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Infectious Diseases and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204910/who-is-the-patient-at-risk-of-cmv-recurrence-a-review-of-the-current-scientific-evidence-with-a-focus-on-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Jan Styczynski
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an agent of global infection, and its acquisition in a population is characterized by an age-dependent rise in seropositivity. After primary infection, CMV remains in the host cells in latent form, and it can reactivate in the case of immune suppression. The risk of CMV recurrence is dependent on the level of incompetency of the immune system, manifested as an impairment of T-cell immunity, including the presence and function of CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This article presents data on the incidence of CMV recurrence in groups of immunocompromised patients, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and other groups of patients, based on a summary of reported data...
December 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164489/antimicrobial-stewardship-opportunities-in-critically-ill-patients-with-gram-negative-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-analysis
#2
Kimberly C Claeys, Evan J Zasowski, Trang D Trinh, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major cause of morbidity and death. Because of changes in how LRTIs are defined coupled with the increasing prevalence of drug resistance, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the current burden of antimicrobial use for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined LRTIs. We describe the infection characteristics, antibiotic consumption, and clinical and economic outcomes of patients with Gram-negative (GN) LRTIs treated in intensive care units (ICUs)...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149439/trends-in-utilization-of-outpatient-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-with-palivizumab-among-medicaid-and-commercially-insured-infants
#3
Melissa Pavilack, Robert A Clifford, Tara Gonzales, Amanda M Kong, Sally Wade, Kimmie K McLaurin
INTRODUCTION: Palivizumab is indicated for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in high-risk children. Previous palivizumab utilization studies examined prior authorization claims but did not examine utilization within insured populations as a whole. This study describes outpatient palivizumab utilization trends and characterizes high-risk infants receiving palivizumab within Medicaid- and commercially insured populations. METHODS: Infants born July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2013 were identified in the MarketScan(®) Multistate Medicaid and Commercial claims databases...
November 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080067/interventions-targeting-the-prescribing-and-monitoring-of-vancomycin-for-hospitalized-patients-a-systematic-review-protocol
#4
REVIEW
Cameron J Phillips, Alice J Wisdom, Ross A McKinnon, Richard J Woodman, David L Gordon
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin remains one of our essential antibiotics after fifty years of treating serious infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin, unlike many other antibiotic agents, requires individualized dosing and monitoring of serum drug levels to ensure it is efficacious, to minimize toxicity, and to limit the development of antibiotic resistance. These issues have led to numerous vancomycin clinical practice guidelines being published in recent years including several key national guidelines...
October 27, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071666/correction-to-expanding-antimicrobial-stewardship-to-urgent-care-centers-through-a-pharmacist-led-culture-follow-up-program
#5
Lisa E Dumkow, Thomas S Beuschel, Kasey L Brandt
In the original publication, the data labels have been inverted in Figure 1. The corrected figure is given here.
October 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071665/new-viral-and-immunological-targets-for-hepatitis-b-treatment-and-cure-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Joop E Arends, Faydra I Lieveld, Shazaad Ahmad, Andrew Ustianowski
Although current therapies can be successful at suppressing hepatitis B viral load, long-term viral cure is not within reach. Subsequent strategies combining pegylated interferon alfa with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues have not resulted in any major paradigm shift. An improved understanding of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) lifec ycle and virus-induced immune dysregulation has, however, revealed many potential therapeutic targets, and there are hopes that treatment of hepatitis B could soon be revolutionized...
October 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058126/time-kill-analysis-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-efficacy-against-mucoid-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#7
Hana Rac, Kayla R Stover, Jamie L Wagner, S Travis King, Henderson D Warnock, Katie E Barber
INTRODUCTION: Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MP) strains in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are thought to initiate the chronic infection stage of CF and are associated with pulmonary function decline. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the susceptibility of MP strains to ceftolozane/tazobactam and the efficacy of ceftolozane/tazobactam against MP strains compared with those for standard-of-care antipseudomonal antibiotics. METHODS: Ten clinical isolates of MP from CF patients were tested for susceptibility with Etest and time-kill analysis with ceftolozane/tazobactam compared with ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, tobramycin, and polymyxin B...
