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Neurophotonics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921068/voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-of-mouse-neocortex-during-a-whisker-detection-task
#1
Alexandros Kyriakatos, Vijay Sadashivaiah, Yifei Zhang, Alessandro Motta, Matthieu Auffret, Carl C H Petersen
Sensorimotor processing occurs in a highly distributed manner in the mammalian neocortex. The spatiotemporal dynamics of electrical activity in the dorsal mouse neocortex can be imaged using voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) with near-millisecond temporal resolution and [Formula: see text] spatial resolution. Here, we trained mice to lick a water reward spout after a 1-ms deflection of the C2 whisker, and we imaged cortical dynamics during task execution with VSD RH1691. Responses to whisker deflection were highly dynamic and spatially highly distributed, exhibiting high variability from trial to trial in amplitude and spatiotemporal dynamics...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921067/parallel-pathways-from-whisker-and-visual-sensory-cortices-to-distinct-frontal-regions-of-mouse-neocortex
#2
Varun Sreenivasan, Alexandros Kyriakatos, Celine Mateo, Dieter Jaeger, Carl C H Petersen
The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#3
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752521/4-mm-diameter-three-dimensional-imaging-endoscope-with-steerable-camera-for-minimally-invasive-surgery-3-d-marvel
#4
Sam Y Bae, Ronald J Korniski, Michael Shearn, Harish M Manohara, Hrayr Shahinian
High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging (stereo imaging) by endoscopes in minimally invasive surgery, especially in space-constrained applications such as brain surgery, is one of the most desired capabilities. Such capability exists at larger than 4-mm overall diameters. We report the development of a stereo imaging endoscope of 4-mm maximum diameter, called Multiangle, Rear-Viewing Endoscopic Tool (MARVEL) that uses a single-lens system with complementary multibandpass filter (CMBF) technology to achieve 3-D imaging...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725948/correlation-between-volumetric-oxygenation-responses-and-electrophysiology-identifies-deep-thalamocortical-activity-during-epileptic-seizures
#5
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725947/visualizing-and-mapping-the-cerebellum-with-serial-optical-coherence-scanner
#6
Chao J Liu, Kristen E Williams, Harry T Orr, Taner Akkin
We present the visualization of the mouse cerebellum and adjacent brainstem using a serial optical coherence scanner, which integrates a vibratome slicer and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for ex vivo imaging. The scanner provides intrinsic optical contrasts to distinguish the cerebellar cortical layers and white matter. Images from serial scans reveal the large-scale anatomy in detail and map the nerve fiber pathways in the cerebellum and brainstem. By incorporating a water-immersion microscope objective, we also present high-resolution tiled images that delineate fine structures in the cerebellum and brainstem...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660802/errata-quantum-mechanism-of-light-transmission-by-the-intermediate-filaments-in-some-specialized-optically-transparent-cells
#7
Vladimir Makarov, Lidia Zueva, Tatiana Golubeva, Elena Korneeva, Igor Khmelinskii, Mikhail Inyushin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1117/1.NPh.4.1.011005.].
