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Infectious Diseases and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284146/pathogen-specific-clinical-trials-a-new-paradigm-in-clinical-trials-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#1
EDITORIAL
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Michael J Rybak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270406/effect-and-safety-of-meropenem-vaborbactam-versus-best-available-therapy-in-patients-with-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections-the-tango-ii-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Richard G Wunderink, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Galia Rahav, Amy J Mathers, Matteo Bassetti, Jose Vazquez, Oliver A Cornely, Joseph Solomkin, Tanaya Bhowmick, Jihad Bishara, George L Daikos, Tim Felton, Maria Jose Lopez Furst, Eun Jeong Kwak, Francesco Menichetti, Ilana Oren, Elizabeth L Alexander, David Griffith, Olga Lomovskaya, Jeffery Loutit, Shu Zhang, Michael N Dudley, Keith S Kaye
INTRODUCTION: Treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections are limited and CRE infections remain associated with high clinical failure and mortality rates, particularly in vulnerable patient populations. A Phase 3, multinational, open-label, randomized controlled trial (TANGO II) was conducted from 2014 to 2017 to evaluate the efficacy/safety of meropenem-vaborbactam monotherapy versus best available therapy (BAT) for CRE. METHODS: A total of 77 patients with confirmed/suspected CRE infection (bacteremia, hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infection, complicated urinary tract infection/acute pyelonephritis) were randomized, and 47 with confirmed CRE infection formed the primary analysis population (microbiologic-CRE-modified intent-to-treat, mCRE-MITT)...
October 1, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267220/systematic-review-of-invasive-meningococcal-disease-sequelae-and-quality-of-life-impact-on-patients-and-their-caregivers
#3
REVIEW
Kerstin J Olbrich, Dirk Müller, Sarah Schumacher, Ekkehard Beck, Kinga Meszaros, Florian Koerber
INTRODUCTION: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD, septicaemia and/or meningitis) has a severe acute and long-term burden: 5-10% of patients die within 48 h, and long-term sequelae have been reported in 10-20% of survivors. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly but inconsistently assessed. METHODS: A systematic literature review on Neisseria meningitidis IMD sequelae and HRQoL in survivors of all ages and their caregivers, including family, was conducted for high-income countries from 2001 to 2016 (in Medline and Embase, following Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines)...
September 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244362/development-of-a-risk-scoring-tool-to-determine-appropriate-level-of-care-in-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-in-an-acute-healthcare-setting
#4
Kimberly C Claeys, Evan J Zasowski, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Noor Sabagha, Donald P Levine, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) represent a large burden to the US healthcare system. There is little evidence-based guidance regarding the appropriate level of care for ABSSSIs. This study aimed to develop a prediction model and risk-scoring tool to determine appropriate levels of care. METHODS: This was a single-center observational cohort study of adult patients treated for ABSSSIs from 2012 to 2015 at the Detroit Medical Center...
September 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242736/efficacy-and-safety-of-tedizolid-and-linezolid-for-the-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-in-injection-drug-users-analysis-of-two-clinical-trials
#5
Gregory J Moran, Carisa De Anda, Anita F Das, Sinikka Green, Purvi Mehra, Philippe Prokocimer
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug users (IDUs) often develop acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and use emergency departments as their primary source for medical care. METHODS: A post hoc subgroup analysis of two randomized trials examined the efficacy and safety of tedizolid in the treatment of ABSSSI in IDUs. IDUs (n = 389) were identified from two pooled phase 3 trials (NCT01170221, NCT01421511) in patients with ABSSSI (n = 1333). Patients were randomly assigned to tedizolid phosphate (200 mg once daily, 6 days) or linezolid (600 mg twice daily, 10 days)...
September 21, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203332/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-hospitalised-patients-results-of-a-russian-prospective-multicentre-study
#6
Natalia V Dmitrieva, Galina A Klyasova, Natalia V Bakulina, Marina A Sukhina, Sergey V Zhuravel, Elena A Belousova, Vladimir T Ivashkin, Sergey V Goryunov, Elena A Prokhorovich, Tatyana R Kameneva, Aleksey A Samsonov, Andrey V Yakovenko, Stanislav V Kazakov
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) among hospitalised patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in general and by specific types of medical care and hospital units. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, non-interventional, multicentre study. The main inclusion criteria were: patient age ≥ 18 years, hospital stay of at least 48 h, current antibiotic therapy or antibiotic therapy within the previous 30 days, loose stools (Bristol stool types 5-7 and stool frequency ≥ 3 within ≤ 24 consecutive hours or exceeding normal for the patient) and signed informed consent form...
September 10, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182282/hiv-hcv-and-hbv-a-review-of-parallels-and-differences
#7
REVIEW
Maria C Leoni, Andrew Ustianowski, Hamzah Farooq, Joop E Arends
Elimination of the three blood-borne viruses-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV)-as public health issues may be plausible in the near future. Spectacular advances have been made with the introduction of highly effective antiviral agents into clinical practice, and prevention strategies are available for all three infections. Effective disease control, laid out by WHO global strategies, is currently feasible for all three viruses. However, for worldwide elimination of these viruses, effective vaccines are required that are currently only available for HBV...
