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Neurophotonics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630882/review-how-do-spontaneous-and-sensory-evoked-activities-interact
#1
REVIEW
Isabelle Ferezou, Thomas Deneux
Twenty years ago, the seminal work of Grinvald et al. revolutionized the view cast on spontaneous cortical activity by showing how, instead of being a mere measure of noise, it profoundly impacts cortical responses to a sensory input and therefore could play a role in sensory processing. This paved the way for a number of studies on the interactions between spontaneous and sensory-evoked activities. Spontaneous activity has subsequently been found to be highly structured and to participate in high cognitive functions, such as influencing conscious perception in humans...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630881/review-of-functional-and-clinical-relevance-of-intrinsic-signal-optical-imaging-in-human-brain-mapping
#2
REVIEW
Katherine A Morone, Joseph S Neimat, Anna W Roe, Robert M Friedman
Intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISOI) within the first decade of its use in humans showed its capacity as a precise functional mapping tool. It is a powerful tool that can be used intraoperatively to help a surgeon to directly identify functional areas of the cerebral cortex. Its use is limited to the intraoperative setting as it requires a craniotomy and durotomy for direct visualization of the brain. It has been applied in humans to study language, somatosensory and visual cortices, cortical hemodynamics, epileptiform activity, and lesion delineation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630880/prominent-lateral-spread-of-imaged-evoked-activity-beyond-cortical-columns-in-barrel-cortex-provides-foundation-for-coding-whisker-identity
#3
Nathan S Jacobs, Ron D Frostig
The posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF) of a rat primary somatosensory cortex exquisitely demonstrates topography and columnar organization, defining features of sensory cortices in the mammalian brain. Optical imaging and neuronal recordings in rat PMBSF demonstrate how evoked cortical activity following single whisker stimulation also rapidly spreads laterally into surrounding cortices, disregarding columnar and modality boundaries. The current study quantifies the spatial prominence of such lateral activity spreads by demonstrating that functional connectivity between laterally spaced cortical locations is actually stronger than between vertically spaced cortical locations...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630879/imaging-cajal-s-neuronal-avalanche-how-wide-field-optical-imaging-of-the-point-spread-advanced-the-understanding-of-neocortical-structure-function-relationship
#4
REVIEW
Ron D Frostig, Cynthia H Chen-Bee, Brett A Johnson, Nathan S Jacobs
This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573156/study-of-single-and-multidigit-activation-in-monkey-somatosensory-cortex-using-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging
#5
Anna Wang Roe, Jeremy E Winberry, Robert M Friedman
Toward the goal of understanding cutaneous sensory integration during manual behavior, we used voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to study the organization and dynamics of anesthetized monkey primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in response to single and multidigit tactile stimulation. We find that in both macaque and squirrel monkey SI, VSD reveals clear focal digit topography consistent with previous electrophysiological and intrinsic signal imaging studies. VSD also reveals interactions in SI in response to multidigit stimulation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573155/integration-of-color-orientation-and-size-functional-domains-in-the-ventral-pathway
#6
Geoffrey M Ghose, Daniel Y Ts'o
Functional specialization within the extrastriate areas of the ventral pathway associated with visual form analysis is poorly understood. Studies comparing the functional selectivities of neurons within the early visual areas have found that there are more similar than different between the areas. We simultaneously imaged visually evoked activation over regions of V2 and V4 and parametrically varied three visual attributes for which selectivity exists in both areas: color, orientation, and size. We found that color selective regions were observed in both areas and were of similar size and spatial distribution...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573154/improving-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-with-a-little-help-from-computational-approaches
#7
Sandrine Chemla, Lyle Muller, Alexandre Reynaud, Sylvain Takerkart, Alain Destexhe, Frédéric Chavane
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) is a key neurophysiological recording tool because it reaches brain scales that remain inaccessible to other techniques. The development of this technique from in vitro to the behaving nonhuman primate has only been made possible thanks to the long-lasting, visionary work of Amiram Grinvald. This work has opened new scientific perspectives to the great benefit to the neuroscience community. However, this unprecedented technique remains largely under-utilized, and many future possibilities await for VSDI to reveal new functional operations...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573153/optical-imaging-of-the-rat-brain-suggests-a-previously-missing-link-between-top-down-and-bottom-up-nervous-system-function
