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American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology

Tatsuaki Daimon, Takeo Kosaka, Mototsugu Oya
Docetaxel chemotherapy for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer patients has been thought palliative because the radiological response rate is low and durable response is rare. The patient was a 64-year-old man who was diagnosed with cT3aN0M0 prostate cancer and underwent external beam radiation therapy as the initial treatment. He underwent androgen deprivation therapy and 8 cycles of docetaxel chemotherapy. His PSA level decreased and became undetectable and the disease was confirmed to be stable by radiological examination...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
David Jarrard, Badrinath Konety, Wei Huang, Tracy Downs, Jill Kolesar, Kyung Mann Kim, Tom Havighurst, Joel Slaton, Margaret G House, Howard L Parnes, Howard H Bailey
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Sergei Guma, Remegio Maglantay, Ryan Lau, Rosemary Wieczorek, Jonathan Melamed, Fang-Ming Deng, Ming Zhou, Danil Makarov, Peng Lee, Matthew R Pincus, Zhi-Heng Pei
BACKGROUND: The human papilloma virus (HPV) is a carcinogen known for its strong association with cervical cancers and cervical lesions. It is also known to be associated with a variety of squamous cell carcinomas in other areas, such as the penis, vulva, anus and head and neck. However, the association with urothelial carcinoma remains controversial. Here, we report a case of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation associated with HPV-6/HPV-11. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of a 70 year old man who presented with nocturia and pressure during urination...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Khanh N Pham, Mitchell H Sokoloff, Charles A Steiger
We report an interesting case of Buerger's disease that manifested at the glans penis in a 56 year-old former smoker. Penile involvement in Buerger's disease is rare. Our patient had no prior extremity or digit amputations in his 4-year history of Buerger's disease. However, our patient did suffer from recurrent penile ulcers over an 8-week timeframe that ultimately progressed to a gangrenous, unsalvageable glans penis. He underwent a partial penectomy and urethral reconstruction with excellent post-operative results...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Shijie Yang, Qiuyang Zhang, Sen Liu, Alun R Wang, Zongbing You
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 play critical roles in maintaining an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the present study was to assess expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in mouse prostate tumors. A total of 33 mouse prostate tumors derived from Pten-null mice were examined using immunohistochemical staining for PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2. The animals were either with interleukin-17 receptor c (Il-17rc) wild-type or knockout genotype, or fed with regular diet or high-fat diet to 30 weeks of age...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Guang-Qian Xiao, Jean-Gilles Jerome, Guan Wu
Mesonephric remnants have been rarely reported in the genitourinary system and sometimes impose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically. We reported a case of mesonephric remnant hyperplasia with mixed acinar/tubular and epididymis/vas deferens-like morphologies occurring in the renal parenchyma of a unilateral hypoplastic kidney, which has not been previously described.
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Francesco S Camoglio, Marta Peretti, Federica Bianchi, Arianna Mariotto, Nicola Zampieri
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between varicocele and MPV values in pediatric and adult patients. And its association with different clinical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of patients treated for varicocele at our Institution between December 2010 and December 2014. The study patients were divided into three groups: group 1- patients with varicocele without testicular hypotrophy treated for scrotal discomfort or infertility (percutaneous varicocelecomy-scheloembolization); group 2- (control group) patients without varicocele; group 3- patients with varicocele and testicular hypotrophy (laparoscopic varicocelectomy)...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Lesa A Begley, Sathish Kasina, Rajal B Shah, Jill A Macoska
A key difference between normal and malignant prostate cells in vitro and in vivo is that both alleles of PTEN are largely intact in normal benign prostate glands and cultured epithelial cells, whereas one or both alleles of PTEN are mutant or deleted in the majority of prostate tumors and malignant prostate cancer cell lines. Intact PTEN suppresses phosphorylation of Akt downstream of PI3K activation in non-transformed cells whereas Akt phosphorylation is unimpeded in malignant cells that are often PTEN-deficient...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Justin C Penticuff, Natasha Kyprianou
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of "targeted therapies". Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Cameron M Armstrong, Allen C Gao
Several mechanisms facilitate the progression of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). At present, the approved chemotherapies for CRPC include systemic drugs (docetaxel and cabazitaxel) and agents that target androgen signaling, including enzalutamide and abiraterone. While up to 30% of patients have primary resistance to these treatments, each of these drugs confers a significant survival benefit for many. Over time, however, all patients inevitably develop resistance to treatment and their disease will continue to progress...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Vipulkumar Dadhania, Bogdan Czerniak, Charles C Guo
Adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in the urinary bladder which may arise primarily in the bladder as well as secondarily from a number of other organs. Our aim is to provide updated information on primary and secondary bladder adenocarcinomas, with focus on pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical relevance. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma exhibits several different growth patterns, including enteric, mucinous, signet-ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed patterns. Urachal adenocarcinoma demonstrates similar histologic features but it can be distinguished from bladder adenocarcinoma on careful pathologic examination...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Yusuke Muro, Takeo Kosaka, Ryuichi Mizuno, Toshio Ohashi, Naoyuki Shigematsu, Mototsugu Oya