October 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019097/efficacy-of-conventional-and-liposomal-povidone-iodine-in-infected-mesh-skin-grafts-an-exploratory-study
#8
Peter M Vogt, Joerg Hauser, Stefan Mueller, Bjoern Bosse, Michael Hopp
INTRODUCTION: Infection is a major threat to wound healing and a leading cause of graft loss in patients undergoing meshed skin grafts (MSGs). Therefore, topical antisepsis is important in the overall treatment scheme. METHODS: An exploratory satellite group of 14 patients with infected MSGs were enrolled as part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label, pilot Phase II study that investigated the efficacy and tolerability of 3% liposomal povidone-iodine hydrogel (PVP-ILH, Repithel(®); RepiGel(®)) versus chlorhexidine gauze in non-infected MSGs...
October 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939957/effect-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-r%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dasabuvir-on-renal-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-extrahepatic-manifestations-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-phase-3-clinical-trials
#9
Darshan A Mehta, Eric Cohen, Mariem Charafeddine, Daniel E Cohen, Yanjun Bao, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez, Tram T Tran
INTRODUCTION: We analyzed phase 3 trial data of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D) ± ribavirin (RBV) in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients to investigate the impact of 3D ± RBV on renal, cardiovascular and metabolic extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), including persistency 52 weeks post treatment and differential impact by EHM disease severity. METHODS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fasting triglyceride and fasting glucose values from clinical trials were used to assess renal, cardiovascular and metabolic EHMs, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052109/assessments-of-opportunities-to-improve-antibiotic-prescribing-in-an-emergency-department-a-period-prevalence-survey
#10
Tristan T Timbrook, Aisling R Caffrey, Anais Ovalle, Maya Beganovic, William Curioso, Melissa Gaitanis, Kerry L LaPlante
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 30% of all outpatient antimicrobials are inappropriately prescribed. Currently, antimicrobial prescribing patterns in emergency departments (ED) are not well described. Determining inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing patterns and opportunities for interventions by antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) are needed. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed among a random sample of non-admitted, adult patients who received an antimicrobial prescription in the ED from January 1 to December 31, 2015...
December 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866800/chronologic-age-at-hospitalization-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-among-preterm-and-term-infants-in-the-united-states
#11
Rohan C Parikh, Kimmie K McLaurin, Andrea V Margulis, Josephine Mauskopf, Christopher S Ambrose, Melissa Pavilack, Sean D Candrilli
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants in the United States, and the risk for RSV hospitalizations is greater for infants born preterm. Recent studies in preterm and term infants have shown that RSV hospitalization rates vary considerably depending on infant chronologic age. This study sought to aggregate the data available from published literature and from nationally representative databases of US infant hospitalizations to generate a composite description of the effect of young chronologic age on RSV hospitalizations among US preterm and term infants by individual month of age...
December 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905222/a-single-center-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-maternal-and-infant-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-mothers-treated-with-integrase-inhibitors-during-pregnancy
#12
Monique L Mounce, Laura Pontiggia, Jessica L Adams
INTRODUCTION: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) are currently being investigated for the treatment of HIV in pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences in maternal and infant outcomes in HIV-positive mothers treated with INSTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy compared to protease inhibitor (PI)-containing ART. METHODS: A retrospective, cohort study of INSTI- and PI-based ART used in pregnancy between 2007 and 2015 was performed...
September 13, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875465/measles-rubella-and-varicella-igg-seroprevalence-in-a-large-refugee-cohort-in-germany-in-2015-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Alexandra Jablonka, Christine Happle, Martin Wetzke, Christian Dopfer, Sonja Merkesdal, Reinhold E Schmidt, Georg M N Behrens, Philipp Solbach
INTRODUCTION: The current extent of migration to the European continent is associated with exceptional humanitarian challenges. In 2015, Western Europe faced an enormous immigration of refugees with largely unknown protection status against communicable diseases. To adapt vaccination strategies, we aimed at assessing seroprevalences against three of the most relevant vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) in a large representative cohort. METHODS: IgG seroprevalences for rubella, varicella (n = 554) and measles (n = 552) were analyzed in inhabitants of a Northern German refugee camp in the summer of 2015...
