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Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity

Kristin E Heron, Abby L Braitman, Robin J Lewis, Alexander T Shappie, Phoebe T Hitson
Lesbian women face unique sexual minority stressors (SMS) due to their stigmatized and marginalized status in society. Existing studies of SMS are primarily cross-sectional and use global measures of SMS. The goal of the present study was to develop a brief daily measure of SMS for use in daily diary or ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies. Existing retrospective measures of SMS were reviewed, resulting in an initial pool of 29 items. Thirty-eight lesbian women ( M age=24.3 years, range: 19-30 years) completed a daily web-based survey including the SMS items for 12 days...
September 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Adam W Fingerhut
Though research has demonstrated that gay men suffer stress-related mental health disparities compared to heterosexuals, little is known about factors that protect gay individuals from poor mental health and that buffer them in the face of minority stress. Using a daily diary approach, the current study examined three factors that may protect individuals from poor mental health: social support from friends, social support from family, and gay identity. Caucasian gay men (N = 89) completed a study purported to examine the everyday life experiences of gay individuals...
September 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Amanda M Pollitt, Andrew L Brimhall, Melanie E Brewster, Lori E Ross
Bisexuality has been critically understudied despite decades of research demonstrating pronounced disparities among bisexual populations. To better understand the state of bisexual research in the field of LGBTQ psychology, we conducted a content analysis of abstracts published in the Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity ( PSOGD ). Of 223 articles published in PSOGD , less than 1% were focused on bisexual populations. Many studies used "bisexuality" in their titles or as a keyword even when they contained little to no focus on bisexuality...
June 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Melissa H Manley, Abbie E Goldberg, Lori E Ross
Little research has examined the experiences of plurisexual women (i.e., those with attractions to more than one gender) during the transition to parenthood, despite the fact that many plurisexual women intend to become parents. Further, no research has specifically explored plurisexual mothers' LGBTQ community connections, although many studies highlight the importance of social support for (a) sexual minority individuals and (b) mothers. The current study investigated LGBTQ community connection among 29 plurisexual women with different-gender partners during the perinatal period...
June 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Elizabeth A McConnell, Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Roky Truong, Michelle Birkett
Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i...
March 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Andrea Norcini Pala, Francesca Dell'Amore, Patrizia Steca, Lauren Clinton, Theodorus Sandfort, Christine Rael
The experience of sexual orientation stigma (e.g., homophobic discrimination and physical aggression) generates minority stress, a chronic form of psychosocial stress. Minority stress has been shown to have a negative effect on gay and bisexual men's (GBM's) mental and physical health, increasing the rates of depression, suicidal ideation, and HIV risk behaviors. In conservative religious settings, such as Italy, sexual orientation stigma can be more frequently and/or more intensively experienced. However, minority stress among Italian GBM remains understudied...
December 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Grant P Shulman, Natalie R Holt, Debra A Hope, Richard Mocarski, Joshua Eyer, Nathan Woodruff
There is increasing recognition of the need for culturally sensitive services for individuals who identify as transgender or gender non-conforming (TGNC), and only recently have empirical studies appeared in the literature that inform best practices for TGNC people. Competent, culturally appropriate clinical services and research depend upon methodologically sound assessment of key constructs, but it is unclear whether appropriate self-report or clinician-rated assessment tools for adults exist. This paper reviewed existing published measures to identify areas of strength as well as existing gaps in the available research...
September 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Christopher B Stults, Sandra A Kupprat, Kristen D Krause, Farzana Kapadia, Perry N Halkitis
The goals of this manuscript are two-fold. First, we provide a brief reaction to this journal's "Special Section: Reflections on the Orlando Massacre on its First Anniversary." Second, we present findings from a study on perceptions of safety among LGBTQ individuals following the Pulse shooting. These issues are discussed within the historical context of hate crimes experienced by the LGBTQ population (Herek), media coverage following the shooting (Hancock & Halderman), and the immediate reaction of LGBTQ graduate students to the event (Jackson)...
September 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Tyrel J Starks, Kendell M Doyle, Brett M Millar, Jeffrey T Parsons
Research suggests connections or links between the mental health of both partners in a romantic relationship, as partners often report similar mental health problems, with implications for relationship functioning. The current study utilized the framework of interdependence theory to explore associations among intimacy development, as conceptualized by Erikson, relationship satisfaction, and depression in a sample of 128 same-sex male couples. In each couple, one partner was recruited first through active or passive outreach conducted online and in-person, and after completion of the online survey, was then invited to send his partner a link to the study...
June 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Renzo J Barrantes, Asia A Eaton, Cindy B Veldhuis, Tonda L Hughes
The Investment Model of relationship commitment uses interpersonal investment, relationship satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and commitment to predict relationship longevity (Rusbult, 1980, 1983). Although ample support for the Investment Model has been found in heterosexual couples, it appears to be less powerful in predicting stability in same-sex relationships (Beals, Impett, & Peplau, 2002), potentially because the model does not account for factors unique to same-sex relationships, such as anti-gay discrimination...
