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American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology

Feng Li, Laura E Pascal, Jianhua Zhou, Yibin Zhou, Ke Wang, Anil V Parwani, Rajiv Dhir, Peng Guo, Dalin He, Joel B Nelson, Zhou Wang
The mechanisms involved in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are poorly understood. One potential mechanism involved in BPH pathogenesis may involve altered expression of genes related to apoptosis and proliferation because reduced cell death and increased proliferation are thought to contribute to prostatic enlargement. This study examined the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL), two important anti-apoptosis factors that are also capable of inhibiting cell proliferation via accelerated G1 arrest or delayed G1/S transition, using immunostaining in simple prostatectomy BPH specimens from patients naïve to androgen manipulation...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Fayed Al-Yousofy, Hussein Gumaih, Hassan Ibrahim, Afrah Alasbahy
Parsley is a medicinal plant used widely in urolithiasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiurolithiatic effect of parsley and its mechanism. 24 rats divided into four groups: group A (negative control), group B (positive control), group C (cystone® group) and group D (parsley group). Group B were treated with EG and Ammonium chloride (AC). Group C were treated as B plus cystone® and group D was treated as B plus parsley. The period of experiment was 15 days. Urine samples were analysis on days 0 and 15 days...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Mengli Tong, Yuhui Wang, Jun Ni, Ning Weng, Chuanxia Chen, Hongyu Chen, Lindholm Bengt
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is well-established as renal replacement therapy in end stage renal disease and has survival rates similar or better than hemodialysis (HD) for the initial years on dialysis therapy. However retention rate is lower due to higher technique failure rates than in HD and few patients stay on PD for more than 10 years (PD>10 yrs ). Here we investigated clinical features characterizing PD>10 yrs patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a single center study of 450 prevalent PD patients, 35 PD>10 yrs patients (n=35) were compared with patients (n=415) who had been on PD for shorter periods of time in terms of clinical characteristics...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Cansu Karakas, Cassie Wang, Fangming Deng, Hongying Huang, Dongwen Wang, Peng Lee
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The African (AA) descent has greater incidence and mortality rates of PCa as compared to Caucasian (CA) men. While socioeconomic differences across racial groups contribute to disparity in PCa, increasing evidence points that genetic and molecular alterations play important roles in racial disparities associated with PCa. In this review, we focus on genetic and molecular influences that contribute to racial disparity between AA and CA men including: androgen and estrogen receptor signaling pathways, growth factors, apoptotic proteins, genetic, genomic and epigenetic alterations...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Lin Ma, Jingwu Li, Qiang Nie, Qiuyang Zhang, Sen Liu, Dongxia Ge, Zongbing You
Organoids mimic the architecture and functions of a small organ. Organoid culture technique has been rapidly accepted by all research communities during the past decade to study stem cells, organ development and function, and patient-specific diseases. A protocol for organoid culture of human and mouse prostate epithelial and cancer tissues has been reported. However, organoid culture of the commonly used human prostate cancer cell lines has yet to be established. We followed the published protocol and performed organoid culture of LNCaP and C4-2B cells in MatrigelTM and organoid culture medium for 14 days...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Fengtian Wang, Hari K Koul
Despite the progress in development of better AR-targeted therapies for prostate cancer (PCa), there is no curative therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therapeutic resistance in PCa can be characterized in two broad categories of AR therapy resistance: the first and most prevalent one involves restoration of AR activity despite AR targeted therapy, and the second one involves tumor progression despite blockade of AR activity. As such AR remains the most attractive drug target for CRPC. Despite its oncogenic role, AR signaling also contributes to the maturation and differentiation of prostate luminal cells during development...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Wanjian Jia, Austin J Schults, Mark Martin Jensen, Xiangyang Ye, Jeremiah A Alt, Glenn D Prestwich, Siam Oottamasathien
Our goal was to evaluate the pain response in an LL-37 induced murine model for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). In particular, we sought to characterize the dose dependence, time-course, and relationship of LL-37 induced bladder inflammation and pain. The IC/PBS model was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by instilling 50 μL of LL-37, an immunomodulatory human cathelicidin (anti-microbial peptide), in the bladder for 1 hr. Pain responses were measured using von Frey filaments (0.04 gm to 4.0 gm) before and after LL-37 instillation...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Victor J Wu, Darren Pang, Wendell W Tang, Xin Zhang, Li Li, Zongbing You
Approximately 36.5% of the U.S. adults (≥ 20 years old) are obese. Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. The present study included 1788 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy at the Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, from January, 2001 to March, 2016. The patient's medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Body mass index (BMI), age, ethnicity (Caucasians versus African Americans), clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were retrieved...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Tatsuaki Daimon, Takeo Kosaka, Mototsugu Oya
Docetaxel chemotherapy for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer patients has been thought palliative because the radiological response rate is low and durable response is rare. The patient was a 64-year-old man who was diagnosed with cT3aN0M0 prostate cancer and underwent external beam radiation therapy as the initial treatment. He underwent androgen deprivation therapy and 8 cycles of docetaxel chemotherapy. His PSA level decreased and became undetectable and the disease was confirmed to be stable by radiological examination...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
