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Microbiology Spectrum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233514/tuberculosis-of-the-liver-biliary-tract-and-pancreas
#1
G Shelton McMullan, James H Lewis
Tuberculosis of the liver, biliary tract, and pancreas is discussed. In addition, tuberculosis in the setting of HIV-AIDS and liver transplantation is explored. Drug-induced liver injury secondary to antituberculosis medication and monitoring and prophylactic treatment for such injury is also considered.
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233513/cutaneous-tuberculosis
#2
Michael K Hill, Charles V Sanders
Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) may present in various clinical manifestations. Skin involvement may occur as a result of exogenous inoculation, contiguous spread from a nearby focus of infection, or by hematogenous spread from a distant focus. Because the clinical presentation of cutaneous TB can vary widely, it is important to have a high index of suspicion in appropriate clinical settings. In this chapter, the various clinical manifestations of clinical TB are classified by source of infection (exogenous, endogenous, and hematogenous spread)...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233512/tuberculosis-associated-with-hiv-infection
#3
Jeffrey A Tornheim, Kelly E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) has recently surpassed HIV as the primary infectious disease killer worldwide, but the two diseases continue to display lethal synergy. The burden of TB is disproportionately borne by people living with HIV, particularly where HIV and poverty coexist. The impact of these diseases on one another is bidirectional, with HIV increasing risk of TB infection and disease progression and TB slowing CD4 recovery and increasing progression to AIDS and death among the HIV infected. Both antiretroviral therapy (ART) and latent TB infection (LTBI) treatment mitigate the impact of coinfection, and ART is now recommended for HIV-infected patients independent of CD4 count...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233511/environmental-microbial-forensics-and-archaeology-of-past-pandemics
#4
Antonio Fornaciari
The development of paleomicrobiology with new molecular techniques such as metagenomics is revolutionizing our knowledge of microbial evolution in human history. The study of microbial agents that are concomitantly active in the same biological environment makes it possible to obtain a picture of the complex interrelations among the different pathogens and gives us the perspective to understand the microecosystem of ancient times. This research acts as a bridge between disciplines such as archaeology, biology, and medicine, and the development of paleomicrobiology forces archaeology to broaden and update its methods...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233510/endocrine-and-metabolic-aspects-of-tuberculosis
#5
Christopher Vinnard, Emily A Blumberg
Endocrine and metabolic derangements are infrequent in patients with tuberculosis, but they are important when they occur. The basis for these abnormalities is complex. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been described to infect virtually every endocrine gland, the incidence of gland involvement is low, especially in the era of effective antituberculosis therapy. Furthermore, endocrine and metabolic abnormalities do not always reflect direct infection of the gland but may result from physiological response or as a consequence of therapy...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233509/targeting-phenotypically-tolerant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Ben Gold, Carl Nathan
While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185620/pulmonary-tuberculosis
#7
Sarah M Lyon, Milton D Rossman
This review on pulmonary tuberculosis includes an introduction that describes how the lung is the portal of entry for the tuberculosis bacilli to enter the body and then spread to the rest of the body. The symptoms and signs of both primary and reactivation tuberculosis are described. Routine laboratory tests are rarely helpful for making the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The differences between the chest X ray in primary and reactivation tuberculosis is also described. The chest computed tomography appearance in primary and reactivation tuberculosis is also described...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185619/diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Alfred A Lardizabal, Lee B Reichman
For 2015, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the United States has plateaued at 3.0 per 100,000. This remains the lowest case rate since recording started. On the global level, although the TB epidemic is larger than previously estimated, TB deaths and incidence rate continue to fall. For both low and high incidence countries, accelerating the decline in TB incidence towards elimination goals requires that more emphasis be placed on strengthening systems for detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) in addition to improving TB care globally...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185618/tuberculosis-a-world-health-organization-perspective
#9
Giovanni Sotgiu, Giorgia Sulis, Alberto Matteelli
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented and scaled-up three important global public health strategies (i.e., DOTS, Stop TB, and End TB) to improve the international scenario. Their epidemiological impact was relevant, as they decreased the number of potential new cases of disease and death. However, the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant TB have hindered the progress towards the elimination of TB by 2050...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#10
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185616/tuberculous-peritonitis
#11
Urvashi Vaid, Gregory C Kane
Tuberculous peritonitis is rare in the United States but continues to be reported to occur in certain high-risk populations, which include patients with AIDS or cirrhosis, patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, recent immigrants from areas of high endemicity, and those who are immunosuppressed. The diagnosis of this disease requires a high clinical index of suspicion and should be considered in the differential of ascites with a lymphocyte predominance and serum-ascitic albumin gradient of <1...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185614/current-status-of-the-preharvest-application-of-pro-and-prebiotics-to-farm-animals-to-enhance-the-microbial-safety-of-animal-products
#12
Rolf D Joerger, Arpeeta Ganguly
The selection of microorganisms that act as probiotics and feed additives that act as prebiotics is an ongoing research effort, but a sizable range of commercial pro-, pre- and synbiotic (combining pro- and prebiotics) products are already available and being used on farms. A survey of the composition of commercial products available in the United States revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis were the three most common species in probiotic products. Of the nearly 130 probiotic products (also called direct-fed microbials) for which information was available, about 50 also contained yeasts or molds...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185612/risks-associated-with-fish-and-seafood
#13
Sailaja Chintagari, Nicole Hazard, Genevieve Edwards, Ravi Jadeja, Marlene Janes
Fresh fish and seafood are highly perishable, and microbiological spoilage is one of the important factors that limit their shelf life and safety. Fresh seafood can be contaminated at any point from rearing or harvesting to processing to transport or due to cross-contamination by consumer mishandling at home. With the increase in the demand for fish and seafood, aquaculture production is increasing, which could lead to new risks that will need to be addressed in the future to control foodborne pathogens.