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570792/quantum-mechanism-of-light-transmission-by-the-intermediate-filaments-in-some-specialized-optically-transparent-cells
#8
Vladimir Makarov, Lidia Zueva, Tatiana Golubeva, Elena Korneeva, Igor Khmelinskii, Mikhail Inyushin
Some very transparent cells in the optical tract of vertebrates, such as the lens fiber cells, possess certain types of specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) that have essential significance for their transparency. The exact mechanism describing why the IFs are so important for transparency is unknown. Recently, transparency was described also in the retinal Müller cells (MCs). We report that the main processes of the MCs contain bundles of long specialized IFs, each about 10 nm in diameter; most likely, these filaments are the channels providing light transmission to the photoreceptor cells in mammalian and avian retinas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570791/somatic-stimulation-causes-frontoparietal-cortical-changes-in-neonates-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#9
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Ramzi W Nahhas, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Palmar and plantar grasp are the foremost primitive neonatal reflexes and functions. Persistence of these reflexes in infancy is a sign of evolving cerebral palsy. Our aims were to establish measurement feasibility in a clinical setting and to characterize changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD) concentration in the bilateral frontoparietal cortex in unsedated neonates at the crib-side using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We hypothesized that bilateral concentration changes will occur upon somatic central and peripheral somatic stimulation...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570790/optical-imaging-based-neurofeedback-to-enhance-therapeutic-intervention-in-adolescents-with-autism-methodology-and-initial-data
#10
Ning Liu, Sarit Cliffer, Anjali H Pradhan, Amy Lightbody, Scott S Hall, Allan L Reiss
Impaired facial processing may contribute to social dysfunction in certain individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prior studies show that electroencephalogram-based and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based neurofeedback might help some individuals with ASD learn to modulate regional brain activity and thus reduce symptoms. Here, we report for the first time the feasibility of employing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based neurofeedback training in children with ASD. We developed a method to study physiological self-regulation of oxy-hemoglobin using real-time feedback...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872870/nanoscale-organization-of-synaptic-adhesion-proteins-revealed-by-single-molecule-localization-microscopy
#11
Ingrid Chamma, Florian Levet, Jean-Baptiste Sibarita, Matthieu Sainlos, Olivier Thoumine
The advent of superresolution imaging has created a strong need for both optimized labeling strategies and analysis methods to probe the nanoscale organization of complex biological structures. We present a thorough description of the distribution of synaptic adhesion proteins at the nanoscopic scale, namely presynaptic neurexin-[Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and its two postsynaptic binding partners neuroligin-1 (Nlg1) and leucine-rich-repeat transmembrane protein 2 (LRRTM2). We monitored these proteins in the membrane of neurons by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, after live surface labeling with Alexa647-conjugated monomeric streptavidin...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872869/dynamic-association-of-calcium-channel-subunits-at-the-cellular-membrane
#12
Andreas Voigt, Romy Freund, Jennifer Heck, Markus Missler, Gerald J Obermair, Ulrich Thomas, Martin Heine
High voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are composed of at least three subunits, one pore forming [Formula: see text]-subunit, an intracellular [Formula: see text]-variant, and a mostly extracellular [Formula: see text]-variant. Interactions between these subunits determine the kinetic properties of VGCCs. It is unclear whether these interactions are stable over time or rather transient. Here, we used single-molecule tracking to investigate the surface diffusion of [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-subunits at the cell surface...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774493/two-photon-microscopy-measurement-of-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-using-periarteriolar-oxygen-concentration-gradients
#13
Sava Sakadžić, Mohammad A Yaseen, Rajeshwer Jaswal, Emmanuel Roussakis, Anders M Dale, Richard B Buxton, Sergei A Vinogradov, David A Boas, Anna Devor
The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) is an essential parameter for evaluating brain function and pathophysiology. However, the currently available approaches for quantifying [Formula: see text] rely on complex multimodal imaging and mathematical modeling. Here, we introduce a method that allows estimation of [Formula: see text] based on a single measurement modality-two-photon imaging of the partial pressure of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) in cortical tissue. We employed two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and the oxygen-sensitive nanoprobe PtP-C343 to map the tissue [Formula: see text] distribution around cortical penetrating arterioles...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752520/probe-hosted-silicon-photomultipliers-for-time-domain-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-phantom-and-in-vivo-tests
#14
Rebecca Re, Edoardo Martinenghi, Alberto Dalla Mora, Davide Contini, Antonio Pifferi, Alessandro Torricelli