David Jarrard, Badrinath Konety, Wei Huang, Tracy Downs, Jill Kolesar, Kyung Mann Kim, Tom Havighurst, Joel Slaton, Margaret G House, Howard L Parnes, Howard H Bailey
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Sergei Guma, Remegio Maglantay, Ryan Lau, Rosemary Wieczorek, Jonathan Melamed, Fang-Ming Deng, Ming Zhou, Danil Makarov, Peng Lee, Matthew R Pincus, Zhi-Heng Pei
BACKGROUND: The human papilloma virus (HPV) is a carcinogen known for its strong association with cervical cancers and cervical lesions. It is also known to be associated with a variety of squamous cell carcinomas in other areas, such as the penis, vulva, anus and head and neck. However, the association with urothelial carcinoma remains controversial. Here, we report a case of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation associated with HPV-6/HPV-11. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of a 70 year old man who presented with nocturia and pressure during urination...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Khanh N Pham, Mitchell H Sokoloff, Charles A Steiger
We report an interesting case of Buerger's disease that manifested at the glans penis in a 56 year-old former smoker. Penile involvement in Buerger's disease is rare. Our patient had no prior extremity or digit amputations in his 4-year history of Buerger's disease. However, our patient did suffer from recurrent penile ulcers over an 8-week timeframe that ultimately progressed to a gangrenous, unsalvageable glans penis. He underwent a partial penectomy and urethral reconstruction with excellent post-operative results...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Shijie Yang, Qiuyang Zhang, Sen Liu, Alun R Wang, Zongbing You
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 play critical roles in maintaining an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the present study was to assess expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in mouse prostate tumors. A total of 33 mouse prostate tumors derived from Pten-null mice were examined using immunohistochemical staining for PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2. The animals were either with interleukin-17 receptor c (Il-17rc) wild-type or knockout genotype, or fed with regular diet or high-fat diet to 30 weeks of age...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Guang-Qian Xiao, Jean-Gilles Jerome, Guan Wu
Mesonephric remnants have been rarely reported in the genitourinary system and sometimes impose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically. We reported a case of mesonephric remnant hyperplasia with mixed acinar/tubular and epididymis/vas deferens-like morphologies occurring in the renal parenchyma of a unilateral hypoplastic kidney, which has not been previously described.
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Francesco S Camoglio, Marta Peretti, Federica Bianchi, Arianna Mariotto, Nicola Zampieri
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between varicocele and MPV values in pediatric and adult patients. And its association with different clinical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of patients treated for varicocele at our Institution between December 2010 and December 2014. The study patients were divided into three groups: group 1- patients with varicocele without testicular hypotrophy treated for scrotal discomfort or infertility (percutaneous varicocelecomy-scheloembolization); group 2- (control group) patients without varicocele; group 3- patients with varicocele and testicular hypotrophy (laparoscopic varicocelectomy)...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Lesa A Begley, Sathish Kasina, Rajal B Shah, Jill A Macoska
A key difference between normal and malignant prostate cells in vitro and in vivo is that both alleles of PTEN are largely intact in normal benign prostate glands and cultured epithelial cells, whereas one or both alleles of PTEN are mutant or deleted in the majority of prostate tumors and malignant prostate cancer cell lines. Intact PTEN suppresses phosphorylation of Akt downstream of PI3K activation in non-transformed cells whereas Akt phosphorylation is unimpeded in malignant cells that are often PTEN-deficient...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Justin C Penticuff, Natasha Kyprianou
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of "targeted therapies". Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Cameron M Armstrong, Allen C Gao
Several mechanisms facilitate the progression of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). At present, the approved chemotherapies for CRPC include systemic drugs (docetaxel and cabazitaxel) and agents that target androgen signaling, including enzalutamide and abiraterone. While up to 30% of patients have primary resistance to these treatments, each of these drugs confers a significant survival benefit for many. Over time, however, all patients inevitably develop resistance to treatment and their disease will continue to progress...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Vipulkumar Dadhania, Bogdan Czerniak, Charles C Guo
Adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in the urinary bladder which may arise primarily in the bladder as well as secondarily from a number of other organs. Our aim is to provide updated information on primary and secondary bladder adenocarcinomas, with focus on pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical relevance. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma exhibits several different growth patterns, including enteric, mucinous, signet-ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed patterns. Urachal adenocarcinoma demonstrates similar histologic features but it can be distinguished from bladder adenocarcinoma on careful pathologic examination...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Yusuke Muro, Takeo Kosaka, Ryuichi Mizuno, Toshio Ohashi, Naoyuki Shigematsu, Mototsugu Oya
We report a first case of using a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) and combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy. Prostate volume reduction with CAB is limited to approximately 40% in most cases, making it difficult to meet anatomical constraints to perform these procedures in cases with large prostate volume. With the added administration of 5ARI, further volume reduction can be expected. Here, we describe this cytoreductive regimen used in a 63 year-old prostate cancer patient who became eligible to receive brachytherapy after dutasteride (0...
2015: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
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