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Microbiology Spectrum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#1
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429675/cell-biology-of-hyphal-growth
#2
Gero Steinberg, Miguel A Peñalva, Meritxell Riquelme, Han A Wösten, Steven D Harris
Filamentous fungi are a large and ancient clade of microorganisms that occupy a broad range of ecological niches. The success of filamentous fungi is largely due to their elongate hypha, a chain of cells, separated from each other by septa. Hyphae grow by polarized exocytosis at the apex, which allows the fungus to overcome long distances and invade many substrates, including soils and host tissues. Hyphal tip growth is initiated by establishment of a growth site and the subsequent maintenance of the growth axis, with transport of growth supplies, including membranes and proteins, delivered by motors along the cytoskeleton to the hyphal apex...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409555/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#3
REVIEW
Connie A Haley
There are approximately 56 million people who harbor Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may progress to active tuberculosis (TB) at some point in their lives. Modeling studies suggest that if only 8% of these individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) were treated annually, overall global incidence would be 14-fold lower by 2050 compared to incidence in 2013, even in the absence of additional TB control measures. This highlights the importance of identifying and treating latently infected individuals, and that this intervention must be scaled up to achieve the goals of the Global End TB Strategy...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409551/musculoskeletal-tuberculosis
#4
REVIEW
Michael K Leonard, Henry M Blumberg
Musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for approximately 10% of all extrapulmonary TB cases in the United States and is the third most common site of extrapulmonary TB after pleural and lymphatic disease. Vertebral involvement (tuberculous spondylitis, or Pott's disease) is the most common type of skeletal TB, accounting for about half of all cases of musculoskeletal TB. The presentation of musculoskeletal TB may be insidious over a long period and the diagnosis may be elusive and delayed, as TB may not be the initial consideration in the differential diagnosis...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387193/tuberculosis-in-infants-and-children
#5
Gabriella S Lamb, Jeffrey R Starke
One million children develop tuberculosis disease each year, and 210,000 die from complications of tuberculosis. Childhood tuberculosis is very different from adult tuberculosis in epidemiology, clinical and radiographic presentation, and treatment. This review highlights the many unique features of childhood tuberculosis, with special emphasis on very young children and adolescents, who are most likely to develop disease after infection has occurred.
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387181/preharvest-food-safety-under-the-influence-of-a-changing-climate
#6
Kalmia E Kniel, Patrick Spanninger
Ensuring food safety and addressing the impact of climate change are both immense concepts. Food production systems must continue to evolve in order to develop food safety management programs and identify emerging risks linked to climate change. There are an infinite number of crosscutting issues regarding climate change and health. The changing climate of the globe manifests itself in fluctuating temperatures, intense storms, droughts, and fluctuating sea levels. These environmental variables in turn may increase the risk of foodborne disease transmission through our foods and increase the need for vigilance and risk mitigation at the preharvest level...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387180/mycobacterium-marinum
#7
Alexandra Aubry, Faiza Mougari, Florence Reibel, Emmanuelle Cambau
Mycobacterium marinum is a well-known pathogenic mycobacterium for skin and soft tissue infections and is associated with fishes and water. Among nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), it is the leading cause of extrarespiratory human infections worldwide. In addition, there is a specific scientific interest in M. marinum because of its genetic relatedness to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and because experimental infection of M. marinum in fishes mimics tuberculosis pathogenesis. Microbiological characteristics include the fact that it grows in 7 to 14 days with photochromogenic colonies and is difficult to differentiate from Mycobacterium ulcerans and other mycolactone-producing NTM on a molecular basis...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387179/chemotherapy-of-tuberculosis
#8
Thomas E Dobbs, Risa M Webb
The management of tuberculosis (TB) can be a challenging process that has implications both for the affected patient and public health. Effective anti-TB chemotherapy both cures and renders the patient noncontagious. Biological factors specific to M. tuberculosis necessitate the use of multiple drugs for prolonged durations to adequately eradicate infection. Recommended regimens address the complexities of eliminating organisms from diverse reservoirs while preventing the emergence of drug resistance. First-line anti-TB therapy for drug susceptible disease effectively cures almost all patients within 6-9 months...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387178/the-sec-pathways-and-exportomes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Brittany K Miller, Katelyn E Zulauf, Miriam Braunstein
All bacteria utilize pathways to export proteins from the cytoplasm to the bacterial cell envelope or extracellular space. Many exported proteins function in essential physiological processes or in virulence. Consequently, the responsible protein export pathways are commonly essential and/or are important for pathogenesis. The general Sec protein export pathway is conserved and essential in all bacteria, and it is responsible for most protein export. The energy for Sec export is provided by the SecA ATPase...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387175/fungal-biofilms-inside-out
#10
Katherine Lagree, Aaron P Mitchell
We focus this article on turning a biofilm inside out. The "inside" of the biofilm comprises the individual biofilm-related phenotypes, their environmental drivers and genetic determinants, and the coordination of gene functions through transcriptional regulators. Investigators have viewed the inside of the biofilm through diverse approaches, and this article will attempt to capture the essence of many. The ultimate goal is to connect the inside to the "outside," which we view as biofilm structure, development, pharmacological attributes, and medical impact...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361737/therapy-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#11
Barbara J Seaworth, David E Griffith
