November 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Cordelie DuBois, Lindsay Nakonechny, Emilie Derisoud, Katrina Merkies
The diversity of the Canadian equine industry makes determining baseline attitudes and beliefs a challenge. Adult members of the Canadian equine industry (n = 901) participated in an online survey to report demographic information and views on the role of horses and their ability to experience affective states. Questions regarding the welfare state of all horses in the industry, potential ways to address welfare issues, and eight short scenarios were presented. Qualitative analysis, descriptive statistics, and a Chi-squared test for independence examined survey results and potential relationships...
November 7, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Zhangyuan Pan, Xiangyu Wang, Ran Di, Qiuyue Liu, Wenping Hu, Xiaohan Cao, Xiaofei Guo, Xiaoyun He, Shengjin Lv, Fukuan Li, Hui Wang, Mingxing Chu
Growth differentiation factor 9 ( GDF9 ) plays an important role in the early folliculogenesis of sheep. This study investigated the mRNA expression of ovine GDF9 in different tissues by real-time PCR. GDF9 exhibits significantly higher levels of expression ( p < 0.01) in the ovary, relative to other tissues, indicating that its expression is tissue specific. To explore the regulatory mechanism of this tissue-specific expression, the methylation level of one CpG island (-1453 to -1854) of GDF9 promoter in ovary and heart was determined...
November 7, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Emma M Gosling, Jorge A Vázquez-Diosdado, Naomi D Harvey
Conditions of pet rabbit breeding colonies and breeder practices are undocumented and very little is known about the pet rabbit sales market. Here, multiple methods were employed to investigate this sector of the UK pet industry. A freedom of information request sent to 10% of councils revealed confusion and inconsistency in licensing conditions. Data from 1-month of online sale adverts (3446) identified 646 self-declared breeders, of which 1.08% were licensed. Further, despite veterinary advice to vaccinate rabbits from five weeks, only 16...
November 6, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Lauren K Landfried, Ellen K Barnidge, Patrick Pithua, Roger D Lewis, Jonathan A Jacoby, Christopher C King, Carole R Baskin
Use of low dose, prophylactic antibiotics contributes to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In one study, goat meat in Missouri was found to have a higher percentage of antibiotic residues at slaughter than the national average, so we attempted to identify factors related to goat production that may contribute to this issue. Using the knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) model, we interviewed 11 Missouri goat farmers about factors affecting antibiotic use. Most of the farmers did not have specific protocols for managing illnesses and only relied on veterinarians for major health issues...
November 6, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Bethany Wilson, James Serpell, Harold Herzog, Paul McGreevy
Drawing on American Kennel Club (AKC) puppy registration numbers for approximately 82 varieties of pedigree dogs between 1926 and 2005, the current article analyses behavioural reports on 32,005 dogs of these varieties reported through the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Cluster analysis of C-BARQ scores indicates that the 82 breeds fell into six clusters. Average scores for each of the 14 behavioural subscales and 22 miscellaneous traits in C-BARQ were calculated for each cluster, and the breeds in each cluster with average scores most similar to the cluster averages were selected as titular breeds...
November 6, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Pablo G Toral, Gonzalo Hervás, Vanessa Peiró, Pilar Frutos
Shifts in ruminal oleic acid (OA) metabolism have received little research attention but recent studies have suggested their association with marine lipid-induced milk fat depression (MFD) in ewes and cows. Measurement of specific products of OA within the complex mixture of digesta lipids is however challenging. Therefore, this in vitro trial combined the isotopic labelling technique with the use of rumen inoculum from cannulated sheep fed a diet supplemented or not with 2% of fish oil (which has been demonstrated to cause MFD in dairy ruminants) to characterize the metabolism of OA in response to ruminal alterations associated with MFD...
November 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Carolee Hinojosa, David Caldwell, James Byrd, Robert Droleskey, Jason Lee, Phil Stayer, Erin Resendiz, Javier Garcia, Stephanie Klein, Denise Caldwell, Megan Pineda, Morgan Farnell
Transport coops are infrequently washed and have been demonstrated to cross-contaminate broiler carcasses. We hypothesized that peracetic acid or a chlorinated cleaner, commonly used within poultry processing plants, can also be used to disinfect transport coops when applied via a compressed air foam system (CAFS). A mixture of fresh layer manure and concentrated Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) was evenly applied to the floors of four pre-cleaned transport coops and allowed to dry for thirty minutes. Treatments consisted of a (1) water rinse only, (2) product application with a water rinse, (3) product application followed by power washing and (4) power washing followed by application of product...
