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Neurophotonics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018935/intraoperative-intrinsic-optical-imaging-of-human-somatosensory-cortex-during-neurosurgical-operations
#1
REVIEW
Katsushige Sato, Tadashi Nariai, Yoko Momose-Sato, Kohtaro Kamino
Intrinsic optical imaging as developed by Grinvald et al. is a powerful technique for monitoring neural function in the in vivo central nervous system. The advent of this dye-free imaging has also enabled us to monitor human brain function during neurosurgical operations. We briefly describe our own experience in functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex, carried out using intraoperative optical imaging. The maps obtained demonstrate new additional evidence of a hierarchy for sensory response patterns in the human primary somatosensory cortex...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921068/voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-of-mouse-neocortex-during-a-whisker-detection-task
#2
Alexandros Kyriakatos, Vijay Sadashivaiah, Yifei Zhang, Alessandro Motta, Matthieu Auffret, Carl C H Petersen
Sensorimotor processing occurs in a highly distributed manner in the mammalian neocortex. The spatiotemporal dynamics of electrical activity in the dorsal mouse neocortex can be imaged using voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) with near-millisecond temporal resolution and [Formula: see text] spatial resolution. Here, we trained mice to lick a water reward spout after a 1-ms deflection of the C2 whisker, and we imaged cortical dynamics during task execution with VSD RH1691. Responses to whisker deflection were highly dynamic and spatially highly distributed, exhibiting high variability from trial to trial in amplitude and spatiotemporal dynamics...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921067/parallel-pathways-from-whisker-and-visual-sensory-cortices-to-distinct-frontal-regions-of-mouse-neocortex
#3
Varun Sreenivasan, Alexandros Kyriakatos, Celine Mateo, Dieter Jaeger, Carl C H Petersen
The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#4
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097209/fluorescence-guided-resection-of-brain-tumor-review-of-the-significance-of-intraoperative-quantification-of-protoporphyrin-ix-fluorescence
#5
REVIEW
Zheng Huang, Songsheng Shi, Haixia Qiu, Desheng Li, Jian Zou, Shaoshan Hu
Surgical removal of tumor mass is a common approach in the management of brain tumors. However, the precise delineation of normal tissue from tumor tissue for a complete resection of tumor mass in brain tumor surgery remains a difficult task for neurosurgeons. Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated exgogenous fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a sensitive approach for tumor imaging. Recent studies suggest that the use of ALA/PpIX-mediated fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) or fluorescence-guided surgery can enable more accurate and complete resection of brain tumors, especially when used in quantitative fashion...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042588/review-of-the-potential-of-optical-technologies-for-cancer-diagnosis-in-neurosurgery-a-step-toward-intraoperative-neurophotonics
#6
REVIEW
Fartash Vasefi, Nicholas MacKinnon, Daniel L Farkas, Babak Kateb
Advances in image-guided therapy enable physicians to obtain real-time information on neurological disorders such as brain tumors to improve resection accuracy. Image guidance data include the location, size, shape, type, and extent of tumors. Recent technological advances in neurophotonic engineering have enabled the development of techniques for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Incorporation of these methods in intraoperative imaging decreases surgical procedure time and allows neurosurgeons to find remaining or hidden tumor or epileptic lesions...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990452/review-of-mesoscopic-optical-tomography-for-depth-resolved-imaging-of-hemodynamic-changes-and-neural-activities