September 4, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076582/the-impact-of-hepatitis-c-virus-direct-acting-antivirals-on-patient-reported-outcomes-a-dutch-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Patricia A M Kracht, Faydra I Lieveld, Linde M Amelung, Carina J R Verstraete, Eveline P Mauser-Bunschoten, Joep de Bruijne, Peter D Siersema, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends, Karel J van Erpecum
INTRODUCTION: Pegylated interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) negatively impacts nutritional state and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as health-related quality of life (HRQL). Clinical trials with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) report significant PRO improvement but real-world data are still scarce. METHODS: Prospective cohort study recruiting HCV patients treated with DAAs in 2015-2016. Data at baseline, end of treatment (EOT) and 12 weeks thereafter (FU12 ) included: patient-reported medication adherence; SF-36; Karnofsky Performance Status; paid labour productivity; physical exercise level; nutritional state [by body mass index (BMI) and Jamar hand grip strength (HGS)] and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire...
September 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948621/systemic-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-patients-hospitalized-in-hematology-units-in-france-the-afhem-cross-sectional-observational-study
#9
Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Jean El Cheikh, Raoul Herbrecht, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Jean-Baptiste Quiniou, Denis Caillot, Mauricette Michallet
INTRODUCTION: The frequency of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) has increased in recent years. Within a context where both treatments and guidelines are fast evolving, we aim to shed new light on IFD management in hematologic departments in France. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional observational study was prospectively conducted in 24 French centers in September and October 2013. RESULTS: Four hundred ninety-four hospitalized children and adult patients suffering from hematologic malignancy were enrolled: 147 (30%) were allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, 131 (27%) were patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 71 (14%) were patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who did not undergo allogeneic HSCT, and the 145 (29%) remaining patients did not belong to the three above groups...
September 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003513/real-life-evidence-for-tedizolid-phosphate-in-the-treatment-of-cellulitis-and-wound-infections-a-case-series
#10
Sergey Shlyapnikov, Arturo Jauregui, Nana N Khachatryan, Asok Kurup, Javier de la Cabada-Bauche, Hoe N Leong, Li Li, Mark H Wilcox
INTRODUCTION: Tedizolid phosphate 200 mg, once daily for 6 days, has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in several countries; however, clinical experience in real-life settings is currently limited. Here, we report on the use of tedizolid with an extended treatment duration for complex and severe ABSSSIs in real-world clinical settings. METHODS: Two patients with cellulitis and two patients with surgical site infection (SSI), aged 26-60 years, were treated with tedizolid phosphate 200 mg, intravenous/oral (IV/PO) or IV only, once daily at four different institutions...
July 12, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934878/clinical-and-economic-impact-of-a-potential-switch-from-13-valent-to-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-infant-vaccination-in-canada
#11
Michele Wilson, Matt Wasserman, Taj Jadavi, Maarten Postma, Marie-Claude Breton, Francois Peloquin, Stephanie Earnshaw, Cheryl McDade, Heather Sings, Raymond Farkouh
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been available in Canada since 2001, with 13-valent PCV (PCV13) added to the infant routine immunization program throughout all Canadian provinces by 2011. The use of PCVs has dramatically reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease in Canada. As a result, decision-makers may consider switching from a more costly, higher-valent vaccine to a lower-cost, lower-valent vaccine in an attempt to allocate funds for other vaccine programs...
June 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923034/improvement-of-hepatic-and-extrahepatic-complications-from-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-antiviral-treatment-a-retrospective-analysis-of-german-sickness-fund-data
#12
Michael R Kraus, Henning Kleine, Stefanie Thönnes, Marc Pignot, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: German data regarding the economic burden of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and potential benefits of CHC treatment are limited. To address this issue, we evaluated the role of treatment in mitigating the economic burden of hepatic and extrahepatic complications (EHCs) from CHC virus infection in Germany. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study used claims data from the Betriebskrankenkasse German sickness fund (2007-2014) to assess the medical costs of hepatic complications and EHCs, including conditions that are prevalent and behavioral factors associated with CHC...
June 19, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923033/clinical-and-economic-burden-of-hepatic-and-extrahepatic-complications-from-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-retrospective-analysis-of-german-sickness-fund-data
#13
Michael R Kraus, Henning Kleine, Stefanie Thönnes, Marc Pignot, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: German data regarding the burden of complications from chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection are limited. To address this issue, this study evaluates the clinical and economic burden of hepatic and extrahepatic complications (EHCs) associated with CHC in Germany. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study used claims data from the Betriebskrankenkasse German sickness fund (2007-2014) to assess the risks and medical costs of hepatic complications and EHCs, including conditions that are prevalent and behavioral factors associated with CHC...
