journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Microbiology Spectrum

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917057/the-fungal-tree-of-life-from-molecular-systematics-to-genome-scale-phylogenies
#1
Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Jason E Stajich, Meredith Blackwell
The kingdom Fungi is one of the more diverse clades of eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide numerous ecological services ranging from decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling to beneficial and antagonistic associations with plants and animals. The evolutionary relationships of the kingdom have represented some of the more recalcitrant problems in systematics and phylogenetics. The advent of molecular phylogenetics, and more recently phylogenomics, has greatly advanced our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with fungal evolution, however...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884670/basic-processes-in-salmonella-host-interactions-within-host-evolution-and-the-transmission-of-the-virulent-genotype
#2
Médéric Diard, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Transmission and virulence are central aspects of pathogen evolution. However, in many cases their interconnection has proven difficult to assess by experimentation. Here we discuss recent advances from a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea. Mouse models mimic the enhanced susceptibility of antibiotic-treated individuals to nontyphoidal salmonellosis. In streptomycin-pretreated mice, Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium efficiently colonizes the gut lumen and elicits pronounced enteropathy. In the host's gut, S...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840820/ecological-therapeutic-opportunities-for-oral-diseases
#3
Anilei Hoare, Philip D Marsh, Patricia I Diaz
The three main oral diseases of humans, that is, caries, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review, we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840819/the-potential-of-probiotics-as-a-therapy-for-osteoporosis
#4
Fraser L Collins, Naiomy D Rios-Arce, Jonathan D Schepper, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue with increased risk of fracture, can be categorized into two forms: primary and secondary, depending on whether it occurs as part of the natural aging process (estrogen deficiency) or as part of disease pathology. In both forms bone loss is due to an imbalance in the bone remodeling process, with resorption/formation skewed more toward bone loss. Recent studies and emerging evidence consistently demonstrate the potential of the intestinal microbiota to modulate bone health...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840811/bacteriophage-clinical-use-as-antibacterial-drugs-utility-and-precedent
#5
Stephen T Abedon
For phage therapy-the treatment of bacterial infections using bacterial viruses-a key issue is the conflict between apparent ease of clinical application, on the one hand, and on the other hand, numerous difficulties that can be associated with undertaking preclinical development. These conflicts between achieving efficacy in the real world versus rigorously understanding that efficacy should not be surprising because equivalent conflicts have been observed in applied biology for millennia: exploiting the inherent, holistic tendencies of useful systems, e...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840809/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapeutic-potential-for-a-multitude-of-diseases-beyond-clostridium-difficile
#6
Guido J Bakker, Max Nieuwdorp
The human intestinal tract contains trillions of bacteria, collectively called the gut microbiota. Recent insights have linked the gut microbiota to a plethora of diseases, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently tested as a therapeutic option in various diseases and can also help to dissect association from causality with respect to gut microbiota and disease...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840806/microbiota-liver-diseases-and-alcohol
#7
Anne-Marie Cassard, Philippe Gérard, Gabriel Perlemuter
Being overweight and obesity are the leading causes of liver disease in Western countries. Liver damage induced by being overweight can range from steatosis, harmless in its simple form, to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol consumption is an additional major cause of liver disease. Not all individuals who are overweight or excessively consume alcohol develop nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and advanced liver disease. The role of the intestinal microbiota (IM) in the susceptibility to liver disease in this context has been the subject of recent studies...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820125/fungal-genomes-and-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-kingdom
#8
Jason E Stajich
The kingdom Fungi comprises species that inhabit nearly all ecosystems. Fungi exist as both free-living and symbiotic unicellular and multicellular organisms with diverse morphologies. The genomes of fungi encode genes that enable them to thrive in diverse environments, invade plant and animal cells, and participate in nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The continuously expanding databases of fungal genome sequences have been generated by individual and large-scale efforts such as Génolevures, Broad Institute's Fungal Genome Initiative, and the 1000 Fungal Genomes Project (http://1000...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#9
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812540/quantifying-transmission
#10
Mark Woolhouse
Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752818/fungal-diversity-revisited-2-2-to-3-8-million-species
#11
David L Hawksworth, Robert Lücking
The question of how many species of Fungi there are has occasioned much speculation, with figures mostly posited from around half a million to 10 million, and in one extreme case even a sizable portion of the spectacular number of 1 trillion. Here we examine new evidence from various sources to derive an updated estimate of global fungal diversity. The rates and patterns in the description of new species from the 1750s show no sign of approaching an asymptote and even accelerated in the 2010s after the advent of molecular approaches to species delimitation...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752817/selection-and-transmission-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#12
Dan I Andersson, Diarmaid Hughes
