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Microbial Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611556/-helicobacter-hepaticus-polysaccharide-induces-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-macrophages
#1
COMMENT
Camille Danne, Fiona Powrie
A high density of microbes inhabits the intestine, helping with food digestion, vitamin synthesis, xenobiotic detoxification, pathogen resistance and immune system maturation. Crucial for human health, communities of commensal bacteria (collectively termed microbiota) benefit in return from a nutrient-rich environment. Host-microbiota mutualism results from a long-term co-adaptation. At barrier surfaces, immune cells distinguish harmful from commensal bacteria and tolerate non-self organisms at close proximity to the mucosa; gut inhabitants have developed strategies to ensure beneficial conditions in their preferred niche...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611555/endolysosomal-pathway-activity-protects-cells-from-neurotoxic-tdp-43
#2
COMMENT
Christine Leibiger, Jana Deisel, Andreas Aufschnaiter, Stefanie Ambros, Maria Tereshchenko, Bert M Verheijen, Sabrina Büttner, Ralf J Braun
The accumulation of protein aggregates in neurons is a typical pathological hallmark of the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In many cases, these aggregates are composed of the 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP 43). Using a yeast model for TDP 43 proteinopathies, we observed that the vacuole (the yeast equivalent of lysosomes) markedly contributed to the degradation of TDP 43. This clearance occurred via TDP 43-containing vesicles fusing with the vacuole through the concerted action of the endosomal-vacuolar (or endolysosomal) pathway and autophagy...
March 21, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488513/two-distinct-penicillin-binding-proteins-promote-cell-division-in-different-salmonella-lifestyles
#3
COMMENT
Sónia Castanheira, Juan J Cestero, Francisco García-del Portillo, M G Pucciarelli
The bacterial cell wall preserves cell integrity in response to external insults and the internal turgor pressure. The major component of the cell wall is the peptidoglycan (PG); a giant macromolecule formed by glycan chains cross-linked by short peptides. The PG is synthesized by a stepwise process that includes cytosolic and periplasmic reactions. The building subunits -muropeptides- are incorporated into the growing macromolecule by transglycolyslation (TG) and transpeptidation (TP) reactions, which constitute the last biosynthetic steps...
February 17, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610761/impact-of-f1fo-atp-synthase-dimer-assembly-factors-on-mitochondrial-function-and-organismic-aging
#4
Nadia G Rampello, Maria Stenger, Benedikt Westermann, Heinz D Osiewacz
In aerobic organisms, mitochondrial F1 Fo -ATP-synthase is the major site of ATP production. Beside this fundamental role, the protein complex is involved in shaping and maintenance of cristae. Previous electron microscopic studies identified the dissociation of F1 Fo -ATP-synthase dimers and oligomers during organismic aging correlating with a massive remodeling of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here we report results aimed to experimentally proof this impact and to obtain further insights into the control of these processes...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610760/non-canonical-regulation-of-glutathione-and-trehalose-biosynthesis-characterizes-non-saccharomyces-wine-yeasts-with-poor-performance-in-active-dry-yeast-production
#5
Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio, Lucía Payá-Tormo, Rocío Gómez-Pastor, Agustín Aranda, Emilia Matallana
Several yeast species, belonging to Saccharomyces and non- Saccharomyces genera, play fundamental roles during spontaneous must grape fermentation, and recent studies have shown that mixed fermentations, co-inoculated with S. cerevisiae and non- Saccharomyces strains, can improve wine organoleptic properties. During active dry yeast (ADY) production, antioxidant systems play an essential role in yeast survival and vitality as both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress and negatively affect technological performance...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610759/molecular-signature-of-the-imprintosome-complex-at-the-mating-type-locus-in-fission-yeast
#6
Célia Raimondi, Bernd Jagla, Caroline Proux, Hervé Waxin, Serge Gangloff, Benoit Arcangioli
Genetic and molecular studies have indicated that an epigenetic imprint at mat1 , the sexual locus of fission yeast, initiates mating type switching. The polar DNA replication of mat1 generates an imprint on the Watson strand. The process by which the imprint is formed and maintained through the cell cycle remains unclear. To understand better the mechanism of imprint formation and stability, we characterized the recruitment of early players of mating type switching at the mat1 region. We found that the switch activating protein 1 (Sap1) is preferentially recruited inside the mat1M allele on a sequence ( SS13 ) that enhances the imprint...