We report a first case of using a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) and combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy. Prostate volume reduction with CAB is limited to approximately 40% in most cases, making it difficult to meet anatomical constraints to perform these procedures in cases with large prostate volume. With the added administration of 5ARI, further volume reduction can be expected. Here, we describe this cytoreductive regimen used in a 63 year-old prostate cancer patient who became eligible to receive brachytherapy after dutasteride (0...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Timothy Ito, Jonathan Melamed, Mary Ann Perle, Joseph Alukal
Clear cell sarcoma of the penis is exceedingly rare with only one prior case involving the penis reported in the literature. We present the case of a 32 year old male who presented with an infiltrative neoplasm at the base of the penis as well as extensive metastatic disease to the lymph nodes and bone. Morphologic, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic findings established the diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma. Despite chemotherapy the patient's disease was rapidly progressive and the patient died of disease within 8 months of diagnosis...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
John Michalak, David Tzou, Joel Funk
INTRODUCTION: For many years, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has been accepted as the gold standard to surgically alleviate obstructive voiding dysfunction in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This historical standard has been challenged repeatedly over the last decade by consistent data demonstrating the superiority of Holmium enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). This review summarizes the literature comparing HoLEP and traditional therapies for BPH that are widely used and have long term efficacy data, primarily TURP, open prostatectomy (OP), and alternative laser therapies (PVP, ThuLEP, etc)...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Marsha Ritter Jones, Zun-Yi Wang, Dale E Bjorling
We investigated the capacity of intrathecal arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist, to inhibit referred hyperalgesia and increased bladder contractility resulting from acute acrolein-induced cystitis in rats. 24 female rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) intrathecal vehicle/intravesical saline; 2) intrathecal vehicle/intravesical acrolein; 3) intrathecal ACEA/intravesical saline; and 4) intrathecal ACEA/intravesical acrolein. Bladder catheters were placed 4-6 days prior to the experiment...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Irina B Grishina
Notch signaling in tumorigenesis and cancer progression presents a certain enigma. Numerous experimental studies reported significant effects in cancer, yet of varying magnitude and opposite sign. This mini review is aimed to streamline our understanding of the Notch role in tumor progression, and outline future experiments to clarify the modality of Notch function and perspectives of the Notch-based anticancer treatments.
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Jian Yi Li, Garrett Daniels, Jing Wang, Xinmin Zhang
Transducin (beta)-like 1X related protein 1 (TBL1XR1/TBLR1) is an integral subunit of the NCoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) and SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors) repressor complexes. It is an evolutionally conserved protein that shares high similarity across all species. TBL1XR1 is essential for transcriptional repression mediated by unliganded nuclear receptors (NRs) and othe regulated transcription factors (TFs). However, it can also act as a transcription activator through the recruitment of the ubiquitin-conjugating/19S proteasome complex that mediates the exchange of corepressors for coactivators...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Dhanraj Deshmukh, Yun Qiu
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the covalent attachment of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) moieties on itself and its target proteins. PARP1 activity is frequently deregulated in various cancers and therefore it has emerged as a new drug target for cancer therapy. The role of PARP-1 in DNA repair has been well documented and BRCA mutations are implicated for determining the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Recent studies also point to a role of PARP-1 in transcription regulation which may contribute to oncogenic signaling and cancer progression...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Noriko N Yokoyama, Shujuan Shao, Bang H Hoang, Dan Mercola, Xiaolin Zi
Increasing evidence has indicated that Wnt signaling plays complex roles in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although not all data were consistent, β-catenin nuclear localization and its co-localization with androgen receptor (AR) were more frequently observed in CRPC compared to hormone naïve prostate cancer. This direct interaction between AR and β-catenin seemed to elicit a specific expression of a set of target genes in low androgen conditions in CRPC. Paracrine Wnt signaling also was shown to aid resistance to chemotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy...
April 15, 2014: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Weisheng Xu, Liying Yang, Peng Lee, William C Huang, Carlos Nossa, Yingfei Ma, Fang-Ming Deng, Ming Zhou, Jonathan Melamed, Zhiheng Pei
The microbiome is a new center of attention for studies on the pathogenesis of human disease by focusing on the alterations of all microorganisms living in a particular site or system of human body, referred as microbiota. Evidence suggests that microbiota could contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of chronic diseases, including cancers, both locally and remotely. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed and/or proven for the microbiota's role in tumorigenesis, such as via induction of chronic inflammation, genotoxicity, bacterium-mediated cell proliferation, and activation of procarcinogens...
April 15, 2014: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
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