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Pain and Therapy

Erik Torbjørn Løhre, Marianne Jensen Hjermstad, Cinzia Brunelli, Anne Kari Knudsen, Stein Kaasa, Pål Klepstad
INTRODUCTION: Different definitions of breakthrough pain (BTP) influence the observed BTP prevalence. This study examined BTP prevalence variability due to use of different cutoffs for controlled background pain, different assessment periods for background pain, and difference between worst and average pain intensity (PI). METHODS: Cancer patients from the EPCRC-CSA study who reported flare-ups of pain past 24 h were potential BTP cases. BTP prevalence was calculated for different cutoffs for background PI on numeric rating scales (NRS 0-10) for the past week, past 48 and past 24 h period...
November 10, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Tong J Gan, Robert S Epstein, Megan L Leone-Perkins, Tehseen Salimi, Sheikh Usman Iqbal, Peter G Whang
INTRODUCTION: The management of acute postoperative pain remains a significant challenge for physicians. Poorly controlled postoperative pain is associated with poorer overall outcomes. METHODS: Between April and May 2017, physicians from an online database who regularly prescribe intravenous (IV) medications for acute postoperative pain completed a 47-question survey on topics such as patient demographics, IV analgesia preferences, factors that influence prescribing decisions, and the challenges and unmet needs for the treatment of acute postoperative pain...
October 26, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Edward A Shipton
Globally, in 2016, low back pain (LBP) contributed 57.6 million of total years lived with disability. Low Back Pain Guidelines regularly recommend the use of physical exercise for non-specific LBP. Early non-pharmacological treatment is endorsed. This includes education and self-management, and the recommencement of normal activities and exercise, with the addition of psychological programs in those whose symptoms persist. The aim of physical treatments is to improve function and prevent disability from getting worse...
September 18, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Vwaire Orhurhu, Ivan Urits, Mayowa Olusunmade, Khurram Owais, Mark Jones, Annemarie Galasso, Mariam Salisu Orhurhu, Issa Mohammed
INTRODUCTION: Co-morbid depression has been associated with poor outcomes following spine surgery and worsening of low back pain symptoms leading to failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Given the increasing focus of healthcare utilization and value-based care, it is essential to understand the demographic and economic data surrounding co-morbid depression amongst patients with FBSS. METHODS: Our study investigated the NIS database for FBSS patients who had co-morbid depression (ICD-9 CM codes 300...
September 14, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Elspeth E Shipton, Frank Bate, Raymond Garrick, Carole Steketee, Edward A Shipton, Eric J Visser
INTRODUCTION: Pain management is a major health care challenge in terms of the significant prevalence of pain and the negative consequences of poor management. Consequently, there have been international calls to improve pain medicine education for medical students. This systematic review examines the literature on pain medicine education at medical schools internationally, with a particular interest in studies that make reference to: a defined pain medicine curriculum, specific pain medicine learning objectives, dedicated pain education modules, core pain topics, medical specialties that teach pain medicine, elective study opportunities, hours allocated to teaching pain medicine during the curriculum, the status of pain medicine in the curriculum (compulsory or optional), as well as teaching, learning, and assessment methods...
July 30, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Concepción Pérez-Hernández, Antonio Javier Jiménez-López, Almudena Sanz-Yagüe, Javier Mar-Medina, Igor Larrañaga, Begoña Soler-López
INTRODUCTION: Breakthrough pain (BTP) has great repercussions on the quality of life, and on the use of health resources. The scope of BTP costs in cancer patients is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic cost of BTP in patients with cancer and the relationship with their quality of life. METHODS: A 1-month observational prospective cost-of-illness study was designed. The patients recorded the consumption of health resources and drugs related to BTP in a diary...
July 5, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Fabiola Atzeni, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
Diclofenac is widely used to manage chronic inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, and extra-articular rheumatism. Its various mechanisms of action make it particularly effective in treating nociceptive pain, but it is also an alternative for treating spinal and chronic central pain. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the most frequently encountered arthritic conditions in adults. The management of nociceptive pain requires a sequential hierarchical approach, with the initial NSAID treatment being characterized by the replacement of one drug with another, or complete discontinuation usually because of insufficient pain control...
June 5, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Patrick D Dißmann, Maxime Maignan, Paul D Cloves, Blanca Gutierrez Parres, Sara Dickerson, Alice Eberhardt
Trauma pain represents a large proportion of admissions to emergency departments across Europe. There is currently an unmet need in the treatment of trauma pain extending throughout the patient journey in emergency settings. This review aims to explore these unmet needs and describe barriers to the delivery of effective analgesia for trauma pain in emergency settings. A comprehensive, qualitative review of the literature was conducted using a structured search strategy (Medline, Embase and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews) along with additional Internet-based sources to identify relevant human studies published in the prior 11 years (January 2006-December 2017)...
June 2, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Mark R Jones, Omar Viswanath, Jacquelin Peck, Alan D Kaye, Jatinder S Gill, Thomas T Simopoulos
The opioid epidemic has resulted from myriad causes and will not be solved by any simple solution. Consequent to a staggering increase in opioid-related deaths in the USA, various governmental inputs and stakeholder strategies have been proposed and implemented with varying success. This article summarizes the history of opioid use and explores the causes for the present day epidemic. Recent trends in opioid-related data demonstrate an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008. Tragically, opioids claimed over 64,000 lives just last year...
