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Infectious Diseases and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780736/vaccinations-for-the-hiv-infected-adult-a-review-of-the-current-recommendations-part-ii
#1
REVIEW
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Eva Sullivan
Vaccination is a critical component for ensuring the ongoing health HIV-infected adults. Since this group may have reduced immune responses and shorter durations of protection post-vaccination, HIV-specific guidelines have been published. This review article provides a comprehensive discussion of the current guidelines and evidence-based data for vaccinating HIV-infected adults, including data on dosing schedules, immunogenicity studies, and safety. In the current paper, part II of the review, live vaccines, as well as vaccines for travelers and specific occupational groups, will be discussed...
August 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779442/vaccinations-for-the-hiv-infected-adult-a-review-of-the-current-recommendations-part-i
#2
REVIEW
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Eva Sullivan
Vaccination is a critical component for ensuring the health of those living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by protection against vaccine-preventable diseases. Since HIV-infected persons may have reduced immune responses and shorter durations of protection post-vaccination, HIV-specific guidelines have been published by global and national advisory organizations to address these potential concerns. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current guidelines and evidence-based data for vaccinating HIV-infected adults, including guidance on modified vaccine dosing and testing strategies, as well as safety considerations, to enhance protection among this vulnerable population...
August 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695347/telavancin-in-the-treatment-of-concurrent-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-retrospective-analysis-of-atlas-and-attain-studies
#3
Samuel E Wilson, Donald R Graham, Whedy Wang, Jon B Bruss, Bibiana Castaneda-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Concurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) worsens outcomes and increases mortality in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia, and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP). These challenges highlight the need for alternative treatments. Telavancin (TLV), a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with high in vitro potency, effectively treats patients with cSSSI and HABP/VABP caused by Gram-positive pathogens, particularly S...
July 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677021/a-survey-of-patients-perspectives-on-outpatient-hiv-care-in-the-netherlands
#4
Esther A N Engelhard, Colette Smit, Frank P Kroon, Pythia T Nieuwkerk, Peter Reiss, Kees Brinkman, Suzanne E Geerlings
INTRODUCTION: Responding to patients' needs and preferences is important in the delivery of outpatient care. Recent and systematically collected data reflecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients' opinions on how their outpatient care should be delivered are lacking. Our aim was to identify aspects of care that people with HIV in outpatient care in The Netherlands consider important and to evaluate the extent to which the received care meets their expectations. METHODS: We measured patient preferences and experiences in a nationwide sample of HIV-infected patients using a modified, previously validated questionnaire (QUOTE-HIV)...
July 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677020/treatment-discontinuation-adherence-and-real-world-effectiveness-among-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-the-united-states
#5
Amy Puenpatom, Michael Hull, Jeffrey McPheeters, Kay Schwebke
INTRODUCTION: Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment provides an oral interferon-free treatment regimen with high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR). This study assessed treatment discontinuation, factors associated with treatment completion, and real-world effectiveness. METHODS: Patients with HCV treated with LDV/SOF between October 2014 and June 2015 and enrolled in a large US health plan were identified. Expected treatment duration was calculated based on IDSA/AASLD treatment guidelines and US labels using data for genotype, initial treatment regimen, baseline cirrhosis, and prior treatments...
July 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653300/defining-the-incidence-and-associated-morbidity-and-mortality-of-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-children-with-chronic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Paolo Manzoni, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Eric A F Simões, Paul A Checchia, Brigitte Fauroux, Louis Bont, Bosco Paes, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: REGAL (RSV Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) has provided a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This review covers the risk and burden of RSV infection in children with underlying medical conditions or chronic diseases (excluding prematurity and congenital heart disease). METHODS: A systematic review of publications between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015 across PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials...
June 26, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639145/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-theaflavin-epicatechin-combinations-versus-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#7
Jonathan W Betts, Michael Hornsey, David W Wareham, Roberto M La Ragione
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human nosocomial pathogen; most clinical isolates are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Infections caused by A. baumannii often lead to high morbidity and mortality, with limited treatment options. Owing to the small number of anti-Gram-negative antibiotics in the development pipeline, researchers are looking to other natural compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro kill kinetics, in vivo efficacy and toxicity of theaflavin-epicatechin combinations against MDR A...
June 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600755/a-review-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-the-female-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer L Bailey, Suzanne T Molino, Ana D Vega, Melissa Badowski
When taken consistently, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with once daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) has been shown to safely reduce the incidence of HIV infection in high-risk individuals by more than 90%. Yet, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there were about 2.1 million new cases of HIV reported worldwide in 2015. Undoubtedly, there is significant room for improvement to prevent the transmission of HIV. Research to date has been heavily focused on the high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) population, yet, many women worldwide remain at high risk of HIV transmission...