January 16, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417059/new-perspectives-from-south-y-east-not-all-about-death-a-report-of-the-12-th-lnternational-meeting-on-yeast-apoptosis-in-bari-italy-may-14th-18th-2017
#7
Nicoletta Guaragnella, Mariarita Stirpe, William Burhans, Manuela Côrte-Real, Campbell Gourlay, Paula Ludovico, Frank Madeo, Dina Petranovic, Joris Winderickx, Cristina Mazzoni, Sergio Giannattasio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487860/-leishmania-guyanensis-parasites-block-the-activation-of-the-inflammasome-by-inhibiting-maturation-of-il-1%C3%AE
#8
Mary-Anne Hartley, Remzi O Eren, Matteo Rossi, Florence Prevel, Patrik Castiglioni, Nathalie Isorce, Chantal Desponds, Lon-Fye Lye, Stephen M Beverley, Stefan K Drexler, Nicolas Fasel
The various symptomatic outcomes of cutaneous leishmaniasis relates to the type and potency of its underlying inflammatory responses. Presence of the cytoplasmic Leishmania RNA virus-1 (LRV1) within Leishmania guyanensis , worsens lesional inflammation and parasite burden, as the viral dsRNA genome acts as a potent innate immunogen stimulating Toll-Like-Receptor-3 (TLR3). Here we investigated other innate pattern recognition receptors capable of reacting to dsRNA and potentially contributing to LRV1-mediated inflammatory pathology...
January 14, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487862/a-novel-system-to-monitor-mitochondrial-translation-in-yeast
#9
Tamara Suhm, Lukas Habernig, Magdalena Rzepka, Jayasankar Mohanakrishnan Kaimal, Claes Andréasson, Sabrina Büttner, Martin Ott
The mitochondrial genome is responsible for the production of a handful of polypeptides that are core subunits of the membrane-bound oxidative phosphorylation system. Until now the mechanistic studies of mitochondrial protein synthesis inside cells have been conducted with inhibition of cytoplasmic protein synthesis to reduce the background of nuclear gene expression with the undesired consequence of major disturbances of cellular signaling cascades. Here we have generated a system that allows direct monitoring of mitochondrial translation in unperturbed cells...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487859/ph-homeostasis-links-the-nutrient-sensing-pka-torc1-sch9-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois-to-stress-tolerance-and-longevity
#10
REVIEW
Marie-Anne Deprez, Elja Eskes, Tobias Wilms, Paula Ludovico, Joris Winderickx
The plasma membrane H+ -ATPase Pma1 and the vacuolar V-ATPase act in close harmony to tightly control pH homeostasis, which is essential for a vast number of physiological processes. As these main two regulators of pH are responsive to the nutritional status of the cell, it seems evident that pH homeostasis acts in conjunction with nutrient-induced signalling pathways. Indeed, both PKA and the TORC1-Sch9 axis influence the proton pumping activity of the V-ATPase and possibly also of Pma1. In addition, it recently became clear that the proton acts as a second messenger to signal glucose availability via the V-ATPase to PKA and TORC1-Sch9...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354647/guidelines-and-recommendations-on-yeast-cell-death-nomenclature
#11
REVIEW
Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Maria Anna Bauer, Andreas Zimmermann, Andrés Aguilera, Nicanor Austriaco, Kathryn Ayscough, Rena Balzan, Shoshana Bar-Nun, Antonio Barrientos, Peter Belenky, Marc Blondel, Ralf J Braun, Michael Breitenbach, William C Burhans, Sabrina Büttner, Duccio Cavalieri, Michael Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Manuela Côrte-Real, Vítor Costa, Christophe Cullin, Ian Dawes, Jörn Dengjel, Martin B Dickman, Tobias Eisenberg, Birthe Fahrenkrog, Nicolas Fasel, Kai-Uwe Fröhlich, Ali Gargouri, Sergio Giannattasio, Paola Goffrini, Campbell W Gourlay, Chris M Grant, Michael T Greenwood, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Thomas Heger, Jürgen Heinisch, Eva Herker, Johannes M Herrmann, Sebastian Hofer, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, Helmut Jungwirth, Katharina Kainz, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Paula Ludovico, Stéphen Manon, Enzo Martegani, Cristina Mazzoni, Lynn A Megeney, Chris Meisinger, Jens Nielsen, Thomas Nyström, Heinz D Osiewacz, Tiago F Outeiro, Hay-Oak Park, Tobias Pendl, Dina Petranovic, Stephane Picot, Peter Polčic, Ted Powers, Mark Ramsdale, Mark Rinnerthaler, Patrick Rockenfeller, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Raffael Schaffrath, Maria Segovia, Fedor F Severin, Amir Sharon, Stephan J Sigrist, Cornelia Sommer-Ruck, Maria João Sousa, Johan M Thevelein, Karin Thevissen, Vladimir Titorenko, Michel B Toledano, Mick Tuite, F-Nora Vögtle, Benedikt Westermann, Joris Winderickx, Silke Wissing, Stefan Wölfl, Zhaojie J Zhang, Richard Y Zhao, Bing Zhou, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Frank Madeo
Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cel-lular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the defi-nition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria...
January 1, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417060/-burkholderia-gladioli-strain-ngj1-deploys-a-prophage-tail-like-protein-for-mycophagy
#12
COMMENT
Rahul Kumar, Sunil Kumar Yadav, Durga M Swain, Gopaljee Jha
Fungal pathogens are responsible for approximately two third of the infectious plant diseases. Historically they have been associated with several devastating famines, causing death and disabilities in humans. Mostly fungal diseases are being controlled by using fungicides which otherwise have adverse side effects on the health of consumers as well as environment. Due to extensive usages, pathogens have evolved resistance against most of the commonly used fungicides and rendered them ineffective. Controlling fungal disease in a sustainable and eco-friendly fashion remains a challenge...
