Read by QxMD icon Read

Microbial Cell

Sandra A Touati, Frank Uhlmann
The cell cycle is the process by which a cell duplicates its DNA during S-phase and divides its chromosomes during M-phase, creating two genetically identical daughter cells. Cell cycle events are ordered by synthesis and degradation of key cell regulators and by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of numerous substrates. Phosphorylation can alter the activity, interactions or subcellular localization of a protein. A substrate's phosphorylation status is the readout of competing activities of kinases and phosphatases that target each of its phosphorylation sites...
July 25, 2018: Microbial Cell
Madushi Wanaguru, Kate N Bishop
The gammaretroviral gag cleavage product, p12, is essential for replication at both early and late stages of the virus life cycle. During the early stage of infection, the viral core is released into the cytoplasm, the viral RNA genome is reversed transcribed to cDNA and this viral DNA is then integrated into the host cell chromatin to form a provirus. The p12 protein has N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) that are required for steps leading up to integration, but the molecular details of their functions remain poorly characterised...
July 24, 2018: Microbial Cell
Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, Kai Li Ong, Ravina Shah, Alexandra K Strich, Julianne H Grose, Katrina F Cooper
Eukaryotic cells, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, mount either pro-survival or pro-death programs. The conserved cyclin C-Cdk8 kinase plays a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, along with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core Mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction, which releases cyclin C into the cytoplasm to promote mitochondrial fission and programmed cell death. The SCFGrr1 ubiquitin ligase mediates Med13 degradation dependent on the cell wall integrity pathway, MAPK Slt2...
June 25, 2018: Microbial Cell
Kid Kohl, Haroun Zangger, Matteo Rossi, Nathalie Isorce, Lon-Fye Lye, Katherine L Owens, Stephen M Beverley, Andreas Mayer, Nicolas Fasel
Protozoan parasites contain negatively charged polymers of a few up to several hundreds of phosphate residues. In other organisms, these poly-phosphate (polyP) chains serve as an energy source and phosphate reservoir, and have been implicated in adaptation to stress and virulence of pathogenic organisms. In this study, we confirmed first that the polyP polymerase vacuolar transporter chaperone 4 ( VTC4 ) is responsible for polyP synthesis in Leishmania parasites. During Leishmania in vitro culture, polyP is accumulated in logarithmic growth phase and subsequently consumed once stationary phase is reached...
June 22, 2018: Microbial Cell
Patrick Van Dijck, Jelmer Sjollema, Bruno P Cammue, Katrien Lagrou, Judith Berman, Christophe d'Enfert, David R Andes, Maiken C Arendrup, Axel A Brakhage, Richard Calderone, Emilia Cantón, Tom Coenye, Paul Cos, Leah E Cowen, Mira Edgerton, Ana Espinel-Ingroff, Scott G Filler, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Neil A R Gow, Hubertus Haas, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk, Elizabeth M Johnson, Shawn R Lockhart, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Johan Maertens, Carol A Munro, Jeniel E Nett, Clarissa J Nobile, Michael A Pfaller, Gordon Ramage, Dominique Sanglard, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Isabel Spriet, Paul E Verweij, Adilia Warris, Joost Wauters, Michael R Yeaman, Sebastian A J Zaat, Karin Thevissen
Unlike superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails, which are the most common fungal diseases in humans, invasive fungal infections carry high morbidity and mortality, particularly those associated with biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices. Therapeutic management of these complex diseases is often complicated by the rise in resistance to the commonly used antifungal agents. Therefore, the availability of accurate susceptibility testing methods for determining antifungal resistance, as well as discovery of novel antifungal and antibiofilm agents, are key priorities in medical mycology research...
June 14, 2018: Microbial Cell
Gabriele A Fontana, Julia K Reinert, Nicolas H Thomä, Ulrich Rass
Cells have evolved conserved mechanisms to protect DNA ends, such as those at the termini of linear chromosomes, or those at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In eukaryotes, DNA ends at chromosomal termini are packaged into proteinaceous structures called telomeres. Telomeres protect chromosome ends from erosion, inadvertent activation of the cellular DNA damage response (DDR), and telomere fusion. In contrast, cells must respond to damage-induced DNA ends at DSBs by harnessing the DDR to restore chromosome integrity, avoiding genome instability and disease...
