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Microbiology Spectrum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597826/pathology-of-tuberculosis-how-the-pathology-of-human-tuberculosis-informs-and-directs-animal-models
#1
Randall J Basaraba, Robert L Hunter
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A wide variety of host- and pathogen-associated variables influence the clinical manifestation of TB in different individuals within the human population. As a consequence, the characteristic granulomatous lesions that develop within the lung are heterogeneous in size and cellular composition. Due to the lack of appropriate tissues from human TB patients, a variety of animal models are used as surrogates to study the basic pathogenesis and to test experimental vaccines and new drug therapies...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597825/fungal-sex-the-basidiomycota
#2
Marco A Coelho, Guus Bakkeren, Sheng Sun, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597824/mycobacterial-biofilms-revisiting-tuberculosis-bacilli-in-extracellular-necrotizing-lesions
#3
Randall J Basaraba, Anil K Ojha
Under detergent-free in vitro conditions, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis in humans, spontaneously forms organized multicellular structures called biofilms. Moreover, in vitro biofilms of M. tuberculosis are more persistent against antibiotics than their single-cell planktonic counterparts, thereby raising questions about the occurrence of biofilms in the host tissues and their significance in persistence during chemotherapy of tuberculosis. In this article, we present arguments that extracellular M...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597823/made-for-each-other-ascomycete-yeasts-and-insects
#4
Meredith Blackwell
Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#5
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597821/the-mycobiome-impact-on-health-and-disease-states
#6
Najla El-Jurdi, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
The term "microbiome" refers to microorganisms (microbiota) and their genomes (metagenome) coexisting with their hosts. Some researchers coined the term "second genome" to underscore the importance of the microbiota and its collective metagenome on their host's health and/or disease. It is now undeniable that the commensal fungal microorganisms, alongside the other components of the microbiota, play a central role in association with the human host. In recognition, projects were launched nationally and internationally to unify efforts to characterize the microbiome and elucidate the functional role of the microbiota and the mechanism(s) by which these organisms and their metabolites (metabolome) may affect health and disease states...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597820/oxidative-phosphorylation-as-a-target-space-for-tuberculosis-success-caution-and-future-directions
#7
Gregory M Cook, Kiel Hards, Elyse Dunn, Adam Heikal, Yoshio Nakatani, Chris Greening, Dean C Crick, Fabio L Fontes, Kevin Pethe, Erik Hasenoehrl, Michael Berney
The emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens, and our inability to develop new antimicrobials to combat resistance, have inspired scientists to seek out new targets for drug development. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a group of obligately aerobic bacteria that have specialized for inhabiting a wide range of intracellular and extracellular environments. Two fundamental features in this adaptation are the flexible utilization of energy sources and continued metabolism in the absence of growth...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597816/sex-and-the-imperfect-fungi
#8
Paul S Dyer, Ulrich Kück
Approximately 20% of species in the fungal kingdom are only known to reproduce by asexual means despite the many supposed advantages of sexual reproduction. However, in recent years, sexual cycles have been induced in a series of emblematic "asexual" species. We describe how these discoveries were made, building on observations of evidence for sexual potential or "cryptic sexuality" from population genetic analyses; the presence, distribution, and functionality of mating-type genes; genome analyses revealing the presence of genes linked to sexuality; the functionality of sex-related genes; and formation of sex-related developmental structures...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597814/killing-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-vitro-what-model-systems-can-teach-us
#9
Tracy L Keiser, Georgiana E Purdy
Tuberculosis is one of the most successful human diseases in our history due in large part to the multitude of virulence factors exhibited by the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Understanding the pathogenic nuances of this organism in the context of its human host is an ongoing topic of study facilitated by isolating cells from model organisms such as mice and non-human primates. However, M. tuberculosis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, and disease progression and outcome in these model systems can differ from that of human disease...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597813/therapeutic-opportunities-in-the-vaginal-microbiome
#10
Gregor Reid
The reproductive tract of females lies at the core of humanity. The immensely complex process that leads to successful reproduction is miraculous yet invariably successful. Microorganisms have always been a cause for concern for their ability to infect this region, yet it is other, nonpathogenic microbial constituents now uncovered by sequencing technologies that offer hope for improving health. The universality of Lactobacillus species being associated with health is the basis for therapeutic opportunities, including through engineered strains...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597812/microbial-impact-on-host-metabolism-opportunities-for-novel-treatments-of-nutritional-disorders
