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Microbiology Spectrum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332467/fungal-sex-the-mucoromycota
#1
Soo Chan Lee, Alexander Idnurm
Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303783/role-of-surgery-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-tuberculosis
#2
Alan D L Sihoe
Modern thoracic surgery can now offer management of tuberculosis and its complications in selected patients with greater efficacy and less morbidity than ever before. Significantly, newer minimally invasive thoracic surgical approaches potentially lower thresholds for surgical candidacy, allowing more tuberculosis patients to receive operative treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the role that modern thoracic surgery can play in diagnosing and managing patients with tuberculosis and its sequelae...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303782/paradoxical-reactions-and-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#3
L W Preston Church, Amit Chopra, Marc A Judson
In HIV-infected individuals, paradoxical reactions after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with a variety of underlying infections and have been called the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In cases of IRIS associated with tuberculosis (TB), two distinct patterns of disease are recognized: (i) the progression of subclinical TB to clinical disease after the initiation of ART, referred to as unmasking, and (ii) the progression or appearance of new clinical and/or radiographic disease in patients with previously recognized TB after the initiation of ART, the classic or "paradoxical" TB-IRIS...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281443/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#4
John M Leonard
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) takes three clinical forms: meningitis (TBM), intracranial tuberculoma, and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM predominates in the western world and presents as a subacute to chronic meningitis syndrome with a prodrome of malaise, fever, and headache progressing to altered mentation and focal neurologic signs, followed by stupor, coma, and death within five to eight weeks of onset. The CSF formula typically shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and low glucose and high protein concentrations...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281442/necrotrophic-mycoparasites-and-their-genomes
#5
Magnus Karlsson, Lea Atanasova, Dan Funck Jensen, Susanne Zeilinger
Mycoparasitism is a lifestyle where one fungus establishes parasitic interactions with other fungi. Species of the genus Trichoderma together with Clonostachys rosea are among the most studied fungal mycoparasites. They have wide host ranges comprising several plant pathogens and are used for biological control of plant diseases. Trichoderma as well as C. rosea mycoparasites efficiently overgrow and kill their fungal prey by using infection structures and by applying lytic enzymes and toxic metabolites. Most of our knowledge on the putative signals and signaling pathways involved in prey recognition and activation of the mycoparasitic response is derived from studies with Trichoderma...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281441/miliary-tuberculosis
#6
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281439/epigenetic-phosphorylation-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-persistence
#7
Melissa Richard-Greenblatt, Yossef Av-Gay
Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most common type of epigenetic posttranslational modification in living cells used as a major regulation mechanism of biological processes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes for 11 serine/threonine protein kinases that are responsible for sensing environmental signals to coordinate a cellular response to ensure the pathogen's infectivity, survival, and growth. To overcome killing mechanisms generated within the host during infection, M. tuberculosis enters a state of nonreplicating persistence that is characterized by arrested growth, limited metabolic activity, and phenotypic resistance to antimycobacterial drugs...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256192/the-insect-pathogens
#8
Brian Lovett, Raymond J St Leger
Fungi are the most common disease-causing agents of insects; aside from playing a crucial role in natural ecosystems, insect-killing fungi are being used as alternatives to chemical insecticides and as resources for biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. Some common experimentally tractable genera, such as Metarhizium spp., exemplify genetic diversity and dispersal because they contain numerous intraspecific variants with distinct environmental and insect host ranges. The availability of tools for molecular genetics and multiple sequenced genomes has made these fungi ideal experimental models for answering basic questions on the genetic and genomic processes behind adaptive phenotypes...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256191/molecular-mechanisms-regulating-cell-fusion-and-heterokaryon-formation-in-filamentous-fungi
#9
Asen Daskalov, Jens Heller, Stephanie Herzog, André Fleißner, N Louise Glass
For the majority of fungal species, the somatic body of an individual is a network of interconnected cells sharing a common cytoplasm and organelles. This syncytial organization contributes to an efficient distribution of resources, energy, and biochemical signals. Cell fusion is a fundamental process for fungal development, colony establishment, and habitat exploitation and can occur between hyphal cells of an individual colony or between colonies of genetically distinct individuals. One outcome of cell fusion is the establishment of a stable heterokaryon, culminating in benefits for each individual via shared resources or being of critical importance for the sexual or parasexual cycle of many fungal species...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256190/role-of-the-health-department-in-tuberculosis-prevention-and-control-legal-and-public-health-considerations
#10
Carla Jeffries, Phil Lobue, Terence Chorba, Beverly Metchock, Ijaz Kashef
Because tuberculosis is caused by an infectious organism that is spread from person to person through the air, public health measures are essential to control the disease. There are three priority strategies for tuberculosis prevention and control in the United States: (i) identifying and treating persons who have tuberculosis disease; (ii) finding persons exposed to infectious tuberculosis patients, evaluating them for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease, and providing subsequent treatment, if appropriate; and (iii) testing populations at high risk for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and treating those persons who are infected to prevent progression to disease...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256189/nutrient-sensing-at-the-plasma-membrane-of-fungal-cells