May 17, 2018: Microbial Cell
Jesús García-Martínez, Rafael D Maldonado, Noemí M Guzmán, Francisco J M Mojica
CRISPR-Cas represents a prokaryotic defense mechanism against invading genetic elements. Although there is a diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems, they all share similar, essential traits. In general, a CRISPR-Cas system consists of one or more groups of DNA repeats named CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), regularly separated by unique sequences referred to as spacers, and a set of functionally associated cas (CRISPR associated) genes typically located next to one of the repeat arrays...
May 16, 2018: Microbial Cell
Maria A Bauer, Katharina Kainz, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Frank Madeo
Many microbial communities live in highly competitive surroundings, in which the fight for resources determines their survival and genetic persistence. Humans live in a close relationship with microbial communities, which includes the health- and disease-determining interactions with our microbiome. Accordingly, the understanding of microbial competitive activities are essential at physiological and pathophysiological levels. Here we provide a brief overview on microbial competition and discuss some of its roles and consequences that directly affect humans...
May 7, 2018: Microbial Cell
Soham Gupta, Päivi Ylä-Anttila, Maria G Masucci
Upon infection, viral nucleic acids are recognized by germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), and cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases (RLHs) that initiate signaling pathways resulting in the production of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Binding of RIG-I to viral nucleic acids triggers the formation of the RIG-I signalosome where RIG-I is ubiquitinated by the TRIM25 ligase and, with the help of 14-3-3 scaffolds, further translocated to mitochondrial anti-viral signalling proteins (MAVS)...
April 11, 2018: Microbial Cell
Vera Troselj, Daniel Wall
Bacteria in nature live in taxonomically complex communities where multitude of species and strains inhabit the same niches and compete for limited resources and space. Surviving in these competitive environments requires mechanisms to recognize and associate with kin and to discriminate against non-kin to increase reproductive success among close relatives. Some of the mechanisms bacteria use to address genetic differences are surface receptors, diffusible signals (e.g. quorum sensing) and toxin-immunity systems (e...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Cell
Maurizio D Baroni, Sonia Colombo, Enzo Martegani
Aspirin and its main metabolite salicylate are promising molecules in preventing cancer and metabolic diseases. S. cerevisiae cells have been used to study some of their effects: (i) salicylate induces the reversible inhibition of both glucose transport and the biosyntheses of glucose-derived sugar phosphates, (ii) Aspirin/salicylate causes apoptosis associated with superoxide radical accumulation or early cell necrosis in MnSOD-deficient cells growing in ethanol or in glucose, respectively. So, treatment with (acetyl)-salicylic acid can alter the yeast metabolism and is associated with cell death...
March 26, 2018: Microbial Cell
Anezia Kourkoulou, Alexandros A Pittis, George Diallinas
L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential metabolite in animals and plants due to its role as an enzyme co-factor and antioxidant activity. In most eukaryotic organisms, L-ascorbate is biosynthesized enzymatically, but in several major groups, including the primate suborder Haplorhini, this ability is lost due to gene truncations in the gene coding for L-gulonolactone oxidase. Specific ascorbate transporters (SVCTs) have been characterized only in mammals and shown to be essential for life. These belong to an extensively studied transporter family, called Nucleobase-Ascorbate Transporters (NAT)...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Cell
Camille Danne, Fiona Powrie
A high density of microbes inhabits the intestine, helping with food digestion, vitamin synthesis, xenobiotic detoxification, pathogen resistance and immune system maturation. Crucial for human health, communities of commensal bacteria (collectively termed microbiota) benefit in return from a nutrient-rich environment. Host-microbiota mutualism results from a long-term co-adaptation. At barrier surfaces, immune cells distinguish harmful from commensal bacteria and tolerate non-self organisms at close proximity to the mucosa; gut inhabitants have developed strategies to ensure beneficial conditions in their preferred niche...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Cell
Natthaporn Takpho, Daisuke Watanabe, Hiroshi Takagi
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) Bat1 and Bat2 catalyze the conversion of α-ketoisovalerate, α-keto-β-methylvalerate, and α-ketoisokaproate and into valine, isoleucine, and leucine, respectively, as the final step of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. Bat1 and Bat2 are homologous proteins that share 77% identity, but Bat1 localizes in the mitochondria and Bat2 in the cytosol. Based on our preliminary finding that only disruption of the BAT1 gene led to slow-growth phenotype, we hypothesized that Bat1 and Bat2 play distinct roles in valine biosynthesis and the regulation of cell growth...