December 31, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417057/fat-storage-inducing-transmembrane-fit-or-fitm-proteins-are-related-to-lipid-phosphatase-phosphotransferase-enzymes
#13
Matthew Hayes, Vineet Choudhary, Namrata Ojha, John Jh Shin, Gil-Soo Han, George M Carman, Christopher Jr Loewen, William A Prinz, Timothy Levine
Fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT or FITM) proteins have been implicated in the partitioning of triacylglycerol to lipid droplets and the budding of lipid droplets from the ER. At the molecular level, the sole relevant interaction is that FITMs directly bind to triacyglycerol and diacylglycerol, but how they function at the molecular level is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two FITM homologues: Scs3p and Yft2p. Scs3p was initially identified because deletion leads to inositol auxotrophy, with an unusual sensitivity to addition of choline...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417055/ras-signalling-in-pathogenic-yeasts
#14
REVIEW
Daniel R Pentland, Elliot Piper-Brown, Fritz A Mühlschlegel, Campbell W Gourlay
The small GTPase Ras acts as a master regulator of growth, stress response and cell death in eukaryotic cells. The control of Ras activity is fundamental, as highlighted by the oncogenic properties of constitutive forms of Ras proteins. Ras also plays a crucial role in the pathogenicity of fungal pathogens where it has been found to regulate a number of adaptions required for virulence. The importance of Ras in fungal disease raises the possibility that it may provide a useful target for the development of new treatments at a time when resistance to available antifungals is increasing...
December 18, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354650/the-logics-of-metabolic-regulation-in-bacteria-challenges-biosensor-based-metabolic-engineering
#15
COMMENT
Matthieu Jules
Synthetic Biology (SB) aims at the rational design and engineering of novel biological functions and systems. By facilitating the engineering of living organisms, SB promises to facilitate the development of many new applications for health, biomanufacturing, and the environment. Over the last decade, SB promoted the construction of libraries of components enabling the fine-tuning of genetic circuits expression and the development of novel genome engineering methodologies for many organisms of interest. SB thus opened new perspectives in the field of metabolic engineering, which was until then mainly limited to (over)producing naturally synthesized metabolic compounds...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355242/a-novel-basolateral-type-iv-secretion-model-for-the-caga-oncoprotein-of-helicobacter-pylori
#16
COMMENT
Silja Wessler, Steffen Backert
Intercellular junctions are crucial structural elements for the formation and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions to control homeostasis or protect against intruding pathogens in humans. Alterations in these complexes represent key events in the development and progression of numerous cancers as well as multiple infectious diseases. Many bacterial pathogens harbor type IV secretion systems (T4SSs), which translocate virulence factors into host cells to hijack cellular processes. The pathology of the gastric pathogen and type-I carcinogen Helicobacter pylori strongly depends on a T4SS encoded by the cag pathogenicity island ( cag PAI)...
December 9, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417058/yeast-quiescence-exit-swiftness-is-influenced-by-cell-volume-and-chronological-age
#17
Damien Laporte, Laure Jimenez, Laëtitia Gouleme, Isabelle Sagot
Quiescence exit swiftness is crucial not only for micro-organisms in competition for an environmental niche, such as yeast, but also for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in multicellular species. Here we explore the effect of replicative and chronological age on Saccharomyces cerevisiae quiescence exit efficiency. Our study reveals that this step strongly relies on the cell volume in quiescence but is not influenced by cell replicative age, at least for cells that have undergone less than 10 divisions...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354646/exploring-the-mechanism-of-amebic-trogocytosis-the-role-of-amebic-lysosomes
#18
COMMENT
Allissia A Gilmartin, William A Petri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487861/a-versatile-plasmid-system-for-reconstitution-and-analysis-of-mammalian-ubiquitination-cascades-in-yeast
#19
Rossella Avagliano Trezza, Janny van den Burg, Nico van den Oever, Ben Distel
Ubiquitination is a posttranslational protein modification that regulates most aspects of cellular life. The sheer number of ubiquitination enzymes that are present in a mammalian cell, over 700 in total, has thus far hampered the analysis of distinct protein ubiquitination cascades in a cellular context. To overcome this complexity we have developed a versatile vector system that allows the reconstitution of specific ubiquitination cascades in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisae (baker's yeast). The vector system consists of 32 modular yeast shuttle plasmids allowing inducible or constitutive expression of up to four proteins of interest in a single cell...
December 5, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354649/alcohols-enhance-the-rate-of-acetic-acid-diffusion-in-s-cerevisiae-biophysical-mechanisms-and-implications-for-acetic-acid-tolerance
#20
Lina Lindahl, Samuel Genheden, Fábio Faria-Oliveira, Stefan Allard, Leif A Eriksson, Lisbeth Olsson, Maurizio Bettiga
Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol...
December 1, 2017: Microbial Cell
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