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Microbial Cell

Rebeca L Vicente, Lucie Spina, Jose P L Gómez, Sebastien Dejean, Jean-Luc Parrou, Jean Marie François
The yeast trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) catalyzes the formation of trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) in trehalose synthesis. Besides, Tps1 plays a key role in carbon and energy homeostasis in this microbial cell, as shown by the well documented loss of ATP and hyper accumulation of sugar phosphates in response to glucose addition in a mutant defective in this protein. The inability of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tps1 mutant to cope with fermentable sugars is still a matter of debate. We reexamined this question through a quantitative analysis of the capability of TPS1 homologues from different origins to complement phenotypic defects of this mutant...
October 1, 2018: Microbial Cell
Aileen K Sewell, Min Han, Bin Qi
Iron plays many critical roles in human biology, such as aiding the transport of oxygen and mediating redox reactions. Iron is essential for life, yet little is known about how iron is taken up into mitochondria to impact the labile iron pool. Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent human nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world and is a major cause of anemia that affects >25% of the world's population, but unfortunately the current treatment (oral iron supplementation) is inefficient and has many side effects...
September 27, 2018: Microbial Cell
Michael T Ringel, Thomas Brüser
Pyoverdines are fluorescent siderophores of pseudomonads that play important roles for growth under iron-limiting conditions. The production of pyoverdines by fluorescent pseudomonads permits their colonization of hosts ranging from humans to plants. Prominent examples include pathogenic or non-pathogenic species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , P. putida , P. syringae , or P. fluorescens . Many distinct pyoverdines have been identified, all of which have a dihydroxyquinoline fluorophore in common, derived from oxidative cyclizations of non-ribosomal peptides...
August 28, 2018: Microbial Cell
Borka Jojic, Simona Amodeo, Torsten Ochsenreiter
The translationally controlled tumor protein TCTP, is a universally conserved protein that seems to be of essential function in all systems tested so far. TCTP is involved in a multitude of cellular functions including cell cycle control, cell division, apoptosis and many more. The mechanism of how TCTP is involved in most of these functions remains elusive. Here we describe that TCTP is a cytoplasmic protein involved in cell cycle regulation and heat stress response in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei ...
August 24, 2018: Microbial Cell
Winnie Kerstens, Patrick V Dijck
Recently, several research groups have assigned non-vacuolar functions to the well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar proteases Pep4 and Prb1, which are also known as proteinases A and B. These non-vacuolar activities seem to be autophagy-independent and stress-induced and suggest an unexplored but possibly prominent role for the proteases outside the vacuole. The functions range from the involvement in programmed cell death, to protection from hazardous protein forms and regulation of gene expression...
August 18, 2018: Microbial Cell
Imane El Meouche, Johann Peltier
Clostridium difficile , also known as Clostriodioides difficile , is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium and a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in nosocomial environments. The key virulence factors of this pathogen are two toxins, toxin A and toxin B, released from the cells to the gut and causing colonic injury and inflammation. Although their mechanism of action is well known, the toxins A and B have no peptide signals and their secretion mechanisms involving the holin-like protein TcdE and autolysis are still under active investigation...
August 10, 2018: Microbial Cell
Wei-Dong Zhao, Dong-Xin Liu, Yu-Hua Chen
Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the key step essential for the development of meningitis. In a recent paper (Nat Commun 9:2296), we identify Caspr1 as a host receptor for E. coli virulence factor IbeA to pave the way the penetration of bacteria through the BBB. Bacterial IbeA interacts with endothelial Caspr1 to trigger intracellular focal adhesion kinase activation, leading to E. coli internalization into the brain endothelial cells. Importantly, endothelial knockout of Caspr1 in mice significantly reduced E...