March 21, 2018: Microbial Cell
Christine Leibiger, Jana Deisel, Andreas Aufschnaiter, Stefanie Ambros, Maria Tereshchenko, Bert M Verheijen, Sabrina Büttner, Ralf J Braun
The accumulation of protein aggregates in neurons is a typical pathological hallmark of the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In many cases, these aggregates are composed of the 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP 43). Using a yeast model for TDP 43 proteinopathies, we observed that the vacuole (the yeast equivalent of lysosomes) markedly contributed to the degradation of TDP 43. This clearance occurred via TDP 43-containing vesicles fusing with the vacuole through the concerted action of the endosomal-vacuolar (or endolysosomal) pathway and autophagy...
March 21, 2018: Microbial Cell
Damien J Cabral, Swathi Penumutchu, Colby Norris, Jose Ruben Morones-Ramirez, Peter Belenky
Localized and systemic fungal infections caused by Candida albicans can lead to significant mortality and morbidity. However, severe C. albicans infections are relatively rare, occurring mostly in the very young, the very old, and immunocompromised individuals. The fact that these infections are rare is interesting because as much as 80 percent of the population is asymptomatically colonized with C. albicans. It is thought that members of the human microbiota and the immune system work in concert to reduce C...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Cell
Nazif Maqani, Ryan D Fine, Mehreen Shahid, Mingguang Li, Elisa Enriquez-Hesles, Jeffrey S Smith
Chronologically aging yeast cells are prone to adaptive regrowth, whereby mutants with a survival advantage spontaneously appear and re-enter the cell cycle in stationary phase cultures. Adaptive regrowth is especially noticeable with short-lived strains, including those defective for SNF1, the homolog of mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). SNF1 becomes active in response to multiple environmental stresses that occur in chronologically aging cells, including glucose depletion and oxidative stress...
February 19, 2018: Microbial Cell
Maxence de Taffin de Tilques, Jean-Paul Lasserre, François Godard, Elodie Sardin, Marine Bouhier, Marina Le Guedard, Roza Kucharczyk, Patrice X Petit, Eric Testet, Jean-Paul di Rago, Déborah Tribouillard-Tanvier
Cardiolipin (CL) optimizes diverse mitochondrial processes, including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To function properly, CL needs to be unsaturated, which requires the acyltransferase Tafazzin (TAZ). Loss-of-function mutations in the TAZ gene are responsible for the Barth syndrome (BTHS), a rare X-linked cardiomyopathy, presumably because of a diminished OXPHOS capacity. Herein we show that a partial inhibition of cytosolic protein synthesis, either chemically with the use of cycloheximide or by specific genetic mutations, fully restores biogenesis and the activity of the oxidative phosphorylation system in a yeast BTHS model ( taz1 Δ)...
February 18, 2018: Microbial Cell
Sónia Castanheira, Juan J Cestero, Francisco García-del Portillo, M G Pucciarelli
The bacterial cell wall preserves cell integrity in response to external insults and the internal turgor pressure. The major component of the cell wall is the peptidoglycan (PG); a giant macromolecule formed by glycan chains cross-linked by short peptides. The PG is synthesized by a stepwise process that includes cytosolic and periplasmic reactions. The building subunits -muropeptides- are incorporated into the growing macromolecule by transglycolyslation (TG) and transpeptidation (TP) reactions, which constitute the last biosynthetic steps...
February 17, 2018: Microbial Cell
Dino van Dissel, Joost Willemse, Boris Zacchetti, Dennis Claessen, Gerald B Pier, Gilles P van Wezel
Streptomycetes are multicellular filamentous microorganisms, and major producers of industrial enzymes and bioactive compounds such as antibiotics and anticancer drugs. The mycelial lifestyle plays an important role in the productivity during industrial fermentations. The hyphae of liquid-grown streptomycetes can self-aggregate into pellets, which hampers their industrial exploitation. Here we show that the Mat complex, which is required for pellet formation, catalyzes the synthesis of extracellular poly-β-1,6- N -acetylglucosamine (PNAG) in the model organisms Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans ...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Cell
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"