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Microbiology Spectrum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052539/engineering-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-gut-bacteria
#1
Brian P Landry, Jeffrey J Tabor
Genetically engineered bacteria have the potential to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases linked to the gastrointestinal tract, or gut. Such engineered microbes will be less expensive and invasive than current diagnostics and more effective and safe than current therapeutics. Recent advances in synthetic biology have dramatically improved the reliability with which bacteria can be engineered with the sensors, genetic circuits, and output (actuator) genes necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic functions...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052538/antimicrobial-resistance-in-rhodococcus-equi
#2
Steeve Giguère, Londa J Berghaus, Jennifer M Willingham-Lane
Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi remains an important cause of disease and death in foals. The combination of a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin) with rifampin has been the recommended treatment for foals with clinical signs of infection caused by R. equi since the early 1980s with, until recently, only rare reports of resistance. Resistance to macrolides and rifampin in isolates of R. equi cultured from horses is increasing, with isolates resistant to all macrolides and rifampin now being cultured from up to 40% of infected foals at some farms...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027519/transmission-in-the-origins-of-bacterial-diversity-from-ecotypes-to-phyla
#3
Frederick M Cohan
Any two lineages, no matter how distant they are now, began their divergence as one population splitting into two lineages that could coexist indefinitely. The rate of origin of higher-level taxa is therefore the product of the rate of speciation times the probability that two new species coexist long enough to reach a particular level of divergence. Here I have explored these two parameters of disparification in bacteria. Owing to low recombination rates, sexual isolation is not a necessary milestone of bacterial speciation...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984235/biochemical-features-of-beneficial-microbes-foundations-for-therapeutic-microbiology
#4
Melinda A Engevik, James Versalovic
Commensal and beneficial microbes secrete myriad products which target the mammalian host and other microbes. These secreted substances aid in bacterial niche development, and select compounds beneficially modulate the host and promote health. Microbes produce unique compounds which can serve as signaling factors to the host, such as biogenic amine neuromodulators, or quorum-sensing molecules to facilitate inter-bacterial communication. Bacterial metabolites can also participate in functional enhancement of host metabolic capabilities, immunoregulation, and improvement of intestinal barrier function...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975881/u-s-regulatory-considerations-for-development-of-live-biotherapeutic-products-as-drugs
#5
Sheila M Dreher-Lesnick, Scott Stibitz, Paul E Carlson
Interest in the use of bacteria-containing products for the treatment or prevention of disease has increased in recent years. Bacterial preparations for human consumption are commercially available in the form of dietary supplements and typically contain strains with a history of use in food fermentation. Advances in our understanding of the role of the microbiota in health and disease are likely to lead to development of products containing more novel bacterial species, along with genetic modification of strains to provide specific functions...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959937/genome-editing-of-food-grade-lactobacilli-to-develop-therapeutic-probiotics
#6
Jan-Peter van Pijkeren, Rodolphe Barrangou
Lactic acid bacteria have been used historically for food manufacturing mainly to ensure preservation via fermentation. More recently, lactic acid bacteria have been exploited to promote human health, and many strains serve as industrial workhorses. Recent advances in microbiology and molecular biology have contributed to understanding the genetic basis of many of their functional attributes. These include dissection of biochemical processes that drive food fermentation, and identification and characterization of health-promoting features that positively impact the composition and roles of microbiomes in human health...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959936/use-of-traditional-and-genetically-modified-probiotics-in-human-health-what-does-the-future-hold
#7
Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Philippe Langella
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer benefits to human health when administered in adequate amounts. Among the frequent proposed health benefits attributed to probiotics, their ability to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Although history has revealed that probiotics were part of fermented foods in the past, clinicians have started to use them therapeutically in regular diets. Moreover, the use of genetically modified probiotics to deliver molecules of therapeutic interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944751/fitness-costs-of-plasmids-a-limit-to-plasmid-transmission
#8
Alvaro San Millan, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids mediate the horizontal transmission of genetic information between bacteria, facilitating their adaptation to multiple environmental conditions. An especially important example of the ability of plasmids to catalyze bacterial adaptation and evolution is their instrumental role in the global spread of antibiotic resistance, which constitutes a major threat to public health. Plasmids provide bacteria with new adaptive tools, but they also entail a metabolic burden that, in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits, reduces the competitiveness of the plasmid-carrying clone...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936948/control-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-defined-microbial-communities
#9
James Collins, Jennifer M Auchtung
Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent combating almost half a million Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and trying to reduce the ∼29,000 patient deaths in which C. difficile has an attributed role. In Europe, disease prevalence varies by country and level of surveillance, though yearly costs are estimated at €3 billion. One factor contributing to the significant health care burden of C. difficile is the relatively high frequency of recurrent CDIs. Recurrent CDI, i.e., a second episode of symptomatic CDI occurring within 8 weeks of successful initial CDI treatment, occurs in ∼25% of patients, with 35 to 65% of these patients experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936946/genetic-tools-for-the-enhancement-of-probiotic-properties
#10
Laura Ortiz-Velez, Robert Britton
The Lactobacillus genus is a diverse group of microorganisms, many of which are of industrial and medical relevance. Several Lactobacillus species have been used as probiotics, organisms that when present in sufficient quantities confer a health benefit to the host. A significant limitation to the mechanistic understanding of how these microbes provide health benefits to their hosts and how they can be used as therapeutic delivery systems has been the lack of genetic strategies to efficiently manipulate their genomes...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936945/sources-of-fungal-genetic-variation-and-associating-it-with-phenotypic-diversity
