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Infectious Diseases and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913975/clinical-impact-of-an-antibiotic-stewardship-program-at-a-children-s-hospital
#1
Brian R Lee, Jennifer L Goldman, Diana Yu, Angela L Myers, Leslie M Stach, Erin Hedican, Mary Anne Jackson, Jason G Newland
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) improve appropriate antibiotic use. Data are limited on the clinical benefit of ASPs in children's hospitals. This study's objective was to determine the impact of an ASP on length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate among patients admitted to children's hospitals. METHODS: Data from a prospective-audit-with-feedback ASP were used to examine the ASP review characteristics, including antibiotic(s) prescribed, clinical indication, recommendations made by the ASP, and agreement with recommendations...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910000/a-review-of-experimental-and-off-label-therapies-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Alex Soriano, Josep Mensa
In spite of increased awareness and the efforts taken to optimize Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management, with the limited number of currently available antibiotics for C. difficile the halt of this increasing epidemic remains out of reach. There are, however, close to 80 alternative treatment methods with controversial anti-clostridial efficacy or in experimental phase today. Indeed, some of these therapies are expected to become acknowledged members of the recommended anti-CDI arsenal within the next few years...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900646/the-potential-of-omics-technologies-in-lyme-disease-biomarker-discovery-and-early-detection
#3
REVIEW
Alaa Badawi
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in North America and many countries of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. It is associated with local and systemic manifestations and has persistent post-treatment health complications in some individuals. Innate and acquired immunity-related inflammation is likely to play a critical role in both host defense against Borrelia burgdorferi and disease severity. Large-scale analytical approaches to quantify gene expression (transcriptomics), proteins (proteomics) and metabolites (metabolomics) in LB have recently emerged with a potential to advance the development of disease biomarkers in early, disseminated and posttreatment disease stages...
November 29, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864751/defining-the-risk-and-associated-morbidity-and-mortality-of-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-infants-with-chronic-lung-disease
#4
REVIEW
Bosco Paes, Brigitte Fauroux, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Louis Bont, Paul A Checchia, Eric A F Simões, Paolo Manzoni, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV evidence-a geographical archive of the literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This third publication covers the risk and burden of RSV infection in infants with chronic lung disease (CLD), formerly called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken of publications between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015 across PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials...
November 18, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832502/a-retrospective-study-of-the-impact-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-on-time-to-pathogen-identification-and-antibiotic-use-for-children-with-positive-blood-cultures
#5
Angela Fimbres Veesenmeyer, Jared A Olson, Adam L Hersh, Chris Stockmann, Kent Korgenski, Emily A Thorell, Andrew T Pavia, Anne J Blaschke
INTRODUCTION: Rapid identification of bloodstream pathogens provides crucial information that can improve the choice of antimicrobial therapy for children. Previous impact studies have primarily focused on adults. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of rapid testing in a children's hospital on time to organism identification and antibiotic use in the setting of an established antimicrobial stewardship program. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study over three consecutive time periods (spanning January 2013-August 2015) as our hospital sequentially introduced two rapid testing methods for positive blood cultures...
November 10, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783223/value-of-treating-all-stages-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-comprehensive-review-of-clinical-and-economic-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Roberto Nuño Solinís, Patricia Arratibel Ugarte, Ander Rojo, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: The goal of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment is to achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). The new generation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) offers 90-100% SVR rates. However, access to these treatments is generally limited to patients with advanced liver disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical and economic benefits of achieving SVR and to better understand the full value of CHC treatment in all stages of liver disease. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases to identify articles examining the clinical, economic, and quality of life benefits associated with SVR...
October 25, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770261/epidemiology-and-recurrence-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-germany-a-secondary-data-analysis
#7
Christoph Lübbert, Lisa Zimmermann, Julia Borchert, Bernd Hörner, Reinier Mutters, Arne C Rodloff
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of health-care-associated infectious diarrhea. Recurrence rates are as high as 20-30% after standard treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin, and appear to be reduced for patients treated with fidaxomicin. According to the literature, the risk of CDI recurrence increases after the second relapse to 30-65%. Accurate data for Germany are not yet available. METHODS: Based on the research database of arvato health analytics (Munich, Germany), a secondary data analysis for the incidence, treatment characteristics and course of CDI was performed...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718118/assessment-of-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-telavancin-by-revised-broth-microdilution-method-in-phase-3-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-clinical-isolates
#8
Jennifer I Smart, Gordon Ralph Corey, Martin E Stryjewski, Whedy Wang, Steven L Barriere
INTRODUCTION: The broth microdilution method (BMD) for testing telavancin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was revised (rBMD) in 2014 to improve the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of the testing method. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the revised method on telavancin MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) clinical isolates obtained from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) patients. METHODS: Isolates from patients who participated in the phase 3 Assessment of Telavancin for Treatment of HAP Studies were retested using the rBMD method...
October 7, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714677/the-sustained-rotavirus-vaccination-impact-on-nosocomial-infection-duration-of-hospital-stay-and-age-the-rotabis-study-2005-2012
#9
Baudouin Standaert, Danielle Strens, Xiao Li, Nadia Schecroun, Marc Raes
INTRODUCTION: The benefits of rotavirus (RV) vaccination in developed countries have focused on reductions in mortality, hospitalization and medical visits, and herd protection. We investigated other aspects related to RV-induced nosocomial infection, duration of hospital stay, age shift, and sustained vaccine impact (VI) over time. METHOD: RotaBIS (Rotavirus Belgian Impact Study; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01563146) annually collects retrospective data on hospitalization linked to RV testing in children up to 5 years old from 11 pediatric wards located all over Belgium...