June 19, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633177/in-vitro-bactericidal-and-virucidal-efficacy-of-povidone-iodine-gargle-mouthwash-against-respiratory-and-oral-tract-pathogens
#14
Maren Eggers, Torsten Koburger-Janssen, Markus Eickmann, Juergen Zorn
INTRODUCTION: Recent virus epidemics and rising antibiotic resistance highlight the importance of hygiene measures to prevent and control outbreaks. We investigated the in vitro bactericidal and virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) 7% gargle/mouthwash at defined dilution against oral and respiratory tract pathogens. METHODS: PVP-I was tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae according to bactericidal quantitative suspension test EN13727 and against severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV), rotavirus strain Wa and influenza virus A subtype H1N1 according to virucidal quantitative suspension test EN14476...
June 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605887/delafloxacin-place-in-therapy-and-review-of-microbiologic-clinical-and-pharmacologic-properties
#15
REVIEW
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Delafloxacin (formerly WQ-3034, ABT492, RX-3341) is a novel fluoroquinolone chemically distinct from currently marketed fluoroquinolones with the absence of a protonatable substituent conferring a weakly acidic character to the molecule. This property results in increased intracellular penetration and enhanced bactericidal activity under acidic conditions that characterize the infectious milieu at a number of sites. The enhanced potency and penetration in low pH environments contrast what has been observed for other zwitterionic fluoroquinolones, which tend to lose antibacterial potency under acidic conditions, and may be particularly advantageous against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, for which the significance of the intracellular mode of survival is increasingly being recognized...
June 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600508/correction-to-molecular-characterization-of-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-pspa-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-pakistan
#16
Faidad Khan, Jorge E Vidal, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Islam Khan, Hamid Bashir, Saad Tahir, Ahmad Usman Zafar
In the original publication, one of the author names was missed in the author group.
June 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589331/population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-asunaprevir-in-subjects-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#17
Li Zhu, Hanbin Li, Phyllis Chan, Timothy Eley, Yash Gandhi, Marc Bifano, Mayu Osawa, Takayo Ueno, Eric Hughes, Malaz AbuTarif, Richard Bertz, Tushar Garimella
INTRODUCTION: Asunaprevir (ASV) is a potent, pangenotypic, twice-daily hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. METHODS: A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using pooled ASV concentration data from 1239 HCV-infected subjects who received ASV either as part of the DUAL regimen with daclatasvir or as part of the QUAD regimen with daclatasvir and peg-interferon/ribavirin. RESULTS: A two-compartment model with first-order elimination from the central compartment, an induction effect on clearance, and an absorption model consisted of zero-order release followed by first-order absorption adequately described ASV PK after oral administration...
June 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550909/a-review-of-meningococcal-disease-and-vaccination-recommendations-for-travelers
#18
REVIEW
Lidia C Serra, Laura J York, Amgad Gamil, Paul Balmer, Chris Webber
International travel has been steadily increasing since the middle of the twentieth century, including travel to regions with high levels of endemic meningococcal disease and areas with sporadic or sustained meningococcal outbreaks. Although invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is relatively rare in travelers since the advent of quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines, it remains a serious concern because of its rapid progression, poor prognosis and outcomes, associated treatment delays, and the potential to precipitate outbreaks...
June 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524198/molecular-characterization-of-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-pspa-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-pakistan
#19
Faidad Khan, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Islam Khan, Hamid Bashir, Saad Tahir, Ahmad Usman Zafar
INTRODUCTION: Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal diseases in the world, but unfortunately studies in this demanding research area are limited in the region. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is the next generation pneumococcal vaccine candidate as the protein locates on the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface. Its gene, pspA, might be encoded by all pneumococci, and the protein has proven immunogenicity. The molecular characterization of PspA, pneumococcal serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility are important for regional diversity studies...
June 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492905/tenofovir-associated-bone-adverse-outcomes-among-a-us-national-historical-cohort-of-hiv-infected-veterans-risk-modification-by-concomitant-antiretrovirals
#20
Joanne LaFleur, Adam P Bress, Joel Myers, Lisa Rosenblatt, Jacob Crook, Kristin Knippenberg, Roger Bedimo, Pablo Tebas, Heather Nyman, Stephen Esker
INTRODUCTION: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been associated with greater incidences of bone complications, which might be modified by some concomitantly administered antiretrovirals, possibly by their effect on tenofovir concentrations. We compared bone adverse outcomes among treatment-naïve HIV-infected US veterans initiating efavirenz (EFV)-containing TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) regimens versus those initiating non-EFV-containing TDF/FTC regimens. METHODS: Using national Veterans Health Administration clinical and administrative data sets, we identified a cohort of treatment-naïve HIV-infected veterans without bone disease who initiated therapy with TDF/FTC plus EFV, rilpivirine, elvitegravir/cobicistat, or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in 2003-2015...
June 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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