We report the development of a compact probe for time-domain (TD) functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based on a fast silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) that can be put directly in contact with the sample without the need of optical fibers for light collection. We directly integrated an avalanche signal amplification stage close to the SiPM, thus reducing the size of the detection channel and optimizing the signal immunity to electromagnetic interferences. The whole detection electronics was placed in a plastic screw holder compatible with the electroencephalography standard cap for measurement on brain or with custom probe holders...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752519/intraoperative-video-rate-hemodynamic-response-assessment-in-human-cortex-using-snapshot-hyperspectral-optical-imaging
#15
Julien Pichette, Audrey Laurence, Leticia Angulo, Frederic Lesage, Alain Bouthillier, Dang Khoa Nguyen, Frederic Leblond
Using light, we are able to visualize the hemodynamic behavior of the brain to better understand neurovascular coupling and cerebral metabolism. In vivo optical imaging of tissue using endogenous chromophores necessitates spectroscopic detection to ensure molecular specificity as well as sufficiently high imaging speed and signal-to-noise ratio, to allow dynamic physiological changes to be captured, isolated, and used as surrogate of pathophysiological processes. An optical imaging system is introduced using a 16-bands on-chip hyperspectral camera...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752518/automated-voxel-classification-used-with-atlas-guided-diffuse-optical-tomography-for-assessment-of-functional-brain-networks-in-young-and-older-adults
#16
Lin Li, Mary Cazzell, Olajide Babawale, Hanli Liu
Atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography (atlas-DOT) is a computational means to image changes in cortical hemodynamic signals during human brain activities. Graph theory analysis (GTA) is a network analysis tool commonly used in functional neuroimaging to study brain networks. Atlas-DOT has not been analyzed with GTA to derive large-scale brain connectivity/networks based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. We introduced an automated voxel classification (AVC) method that facilitated the use of GTA with atlas-DOT images by grouping unequal-sized finite element voxels into anatomically meaningful regions of interest within the human brain...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725946/design-of-multichannel-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-system-with-application-to-propofol-and-sevoflurane-anesthesia-monitoring
#17
Zhenhu Liang, Yue Gu, Xuejing Duan, Lei Cheng, Shujuan Liang, Yunjie Tong, Xiaoli Li
Monitoring the changes of cerebral hemodynamics and the state of consciousness during general anesthesia (GA) is clinically important. There is a great need for developing advanced detectors to investigate the physiological processes of the brain during GA. We developed a multichanneled, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system device and applied it to GA operation monitoring. The cerebral hemodynamic data from the forehead of 11 patients undergoing propofol and sevoflurane anesthesia were analyzed...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429996/single-nanoparticle-tracking-of-formula-see-text-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-cultured-and-intact-brain-tissue
#18
Juan A Varela, Joana S Ferreira, Julien P Dupuis, Pauline Durand, Delphine Bouchet, Laurent Groc
Recent developments in single-molecule imaging have revealed many biological mechanisms, providing high spatial and temporal resolution maps of molecular events. In neurobiology, these techniques unveiled that plasma membrane neurotransmitter receptors and transporters laterally diffuse at the surface of cultured brain cells. The photostability of bright nanoprobes, such as quantum dots (QDs), has given access to neurotransmitter receptor tracking over long periods of time with a high spatial resolution. However, our knowledge has been restricted to cultured systems, i...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413767/probing-amyloid-protein-aggregation-with-optical-superresolution-methods-from-the-test-tube-to-models-of-disease
#19
Clemens F Kaminski, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle
The misfolding and self-assembly of intrinsically disordered proteins into insoluble amyloid structures are central to many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Optical imaging of this self-assembly process in vitro and in cells is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind these devastating conditions. In contrast to conventional biophysical methods, optical imaging and, in particular, optical superresolution imaging, permits the dynamic investigation of the molecular self-assembly process in vitro and in cells, at molecular-level resolution...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413766/superresolving-dendritic-spine-morphology-with-sted-microscopy-under-holographic-photostimulation
#20
Marcel Andreas Lauterbach, Marc Guillon, Claire Desnos, Dany Khamsing, Zahra Jaffal, François Darchen, Valentina Emiliani
Emerging all-optical methods provide unique possibilities for noninvasive studies of physiological processes at the cellular and subcellular scale. On the one hand, superresolution microscopy enables observation of living samples with nanometer resolution. On the other hand, light can be used to stimulate cells due to the advent of optogenetics and photolyzable neurotransmitters. To exploit the full potential of optical stimulation, light must be delivered to specific cells or even parts of cells such as dendritic spines...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
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