June 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477061/chronic-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-drug-injection-history-findings-of-the-integrate-prospective-observational-study
#9
Geert Robaeys, Stefan Christensen, Damien Lucidarme, Amber Arain, Philip Bruggmann, Jan Kunkel, Sofia Keim, Martin Jäkel, Ralph DeMasi, Chris Liu, Isabelle Lonjon-Domanec, Graham R Foster
INTRODUCTION: People who inject drugs represent an under-treated chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patient population. METHODS: INTEGRATE was a prospective, observational study investigating the effectiveness, safety, and adherence in routine clinical practice to telaprevir in combination with peg-interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in patients with history of injecting drug use chronically infected with genotype 1 HCV. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients were enrolled and included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417331/use-of-high-dose-oral-valacyclovir-during-an-intravenous-acyclovir-shortage-a-retrospective-analysis-of-tolerability-and-drug-shortage-management
#10
Milena M McLaughlin, Sarah H Sutton, Ashley O Jensen, John S Esterly
INTRODUCTION: In late 2011, a shortage of IV acyclovir led to the need to empirically substitute high-dose oral valacyclovir (HDVA) to conserve IV acyclovir for patients with confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis or encephalitis. This report describes the management of the most recent national IV acyclovir shortage by the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH), Chicago, IL, USA, and the use of HDVA. Secondarily, we assessed the safety and tolerability of HDVA as an alternate to IV acyclovir during this shortage...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386776/real-world-experience-with-oritavancin-therapy-in-invasive-gram-positive-infections
#11
Cassie L Stewart, Michelle S Turner, Jeremy J Frens, Cynthia B Snider, Jordan R Smith
INTRODUCTION: Oritavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide approved for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. The pharmacokinetic profile and convenient one-time dosing make oritavancin an enticing option for other serious Gram-positive infections requiring prolonged treatment courses. Unfortunately, data for using oritavancin in these populations are limited. METHODS: We report ten cases of oritavancin use for invasive Gram-positive infections in our health system, and provide a review of the currently available literature regarding oritavancin therapy for invasive infections...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374267/risk-factors-for-and-outcomes-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-infections-in-children
#12
Adaora S Uzodi, Christine M Lohse, Ritu Banerjee
INTRODUCTION: The recent increase in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli infections is not well described in children. We determined the risk factors and outcomes of extraintestinal E. coli infections in children in our region. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children ≤18 years in Olmsted County, MN, USA, between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. MDR isolates were defined as resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes. RESULTS: A total of 368 children each contributed 1 isolate...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357708/a-review-of-diagnostic-methods-for-invasive-fungal-diseases-challenges-and-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Diego R Falci, Claudio M B Stadnik, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
Invasive fungal diseases are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, particularly in the context of immunosuppression. Diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases is usually complicated by factors such as poor clinical suspicion and unspecific clinical findings. Access to modern diagnostic tools is frequently limited in developing countries. Here, we describe five real-life clinical cases from a Brazilian tertiary hospital, in order to illustrate how to best select diagnostic tests in patients with different fungal infections...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357707/comment-on-nu%C3%A3-o-solin%C3%A3-s-r-et-al-value-of-treating-all-stages-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-comprehensive-review-of-clinical-and-economic-evidence
#14
LETTER
Patrice Cacoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357706/the-burden-and-long-term-respiratory-morbidity-associated-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-early-childhood
#15
REVIEW
Brigitte Fauroux, Eric A F Simões, Paul A Checchia, Bosco Paes, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Paolo Manzoni, Louis Bont, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. The objective of this fifth publication was to determine the long-term respiratory morbidity associated with RSV lower respiratory tract infection (RSV LRTI) in early life. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357705/minocycline-for-the-treatment-of-multidrug-and-extensively-drug-resistant-a-baumannii-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer N Lashinsky, Oryan Henig, Jason M Pogue, Keith S Kaye
Acinetobacter baumannii can cause life-threatening nosocomial infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In recent years, the increasing number of infections due to extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter with limited treatment options has resulted in a need for additional therapeutic agents, and a renaissance of older, neglected antimicrobials. This has led to an increased interest in the use of minocycline to treat these infections. Minocycline has been shown to overcome many resistance mechanisms affecting other tetracyclines in A...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285420/fosfomycin-and-comparator-activity-against-select-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-and-enterococcus-urinary-tract-infection-isolates-from-the-united-states-in-2012
#17
Tiffany R Keepers, Marcela Gomez, Chris Celeri, Kevin M Krause, Donald Biek, Ian Critchley
INTRODUCTION: Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum cell wall active agent that inhibits the MurA enzyme involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and is FDA-approved for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in women. Data regarding the susceptibility of recent UTI isolates to fosfomycin are limited. METHODS: This study compared the fosfomycin susceptibility of 658 US UTI isolates with susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT)...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265972/the-safety-and-economic-impact-of-cefazolin-versus-nafcillin-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections
#18
Lauren K Flynt, Rachel M Kenney, Marcus J Zervos, Susan L Davis
INTRODUCTION: Anti-staphylococcal penicillins are generally accepted as first-line therapy for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia, but their use may be limited by interstitial nephritis and acute kidney injury. Alternatives include first-generation cephalosporins including cefazolin. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare adverse effects and clinical outcomes among patients with MSSA bacteremia treated with cefazolin or nafcillin...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260148/anticipating-the-unpredictable-a-review-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-acinetobacter-infections
#19
REVIEW
Eric Wenzler, Debra A Goff, Romney Humphries, Ellie J C Goldstein
Acinetobacter remains one of the most challenging pathogens in the field of infectious diseases owing primarily to the uniqueness and multiplicity of its resistance mechanisms. This resistance often leads to devastatingly long delays in time to appropriate therapy and increased mortality for patients afflicted with Acinetobacter infections. Selecting appropriate empiric and definitive antibacterial therapy for Acinetobacter is further complicated by the lack of reliability in commercial antimicrobial susceptibility testing devices and limited breakpoint interpretations for available agents...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258506/persistent-hepatitis-e-infection-in-a-patient-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-treated-with-everolimus-a-case-report
#20
Wobke E M van Dijk, Menno A M H Vergeer, Joop E Arends
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of hepatitis E (HEV) genotype 3 is rising in developed countries. HEV infections are usually self-limiting, but can become chronic in immunocompromised patients. This might lead to rapid fibrosis development even resulting in cirrhosis. Chronic HEV is mainly described in patients after solid-organ or hematological transplantations. We present the first case of HEV infection in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) treated with everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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