#11
Patrick Van Dijck, Neil Andrew Brown, Gustavo H Goldman, Julian Rutherford, Chaoyang Xue, Griet Van Zeebroeck
To respond to the changing environment, cells must be able to sense external conditions. This is important for many processes including growth, mating, the expression of virulence factors, and several other regulatory effects. Nutrient sensing at the plasma membrane is mediated by different classes of membrane proteins that activate downstream signaling pathways: nontransporting receptors, transceptors, classical and nonclassical G-protein-coupled receptors, and the newly defined extracellular mucin receptors...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256187/melanin-radiation-and-energy-transduction-in-fungi
#12
Arturo Casadevall, Radames J B Cordero, Ruth Bryan, Joshua Nosanchuk, Ekaterina Dadachova
Melanin pigments are found in many diverse fungal species, where they serve a variety of functions that promote fitness and cell survival. Melanotic fungi inhabit some of the most extreme habitats on earth such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl and the highlands of Antarctica, both of which are high-radiation environments. Melanotic fungi migrate toward radioactive sources, which appear to enhance their growth. This phenomenon, combined with the known capacities of melanin to absorb a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation and transduce this radiation into other forms of energy, raises the possibility that melanin also functions in harvesting such energy for biological usage...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233514/tuberculosis-of-the-liver-biliary-tract-and-pancreas
#13
G Shelton McMullan, James H Lewis
Tuberculosis of the liver, biliary tract, and pancreas is discussed. In addition, tuberculosis in the setting of HIV-AIDS and liver transplantation is explored. Drug-induced liver injury secondary to antituberculosis medication and monitoring and prophylactic treatment for such injury is also considered.
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233513/cutaneous-tuberculosis
#14
Michael K Hill, Charles V Sanders
Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) may present in various clinical manifestations. Skin involvement may occur as a result of exogenous inoculation, contiguous spread from a nearby focus of infection, or by hematogenous spread from a distant focus. Because the clinical presentation of cutaneous TB can vary widely, it is important to have a high index of suspicion in appropriate clinical settings. In this chapter, the various clinical manifestations of clinical TB are classified by source of infection (exogenous, endogenous, and hematogenous spread)...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233512/tuberculosis-associated-with-hiv-infection
#15
Jeffrey A Tornheim, Kelly E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) has recently surpassed HIV as the primary infectious disease killer worldwide, but the two diseases continue to display lethal synergy. The burden of TB is disproportionately borne by people living with HIV, particularly where HIV and poverty coexist. The impact of these diseases on one another is bidirectional, with HIV increasing risk of TB infection and disease progression and TB slowing CD4 recovery and increasing progression to AIDS and death among the HIV infected. Both antiretroviral therapy (ART) and latent TB infection (LTBI) treatment mitigate the impact of coinfection, and ART is now recommended for HIV-infected patients independent of CD4 count...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233511/environmental-microbial-forensics-and-archaeology-of-past-pandemics
#16
Antonio Fornaciari
The development of paleomicrobiology with new molecular techniques such as metagenomics is revolutionizing our knowledge of microbial evolution in human history. The study of microbial agents that are concomitantly active in the same biological environment makes it possible to obtain a picture of the complex interrelations among the different pathogens and gives us the perspective to understand the microecosystem of ancient times. This research acts as a bridge between disciplines such as archaeology, biology, and medicine, and the development of paleomicrobiology forces archaeology to broaden and update its methods...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233510/endocrine-and-metabolic-aspects-of-tuberculosis
#17
Christopher Vinnard, Emily A Blumberg
Endocrine and metabolic derangements are infrequent in patients with tuberculosis, but they are important when they occur. The basis for these abnormalities is complex. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been described to infect virtually every endocrine gland, the incidence of gland involvement is low, especially in the era of effective antituberculosis therapy. Furthermore, endocrine and metabolic abnormalities do not always reflect direct infection of the gland but may result from physiological response or as a consequence of therapy...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233509/targeting-phenotypically-tolerant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Ben Gold, Carl Nathan
While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185620/pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Sarah M Lyon, Milton D Rossman
This review on pulmonary tuberculosis includes an introduction that describes how the lung is the portal of entry for the tuberculosis bacilli to enter the body and then spread to the rest of the body. The symptoms and signs of both primary and reactivation tuberculosis are described. Routine laboratory tests are rarely helpful for making the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The differences between the chest X ray in primary and reactivation tuberculosis is also described. The chest computed tomography appearance in primary and reactivation tuberculosis is also described...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185619/diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#20
Alfred A Lardizabal, Lee B Reichman
For 2015, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the United States has plateaued at 3.0 per 100,000. This remains the lowest case rate since recording started. On the global level, although the TB epidemic is larger than previously estimated, TB deaths and incidence rate continue to fall. For both low and high incidence countries, accelerating the decline in TB incidence towards elimination goals requires that more emphasis be placed on strengthening systems for detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) in addition to improving TB care globally...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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