#8
Susan A Greenfield, Antoine-Scott Badin, Giovanni Ferrati, Ian M Devonshire
Optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes enables the visualization of extensive yet highly transient coalitions of neurons (assemblies) operating throughout the brain on a subsecond time scale. We suggest that operating at the mesoscale level of brain organization, neuronal assemblies may provide a functional link between "bottom-up" cellular mechanisms and "top-down" cognitive ones within anatomically defined regions. We demonstrate in ex vivo rat brain slices how varying spatiotemporal dynamics of assemblies reveal differences not previously appreciated between: different stages of development in cortical versus subcortical brain areas, different sensory modalities (hearing versus vision), different classes of psychoactive drugs (anesthetics versus analgesics), different effects of anesthesia linked to hyperbaric conditions and, in vivo, depths of anesthesia...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560240/mesoscale-brain-explorer-a-flexible-python-based-image-analysis-and-visualization-tool
#9
Dirk Haupt, Matthieu P Vanni, Federico Bolanos, Catalin Mitelut, Jeffrey M LeDue, Tim H Murphy
Imaging of mesoscale brain activity is used to map interactions between brain regions. This work has benefited from the pioneering studies of Grinvald et al., who employed optical methods to image brain function by exploiting the properties of intrinsic optical signals and small molecule voltage-sensitive dyes. Mesoscale interareal brain imaging techniques have been advanced by cell targeted and selective recombinant indicators of neuronal activity. Spontaneous resting state activity is often collected during mesoscale imaging to provide the basis for mapping of connectivity relationships using correlation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523281/imaging-membrane-potential-changes-from-dendritic-spines-using-computer-generated-holography
#10
Dimitrii Tanese, Ju-Yun Weng, Valeria Zampini, Vincent De Sars, Marco Canepari, Balazs Rozsa, Valentina Emiliani, Dejan Zecevic
Electrical properties of neuronal processes are extraordinarily complex, dynamic, and, in the general case, impossible to predict in the absence of detailed measurements. To obtain such a measurement one would, ideally, like to be able to monitor electrical subthreshold events as they travel from synapses on distal dendrites and summate at particular locations to initiate action potentials. It is now possible to carry out these measurements at the scale of individual dendritic spines using voltage imaging. In these measurements, the voltage-sensitive probes can be thought of as transmembrane voltmeters with a linear scale, which directly monitor electrical signals...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523280/differences-in-orientation-tuning-between-pinwheel-and-domain-neurons-in-primary-visual-cortex-depend-on-contrast-and-size
#11
Yong-Jun Liu, Maziar Hashemi-Nezhad, David C Lyon
Intrinsic signal optical imaging reveals a highly modular map of orientation preference in the primary visual cortex (V1) of several species. This orientation map is characterized by domains and pinwheels where local circuitry is either more or less orientation selective, respectively. It has now been repeatedly demonstrated that neurons in pinwheels tend to be more broadly tuned to orientation, likely due to the broad range of orientation preference of the neighboring neurons forming pinwheels. However, certain stimulus conditions, such as a decrease in contrast or an increase in size, significantly sharpen tuning widths of V1 neurons...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491906/mammalian-cortical-voltage-imaging-using-genetically-encoded-voltage-indicators-a-review-honoring-professor-amiram-grinvald
#12
REVIEW
Chenchen Song, Samuel Barnes, Thomas Knöpfel
The pioneering work of Amiram Grinvald established voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in the mammalian cortex in the 1980s and inspired decades of cortical voltage imaging and the associated technological developments. The recent conception and development of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) overcome many of the limitations of classical VSDI, and open experimental approaches that provide accruing support for orchestrated neuronal circuit dynamics of spatially distributed neuronal circuit underlying behaviors...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491905/genetically-expressed-voltage-sensor-arclight-for-imaging-large-scale-cortical-activity-in-the-anesthetized-and-awake-mouse
#13
Peter Y Borden, Alex D Ortiz, Christian Waiblinger, Audrey J Sederberg, Arthur E Morrissette, Craig R Forest, Dieter Jaeger, Garrett B Stanley