Ever since antibiotics were introduced into human and veterinary medicine to treat and prevent bacterial infections there has been a steady selection and increase in the frequency of antibiotic resistant bacteria. To be able to reduce the rate of resistance evolution, we need to understand how various biotic and abiotic factors interact to drive the complex processes of resistance emergence and transmission. We describe several of the fundamental factors that underlay resistance evolution, including rates and niches of emergence and persistence of resistant bacteria, time- and space-gradients of various selective agents, and rates and routes of transmission of resistant bacteria between humans, animals and other environments...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752816/ploidy-variation-in-fungi-polyploidy-aneuploidy-and-genome-evolution
#13
Robert T Todd, Anja Forche, Anna Selmecki
The ability of an organism to replicate and segregate its genome with high fidelity is vital to its survival and for the production of future generations. Errors in either of these steps (replication or segregation) can lead to a change in ploidy or chromosome number. While these drastic genome changes can be detrimental to the organism, resulting in decreased fitness, they can also provide increased fitness during periods of stress. A change in ploidy or chromosome number can fundamentally change how a cell senses and responds to its environment...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752815/regulatory-issues-associated-with-preharvest-food-safety-united-states-perspective
#14
Shirley A Micallef, Robert L Buchanan
The preharvest and preslaughter steps of food production constitute a first stage at which food can become contaminated with foodborne and toxigenic pathogens. Contamination at this early stage of food production can lead to amplification as food travels through the production and supply chain, accentuating the crucial need to address hazards and establish science-based metrics that are feasible to implement. This article discusses the preharvest food safety regulatory landscape in the United States, with a specific emphasis on fresh produce crops...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752814/a-matter-of-scale-and-dimensions-chromatin-of-chromosome-landmarks-in-the-fungi
#15
Allyson A Erlendson, Steven Friedman, Michael Freitag
Chromatin and chromosomes of fungi are highly diverse and dynamic, even within species. Much of what we know about histone modification enzymes, RNA interference, DNA methylation, and cell cycle control was first addressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus nidulans, and Neurospora crassa. Here, we examine the three landmark regions that are required for maintenance of stable chromosomes and their faithful inheritance, namely, origins of DNA replication, telomeres and centromeres...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752813/fungal-recognition-and-host-defense-mechanisms
#16
I M Dambuza, S M Levitz, M G Netea, G D Brown
Fungi have emerged as premier opportunistic microbes of the 21st century, having a considerable impact on human morbidity and mortality. The huge increase in incidence of these diseases is largely due to the HIV pandemic and use of immunosuppressive therapies, underscoring the importance of the immune system in defense against fungi. This article will address how the mammalian immune system recognizes and mounts a defense against medically relevant fungal species.
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730976/salmonella-intracellular-lifestyles-and-their-impact-on-host-to-host-transmission
#17
M Graciela Pucciarelli, Francisco García-Del Portillo
More than a century ago, infections by Salmonella were already associated with foodborne enteric diseases with high morbidity in humans and cattle. Intestinal inflammation and diarrhea are hallmarks of infections caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, and these pathologies facilitate pathogen transmission to the environment. In those early times, physicians and microbiologists also realized that typhoid and paratyphoid fever caused by some Salmonella serovars could be transmitted by "carriers," individuals outwardly healthy or at most suffering from some minor chronic complaint...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721857/stress-adaptation
#18
Alistair J P Brown, Leah E Cowen, Antonio di Pietro, Janet Quinn
Fungal species display an extraordinarily diverse range of lifestyles. Nevertheless, the survival of each species depends on its ability to sense and respond to changes in its natural environment. Environmental changes such as fluctuations in temperature, water balance or pH, or exposure to chemical insults such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species exert stresses that perturb cellular homeostasis and cause molecular damage to the fungal cell. Consequently, fungi have evolved mechanisms to repair this damage, detoxify chemical insults, and restore cellular homeostasis...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721856/repeat-induced-point-mutation-and-other-genome-defense-mechanisms-in-fungi
#19
Eugene Gladyshev
Transposable elements have colonized the genomes of nearly all organisms, including fungi. Although transposable elements may sometimes provide beneficial functions to their hosts their overall impact is considered deleterious. As a result, the activity of transposable elements needs to be counterbalanced by the host genome defenses. In fungi, the primary genome defense mechanisms include repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) and methylation induced premeiotically, meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, sex-induced silencing, cosuppression (also known as somatic quelling), and cotranscriptional RNA surveillance...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721846/skin-fungi-from-colonization-to-infection
#20
Sybren de Hoog, Michel Monod, Tom Dawson, Teun Boekhout, Peter Mayser, Yvonne Gräser
Humans are exceptional among vertebrates in that their living tissue is directly exposed to the outside world. In the absence of protective scales, feathers, or fur, the skin has to be highly effective in defending the organism against the gamut of opportunistic fungi surrounding us. Most (sub)cutaneous infections enter the body by implantation through the skin barrier. On intact skin, two types of fungal expansion are noted: (A) colonization by commensals, i.e., growth enabled by conditions prevailing on the skin surface without degradation of tissue, and (B) infection by superficial pathogens that assimilate epidermal keratin and interact with the cellular immune system...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
journal
journal
48942
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"