#7
REVIEW
Qinggong Tang, Jonathan Lin, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Reha S Erzurumlu, Yi Liu, Yu Chen
Understanding the functional wiring of neural circuits and their patterns of activation following sensory stimulations is a fundamental task in the field of neuroscience. Furthermore, charting the activity patterns is undoubtedly important to elucidate how neural networks operate in the living brain. However, optical imaging must overcome the effects of light scattering in the tissue, which limit the light penetration depth and affect both the imaging quantitation and sensitivity. Laminar optical tomography (LOT) is a three-dimensional (3-D) in-vivo optical imaging technique that can be used for functional imaging...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990451/patterned-photostimulation-via-visible-wavelength-photonic-probes-for-deep-brain-optogenetics
#8
Eran Segev, Jacob Reimer, Laurent C Moreaux, Trevor M Fowler, Derrick Chi, Wesley D Sacher, Maisie Lo, Karl Deisseroth, Andreas S Tolias, Andrei Faraon, Michael L Roukes
Optogenetic methods developed over the past decade enable unprecedented optical activation and silencing of specific neuronal cell types. However, light scattering in neural tissue precludes illuminating areas deep within the brain via free-space optics; this has impeded employing optogenetics universally. Here, we report an approach surmounting this significant limitation. We realize implantable, ultranarrow, silicon-based photonic probes enabling the delivery of complex illumination patterns deep within brain tissue...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752521/4-mm-diameter-three-dimensional-imaging-endoscope-with-steerable-camera-for-minimally-invasive-surgery-3-d-marvel
#9
Sam Y Bae, Ronald J Korniski, Michael Shearn, Harish M Manohara, Hrayr Shahinian
High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging (stereo imaging) by endoscopes in minimally invasive surgery, especially in space-constrained applications such as brain surgery, is one of the most desired capabilities. Such capability exists at larger than 4-mm overall diameters. We report the development of a stereo imaging endoscope of 4-mm maximum diameter, called Multiangle, Rear-Viewing Endoscopic Tool (MARVEL) that uses a single-lens system with complementary multibandpass filter (CMBF) technology to achieve 3-D imaging...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725948/correlation-between-volumetric-oxygenation-responses-and-electrophysiology-identifies-deep-thalamocortical-activity-during-epileptic-seizures
#10
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725947/visualizing-and-mapping-the-cerebellum-with-serial-optical-coherence-scanner
#11
Chao J Liu, Kristen E Williams, Harry T Orr, Taner Akkin
We present the visualization of the mouse cerebellum and adjacent brainstem using a serial optical coherence scanner, which integrates a vibratome slicer and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for ex vivo imaging. The scanner provides intrinsic optical contrasts to distinguish the cerebellar cortical layers and white matter. Images from serial scans reveal the large-scale anatomy in detail and map the nerve fiber pathways in the cerebellum and brainstem. By incorporating a water-immersion microscope objective, we also present high-resolution tiled images that delineate fine structures in the cerebellum and brainstem...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660802/errata-quantum-mechanism-of-light-transmission-by-the-intermediate-filaments-in-some-specialized-optically-transparent-cells
#12
Vladimir Makarov, Lidia Zueva, Tatiana Golubeva, Elena Korneeva, Igor Khmelinskii, Mikhail Inyushin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1117/1.NPh.4.1.011005.].
