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Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Many patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) live in a stressful environment, and comorbidity is not uncommon. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying heroin and nicotine dependences and their relationships to social cognition could facilitate behavioral therapy efficacy. We aimed to provide a translational approach that leads to identifying potential biomarkers for opioid use disorder (OUD) susceptibility during recovery. We examined the clinical characters and the relationships between theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions in three groups: heroin plus nicotine-dependent (HND) patients who had remained heroin abstinent ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Xiaohong Lin, Victoria Lai Cheng Lei, Defeng Li, Zhen Yuan
This study examined the neural mechanism underlying two translation strategies associated with Chinese to English simultaneous interpreting (SI) targeting the left prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is generally involved in the control of interference and conflict resolution and has been identified as the brain area that plays a pivotal role in SI. Brain activation associated with the two strategies including "pairing" and "transphrasing" were compared with that from "nontranslation," which keeps the source language item unchanged in the target language production and is considered as a tactic that does not require complex cognitive operation associated with bilingual processing effort...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Sant Saran, Neha Gupta, Sukhdev Roy
A detailed theoretical analysis of low-power, fast optogenetic control of firing of Chronos-expressing neurons has been presented. A three-state model for the Chronos photocycle has been formulated and incorporated in a fast-spiking interneuron circuit model. The effect of excitation wavelength, pulse irradiance, pulse width, and pulse frequency has been studied in detail and compared with ChR2. Theoretical simulations are in excellent agreement with recently reported experimental results and bring out additional interesting features...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Lourdes M Delgado Reyes, Kevin Bohache, Sobanawartiny Wijeakumar, John P Spencer
Motion artifacts are often a significant component of the measured signal in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) experiments. A variety of methods have been proposed to address this issue, including principal components analysis (PCA), correlation-based signal improvement (CBSI), wavelet filtering, and spline interpolation. The efficacy of these techniques has been compared using simulated data; however, our understanding of how these techniques fare when dealing with task-based cognitive data is limited...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Lina Qiu, Huiyi Cheng, Alessandro Torricelli, Jun Li
Time-domain diffuse correlation spectroscopy (TD-DCS) has been recently proposed to improve detection of deep blood flow dynamics in a biological tissue, such as human brain. To obtain a high sensitive measurement, several experimental parameters such as the source-detector (SD) distance, gate opening time, and width need to be considered and optimized. We use a simulation approach to optimize these parameters based on Monte Carlo computations using a realistic human head model. Two cortical regions are investigated including the frontal and temporal lobes...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Kathryn Simone, Tamás Füzesi, David Rosenegger, Jaideep Bains, Kartikeya Murari
Fiber photometry uses genetically encoded optical reporters to link specific cellular activity in stereotaxically targeted brain structures to specific behaviors. There are still a number of barriers that have hindered the widespread adoption of this approach. This includes cost, but also the high-levels of light required to excite the fluorophore, limiting commercial systems to the investigation of short-term transients in neuronal activity to avoid damage of tissue by light. Here, we present a cost-effective optoelectronic system for in vivo fiber photometry that achieves high-sensitivity to changes in fluorescence intensity, enabling detection of optical transients of a popular calcium reporter with excitation powers as low as 100 nW...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Edgar Bermudez-Contreras, Sergey Chekhov, Jianjun Sun, Jennifer Tarnowsky, Bruce L McNaughton, Majid H Mohajerani
Simultaneous recording of optical and electrophysiological signals from multiple cortical areas may provide crucial information to expand our understanding of cortical function. However, the insertion of multiple electrodes into the brain may compromise optical imaging by both restricting the field of view and interfering with the approaches used to stabilize the specimen. Existing methods that combine electrophysiological recording and optical imaging in vivo implement either multiple surface electrodes, silicon probes, or a single electrode for deeper recordings...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Tal Aharoni, Shy Shoham
Holographic speckle is a major impediment to computer-generated holographic (CGH) projections in applications ranging from display, optical tweezers, and machining to optogenetic neural control. We present an iterative phase retrieval algorithm that allows the projection of amplitude-controlled speckle-free one-dimensional patterns with a high degree of pattern uniformity. The algorithm, termed the weighted Gerchberg-Saxton with phase-control (GSW-PC), is shown to have the ability to simultaneously control both the phase and amplitude of projected patterns with high diffraction efficiencies...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Lei Liu, Wataru Ito, Alexei Morozov
Region and cell-type restricted expression of light-activated ion channels is the indispensable tool to study properties of synapses in specific circuits and to monitor synaptic alterations by various stimuli including neuromodulators and behaviors, both ex vivo and in vivo . These analyses require the light-activated proteins or viral vectors for their delivery that do not interfere with the phenomenon under study. Here, we report a case of such interference in which the high-level expression of channelrhodopsin-2 introduced in the somatostatin-positive GABAergic neurons of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex by an adeno-associated virus vector weakens the presynaptic GABAb receptor-mediated suppression of GABA release...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Jianwei Cao, Hanli Liu, George Alexandrakis
Cortical circuit reorganization induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Broca's area of the dominant language hemisphere in 13 healthy adults was quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Transient cortical reorganization patterns in steady-state functional connectivity (seed-based and graph theory analysis) and temporal functional connectivity (sliding window correlation analysis) were recorded before, during, and after applying high current tDCS (1 mA, 8 min)...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Jonathan R Bumstead, Jasmine J Park, Isaac A Rosen, Andrew W Kraft, Patrick W Wright, Matthew D Reisman, Daniel C Côté, Joseph P Culver
