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Microbiology Spectrum

Pardeepinder K Brar, Michelle D Danyluk
Low-water-activity foods have been involved in recalls and foodborne disease outbreaks. Increased consumption; better detection methods and reporting systems; improved surveillance, trace-back, and ability to connect sporadic foodborne illnesses; and inadequate implementation of food safety programs are some of the likely reasons for the increase in frequency of recalls and outbreaks linked to dry foods. Nuts and grains can be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at any stage during production, processing, storage, and distribution...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Eduardo Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Achyut Adhikari
Advancements in agriculture and food processing techniques have been instrumental in the development of modern human societies. Vast improvements in agronomic practices, handling, and processing have allowed us to produce and preserve mass quantities of food. Yet despite all these innovations and potentially as a consequence of these mass production practices, more and more outbreaks of human pathogens linked to raw and processed foods are identified every year. It is evident that our increased capacity for microbial detection has contributed to the greater number of outbreaks detected...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Katarzyna J Bandyra, Ben F Luisi
The bacterial endoribonuclease RNase E occupies a pivotal position in the control of gene expression, as its actions either commit transcripts to an irreversible fate of rapid destruction or unveil their hidden functions through specific processing. Moreover, the enzyme contributes to quality control of rRNAs. The activity of RNase E can be directed and modulated by signals provided through regulatory RNAs that guide the enzyme to specific transcripts that are to be silenced. Early in its evolutionary history, RNase E acquired a natively unfolded appendage that recruits accessory proteins and RNA...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Christopher Rensing, Arshnee Moodley, Lina M Cavaco, Sylvia Franke McDevitt
Metals and metalloids have been used alongside antibiotics in livestock production for a long time. The potential and acute negative impact on the environment and human health of these livestock feed supplements has prompted lawmakers to ban or discourage the use of some or all of these supplements. This article provides an overview of current use in the European Union and the United States, detected metal resistance determinants, and the proteins and mechanisms responsible for conferring copper and zinc resistance in bacteria...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Bijoy K Mohanty, Sidney R Kushner
Gene expression in Gram-negative bacteria is regulated at many levels, including transcription initiation, RNA processing, RNA/RNA interactions, mRNA decay, and translational controls involving enzymes that alter translational efficiency. In this review, we discuss the various enzymes that control transcription, translation, and RNA stability through RNA processing and degradation. RNA processing is essential to generate functional RNAs, while degradation helps control the steady-state level of each individual transcript...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Patrick R Wright, Martin Mann, Rolf Backofen
Many years of research in RNA biology have soundly established the importance of RNA-based regulation far beyond most early traditional presumptions. Importantly, the advances in "wet" laboratory techniques have produced unprecedented amounts of data that require efficient and precise computational analysis schemes and algorithms. Hence, many in silico methods that attempt topological and functional classification of novel putative RNA-based regulators are available. In this review, we technically outline thermodynamics-based standard RNA secondary structure and RNA-RNA interaction prediction approaches that have proven valuable to the RNA research community in the past and present...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Jean-Yves Maillard
Biocides and formulated biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to biocides have increased the past few years...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Benjamin Chapman, Chris Gunter
Foodborne disease causes an estimated 48 million illnesses and 3,000 deaths annually (Scallan E, et al., Emerg Infect Dis 17:7-15, 2011), with U.S. economic costs estimated at $152 billion to $1.4 trillion annually (Roberts T, Am J Agric Econ 89:1183-1188, 2007; Scharff RL,, 2010). An increasing number of these illnesses are associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. An analysis of outbreaks from 1990 to 2003 found that 12% of outbreaks and 20% of outbreak-related illnesses were associated with produce (Klein S, Smith DeWaal CS, Center for Science in the Public Interest, https://cspinet...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Sylvain Durand, Ciaran Condon
RNases are key enzymes involved in RNA maturation and degradation. Although they play a crucial role in all domains of life, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes have evolved with their own sets of RNases and proteins modulating their activities. In bacteria, these enzymes allow modulation of gene expression to adapt to rapidly changing environments. Today, >20 RNases have been identified in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , the paradigms of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Chloé Vigliotti, Cédric Bicep, Eric Bapteste, Philippe Lopez, Eduardo Corel
Understanding how an animal organism and its gut microbes form an integrated biological organization, known as a holobiont, is becoming a central issue in biological studies. Such an organization inevitably involves a complex web of transmission processes that occur on different scales in time and space, across microbes and hosts. Network-based models are introduced in this chapter to tackle aspects of this complexity and to better take into account vertical and horizontal dimensions of transmission. Two types of network-based models are presented, sequence similarity networks and bipartite graphs...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Daisy Vanrompay, Thi Loan Anh Nguyen, Sally J Cutler, Patrick Butaye
