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Neurophotonics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721358/utah-optrode-array-customization-using-stereotactic-brain-atlases-and-3-d-cad-modeling-for-optogenetic-neocortical-interrogation-in-small-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#1
Ronald W Boutte, Sam Merlin, Guy Yona, Brandon Griffiths, Alessandra Angelucci, Itamar Kahn, Shy Shoham, Steve Blair
As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks(®) computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721357/whole-mouse-brain-imaging-using-optical-coherence-tomography-reconstruction-normalization-segmentation-and-comparison-with-diffusion-mri
#2
Joël Lefebvre, Alexandre Castonguay, Philippe Pouliot, Maxime Descoteaux, Frédéric Lesage
An automated massive histology setup combined with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) microscope was used to image a total of [Formula: see text] whole mouse brains. Each acquisition generated a dataset of thousands of OCT volumetric tiles at a sampling resolution of [Formula: see text]. This paper describes techniques for reconstruction and segmentation of the sliced brains. In addition to the measured OCT optical reflectivity, a single scattering photon model was used to compute the attenuation coefficients within each tissue slice...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721356/targeted-ischemic-stroke-induction-and-mesoscopic-imaging-assessment-of-blood-flow-and-ischemic-depolarization-in-awake-mice
#3
Matilde Balbi, Matthieu P Vanni, Gergely Silasi, Yuki Sekino, Luis Bolanos, Jeffrey M LeDue, Timothy H Murphy
Despite advances in experimental stroke models, confounding factors such as anesthetics used during stroke induction remain. Furthermore, imaging of blood flow during stroke is not routinely done. We take advantage of in vivo bihemispheric transcranial windows for longitudinal mesoscopic imaging of cortical function to establish a protocol for focal ischemic stroke induction in target brain regions using photothrombosis in awake head-fixed mice. Our protocol does not require any surgical steps at the time of stroke induction or anesthetics during either head fixation or photoactivation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721355/simultaneously-estimating-the-task-related-and-stimulus-evoked-components-of-hemodynamic-imaging-measurements
#4
Max Charles Herman, Mariana M B Cardoso, Bruss Lima, Yevgeniy B Sirotin, Aniruddha Das
Task-related hemodynamic responses contribute prominently to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings. They reflect behaviorally important brain states, such as arousal and attention, and can dominate stimulus-evoked responses, yet they remain poorly understood. To help characterize these responses, we present a method for parametrically estimating both stimulus-evoked and task-related components of hemodynamic responses from subjects engaged in temporally predictable tasks. The stimulus-evoked component is modeled by convolving a hemodynamic response function (HRF) kernel with spiking...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680907/visual-stimulation-quenches-global-alpha-range-activity-in-awake-primate-v4-a-case-study
#5
Thomas Deneux, Timothée Masquelier, Maria A Bermudez, Guillaume S Masson, Gustavo Deco, Ivo Vanzetta
Increasing evidence suggests that sensory stimulation not only changes the level of cortical activity with respect to baseline but also its structure. Despite having been reported in a multitude of conditions and preparations (for instance, as a quenching of intertrial variability, Churchland et al., 2010), such changes remain relatively poorly characterized. Here, we used optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dyes to explore, in V4 of an awake macaque, the spatiotemporal characteristics of both visually evoked and spontaneously ongoing neuronal activity and their difference...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630882/review-how-do-spontaneous-and-sensory-evoked-activities-interact
#6
REVIEW
Isabelle Ferezou, Thomas Deneux
Twenty years ago, the seminal work of Grinvald et al. revolutionized the view cast on spontaneous cortical activity by showing how, instead of being a mere measure of noise, it profoundly impacts cortical responses to a sensory input and therefore could play a role in sensory processing. This paved the way for a number of studies on the interactions between spontaneous and sensory-evoked activities. Spontaneous activity has subsequently been found to be highly structured and to participate in high cognitive functions, such as influencing conscious perception in humans...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630881/review-of-functional-and-clinical-relevance-of-intrinsic-signal-optical-imaging-in-human-brain-mapping
#7
REVIEW
Katherine A Morone, Joseph S Neimat, Anna W Roe, Robert M Friedman
Intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISOI) within the first decade of its use in humans showed its capacity as a precise functional mapping tool. It is a powerful tool that can be used intraoperatively to help a surgeon to directly identify functional areas of the cerebral cortex. Its use is limited to the intraoperative setting as it requires a craniotomy and durotomy for direct visualization of the brain. It has been applied in humans to study language, somatosensory and visual cortices, cortical hemodynamics, epileptiform activity, and lesion delineation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630880/prominent-lateral-spread-of-imaged-evoked-activity-beyond-cortical-columns-in-barrel-cortex-provides-foundation-for-coding-whisker-identity