#11
John W Taylor, Sara Branco, Cheng Gao, Chris Hann-Soden, Liliam Montoya, Iman Sylvain, Pierre Gladieux
The first eukaryotic genome to be sequenced was fungal, and there continue to be more sequenced genomes in the kingdom Fungi than in any other eukaryotic kingdom. Comparison of these genomes reveals many sources of genetic variation, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to horizontal gene transfer and on to changes in the arrangement and number of chromosomes, not to mention endofungal bacteria and viruses. Population genomics shows that all sources generate variation all the time and implicate natural selection as the force maintaining genome stability...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936944/bacterial-endosymbionts-master-modulators-of-fungal-phenotypes
#12
Sarah J Araldi-Brondolo, Joseph Spraker, Justin P Shaffer, Emma H Woytenko, David A Baltrus, Rachel E Gallery, A Elizabeth Arnold
The ecological modes of fungi are shaped not only by their intrinsic features and the environment in which they occur, but also by their interactions with diverse microbes. Here we explore the ecological and genomic features of diverse bacterial endosymbionts-endohyphal bacteria-that together are emerging as major determinants of fungal phenotypes and plant-fungi interactions. We first provide a historical perspective on the study of endohyphal bacteria. We then propose a functional classification of three main groups, providing an overview of their genomic, phylogenetic, and ecological traits...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936943/modulation-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-with-nondigestible-fermentable-carbohydrates-to-improve-human-health
#13
Edward C Deehan, Rebbeca M Duar, Anissa M Armet, Maria Elisa Perez-Muñoz, Mingliang Jin, Jens Walter
There is a clear association between the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome and the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases, providing a rationale for the development of strategies that target the GI microbiota to improve human health. In this article, we discuss the potential of supplementing the human diet with nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates (NDFCs) to modulate the composition, structure, diversity, and metabolic potential of the GI microbiome in an attempt to prevent or treat human disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917057/the-fungal-tree-of-life-from-molecular-systematics-to-genome-scale-phylogenies
#14
Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Jason E Stajich, Meredith Blackwell
The kingdom Fungi is one of the more diverse clades of eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide numerous ecological services ranging from decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling to beneficial and antagonistic associations with plants and animals. The evolutionary relationships of the kingdom have represented some of the more recalcitrant problems in systematics and phylogenetics. The advent of molecular phylogenetics, and more recently phylogenomics, has greatly advanced our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with fungal evolution, however...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884670/basic-processes-in-salmonella-host-interactions-within-host-evolution-and-the-transmission-of-the-virulent-genotype
#15
Médéric Diard, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Transmission and virulence are central aspects of pathogen evolution. However, in many cases their interconnection has proven difficult to assess by experimentation. Here we discuss recent advances from a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea. Mouse models mimic the enhanced susceptibility of antibiotic-treated individuals to nontyphoidal salmonellosis. In streptomycin-pretreated mice, Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium efficiently colonizes the gut lumen and elicits pronounced enteropathy. In the host's gut, S...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840820/ecological-therapeutic-opportunities-for-oral-diseases
#16
Anilei Hoare, Philip D Marsh, Patricia I Diaz
The three main oral diseases of humans, that is, caries, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review, we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840819/the-potential-of-probiotics-as-a-therapy-for-osteoporosis
#17
Fraser L Collins, Naiomy D Rios-Arce, Jonathan D Schepper, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue with increased risk of fracture, can be categorized into two forms: primary and secondary, depending on whether it occurs as part of the natural aging process (estrogen deficiency) or as part of disease pathology. In both forms bone loss is due to an imbalance in the bone remodeling process, with resorption/formation skewed more toward bone loss. Recent studies and emerging evidence consistently demonstrate the potential of the intestinal microbiota to modulate bone health...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840811/bacteriophage-clinical-use-as-antibacterial-drugs-utility-and-precedent
#18
Stephen T Abedon
For phage therapy-the treatment of bacterial infections using bacterial viruses-a key issue is the conflict between apparent ease of clinical application, on the one hand, and on the other hand, numerous difficulties that can be associated with undertaking preclinical development. These conflicts between achieving efficacy in the real world versus rigorously understanding that efficacy should not be surprising because equivalent conflicts have been observed in applied biology for millennia: exploiting the inherent, holistic tendencies of useful systems, e...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840809/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapeutic-potential-for-a-multitude-of-diseases-beyond-clostridium-difficile
#19
Guido J Bakker, Max Nieuwdorp
The human intestinal tract contains trillions of bacteria, collectively called the gut microbiota. Recent insights have linked the gut microbiota to a plethora of diseases, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently tested as a therapeutic option in various diseases and can also help to dissect association from causality with respect to gut microbiota and disease...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840806/microbiota-liver-diseases-and-alcohol
#20
Anne-Marie Cassard, Philippe Gérard, Gabriel Perlemuter
Being overweight and obesity are the leading causes of liver disease in Western countries. Liver damage induced by being overweight can range from steatosis, harmless in its simple form, to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol consumption is an additional major cause of liver disease. Not all individuals who are overweight or excessively consume alcohol develop nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and advanced liver disease. The role of the intestinal microbiota (IM) in the susceptibility to liver disease in this context has been the subject of recent studies...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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