Conventional two-photon microscopy (TPM) is capable of imaging neural dynamics with subcellular resolution, but it is limited to a field-of-view (FOV) diameter [Formula: see text]. Although there has been recent progress in extending the FOV in TPM, a principled design approach for developing large FOV TPM (LF-TPM) with off-the-shelf components has yet to be established. Therefore, we present a design strategy that depends on analyzing the optical invariant of commercially available objectives, relay lenses, mirror scanners, and emission collection systems in isolation...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Judit Gervain, Joseph P Culver
A guest editorial to summarize the Special Section on Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Swati M Surkar, Rashelle M Hoffman, Regina Harbourne, Max J Kurz
The primary aim of the study was to explore the prefrontal cortical (PFC) activation while performing a shape-matching motor task in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) as compared with typically developing (TD) children. Fifteen TD children ([Formula: see text]) and 12 children with HCP ([Formula: see text]) were included. We assessed the PFC activation while performing an ecologically valid upper extremity shape-matching task of different complexities by measuring the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Ruiqing Ni, Markus Vaas, Wuwei Ren, Jan Klohs
Oxygen metabolism and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) imaging, we visualized in vivo changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation during 1 h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and at 48 h after reperfusion together with MMP activity using an MMP-activatable probe. The deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and MMP signals were coregistered with structural magnetic resonance imaging data...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Hannah F Behrendt, Christine Firk, Charles A Nelson, Katherine L Perdue
Correcting for motion is an important consideration in infant functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies. We tested the performance of conventional motion correction methods and compared probe motion and data quality metrics for data collected at different infant ages (5, 7, and 12 months) and during different methods of stimulus presentation (video versus live). While 5-month-olds had slower maximum head speed than 7- or 12-month-olds, data quality metrics and hemodynamic response recovery errors were similar across ages...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Sahar Jahani, Seyed K Setarehdan, David A Boas, Meryem A Yücel
Motion artifact contamination in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data has become an important challenge in realizing the full potential of NIRS for real-life applications. Various motion correction algorithms have been used to alleviate the effect of motion artifacts on the estimation of the hemodynamic response function. While smoothing methods, such as wavelet filtering, are excellent in removing motion-induced sharp spikes, the baseline shifts in the signal remain after this type of filtering. Methods, such as spline interpolation, on the other hand, can properly correct baseline shifts; however, they leave residual high-frequency spikes...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Yoo Hwan Kim, Zephaniah Phillips V, Seung-Ho Paik, Nam-Joon Jeon, Beop-Min Kim, Byung-Jo Kim
The Valsalva maneuver (VM) with beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate monitoring are used to evaluate orthostatic intolerance (OI). However, they lack the ability to detect cerebral hemodynamic changes, which may be a cause of OI symptoms. Therefore, we utilized near-infrared spectroscopy during VM. Patients with OI symptoms and normal healthy subjects were recruited. Patients were subgrouped according to VM results: patients with normal VM (NVM) and abnormal VM (AbVM). Oxyhemoglobin (HbO), deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin changes were measured at four different source-detector distances (SD) (15, 30, 36, and 45 mm), and latency, amplitude, duration, and integrated total signal were calculated...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Martina Giovannella, David Ibañez, Clara Gregori-Pla, Michal Kacprzak, Guillem Mitjà, Giulio Ruffini, Turgut Durduran
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is currently being used for research and treatment of some neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as for improvement of cognitive functions. In order to better understand cerebral response to the stimulation and to redefine protocols and dosage, its effects must be monitored. To this end, we have used functional diffuse correlation spectroscopy (fDCS) and time-resolved functional near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-fNIRS) together with electroencephalography (EEG) during and after stimulation of the frontal cortex...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Stefania Lancia, Vincenza Cofini, Marika Carrieri, Marco Ferrari, Valentina Quaresima
The Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) is an old neuropsychological test that, requiring the storage and the reproduction of spatial locations, assesses spatial working memory (WM). Despite its wide use in clinical practice, the specific contribution of prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions during CBT execution has not been clarified yet. Considering the importance of spatial WM in daily life and the well-known role of ventrolateral-PFC/dorsolateral-PFC (VLPFC/DLPFC) in WM processes, the present study was aimed at investigating, by a 20-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system (including four short-separation channels), the hemodynamic response of the VLPFC/DLPFC during a computerized version of the CBT...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Yoko Hakuno, Laura Pirazzoli, Anna Blasi, Mark H Johnson, Sarah Lloyd-Fox
Despite the importance of our ability to interact and communicate with others, the early development of the social brain network remains poorly understood. We examined brain activity in 12- to 14-month-old infants while they were interacting live with an adult in two different naturalistic social scenarios (i.e., reading a picture book versus singing nursery rhymes with gestures), as compared to baseline (i.e., showing infants a toy without eye contact or speech). We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) recorded over the right temporal lobe of infants to assess the role of the superior temporal sulcus-temporoparietal junction (STS-TPJ) region during naturalistic social interactions...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
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