June 2018: Pain and Therapy
Edward A Shipton, Elspeth E Shipton, Ashleigh J Shipton
The opioid epidemic, with its noticeable increase in opioid prescriptions and related misuse, abuse and resultant deaths in the previous 12 years, is a particularly North American phenomenon. Europe, and particularly low- and middle-income countries, appear to be less influenced by this problem. There is undisputable value in using opioids not only in the treatment of acute pain, but in cancer pain as well. However, opioids are progressively being prescribed more and more for chronic non-cancer pain, despite inadequate data on their efficacy...
June 2018: Pain and Therapy
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert Taylor, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert B Raffa, John Bisney
Tapentadol is a novel pain reliever with apparently synergistic dual mechanisms of action, capable of addressing both nociceptive and neuropathic components of chronic pain. As an effective analgesic with good tolerability, tapentadol may be appropriate for patients suffering from severe chronic pain associated with low back pain (LBP) or osteoarthritis (OA). Efficacy studies of tapentadol in populations of patients with severe chronic LBP or OA pain suggest that tapentadol is non-inferior to oxycodone. Its tolerability, especially with respect to gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, may be better than that of other strong opioids in clinical trials and analyses of multiple trials...
June 2018: Pain and Therapy
Giustino Varrassi, Mariella Fusco, Stephen D Skaper, Daniele Battelli, Panagiotis Zis, Stefano Coaccioli, Maria Caterina Pace, Antonella Paladini
Chronic pain is an important health and social problem. Misuse and abuse of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain management seem to be a huge problem, in some countries. This could probably affect the normal use of such analgesics in patients in need of them. Basic and clinical researches should find the solution to mitigate the potential damage. Dysregulation of mast cell and microglia activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and management of chronic pain. Persistent mast cell activation sensitizes nociceptors and initiates central nervous system inflammatory processes, involving microglial cell activation and sensitization of spinal somatosensory neurons...
June 2018: Pain and Therapy
Flavio Marti, Antonella Paladini, Giustino Varrassi, Roberto Latina
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents' pain experiences are complex and multidimensional, and evaluating pain only from a sensory and affective point of view may be in many instances limiting and inadequate; this is the reason why it is of paramount importance to identify the tools which can better assess the pain experienced by young patients. A person-oriented approach is highly encouraged, as it may better investigate the cognitive and behavioral development typical of this age group. The aim of this review paper is to describe the available tools which are able to adequately assess pain intensity in adolescents, in particular those validated in Italian...
June 2018: Pain and Therapy
Vasiliki Brozou, Athina Vadalouca, Panagiotis Zis
INTRODUCTION: Platin-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is a common cause of PN in cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the current literature regarding PIPN, with a particular focus on epidemiological and clinical characteristics of painful PIPN, and to discuss relevant management strategies. METHODS: A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted on the PubMed database. RESULTS: This search strategy resulted in the identification of 353 articles...
June 2018: Pain and Therapy
Kristallia Vitoula, Annalena Venneri, Giustino Varrassi, Antonella Paladini, Panagiota Sykioti, Joy Adewusi, Panagiotis Zis
Low back pain is one of the most common causes for seeking medical treatment and it is estimated that one in two people will experience low back pain at some point during their lifetimes. Management of low back pain includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Non-pharmaceutical treatments include interventions such as acupuncture, spinal manipulation, and psychotherapy. The latter is especially important as patients who suffer from low back pain often have impaired quality of life and also suffer from depression...
May 16, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Cynthia Kay, Erica Wozniak, Alice Ching, Joanne Bernstein
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic pain is enormous. In America, the management of chronic pain and opioids remains a critical focus. Guidelines recommend pain agreements as part of the management of chronic pain and opioids; however, evidence of improvement in patient outcomes is lacking. An aspect of patient outcome includes utilization of healthcare resources, such as emergency department visits and hospitalizations. It remains uncertain whether the use of pain agreements lessens healthcare utilization...
May 11, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Giorgio Cruccu, Andrea Truini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
Andrea Truini
Neuropathic pain develops when the somatosensory nervous system is affected by a lesion or disease. Diagnostic tests aimed at assessing somatosensory afferent pathway damage are therefore useful for diagnosing neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain manifests with a range of different symptoms such as ongoing burning pain, squeezing or pressure pain, paroxysmal electric shock-like sensations, stabbing pain, or mechanical dynamic allodynia. The various types of neuropathic pain are associated with different underlying nerve fiber abnormalities...
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
Luigi Ferini-Strambi
Neuropathic pain is associated with sleep disturbances, and in turn poor sleep quality leads to increased pain sensitivity, so it is essential to assess sleep alongside neuropathic pain. Responses to drugs are inconsistent and identifying the best treatment option that will reduce pain and improve sleep quality remains challenging for clinicians. Anticonvulsants such as pregabalin and gabapentin improve neuropathic pain and have a positive effect on comorbid sleep disturbances. Opioids and antidepressants are effective in reducing pain but can exacerbate sleep disturbances...
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
Riccardo Torta, Valentina Ieraci, Francesca Zizzi
Neuropathic pain is characterized by both sensory and affective disturbances, supporting the notion that pain and mood disorders share common pathogenetic mechanisms. Moreover, biological and neuroimaging data show that common brain areas are involved in the modulation of painful and emotional experiences. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of neuroinflammation in regulation of affective behavior in neuropathic pain states is important for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
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