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Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity

Tiffany R Glynn, Kristi E Gamarel, Christopher W Kahler, Mariko Iwamoto, Don Operario, Tooru Nemoto
High prevalence of psychological distress, including greater depression, lower self-esteem, and suicidal ideation, has been documented across numerous samples of transgender women and has been attributed to high rates of discrimination and violence. According to the gender affirmation framework (Sevelius, 2013), access to sources of gender-affirmative support can offset such negative psychological effects of social oppression. However, critical questions remain unanswered in regards to how and which aspects of gender affirmation are related to psychological well-being...
September 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Brian A Feinstein, Michael E Newcomb
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) report higher rates of substance use than their heterosexual peers and minority stress has been posited as a risk factor for substance use. The associations between specific types of minority stress and substance use have been inconsistent throughout the literature and few studies have examined mechanisms underlying these associations. Drawing on minority stress theory and the motivational model of alcohol use, we propose that one mechanism underlying these associations may be people's motivations for using substances, including using substances to cope with negative emotions and to enhance pleasure...
September 2016: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Margaret Rosario
The empirical literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals has predominantly focused on sexual-orientation disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals on health and adaptation, as well as on the role of gay-related or minority stress in the health and adaptation of LGB individuals. Aside from demographic control variables, the initial predictor is a marker of sexual orientation or LGB-related experience (e.g., minority stress). Missing are potential strengths and vulnerabilities that LGB individuals develop over time and bring to bear on their sexual identity development and other LGB-related experiences...
September 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Nicholas A Livingston, Nicholas C Heck, Annesa Flentje, Hillary Gleason, Kathryn M Oost, Bryan N Cochran
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority-based victimization, which includes threats or enacted interpersonal violence, predicts elevated suicide risk among sexual minority individuals. However, research on personality factors that contribute to resilience among sexual minority populations is lacking. Using the Five-Factor Model, we hypothesized that individuals classified as adaptive (versus at-risk) would be at decreased risk for a suicide attempt in the context of reported lifetime victimization...
September 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
J T Goldbach, J J Gibbs
Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members...
September 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Douglas Bruce, Gary W Harper, Jose A Bauermeister
INTRODUCTION: Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. METHODS: An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16-24 (mean age, 20...
September 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Ethan H Mereish, V Paul Poteat
Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals' internalized homophobia and their friend's sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress...
September 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Nicholas C Heck
This article describes the results of a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mental health promotion program that was developed to address minority stressors and promote coping skills among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. It was hypothesized that the program would be feasible to implement within the context of a gay-straight alliance (GSA) and that GSA members would find the program acceptable (e.g., educational, enjoyable, helpful, and relevant). Participants included ten members of a high school GSA in the northeastern United States...
September 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Lauren Page Wadsworth, Sarah A Hayes-Skelton
Previous research suggests that individuals with a marginalized sexual orientation report higher levels of emotional distress (Cochran, 2001; Mayer, 2003), including higher prevalence of social anxiety (Gilman et al., 2001; Potoczniak, Aldea, & DeBlaere, 2007; Safren & Pantalone, 2006) than heterosexuals. The present study builds on previous research by examining results across sexual minority identities, including an additional write-in response option. One hundred eighty individuals participated in an online study in which they indicated their sexual orientation and completed measures of social anxiety...
June 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Mike C Parent, Amelia E Talley, Esther N Schwartz, David W Hancock
Openness and self-exploration have been associated with myriad benefits. Within the realm of sexuality, sexual exploration may be 1 facet of openness and self-exploration that yields benefits. Prior literature suggests that such exploration may have benefits for sexual orientation minority persons, though limited research has investigated the benefits of sexual exploration for heterosexuals. The present study used data from 346 adult women (185 exclusively heterosexual, 161 not exclusively heterosexual) to investigate the role of sexual exploration as a mediator between sexual orientation status and positivity toward sex...
June 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Brian A Rood, Elizabeth A McConnell, David W Pantalone
Stigma and stress may place HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HIV+ MSM) at risk for depression. Additionally, HIV+ MSM might utilize multiple HIV-related services as a way to gain support for, and more effectively manage, HIV-related stressors. Although prior research has demonstrated that depression severity and utilizing support services are associated with functional or dysfunctional coping strategies, researchers have not investigated the impact of different coping combinations-specifically, the concurrent use of functional and dysfunctional strategies-in this population...
March 1, 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Frank R Dillon, Edward J Alessi, Shelley Craig, Ryan C Eber-Sole, Snehal M Kumar, Christine Spadola
The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Counseling Self-Efficacy Inventory - Short Form (LGB-CSI-SF) was developed to facilitate LGB-affirmative counseling training, as well as process and outcome research, by offering a brief psychometrically supported version of the original LGB-CSI measure to researchers and clinicians. Five hundred seventy-five participants (435 licensed mental health professionals and 140 graduate students/trainees) constituted the sample. Confirmatory factor analyses of the 32 items from the original LGB-CSI yielded a new 15-item version of the measure composed of 5 factors (consisting of 3 items each) that assess counselor self-efficacy to perform lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative counseling behaviors (Application of Knowledge, Advocacy Skills, Self-Awareness, Relationship, and Assessment)...
March 2015: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Megan C Lytle, Michelle D Vaughan, Eric M Rodriguez, David L Shmerler
This paper examines how positive psychology principles can be incorporated into clinical training and practice to work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) clients. LGBT psychology literature has all too often relied on heterosexual and cisgender reference groups as the norm with respect to psychological health, primarily framing the experiences of LGBT individuals through the lens of psychopathology. As a result, strengths that could be ascribed to the LGBT experience have been overlooked within training and practice...
October 1, 2014: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Nicholas R Eaton
Research on mental health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals has traditionally taken a disorder-by-disorder approach. Recently developed trans-diagnostic approaches provide a new method to frame such investigations; however, trans-diagnostic factors have yet to be applied to sexual minority mental health disparities research. The current study applied this methodology to investigate mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals in a large national probability sample (N = 34,653)...
September 1, 2014: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Debra Kaysen, Magdalena Kulesza, Kimberly F Balsam, Isaac C Rhew, Jessica A Blayney, Keren Lehavot, Tonda L Hughes
Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling...
September 2014: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Abbie E Goldberg, JuliAnna Z Smith
Little research has explored same-sex parents' school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents' perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting -as well as other interrelated contexts - may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children's schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents' perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children...
September 2014: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Martin J Downing, Eric W Schrimshaw
Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board...
March 14, 2014: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Sari L Reisner, Kristi E Gamarel, Tooru Nemoto, Don Operario
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. METHODS: Transgender women and their male partners (N=191 couples; N=382 individuals) completed questionnaires...
March 2014: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
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