June 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Tracey Peter, Tamara Edkins, Ryan Watson, Jones Adjei, Yuko Homma, Elizabeth Saewyc
Objectives: Despite evidence from numerous studies that document disparities in suicidality for sexual minorities, few have investigated whether or not these trends have improved over time, which is the objective of the current study. Methods: Using school-based population data over a 15-year period (1998 to 2013), multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios separately by gender. Interactions were included to test widening or narrowing disparities within orientation groups, which makes this one of the first studies to test whether gaps in disparities between heterosexual and sexual minorities have widened or narrowed over time...
March 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Abbie E Goldberg, Lori E Ross, Melissa H Manley, Jonathan J Mohr
Male-partnered sexual minority women (SMW) have received little research attention, despite the fact that they represent a large proportion of SMW - particularly child-bearing SMW. Male-partnered SMW are less "out" than female-partnered SMW and will likely be "read" as heterosexual by perinatal providers. Given this, and evidence that pregnant women have unique mental health care needs, the current study focuses on male-partnered SMW ( n = 28) during the perinatal period, recruited from Toronto, Canada and Massachusetts, USA, in an effort to understand disclosure and concealment processes in general and to perinatal heath care providers specifically...
March 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Timothy J Sullivan, Brian A Feinstein, Amy D Marshall, Brian Mustanski
Sexual orientation-related discrimination is common among sexual minority individuals, but its influence on romantic relationship functioning remains unclear. Further, exposure to potentially traumatic events may influence the association between discrimination and relationship functioning, but this has not been tested among sexual minority couples to date. The current study examines breadth of lifetime trauma exposure as a moderator of the associations between recent discrimination and changes in relationship functioning (satisfaction, commitment, and trust) over twelve months among 86 racially/ethnically diverse sexual minority young adults in relationships...
2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Sabra L Katz-Wise, David N Williams, Colton L Keo-Meier, Stephanie L Budge, Seth Pardo, Carla Sharp
Research has just begun to study associations between sexual fluidity and health among cisgender individuals; only one cross-sectional study examined these links among transgender individuals. The goals of the current study were to prospectively examine fluidity in sexual attractions and fluidity in sexual orientation identity, and associations with health-related outcomes. Participants were a community-based sample of 45 transgender men, ages 16-51 years, who had recently begun testosterone, and 95 cisgender individuals (53 women, 42 men), ages 18-55 years, who completed surveys either in-person or via mail...
2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Carol Goodenow, Ryan J Watson, Jones Adjei, Yuko Homma, Elizabeth Saewyc
Numerous recent studies have demonstrated that schools are often unsafe for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents, who are more likely than heterosexual peers to be bullied, harassed, or victimized in school contexts. Virtually all of these studies call for change, yet none investigate whether or not it has occurred. Using repeated waves of a population-based high school survey, we examine (1) the extent to which sexual orientation differences in school bullying and violence-related experiences are reported by lesbian/gay, bisexual, and heterosexual male and female adolescents; (2) trends in school bullying and violence-related experiences for each gender/orientation group, and (3) whether disparities have changed over time...
December 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Nicholas C Heck, V Paul Poteat, Carol S Goodenow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Salvatore Ioverno, Alexander B Belser, Roberto Baiocco, Arnold H Grossman, Stephen T Russell
Prior studies show a strong association between gay-straight alliances (GSAs) and the well-being and safety of sexual minority students at school. However, nearly all existing literature has relied on cross-sectional data. Using data from the first two panels of a multi-site longitudinal study on risk and protective factors for suicide among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) youth in three U.S. cities, we examined the influence of presence of and participation in a GSA on perceptions of safety at school, homophobic bullying experiences, and psychosocial adjustment (depression and self-esteem) in 327 LGBQ students across two school years...
December 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Russell B Toomey, Karla Anhalt
This study examined whether mindfulness strategies (e.g., acting non-judgmentally with awareness and attention to present events) were effective in mitigating the associations among school-based victimization related to ethnicity and sexual orientation, well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms and self-esteem), and grade-point average (GPA). The U.S.-based sample included 236 Latina/o sexual minority students, ranging in age from 14 to 24 years (47% were enrolled in secondary schools, 53% in postsecondary schools)...
December 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Tiffany R Glynn, Kristi E Gamarel, Christopher W Kahler, Mariko Iwamoto, Don Operario, Tooru Nemoto
High prevalence of psychological distress, including greater depression, lower self-esteem, and suicidal ideation, has been documented across numerous samples of transgender women and has been attributed to high rates of discrimination and violence. According to the gender affirmation framework (Sevelius, 2013), access to sources of gender-affirmative support can offset such negative psychological effects of social oppression. However, critical questions remain unanswered in regards to how and which aspects of gender affirmation are related to psychological well-being...
September 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Brian A Feinstein, Michael E Newcomb
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) report higher rates of substance use than their heterosexual peers and minority stress has been posited as a risk factor for substance use. The associations between specific types of minority stress and substance use have been inconsistent throughout the literature and few studies have examined mechanisms underlying these associations. Drawing on minority stress theory and the motivational model of alcohol use, we propose that one mechanism underlying these associations may be people's motivations for using substances, including using substances to cope with negative emotions and to enhance pleasure...
September 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
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