August 7, 2018: Microbial Cell
Ganduri Swapna, Eun Y Yu, Neal F Lue
Telomeres play important roles in genome stability and cell proliferation. Telomere lengths are heterogeneous and because just a few abnormal telomeres are sufficient to trigger significant cellular response, it is informative to have accurate assays that reveal not only average telomere lengths, but also the distribution of the longest and shortest telomeres in a given sample. Herein we report for the first time, the development of single telomere length analysis (STELA) - a PCR-based assay that amplifies multiple, individual telomeres - for Ustilago maydis , a basidiomycete fungus...
August 7, 2018: Microbial Cell
Louise Basmaciyan, Laurence Berry, Julie Gros, Nadine Azas, Magali Casanova
The leishmaniases are worldwide neglected tropical diseases caused by parasitic protozoa of the Leishmania genus. Different stimuli induce Leishmania cell death, but the proteins involved remain poorly understood. Furthermore, confusion often appears between cell death and the cell survival process autophagy, whose phenotype is not clearly defined. In this article, we present a comprehensive and temporal analysis of the cellular events occurring during miltefosine-induced cell death and autophagy in L. major ...
August 1, 2018: Microbial Cell
Sandra A Touati, Frank Uhlmann
The cell cycle is the process by which a cell duplicates its DNA during S-phase and divides its chromosomes during M-phase, creating two genetically identical daughter cells. Cell cycle events are ordered by synthesis and degradation of key cell regulators and by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of numerous substrates. Phosphorylation can alter the activity, interactions or subcellular localization of a protein. A substrate's phosphorylation status is the readout of competing activities of kinases and phosphatases that target each of its phosphorylation sites...
July 25, 2018: Microbial Cell
Madushi Wanaguru, Kate N Bishop
The gammaretroviral gag cleavage product, p12, is essential for replication at both early and late stages of the virus life cycle. During the early stage of infection, the viral core is released into the cytoplasm, the viral RNA genome is reversed transcribed to cDNA and this viral DNA is then integrated into the host cell chromatin to form a provirus. The p12 protein has N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) that are required for steps leading up to integration, but the molecular details of their functions remain poorly characterised...
July 24, 2018: Microbial Cell
Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, Kai Li Ong, Ravina Shah, Alexandra K Strich, Julianne H Grose, Katrina F Cooper
Eukaryotic cells, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, mount either pro-survival or pro-death programs. The conserved cyclin C-Cdk8 kinase plays a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, along with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core Mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction, which releases cyclin C into the cytoplasm to promote mitochondrial fission and programmed cell death. The SCFGrr1 ubiquitin ligase mediates Med13 degradation dependent on the cell wall integrity pathway, MAPK Slt2...
June 25, 2018: Microbial Cell
Kid Kohl, Haroun Zangger, Matteo Rossi, Nathalie Isorce, Lon-Fye Lye, Katherine L Owens, Stephen M Beverley, Andreas Mayer, Nicolas Fasel
Protozoan parasites contain negatively charged polymers of a few up to several hundreds of phosphate residues. In other organisms, these poly-phosphate (polyP) chains serve as an energy source and phosphate reservoir, and have been implicated in adaptation to stress and virulence of pathogenic organisms. In this study, we confirmed first that the polyP polymerase vacuolar transporter chaperone 4 ( VTC4 ) is responsible for polyP synthesis in Leishmania parasites. During Leishmania in vitro culture, polyP is accumulated in logarithmic growth phase and subsequently consumed once stationary phase is reached...
June 22, 2018: Microbial Cell
Patrick Van Dijck, Jelmer Sjollema, Bruno P Cammue, Katrien Lagrou, Judith Berman, Christophe d'Enfert, David R Andes, Maiken C Arendrup, Axel A Brakhage, Richard Calderone, Emilia Cantón, Tom Coenye, Paul Cos, Leah E Cowen, Mira Edgerton, Ana Espinel-Ingroff, Scott G Filler, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Neil A R Gow, Hubertus Haas, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk, Elizabeth M Johnson, Shawn R Lockhart, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Johan Maertens, Carol A Munro, Jeniel E Nett, Clarissa J Nobile, Michael A Pfaller, Gordon Ramage, Dominique Sanglard, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Isabel Spriet, Paul E Verweij, Adilia Warris, Joost Wauters, Michael R Yeaman, Sebastian A J Zaat, Karin Thevissen
Unlike superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails, which are the most common fungal diseases in humans, invasive fungal infections carry high morbidity and mortality, particularly those associated with biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices. Therapeutic management of these complex diseases is often complicated by the rise in resistance to the commonly used antifungal agents. Therefore, the availability of accurate susceptibility testing methods for determining antifungal resistance, as well as discovery of novel antifungal and antibiofilm agents, are key priorities in medical mycology research...