The global epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin was recently reported as larger than previously estimated, with at least 580,000 new cases reported in 2015. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), MDR-TB with additional resistance to a second-line fluoroquinolone and injectable, continues to account for nearly 10% of MDR cases globally. Cases in India, China, and the Russian Federation account for >45% of the cases of MDR-TB...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361736/dna-replication-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Zanele Ditse, Meindert H Lamers, Digby F Warner
Faithful replication and maintenance of the genome are essential to the ability of any organism to survive and propagate. For an obligate pathogen such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has to complete successive cycles of transmission, infection, and disease in order to retain a foothold in the human population, this requires that genome replication and maintenance must be accomplished under the metabolic, immune, and antibiotic stresses encountered during passage through variable host environments. Comparative genomic analyses have established that chromosomal mutations enable M...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361735/key-ecological-roles-for-zoosporic-true-fungi-in-aquatic-habitats
#13
Frank H Gleason, Bettina Scholz, Thomas G Jephcott, Floris F van Ogtrop, Linda Henderson, Osu Lilje, Sandra Kittelmann, Deborah J MacArthur
The diversity and abundance of zoosporic true fungi have been analyzed recently using fungal sequence libraries and advances in molecular methods, such as high-throughput sequencing. This review focuses on four evolutionary primitive true fungal phyla: the Aphelidea, Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, and Rosellida (Cryptomycota), most species of which are not polycentric or mycelial (filamentous), rather they tend to be primarily monocentric (unicellular). Zoosporic fungi appear to be both abundant and diverse in many aquatic habitats around the world, with abundance often exceeding other fungal phyla in these habitats, and numerous novel genetic sequences identified...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361734/tuberculosis-in-enclosed-populations
#14
Sorana Segal-Maurer
Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is most effective in close contact indoor environments in various congregate settings including health care facilities, homeless shelters, correctional facilities, long-term care facilities, as well as community settings such as homes, schools, workplaces, and various modes of transportation. Outbreaks are fueled by numerous factors including the HIV epidemic, ease of global travel, unstable socio-economic and/or political situations, and lapses in response to potentially infectious patients...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361733/emerging-fungal-threats-to-plants-and-animals-challenge-agriculture-and-ecosystem-resilience
#15
Helen N Fones, Matthew C Fisher, Sarah J Gurr
While fungi can make positive contributions to ecosystems and agro-ecosystems, for example, in mycorrhizal associations, they can also have devastating impacts as pathogens of plants and animals. In undisturbed ecosystems, most such negative interactions will be limited through the coevolution of fungi with their hosts. In this article, we explore what happens when pathogenic fungi spread beyond their natural ecological range and become invasive on naïve hosts in new ecosystems. We will see that such invasive pathogens have been problematic to humans and their domesticated plant and animal species throughout history, and we will discuss some of the most pressing fungal threats of today...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337966/acid-fast-positive-and-acid-fast-negative-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-the-koch-paradox
#16
Catherine Vilchèze, Laurent Kremer
Acid-fast (AF) staining, also known as Ziehl-Neelsen stain microscopic detection, developed over a century ago, is even today the most widely used diagnostic method for tuberculosis. Herein we present a short historical review of the evolution of AF staining methods and discuss Koch's paradox, in which non-AF tubercle bacilli can be detected in tuberculosis patients or in experimentally infected animals. The conversion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an actively growing, AF-positive form to a nonreplicating, AF-negative form during the course of infection is now well documented...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332467/fungal-sex-the-mucoromycota
#17
Soo Chan Lee, Alexander Idnurm
Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303783/role-of-surgery-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-tuberculosis
#18
Alan D L Sihoe
Modern thoracic surgery can now offer management of tuberculosis and its complications in selected patients with greater efficacy and less morbidity than ever before. Significantly, newer minimally invasive thoracic surgical approaches potentially lower thresholds for surgical candidacy, allowing more tuberculosis patients to receive operative treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the role that modern thoracic surgery can play in diagnosing and managing patients with tuberculosis and its sequelae...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303782/paradoxical-reactions-and-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#19
L W Preston Church, Amit Chopra, Marc A Judson
In HIV-infected individuals, paradoxical reactions after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with a variety of underlying infections and have been called the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In cases of IRIS associated with tuberculosis (TB), two distinct patterns of disease are recognized: (i) the progression of subclinical TB to clinical disease after the initiation of ART, referred to as unmasking, and (ii) the progression or appearance of new clinical and/or radiographic disease in patients with previously recognized TB after the initiation of ART, the classic or "paradoxical" TB-IRIS...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281443/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#20
John M Leonard
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) takes three clinical forms: meningitis (TBM), intracranial tuberculoma, and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM predominates in the western world and presents as a subacute to chronic meningitis syndrome with a prodrome of malaise, fever, and headache progressing to altered mentation and focal neurologic signs, followed by stupor, coma, and death within five to eight weeks of onset. The CSF formula typically shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and low glucose and high protein concentrations...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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