#11
Hubert Plovier, Patrice D Cani
Malnutrition is the cause of major public health concerns worldwide. On the one hand, obesity and associated pathologies (also known as the metabolic syndrome) affect more than 10% of the world population. Such pathologies might arise from an elevated inflammatory tone. We have discovered that the inflammatory properties of high-fat diets were linked to the translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We proposed a mechanism associating the gut microbiota with the onset of insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, a phenomenon that we called "metabolic endotoxemia...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597811/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-the-face-of-host-imposed-nutrient-limitation
#12
Michael Berney, Linda Berney-Meyer
Coevolution of pathogens and host has led to many metabolic strategies employed by intracellular pathogens to deal with the immune response and the scarcity of food during infection. Simply put, bacterial pathogens are just looking for food. As a consequence, the host has developed strategies to limit nutrients for the bacterium by containment of the intruder in a pathogen-containing vacuole and/or by actively depleting nutrients from the intracellular space, a process called nutritional immunity. Since metabolism is a prerequisite for virulence, such pathways could potentially be good targets for antimicrobial therapies...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597810/fungi-as-a-source-of-food
#13
Joëlle Dupont, Sylvie Dequin, Tatiana Giraud, François Le Tacon, Souhir Marsit, Jeanne Ropars, Franck Richard, Marc-André Selosse
In this article, we review some of the best-studied fungi used as food sources, in particular, the cheese fungi, the truffles, and the fungi used for drink fermentation such as beer, wine, and sake. We discuss their history of consumption by humans and the genomic mechanisms of adaptation during artificial selection.
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527182/water-for-agriculture-the-convergence-of-sustainability-and-safety
#14
Sarah M Markland, David Ingram, Kalmia E Kniel, Manan Sharma
Agricultural water is a precious and limited resource. Increasingly more water types and sources are being explored for use in irrigation within the United States and across the globe. As outlined in this chapter, the Produce Safety Rule (PSR) in the Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) provide irrigation water standards for application of water to fruits and vegetables consumed raw. These rules for production and use of water will continue to develop and be required as the world experiences aspects of a changing climate including flooding as well as drought conditions...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#15
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524023/the-mycelium-as-a-network
#16
Mark D Fricker, Luke L M Heaton, Nick S Jones, Lynne Boddy
The characteristic growth pattern of fungal mycelia as an interconnected network has a major impact on how cellular events operating on a micron scale affect colony behavior at an ecological scale. Network structure is intimately linked to flows of resources across the network that in turn modify the network architecture itself. This complex interplay shapes the incredibly plastic behavior of fungi and allows them to cope with patchy, ephemeral resources, competition, damage, and predation in a manner completely different from multicellular plants or animals...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513416/the-role-of-esx-1-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pathogenesis
#17
Ka-Wing Wong
In this article, we have described several cellular pathological effects caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-1. The effects include induction of necrosis, NOD2 signaling, type I interferon production, and autophagy. We then attempted to suggest that these pathological effects are mediated by the cytosolic access of M. tuberculosis-derived materials as a result of the phagosome-disrupting activity of the major ESX-1 substrate ESAT-6. Such activity of ESAT-6 is most likely due to its pore-forming activity at the membrane...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513415/the-fungal-cell-wall-structure-biosynthesis-and-function
#18
Neil A R Gow, Jean-Paul Latge, Carol A Munro
The molecular composition of the cell wall is critical for the biology and ecology of each fungal species. Fungal walls are composed of matrix components that are embedded and linked to scaffolds of fibrous load-bearing polysaccharides. Most of the major cell wall components of fungal pathogens are not represented in humans, other mammals, or plants, and therefore the immune systems of animals and plants have evolved to recognize many of the conserved elements of fungal walls. For similar reasons the enzymes that assemble fungal cell wall components are excellent targets for antifungal chemotherapies and fungicides...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452296/forensic-approaches-to-detect-possible-agents-of-bioterror
#19
Alfredo A González, Jessica I Rivera-Pérez, Gary A Toranzos
Many biological agents have been strategic pathogenic agents throughout history. Some have even changed history as a consequence of early discoveries of their use as weapons of war. Many of these bioagents can be easily isolated from the environment, and some have recently been genetically manipulated to become more pathogenic for biowarfare. However, it is difficult to determine accidental outbreaks of disease from intentional exposures. In this review, we examine how molecular tools have been used in combination with forensic research to resolve cases of unusual outbreaks and trace the source of the biocrime...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#20
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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