June 14, 2018: Microbial Cell
Gabriele A Fontana, Julia K Reinert, Nicolas H Thomä, Ulrich Rass
Cells have evolved conserved mechanisms to protect DNA ends, such as those at the termini of linear chromosomes, or those at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In eukaryotes, DNA ends at chromosomal termini are packaged into proteinaceous structures called telomeres. Telomeres protect chromosome ends from erosion, inadvertent activation of the cellular DNA damage response (DDR), and telomere fusion. In contrast, cells must respond to damage-induced DNA ends at DSBs by harnessing the DDR to restore chromosome integrity, avoiding genome instability and disease...
May 17, 2018: Microbial Cell
Jesús García-Martínez, Rafael D Maldonado, Noemí M Guzmán, Francisco J M Mojica
CRISPR-Cas represents a prokaryotic defense mechanism against invading genetic elements. Although there is a diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems, they all share similar, essential traits. In general, a CRISPR-Cas system consists of one or more groups of DNA repeats named CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), regularly separated by unique sequences referred to as spacers, and a set of functionally associated cas (CRISPR associated) genes typically located next to one of the repeat arrays...
May 16, 2018: Microbial Cell
Maria A Bauer, Katharina Kainz, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Frank Madeo
Many microbial communities live in highly competitive surroundings, in which the fight for resources determines their survival and genetic persistence. Humans live in a close relationship with microbial communities, which includes the health- and disease-determining interactions with our microbiome. Accordingly, the understanding of microbial competitive activities are essential at physiological and pathophysiological levels. Here we provide a brief overview on microbial competition and discuss some of its roles and consequences that directly affect humans...
May 7, 2018: Microbial Cell
Soham Gupta, Päivi Ylä-Anttila, Maria G Masucci
Upon infection, viral nucleic acids are recognized by germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), and cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases (RLHs) that initiate signaling pathways resulting in the production of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Binding of RIG-I to viral nucleic acids triggers the formation of the RIG-I signalosome where RIG-I is ubiquitinated by the TRIM25 ligase and, with the help of 14-3-3 scaffolds, further translocated to mitochondrial anti-viral signalling proteins (MAVS)...
April 11, 2018: Microbial Cell
Vera Troselj, Daniel Wall
Bacteria in nature live in taxonomically complex communities where multitude of species and strains inhabit the same niches and compete for limited resources and space. Surviving in these competitive environments requires mechanisms to recognize and associate with kin and to discriminate against non-kin to increase reproductive success among close relatives. Some of the mechanisms bacteria use to address genetic differences are surface receptors, diffusible signals (e.g. quorum sensing) and toxin-immunity systems (e...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Cell
Maurizio D Baroni, Sonia Colombo, Enzo Martegani
Aspirin and its main metabolite salicylate are promising molecules in preventing cancer and metabolic diseases. S. cerevisiae cells have been used to study some of their effects: (i) salicylate induces the reversible inhibition of both glucose transport and the biosyntheses of glucose-derived sugar phosphates, (ii) Aspirin/salicylate causes apoptosis associated with superoxide radical accumulation or early cell necrosis in MnSOD-deficient cells growing in ethanol or in glucose, respectively. So, treatment with (acetyl)-salicylic acid can alter the yeast metabolism and is associated with cell death...
March 26, 2018: Microbial Cell
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