November 2, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Melissa C Cantor, Joao H C Costa, Jeffrey M Bewley
Dairy precision technologies helps producers monitor individual animals. Reticulorumen temperature boluses are a way to monitor core body temperature; however, factors such as water intake affects reticulorumen temperature. This research determined the effect of natural water intake and a controlled water drench on reticulorumen temperature (RT) in dairy cattle. In observational study part 1, tie- stall cows ( n = 4) with RT transponders were observed for natural water intake (recorded by in line water meters) for 48 h...
October 31, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Monika Okrouhlá, Roman Stupka, Jaroslav Čítek, Nicole Lebedová, Kateřina Zadinová
This study compared the effect of two vegetable oils and their feeding duration on pig backfat quality. The experiment was conducted with 60 DanBred pigs that were fed a diet supplemented (40 g/kg) with rapeseed or soybean oil for 2, 4 or 6 weeks before slaughter at 152 d of age. The supplementation of both vegetable oils in the diets for 6 weeks negatively changed backfat consistency. The pigs fed soybean oil for 4 (17.64%) and 6 weeks (18.52%) before slaughter showed an increase in backfat linoleic acid content ( p = 0...
October 31, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Irene Camerlink, Marianne Farish, Rick B D'Eath, Gareth Arnott, Simon P Turner
Early life socialization of piglets has been shown to reduce piglet aggression at weaning, but information on sow health and long-term benefits is lacking. We aimed to assess how socialization impacts sow udder quality and long-term pig behaviour and growth. At two weeks of age, 65 litters either experienced socialization with one other litter (SOC) or did not (control; CON). Sows (housed in farrowing crates) were scored for teat damage and piglets were observed for aggressive behaviour (resident-intruder test) and growth and skin lesions up to 11 weeks under conventional farm conditions (including weaning and regrouping)...
October 29, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Riccarda Wolter, Volker Stefanski, Konstanze Krueger
Social bond analysis is of major importance for the evaluation of social relationships in group housed horses. However, in equine behaviour literature, studies on social bond analysis are inconsistent. Mutual grooming (horses standing side by side and gently nipping, nuzzling, or rubbing each other), affiliative approaches (horses approaching each other and staying within one body length), and measurements of spatial proximity (horses standing with body contact or within two horse-lengths) are commonly used...
October 27, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Philip Roetman, Hayley Tindle, Carla Litchfield
Domestic cats ( Felis catus ) are popular pets worldwide and play an important role in the lives of many of their owners; however, there is growing awareness of the potential negative impacts of cats. Accordingly, there is increasing interest in pet cat management, including changing the attitudes and behaviours of cat owners. The Cat Tracker citizen science project was conducted in South Australia to better understand domestic cats, their movement, and related community views. The project was deliberately designed to engage cat owners and assist them to make informed decisions about the management of their pet cats...
October 24, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Carolina Ramírez, Jaime Coronado, Arturo Silva, Jaime Romero
Arapaima gigas is a large air-breathing fish found in Amazonian rivers, a characteristic that gives this species an advantage in oxygen-deprived waters. It shows high potential for aquaculture in the Amazon region due to its fast growth rate that approaches 10⁻15 kg/year. The aim of this study was to explore the composition of the intestinal bacterial community of Arapaima gigas reared in Ecuador using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. The analysis revealed significant differences in alpha diversity indices ( p < 0...
October 24, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Marco Iannaccone, Ramy Elgendy, Mery Giantin, Camillo Martino, Daniele Giansante, Andrea Ianni, Mauro Dacasto, Giuseppe Martino
Grape pomace (GPO), the main by-product of the wine making process, is a rich source of polyphenols with potent antioxidant properties. Recently, GPO has emerged as a potential feed additive in livestock nutrition, with several reports describing its beneficial effects on animals' overall health status or production traits. However, little is known about it from a molecular biology standpoint. In the present study, we report the first RNA sequencing-based whole-transcriptome profiling of Friesian calves fed with a GPO-supplemented diet...
October 23, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Anne Brede, Christian Wecke, Frank Liebert
The dietary methionine:cysteine (Met:Cys) ratio (MCR) is an important factor influencing the optimal growth of chickens. Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the assessment of the optimal dietary MCR in diets with the complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by a partly defatted larvae meal of Hermetia illucens (HM). A growth study with 240 male meat-type chickens (Ross 308) was conducted, also assessing the body nutrient deposition both at the end of the starter (day 21) and the grower (day 35) period...
October 23, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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