#8
Nathan S Jacobs, Ron D Frostig
The posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF) of a rat primary somatosensory cortex exquisitely demonstrates topography and columnar organization, defining features of sensory cortices in the mammalian brain. Optical imaging and neuronal recordings in rat PMBSF demonstrate how evoked cortical activity following single whisker stimulation also rapidly spreads laterally into surrounding cortices, disregarding columnar and modality boundaries. The current study quantifies the spatial prominence of such lateral activity spreads by demonstrating that functional connectivity between laterally spaced cortical locations is actually stronger than between vertically spaced cortical locations...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630879/imaging-cajal-s-neuronal-avalanche-how-wide-field-optical-imaging-of-the-point-spread-advanced-the-understanding-of-neocortical-structure-function-relationship
#9
REVIEW
Ron D Frostig, Cynthia H Chen-Bee, Brett A Johnson, Nathan S Jacobs
This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573156/study-of-single-and-multidigit-activation-in-monkey-somatosensory-cortex-using-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging
#10
Anna Wang Roe, Jeremy E Winberry, Robert M Friedman
Toward the goal of understanding cutaneous sensory integration during manual behavior, we used voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to study the organization and dynamics of anesthetized monkey primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in response to single and multidigit tactile stimulation. We find that in both macaque and squirrel monkey SI, VSD reveals clear focal digit topography consistent with previous electrophysiological and intrinsic signal imaging studies. VSD also reveals interactions in SI in response to multidigit stimulation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573155/integration-of-color-orientation-and-size-functional-domains-in-the-ventral-pathway
#11
Geoffrey M Ghose, Daniel Y Ts'o
Functional specialization within the extrastriate areas of the ventral pathway associated with visual form analysis is poorly understood. Studies comparing the functional selectivities of neurons within the early visual areas have found that there are more similar than different between the areas. We simultaneously imaged visually evoked activation over regions of V2 and V4 and parametrically varied three visual attributes for which selectivity exists in both areas: color, orientation, and size. We found that color selective regions were observed in both areas and were of similar size and spatial distribution...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573154/improving-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-with-a-little-help-from-computational-approaches
#12
Sandrine Chemla, Lyle Muller, Alexandre Reynaud, Sylvain Takerkart, Alain Destexhe, Frédéric Chavane
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) is a key neurophysiological recording tool because it reaches brain scales that remain inaccessible to other techniques. The development of this technique from in vitro to the behaving nonhuman primate has only been made possible thanks to the long-lasting, visionary work of Amiram Grinvald. This work has opened new scientific perspectives to the great benefit to the neuroscience community. However, this unprecedented technique remains largely under-utilized, and many future possibilities await for VSDI to reveal new functional operations...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573153/optical-imaging-of-the-rat-brain-suggests-a-previously-missing-link-between-top-down-and-bottom-up-nervous-system-function
#13
Susan A Greenfield, Antoine-Scott Badin, Giovanni Ferrati, Ian M Devonshire
Optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes enables the visualization of extensive yet highly transient coalitions of neurons (assemblies) operating throughout the brain on a subsecond time scale. We suggest that operating at the mesoscale level of brain organization, neuronal assemblies may provide a functional link between "bottom-up" cellular mechanisms and "top-down" cognitive ones within anatomically defined regions. We demonstrate in ex vivo rat brain slices how varying spatiotemporal dynamics of assemblies reveal differences not previously appreciated between: different stages of development in cortical versus subcortical brain areas, different sensory modalities (hearing versus vision), different classes of psychoactive drugs (anesthetics versus analgesics), different effects of anesthesia linked to hyperbaric conditions and, in vivo, depths of anesthesia...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560240/mesoscale-brain-explorer-a-flexible-python-based-image-analysis-and-visualization-tool
#14
Dirk Haupt, Matthieu P Vanni, Federico Bolanos, Catalin Mitelut, Jeffrey M LeDue, Tim H Murphy
Imaging of mesoscale brain activity is used to map interactions between brain regions. This work has benefited from the pioneering studies of Grinvald et al., who employed optical methods to image brain function by exploiting the properties of intrinsic optical signals and small molecule voltage-sensitive dyes. Mesoscale interareal brain imaging techniques have been advanced by cell targeted and selective recombinant indicators of neuronal activity. Spontaneous resting state activity is often collected during mesoscale imaging to provide the basis for mapping of connectivity relationships using correlation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523281/imaging-membrane-potential-changes-from-dendritic-spines-using-computer-generated-holography