With the recent breakthrough in genetically expressed voltage indicators (GEVIs), there has been a tremendous demand to determine the capabilities of these sensors in vivo. Novel voltage sensitive fluorescent proteins allow for direct measurement of neuron membrane potential changes through changes in fluorescence. Here, we utilized ArcLight, a recently developed GEVI, and examined the functional characteristics in the widely used mouse somatosensory whisker pathway. We measured the resulting evoked fluorescence using a wide-field microscope and a CCD camera at 200 Hz, which enabled voltage recordings over the entire cortical region with high temporal resolution...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413807/from-brain-to-blood-vessels-and-back-a-noninvasive-optical-imaging-approach
#14
REVIEW
Gabriele Gratton, Antonio M Chiarelli, Monica Fabiani
The seminal work of Grinvald et al. has paved the way for the use of intrinsic optical signals measured with reflection methods for the analysis of brain function. Although this work has focused on the absorption signal associated with deoxygenation, due to its detailed mapping ability and good signal-to-noise ratio, Grinvald's group has also described other intrinsic signals related to increased blood flow, scattering effects directly related to neural activation, and pulsation effects related to arterial function...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352646/-blue-voltage-sensitive-dyes-for-studying-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-the-brain-visualizing-cortical-waves
#15
Xinling Geng, Jian-Young Wu
Among many distinct contributions made by Amiram Grinvald's group, the "Blue dyes" is a special gift for visualizing cortical population neuronal activity. The excitation wavelength of blue dyes has minimal overlap with the absorption of hemoglobin, and hence has minimal pulsation artifacts. This advantage leads to high signal-to-noise ratio optical recordings of cortical activity, with sensitivity as good as that of local field potential recordings. High sensitivity imaging allows for recording of spontaneous and evoked activity in single trials without spatial or temporal averaging, and has benefitted many scientists in their research projects...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217713/catching-the-voltage-gradient-asymmetric-boost-of-cortical-spread-generates-motion-signals-across-visual-cortex-a-brief-review-with-special-thanks-to-amiram-grinvald
#16
REVIEW
Dirk Jancke
Wide-field voltage imaging is unique in its capability to capture snapshots of activity-across the full gradient of average changes in membrane potentials from subthreshold to suprathreshold levels-of hundreds of thousands of superficial cortical neurons that are simultaneously active. Here, I highlight two examples where voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) was exploited to track gradual space-time changes of activity within milliseconds across several millimeters of cortex at submillimeter resolution: the line-motion condition, measured in Amiram Grinvald's Laboratory more than 10 years ago and-coming full circle running VSDI in my laboratory-another motion-inducing condition, in which two neighboring stimuli counterchange luminance simultaneously...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018935/intraoperative-intrinsic-optical-imaging-of-human-somatosensory-cortex-during-neurosurgical-operations
#17
REVIEW
Katsushige Sato, Tadashi Nariai, Yoko Momose-Sato, Kohtaro Kamino
Intrinsic optical imaging as developed by Grinvald et al. is a powerful technique for monitoring neural function in the in vivo central nervous system. The advent of this dye-free imaging has also enabled us to monitor human brain function during neurosurgical operations. We briefly describe our own experience in functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex, carried out using intraoperative optical imaging. The maps obtained demonstrate new additional evidence of a hierarchy for sensory response patterns in the human primary somatosensory cortex...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921068/voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-of-mouse-neocortex-during-a-whisker-detection-task
#18
Alexandros Kyriakatos, Vijay Sadashivaiah, Yifei Zhang, Alessandro Motta, Matthieu Auffret, Carl C H Petersen
Sensorimotor processing occurs in a highly distributed manner in the mammalian neocortex. The spatiotemporal dynamics of electrical activity in the dorsal mouse neocortex can be imaged using voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) with near-millisecond temporal resolution and [Formula: see text] spatial resolution. Here, we trained mice to lick a water reward spout after a 1-ms deflection of the C2 whisker, and we imaged cortical dynamics during task execution with VSD RH1691. Responses to whisker deflection were highly dynamic and spatially highly distributed, exhibiting high variability from trial to trial in amplitude and spatiotemporal dynamics...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921067/parallel-pathways-from-whisker-and-visual-sensory-cortices-to-distinct-frontal-regions-of-mouse-neocortex
#19
Varun Sreenivasan, Alexandros Kyriakatos, Celine Mateo, Dieter Jaeger, Carl C H Petersen
The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#20
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
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