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570792/quantum-mechanism-of-light-transmission-by-the-intermediate-filaments-in-some-specialized-optically-transparent-cells
#13
Vladimir Makarov, Lidia Zueva, Tatiana Golubeva, Elena Korneeva, Igor Khmelinskii, Mikhail Inyushin
Some very transparent cells in the optical tract of vertebrates, such as the lens fiber cells, possess certain types of specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) that have essential significance for their transparency. The exact mechanism describing why the IFs are so important for transparency is unknown. Recently, transparency was described also in the retinal Müller cells (MCs). We report that the main processes of the MCs contain bundles of long specialized IFs, each about 10 nm in diameter; most likely, these filaments are the channels providing light transmission to the photoreceptor cells in mammalian and avian retinas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570791/somatic-stimulation-causes-frontoparietal-cortical-changes-in-neonates-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#14
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Ramzi W Nahhas, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Palmar and plantar grasp are the foremost primitive neonatal reflexes and functions. Persistence of these reflexes in infancy is a sign of evolving cerebral palsy. Our aims were to establish measurement feasibility in a clinical setting and to characterize changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD) concentration in the bilateral frontoparietal cortex in unsedated neonates at the crib-side using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We hypothesized that bilateral concentration changes will occur upon somatic central and peripheral somatic stimulation...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570790/optical-imaging-based-neurofeedback-to-enhance-therapeutic-intervention-in-adolescents-with-autism-methodology-and-initial-data
#15
Ning Liu, Sarit Cliffer, Anjali H Pradhan, Amy Lightbody, Scott S Hall, Allan L Reiss
Impaired facial processing may contribute to social dysfunction in certain individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prior studies show that electroencephalogram-based and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based neurofeedback might help some individuals with ASD learn to modulate regional brain activity and thus reduce symptoms. Here, we report for the first time the feasibility of employing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based neurofeedback training in children with ASD. We developed a method to study physiological self-regulation of oxy-hemoglobin using real-time feedback...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042587/long-term-continuous-monitoring-of-the-preterm-brain-with-diffuse-optical-tomography-and-electroencephalography-a-technical-note-on-cap-manufacturing
#16
Alfonso Galderisi, Sabrina Brigadoi, Simone Cutini, Sara Basso Moro, Elisabetta Lolli, Federica Meconi, Silvia Benavides-Varela, Eugenio Baraldi, Piero Amodio, Claudio Cobelli, Daniele Trevisanuto, Roberto Dell'Acqua
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has recently proved useful for detecting whole-brain oxygenation changes in preterm and term newborns' brains. The data recording phase in prior explorations was limited up to a maximum of a couple of hours, a time dictated by the need to minimize skin damage caused by the protracted contact with optode holders and interference with concomitant clinical/nursing procedures. In an attempt to extend the data recording phase, we developed a new custom-made cap for multimodal DOT and electroencephalography acquisitions for the neonatal population...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042586/special-section-guest-editorial-super-resolution-microscopy-of-neural-structure-and-function
#17
U Valentin Nägerl, Jean-Baptiste Sibarita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018934/prefrontal-hemodynamic-mapping-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-response-to-thermal-stimulations-over-three-body-sites
#18
Amarnath Yennu, Fenghua Tian, Robert J Gatchel, Hanli Liu
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to examine hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during noxious thermal pain, induced by thermal stimulations over three different body sites over the right forearm, right temporomandibular joint, and left forearm. Functional NIRS measurements were obtained from three groups of healthy volunteers, one group for each body region. Each group was subjected to both low-pain stimulation (LPS) and high-pain stimulation (HPS) by a [Formula: see text] thermode of a temperature-controlled thermal stimulator over the respective three body sites...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990450/action-potential-block-in-neurons-by-infrared-light
#19
Alex J Walsh, Gleb P Tolstykh, Stacey Martens, Bennett L Ibey, Hope T Beier
Short infrared laser pulses (SILP) have many physiological effects on cells, including the ability to stimulate action potentials (APs) in neurons. Here, we show that SILPs can also reversibly block APs. Reversible AP block in hippocampal neurons was observed following SILP (0.26 to [Formula: see text]; 1.37 to 5.01 ms; 1869 nm) with the block persisting for more than 1 s with exposures greater than [Formula: see text]. AP block was sustained for 30 s with SILPs pulsed at 1 to 7 Hz. Full recovery of neuronal activity was observed 5 to 30 s post SILP exposure...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981063/measurement-modeling-and-prediction-of-temperature-rise-due-to-optogenetic-brain-stimulation
#20
Gonzalo Arias-Gil, Frank Walter Ohl, Kentaroh Takagaki, Michael Thomas Lippert
Optogenetics is one of the most important techniques in neurophysiology, with potential clinical applications. However, the strong light needed may cause harmful temperature rises. So far, there are no methods to reliably estimate brain heating and safe limits in actual optogenetic experiments. We used thermal imaging to directly measure such temperature rises at the surface of live mouse brains during laser illumination with wavelengths and intensities typical for optogenetics. We then modeled the temperature rise with a simple logarithmic model...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
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