This article will provide current insights into antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance of an important group of bacterial pathogens that are not phylogenetically related but share lifestyle similarities in that they are generally considered to be obligate intracellular microbes. As such, there are shared challenges regarding methods for their detection and subsequent clinical management. Similarly, from the laboratory perspective, susceptibility testing is rarely undertaken, though molecular approaches might provide new insights...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Edmund Loh, Francesco Righetti, Hannes Eichner, Christian Twittenhoff, Franz Narberhaus
Temperature variation is one of the multiple parameters a microbial pathogen encounters when it invades a warm-blooded host. To survive and thrive at host body temperature, human pathogens have developed various strategies to sense and respond to their ambient temperature. An instantaneous response is mounted by RNA thermometers (RNATs), which are integral sensory structures in mRNAs that modulate translation efficiency. At low temperatures outside the host, the folded RNA blocks access of the ribosome to the translation initiation region...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen
Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and has become increasingly resistant to clinically important antimicrobials. To cope with the selection pressure from antimicrobial use in both veterinary and human medicine, Campylobacter has developed multiple mechanisms for antibiotic resistance, including modification or mutation of antimicrobial targets, modification or inactivation of antibiotics, and reduced drug accumulation by drug efflux pumps. Some of these mechanisms confer resistance to a specific class of antimicrobials, while others give rise to multidrug resistance...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
H Auguste Dutcher, Rahul Raghavan
Despite the central role of bacterial noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) in posttranscriptional regulation, little is understood about their evolution. Here we compile what has been studied to date and trace a life cycle of sRNAs-from their mechanisms of emergence, through processes of change and frequent neofunctionalization, to their loss from bacterial lineages. Because they possess relatively unrestrictive structural requirements, we find that sRNA origins are varied, and include de novo emergence as well as formation from preexisting genetic elements via duplication events and horizontal gene transfer...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Marisa Haenni, Agnese Lupo, Jean-Yves Madec
The genus Streptococcus includes Gram-positive organisms shaped in cocci and organized in chains. They are commensals, pathogens, and opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Most Streptococcus species of veterinary relevance have a specific ecological niche, such as S. uberis , which is almost exclusively an environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis. In contrast, S. suis can be considered as a true zoonotic pathogen, causing specific diseases in humans after contact with infected animals or derived food products...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Jeffrey L Watts, Michael T Sweeney, Brian V Lubbers
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is an essential tool to the veterinarian for selecting the most appropriate agent for treatment of bacterial diseases of animals. The availability of well-defined methods that incorporate the necessary quality controls coupled to clinical outcome data is foundational in providing relevant test results for clinical decisions. Since 1993, the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) Subcommittee on Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (VAST) has developed specific test methods and interpretive criteria for veterinary pathogens...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Scott A McEwen, Peter J Collignon
One Health is the collaborative effort of multiple health science professions to attain optimal health for people, domestic animals, wildlife, plants, and our environment. The drivers of antimicrobial resistance include antimicrobial use and abuse in human, animal, and environmental sectors and the spread of resistant bacteria and resistance determinants within and between these sectors and around the globe. Most of the classes of antimicrobials used to treat bacterial infections in humans are also used in animals...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Rafael Delgado, Fernando Simón
The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has been the largest ever of a known disease in a new context that produced an unprecedented impact and is changing the international approach to responding to public health emergencies. The unprecedented scale of the outbreak, the use of advanced technology for detecting and characterizing the infectious agent, along with the opportunity to treat patients in modern facilities have greatly increased our knowledge of the disease and its transmission. Also, for the first time, an important international effort has been deployed to control the spread of the epidemic by providing care to patients and by adopting basic measures of public health control...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Svetlana Durica-Mitic, Yvonne Göpel, Boris Görke
Survival of bacteria in ever-changing habitats with fluctuating nutrient supplies requires rapid adaptation of their metabolic capabilities. To this end, carbohydrate metabolism is governed by complex regulatory networks including posttranscriptional mechanisms that involve small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins. sRNAs limit the response to substrate availability and set the threshold or time required for induction and repression of carbohydrate utilization systems. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) also involves sRNAs...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Sylvia Chareyre, Pierre Mandin
While iron is essential to sustain growth, its excess can be detrimental to the cell by generating highly toxic reactive oxygen species. Regulation of iron homeostasis thus plays a vital role in almost all living organisms. During the last 15 years, the small RNA (sRNA) RyhB has been shown to be a key actor of iron homeostasis regulation in bacteria. Through multiple molecular mechanisms, RyhB represses expendable iron-utilizing proteins, promotes siderophore production, and coordinates Fe-S cluster cofactor biogenesis, thereby establishing a so-called iron-sparing response...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
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