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155817/impact-of-the-genexpert-mtb-rif-technology-on-tuberculosis-control
#14
Wendy Susan Stevens, Lesley Scott, Lara Noble, Natasha Gous, Keertan Dheda
Molecular technology revolutionized the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) with a paradigm shift to faster, more sensitive, clinically relevant patient care. The most recent molecular leader is the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA), which was endorsed by the World Health Organization with unprecedented speed in December 2010 as the initial diagnostic for detection of HIV-associated TB and for where high rates of drug resistance are suspected. South Africa elected to take an aggressive smear replacement approach to facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment through the decision to implement the Xpert assay nationally in March 2011, against the backdrop of approximately 6...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155816/crisis-affected-populations-and-tuberculosis
#15
Dominik Zenner
By definition, humanitarian crises can severely affect human health, directly through violence or indirectly through breakdown of infrastructure or lack of provision for basic human needs, such as safe shelter, food, clean water, and suitable clothing. After the initial phase, these indirect effects are the most important determinants of morbidity and mortality in humanitarian emergencies, and infectious diseases are among the most significant causes of ill health. Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in humanitarian emergencies varies depending on a number of factors, including the country background epidemiology, but will be elevated compared with precrisis levels...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155813/plant-pathogenic-fungi
#16
Gunther Doehlemann, Bilal Ökmen, Wenjun Zhu, Amir Sharon
Fungi are among the dominant causal agents of plant diseases. To colonize plants and cause disease, pathogenic fungi use diverse strategies. Some fungi kill their hosts and feed on dead material (necrotrophs), while others colonize the living tissue (biotrophs). For successful invasion of plant organs, pathogenic development is tightly regulated and specialized infection structures are formed. To further colonize hosts and establish disease, fungal pathogens deploy a plethora of virulence factors. Depending on the infection strategy, virulence factors perform different functions...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155811/metabolic-perspectives-on-persistence
#17
Travis E Hartman, Zhe Wang, Robert S Jansen, Susana Gardete, Kyu Y Rhee
Accumulating evidence has left little doubt about the importance of persistence or metabolism in the biology and chemotherapy of tuberculosis. However, knowledge of the intersection between these two factors has only recently begun to emerge. Here, we provide a focused review of metabolic characteristics associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence. We focus on metabolism because it is the biochemical foundation of all physiologic processes and a distinguishing hallmark of M. tuberculosis physiology and pathogenicity...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155810/fungal-enzymes-and-yeasts-for-conversion-of-plant-biomass-to-bioenergy-and-high-value-products
#18
Lene Lange
Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155809/from-evolutionary-advantage-to-disease-agents-forensic-reevaluation-of-host-microbe-interactions-and-pathogenicity
#19
Jessica I Rivera-Pérez, Alfredo A González, Gary A Toranzos
As the "human microbiome era" continues, there is an increasing awareness of our resident microbiota and its indispensable role in our fitness as holobionts. However, the host-microbe relationship is not so clearly defined for some human symbionts. Here we discuss examples of "accidental pathogens," meaning previously nonpathogenic and/or environmental microbes thought to have inadvertently experienced an evolutionary shift toward pathogenicity. For instance, symbionts such as Helicobacter pylori and JC polyomavirus have been shown to have accompanied humans since prehistoric times and are still abundant in extant populations as part of the microbiome...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155806/human-immunology-of-tuberculosis
#20
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection. In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogeneous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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