journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Microbiology Spectrum

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327680/mechanisms-of-bacterial-resistance-to-antimicrobial-agents
#1
Engeline van Duijkeren, Anne-Kathrin Schink, Marilyn C Roberts, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz
During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either disintegration or chemical modification of antimicrobial agents, reduced intracellular accumulation by either decreased influx or increased efflux of antimicrobial agents, and modifications at the cellular target sites (i...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327679/natural-and-artificial-strategies-to-control-the-conjugative-transmission-of-plasmids
#2
María Getino, Fernando de la Cruz
Conjugative plasmids are the main carriers of transmissible antibiotic resistance (AbR) genes. For that reason, strategies to control plasmid transmission have been proposed as potential solutions to prevent AbR dissemination. Natural mechanisms that bacteria employ as defense barriers against invading genomes, such as restriction-modification or CRISPR-Cas systems, could be exploited to control conjugation. Besides, conjugative plasmids themselves display mechanisms to minimize their associated burden or to compete with related or unrelated plasmids...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271338/history-and-current-use-of-antimicrobial-drugs-in-veterinary-medicine
#3
John F Prescott
This chapter briefly reviews the history and current use of antimicrobials in animals, with a focus on food animals in the more economically developed countries. It identifies some of the differences between human medical and food animal use, particularly in growth promotional and "subtherapeutic" use of medically-important antibiotics in animals. The public health impact of the extensive use of antibiotics in food animals for these purposes, differences internationally in such usage, and the major changes in current practices now underway in agricultural use are summarized...
December 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219109/antimicrobial-resistance-in-corynebacterium-spp-arcanobacterium-spp-and-trueperella-pyogenes
#4
Andrea T Feßler, Stefan Schwarz
There is currently only limited information on the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of Corynebacterium spp., Arcanobacterium spp., and Trueperella pyogenes from animals. The comparability of the data is hampered by the use of different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and interpretive criteria. To date, standard broth microdilution methods and clinical breakpoints that are approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and are applicable to Corynebacterium spp., Arcanobacterium spp...
December 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219108/origin-history-and-meanings-of-the-word-transmission
#5
Joaquín Villalba, Fernando A Navarro, Francisco Cortés
The origin of the words transmit and transmission and their derivatives can be traced to the Latin transmittere, in turn formed by prefixing the preposition trans ("across or beyond") to the verb mittere ("to let go or to send"). From the times of Ancient Rome in the 3rd century b.c.e., the Latin word transmissio has been "transmitted" (through Romance languages such as French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese) to all the major languages of culture, English among them. And through English, the international language of biomedical science in the 21st century, the term transmission is increasingly present today in some of the most dynamic disciplines of modern natural science, including genomics, molecular microbiology, hospital epidemiology, molecular genetics, biotechnology, evolutionary biology, and systems biology...
December 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219107/molecular-methods-for-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#6
Muna F Anjum, Ea Zankari, Henrik Hasman
The increase in bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem because there is a paucity of antibiotics available to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans and animals. Detection of AMR present in bacteria that may pose a threat to veterinary and public health is routinely performed using standardized phenotypic methods. Molecular methods are often used in addition to phenotypic methods but are set to replace them in many laboratories due to the greater speed and accuracy they provide in detecting the underlying genetic mechanism(s) for AMR...
December 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052539/engineering-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-gut-bacteria
#7
Brian P Landry, Jeffrey J Tabor
Genetically engineered bacteria have the potential to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases linked to the gastrointestinal tract, or gut. Such engineered microbes will be less expensive and invasive than current diagnostics and more effective and safe than current therapeutics. Recent advances in synthetic biology have dramatically improved the reliability with which bacteria can be engineered with the sensors, genetic circuits, and output (actuator) genes necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic functions...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052538/antimicrobial-resistance-in-rhodococcus-equi
#8
Steeve Giguère, Londa J Berghaus, Jennifer M Willingham-Lane
Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi remains an important cause of disease and death in foals. The combination of a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin) with rifampin has been the recommended treatment for foals with clinical signs of infection caused by R. equi since the early 1980s with, until recently, only rare reports of resistance. Resistance to macrolides and rifampin in isolates of R. equi cultured from horses is increasing, with isolates resistant to all macrolides and rifampin now being cultured from up to 40% of infected foals at some farms...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027519/transmission-in-the-origins-of-bacterial-diversity-from-ecotypes-to-phyla
#9
Frederick M Cohan
Any two lineages, no matter how distant they are now, began their divergence as one population splitting into two lineages that could coexist indefinitely. The rate of origin of higher-level taxa is therefore the product of the rate of speciation times the probability that two new species coexist long enough to reach a particular level of divergence. Here I have explored these two parameters of disparification in bacteria. Owing to low recombination rates, sexual isolation is not a necessary milestone of bacterial speciation...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984235/biochemical-features-of-beneficial-microbes-foundations-for-therapeutic-microbiology
#10
Melinda A Engevik, James Versalovic
Commensal and beneficial microbes secrete myriad products which target the mammalian host and other microbes. These secreted substances aid in bacterial niche development, and select compounds beneficially modulate the host and promote health. Microbes produce unique compounds which can serve as signaling factors to the host, such as biogenic amine neuromodulators, or quorum-sensing molecules to facilitate inter-bacterial communication. Bacterial metabolites can also participate in functional enhancement of host metabolic capabilities, immunoregulation, and improvement of intestinal barrier function...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975881/u-s-regulatory-considerations-for-development-of-live-biotherapeutic-products-as-drugs
#11
Sheila M Dreher-Lesnick, Scott Stibitz, Paul E Carlson