October 6, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677264/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-why-what-who-and-how
#10
Olubanke Davies, Andrew Ustianowski, Julie Fox
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers a promising new approach to HIV prevention. It is protective against HIV infection across populations and has few significant safety risks and little evidence of behavioural risk compensation. This article summarises the evidence behind HIV PrEP as an intervention, populations that may benefit, current guidelines and programmes, and the cost-effectiveness modelling of this strategy.
September 27, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677263/atazanavir-and-cardiovascular-risk-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-a-systematic-review
#11
Dominic Chow, Cecilia Shikuma, Corey Ritchings, Muxing Guo, Lisa Rosenblatt
INTRODUCTION: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy decreases CVD risk overall, several studies have suggested that certain antiretrovirals, particularly certain protease inhibitors, may be associated with an increased relative risk of CVD. In AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5260 s, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV) was associated with slower atherosclerosis progression compared to ritonavir-boosted darunavir and raltegravir, potentially due to hyperbilirubinemia...
September 27, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628159/cross-sectional-survey-of-perceived-barriers-among-community-pharmacists-who-do-not-immunize-in-wayne-county-michigan
#12
Sarah E Kelling, Anthony Pattin, Abdulbaset Salim, Paul Kilgore, Steven R Erickson
INTRODUCTION: The goal of the study was to identify perceived barriers to implementation of vaccination services encountered by independent and small-chain community pharmacies in an urban setting. METHODS: Pharmacists in independent and small-chain pharmacies located in 29 Michigan ZIP codes were visited and asked to complete a 5- to 10-min semi-structured interview. RESULTS: A total of 93 independent and 12 small-chain pharmacies participated (n = 105; 61%)...
September 15, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628014/defining-the-risk-and-associated-morbidity-and-mortality-of-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-preterm-infants-without-chronic-lung-disease-or-congenital-heart-disease
#13
Josep Figueras-Aloy, Paolo Manzoni, Bosco Paes, Eric A F Simões, Louis Bont, Paul A Checchia, Brigitte Fauroux, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This second publication covers the risk and burden of RSV infection in preterm infants born at <37 weeks' gestational age (wGA) without chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015...
September 14, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565805/erratum-to-single-dose-oritavancin-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-solo-trial-efficacy-by-eron-severity-and-management-setting
#14
Daniel H Deck, Jennifer M Jordan, Thomas L Holland, Weihong Fan, Matthew A Wikler, Katherine A Sulham, G Ralph Corey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553951/molecular-characterization-of-invasive-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#15
Saranya Vijayakumar, Radha Gopi, Priya Gunasekaran, Manjurekar Bharathy, Kamini Walia, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for causing nosocomial infections. Carbapenems are considered to be the drug of choice to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. The prevalent mechanism of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is enzymatic degradation by β-lactamases. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and distribution of molecular determinants among the clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant A...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539455/new-antiretroviral-treatment-for-hiv
#16
REVIEW
Melissa E Badowski, Sarah E Pérez, Mark Biagi, John A Littler
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set the global goal of ending the AIDS world epidemic by 2030. In order to end this epidemic they have established a 90-90-90 goal to be achieved by 2020, which may be problematic, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This goal includes 90% of individuals with HIV globally being diagnosed, on treatment, and virologically suppressed. Based on global estimates from 2014-2015, approximately 36.9 million individuals are living with HIV. Of those, 53% have been diagnosed with HIV, 41% are on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 32% have viral suppression with <1000 copies/ml...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515721/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-special-high-risk-populations
#17
REVIEW
Alberto Cózar-Llistó, Antonio Ramos-Martinez, Javier Cobo
Antibiotic use continues to be the most important risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) through disruption of the indigenous microbiota of the colon. This factor, together with environmental contamination, makes hospital and other healthcare facilities the perfect breeding ground for the infection. Several groups of patients are exposed to the hospital environment and, at the same time, affected by conditions that can make CDI more prevalent, more severe or make it present a different clinical picture...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480325/defining-the-epidemiology-and-burden-of-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-infants-and-children-in-western-countries
#18
REVIEW
Louis Bont, Paul A Checchia, Brigitte Fauroux, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Paolo Manzoni, Bosco Paes, Eric A F Simões, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV [respiratory syncytial virus] Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provides a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of RSV in Western countries over the last 20 years. This first of seven publications covers the epidemiology and burden of RSV infection. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published between Jan 1, 1995 and Dec 31, 2015 across PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470257/a-comparison-of-current-guidelines-of-five-international-societies-on-clostridium-difficile-infection-management
#19
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Josep Mensa
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly recognized as an emerging healthcare problem of elevated importance. Prevention and treatment strategies are constantly evolving along with the apperance of new scientific evidence and novel treatment methods, which is well-reflected in the differences among consecutive international guidelines. In this article, we summarize and compare current guidelines of five international medical societies on CDI management, and discuss some of the controversial and currently unresolved aspects which should be addressed by future research...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432414/evaluation-of-pharmacodynamic-interactions-between-telavancin-and-aztreonam-or-piperacillin-tazobactam-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-escherichia-coli-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, Katie E Barber, Jessica A Hallesy, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: In clinical trials comparing telavancin (TLV) with vancomycin for treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia, TLV demonstrated lower clinical cure rates than vancomycin in patients who had mixed gram-positive and -negative infections and were concomitantly treated with either aztreonam (ATM) or piperacillin/tazobactam (PTZ). Here, we investigated therapeutic interactions between TLV and ATM or PTZ in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model under simulated reduced renal function conditions...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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