September 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853035/expanding-antimicrobial-stewardship-to-urgent-care-centers-through-a-pharmacist-led-culture-follow-up-program
#14
Lisa E Dumkow, Thomas S Beuschel, Kasey L Brandt
INTRODUCTION: Urgent care centers represent a high-volume outpatient setting where antibiotics are prescribed frequently but resources for antimicrobial stewardship may be scarce. In 2015, our pharmacist-led Emergency Department (ED) culture follow-up program was expanded to include two urgent care (UC) sites within the same health system. The UC program is conducted by ED and infectious diseases clinical pharmacists as well as PGY1 pharmacy residents using a collaborative practice agreement (CPA)...
September 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780736/vaccinations-for-the-hiv-infected-adult-a-review-of-the-current-recommendations-part-ii
#15
REVIEW
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Eva Sullivan
Vaccination is a critical component for ensuring the ongoing health HIV-infected adults. Since this group may have reduced immune responses and shorter durations of protection post-vaccination, HIV-specific guidelines have been published. This review article provides a comprehensive discussion of the current guidelines and evidence-based data for vaccinating HIV-infected adults, including data on dosing schedules, immunogenicity studies, and safety. In the current paper, part II of the review, live vaccines, as well as vaccines for travelers and specific occupational groups, will be discussed...
September 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779442/vaccinations-for-the-hiv-infected-adult-a-review-of-the-current-recommendations-part-i
#16
REVIEW
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Eva Sullivan
Vaccination is a critical component for ensuring the health of those living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by protection against vaccine-preventable diseases. Since HIV-infected persons may have reduced immune responses and shorter durations of protection post-vaccination, HIV-specific guidelines have been published by global and national advisory organizations to address these potential concerns. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current guidelines and evidence-based data for vaccinating HIV-infected adults, including guidance on modified vaccine dosing and testing strategies, as well as safety considerations, to enhance protection among this vulnerable population...
September 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695347/telavancin-in-the-treatment-of-concurrent-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-retrospective-analysis-of-atlas-and-attain-studies
#17
Samuel E Wilson, Donald R Graham, Whedy Wang, Jon B Bruss, Bibiana Castaneda-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Concurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) worsens outcomes and increases mortality in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia, and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP). These challenges highlight the need for alternative treatments. Telavancin (TLV), a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with high in vitro potency, effectively treats patients with cSSSI and HABP/VABP caused by Gram-positive pathogens, particularly S...
September 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677021/a-survey-of-patients-perspectives-on-outpatient-hiv-care-in-the-netherlands
#18
Esther A N Engelhard, Colette Smit, Frank P Kroon, Pythia T Nieuwkerk, Peter Reiss, Kees Brinkman, Suzanne E Geerlings
INTRODUCTION: Responding to patients' needs and preferences is important in the delivery of outpatient care. Recent and systematically collected data reflecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients' opinions on how their outpatient care should be delivered are lacking. Our aim was to identify aspects of care that people with HIV in outpatient care in The Netherlands consider important and to evaluate the extent to which the received care meets their expectations. METHODS: We measured patient preferences and experiences in a nationwide sample of HIV-infected patients using a modified, previously validated questionnaire (QUOTE-HIV)...
September 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677020/treatment-discontinuation-adherence-and-real-world-effectiveness-among-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-the-united-states
#19
Amy Puenpatom, Michael Hull, Jeffrey McPheeters, Kay Schwebke
INTRODUCTION: Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment provides an oral interferon-free treatment regimen with high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR). This study assessed treatment discontinuation, factors associated with treatment completion, and real-world effectiveness. METHODS: Patients with HCV treated with LDV/SOF between October 2014 and June 2015 and enrolled in a large US health plan were identified. Expected treatment duration was calculated based on IDSA/AASLD treatment guidelines and US labels using data for genotype, initial treatment regimen, baseline cirrhosis, and prior treatments...
September 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653300/defining-the-incidence-and-associated-morbidity-and-mortality-of-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-children-with-chronic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Paolo Manzoni, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Eric A F Simões, Paul A Checchia, Brigitte Fauroux, Louis Bont, Bosco Paes, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: REGAL (RSV Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) has provided a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This review covers the risk and burden of RSV infection in children with underlying medical conditions or chronic diseases (excluding prematurity and congenital heart disease). METHODS: A systematic review of publications between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015 across PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials...
September 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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