Interest in the use of bacteria-containing products for the treatment or prevention of disease has increased in recent years. Bacterial preparations for human consumption are commercially available in the form of dietary supplements and typically contain strains with a history of use in food fermentation. Advances in our understanding of the role of the microbiota in health and disease are likely to lead to development of products containing more novel bacterial species, along with genetic modification of strains to provide specific functions...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959937/genome-editing-of-food-grade-lactobacilli-to-develop-therapeutic-probiotics
#12
Jan-Peter van Pijkeren, Rodolphe Barrangou
Lactic acid bacteria have been used historically for food manufacturing mainly to ensure preservation via fermentation. More recently, lactic acid bacteria have been exploited to promote human health, and many strains serve as industrial workhorses. Recent advances in microbiology and molecular biology have contributed to understanding the genetic basis of many of their functional attributes. These include dissection of biochemical processes that drive food fermentation, and identification and characterization of health-promoting features that positively impact the composition and roles of microbiomes in human health...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959936/use-of-traditional-and-genetically-modified-probiotics-in-human-health-what-does-the-future-hold
#13
Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Philippe Langella
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer benefits to human health when administered in adequate amounts. Among the frequent proposed health benefits attributed to probiotics, their ability to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Although history has revealed that probiotics were part of fermented foods in the past, clinicians have started to use them therapeutically in regular diets. Moreover, the use of genetically modified probiotics to deliver molecules of therapeutic interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944751/fitness-costs-of-plasmids-a-limit-to-plasmid-transmission
#14
Alvaro San Millan, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids mediate the horizontal transmission of genetic information between bacteria, facilitating their adaptation to multiple environmental conditions. An especially important example of the ability of plasmids to catalyze bacterial adaptation and evolution is their instrumental role in the global spread of antibiotic resistance, which constitutes a major threat to public health. Plasmids provide bacteria with new adaptive tools, but they also entail a metabolic burden that, in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits, reduces the competitiveness of the plasmid-carrying clone...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936948/control-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-defined-microbial-communities
#15
James Collins, Jennifer M Auchtung
Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent combating almost half a million Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and trying to reduce the ∼29,000 patient deaths in which C. difficile has an attributed role. In Europe, disease prevalence varies by country and level of surveillance, though yearly costs are estimated at €3 billion. One factor contributing to the significant health care burden of C. difficile is the relatively high frequency of recurrent CDIs. Recurrent CDI, i.e., a second episode of symptomatic CDI occurring within 8 weeks of successful initial CDI treatment, occurs in ∼25% of patients, with 35 to 65% of these patients experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936946/genetic-tools-for-the-enhancement-of-probiotic-properties
#16
Laura Ortiz-Velez, Robert Britton
The Lactobacillus genus is a diverse group of microorganisms, many of which are of industrial and medical relevance. Several Lactobacillus species have been used as probiotics, organisms that when present in sufficient quantities confer a health benefit to the host. A significant limitation to the mechanistic understanding of how these microbes provide health benefits to their hosts and how they can be used as therapeutic delivery systems has been the lack of genetic strategies to efficiently manipulate their genomes...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936945/sources-of-fungal-genetic-variation-and-associating-it-with-phenotypic-diversity
#17
John W Taylor, Sara Branco, Cheng Gao, Chris Hann-Soden, Liliam Montoya, Iman Sylvain, Pierre Gladieux
The first eukaryotic genome to be sequenced was fungal, and there continue to be more sequenced genomes in the kingdom Fungi than in any other eukaryotic kingdom. Comparison of these genomes reveals many sources of genetic variation, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to horizontal gene transfer and on to changes in the arrangement and number of chromosomes, not to mention endofungal bacteria and viruses. Population genomics shows that all sources generate variation all the time and implicate natural selection as the force maintaining genome stability...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936944/bacterial-endosymbionts-master-modulators-of-fungal-phenotypes
#18
Sarah J Araldi-Brondolo, Joseph Spraker, Justin P Shaffer, Emma H Woytenko, David A Baltrus, Rachel E Gallery, A Elizabeth Arnold
The ecological modes of fungi are shaped not only by their intrinsic features and the environment in which they occur, but also by their interactions with diverse microbes. Here we explore the ecological and genomic features of diverse bacterial endosymbionts-endohyphal bacteria-that together are emerging as major determinants of fungal phenotypes and plant-fungi interactions. We first provide a historical perspective on the study of endohyphal bacteria. We then propose a functional classification of three main groups, providing an overview of their genomic, phylogenetic, and ecological traits...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936943/modulation-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-with-nondigestible-fermentable-carbohydrates-to-improve-human-health
#19
Edward C Deehan, Rebbeca M Duar, Anissa M Armet, Maria Elisa Perez-Muñoz, Mingliang Jin, Jens Walter
There is a clear association between the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome and the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases, providing a rationale for the development of strategies that target the GI microbiota to improve human health. In this article, we discuss the potential of supplementing the human diet with nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates (NDFCs) to modulate the composition, structure, diversity, and metabolic potential of the GI microbiome in an attempt to prevent or treat human disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917057/the-fungal-tree-of-life-from-molecular-systematics-to-genome-scale-phylogenies
#20
Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Jason E Stajich, Meredith Blackwell
The kingdom Fungi is one of the more diverse clades of eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide numerous ecological services ranging from decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling to beneficial and antagonistic associations with plants and animals. The evolutionary relationships of the kingdom have represented some of the more recalcitrant problems in systematics and phylogenetics. The advent of molecular phylogenetics, and more recently phylogenomics, has greatly advanced our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with fungal evolution, however...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
journal
journal
48942
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"