#15
Dimitrii Tanese, Ju-Yun Weng, Valeria Zampini, Vincent De Sars, Marco Canepari, Balazs Rozsa, Valentina Emiliani, Dejan Zecevic
Electrical properties of neuronal processes are extraordinarily complex, dynamic, and, in the general case, impossible to predict in the absence of detailed measurements. To obtain such a measurement one would, ideally, like to be able to monitor electrical subthreshold events as they travel from synapses on distal dendrites and summate at particular locations to initiate action potentials. It is now possible to carry out these measurements at the scale of individual dendritic spines using voltage imaging. In these measurements, the voltage-sensitive probes can be thought of as transmembrane voltmeters with a linear scale, which directly monitor electrical signals...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523280/differences-in-orientation-tuning-between-pinwheel-and-domain-neurons-in-primary-visual-cortex-depend-on-contrast-and-size
#16
Yong-Jun Liu, Maziar Hashemi-Nezhad, David C Lyon
Intrinsic signal optical imaging reveals a highly modular map of orientation preference in the primary visual cortex (V1) of several species. This orientation map is characterized by domains and pinwheels where local circuitry is either more or less orientation selective, respectively. It has now been repeatedly demonstrated that neurons in pinwheels tend to be more broadly tuned to orientation, likely due to the broad range of orientation preference of the neighboring neurons forming pinwheels. However, certain stimulus conditions, such as a decrease in contrast or an increase in size, significantly sharpen tuning widths of V1 neurons...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491906/mammalian-cortical-voltage-imaging-using-genetically-encoded-voltage-indicators-a-review-honoring-professor-amiram-grinvald
#17
REVIEW
Chenchen Song, Samuel Barnes, Thomas Knöpfel
The pioneering work of Amiram Grinvald established voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in the mammalian cortex in the 1980s and inspired decades of cortical voltage imaging and the associated technological developments. The recent conception and development of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) overcome many of the limitations of classical VSDI, and open experimental approaches that provide accruing support for orchestrated neuronal circuit dynamics of spatially distributed neuronal circuit underlying behaviors...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491905/genetically-expressed-voltage-sensor-arclight-for-imaging-large-scale-cortical-activity-in-the-anesthetized-and-awake-mouse
#18
Peter Y Borden, Alex D Ortiz, Christian Waiblinger, Audrey J Sederberg, Arthur E Morrissette, Craig R Forest, Dieter Jaeger, Garrett B Stanley
With the recent breakthrough in genetically expressed voltage indicators (GEVIs), there has been a tremendous demand to determine the capabilities of these sensors in vivo. Novel voltage sensitive fluorescent proteins allow for direct measurement of neuron membrane potential changes through changes in fluorescence. Here, we utilized ArcLight, a recently developed GEVI, and examined the functional characteristics in the widely used mouse somatosensory whisker pathway. We measured the resulting evoked fluorescence using a wide-field microscope and a CCD camera at 200 Hz, which enabled voltage recordings over the entire cortical region with high temporal resolution...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413807/from-brain-to-blood-vessels-and-back-a-noninvasive-optical-imaging-approach
#19
REVIEW
Gabriele Gratton, Antonio M Chiarelli, Monica Fabiani
The seminal work of Grinvald et al. has paved the way for the use of intrinsic optical signals measured with reflection methods for the analysis of brain function. Although this work has focused on the absorption signal associated with deoxygenation, due to its detailed mapping ability and good signal-to-noise ratio, Grinvald's group has also described other intrinsic signals related to increased blood flow, scattering effects directly related to neural activation, and pulsation effects related to arterial function...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352646/-blue-voltage-sensitive-dyes-for-studying-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-the-brain-visualizing-cortical-waves
#20
Xinling Geng, Jian-Young Wu
Among many distinct contributions made by Amiram Grinvald's group, the "Blue dyes" is a special gift for visualizing cortical population neuronal activity. The excitation wavelength of blue dyes has minimal overlap with the absorption of hemoglobin, and hence has minimal pulsation artifacts. This advantage leads to high signal-to-noise ratio optical recordings of cortical activity, with sensitivity as good as that of local field potential recordings. High sensitivity imaging allows for recording of spontaneous and evoked activity in single trials without spatial or temporal averaging, and has benefitted many scientists in their research projects...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
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