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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

Kentaro Inokuma, Ryo Iwamoto, Takahiro Bamba, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
Xylose-assimilating yeasts with tolerance to both fermentation inhibitors (such as weak organic acids) and high temperature are required for cost-effective simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) of lignocellulosic materials. Here, we demonstrate the construction of a novel xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with improved fermentation ability under heat and acid co-stress using the drug resistance marker-aided genome shuffling technique. The mutagenized genome pools derived from xylose-utilizing diploid yeasts with thermotolerance or acid tolerance were shuffled by sporulation and mating...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Giada Graziana Genchi, Attilio Marino, Christos Tapeinos, Gianni Ciofani
With the increasing advances in the fabrication and in monitoring approaches of nanotechnology devices, novel materials are being synthesized and tested for the interaction with biological environments. Among them, smart materials in particular provide versatile and dynamically tunable platforms for the investigation and manipulation of several biological activities with very low invasiveness in hardly accessible anatomical districts. In the following, we will briefly recall recent examples of nanotechnology-based materials that can be remotely activated and controlled through different sources of energy, such as electromagnetic fields or ultrasounds, for their relevance to both basic science investigations and translational nanomedicine...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Raquel Vinhas, Rita Mendes, Alexandra R Fernandes, Pedro V Baptista
Nanotechnology has become a powerful approach to improve the way we diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique features for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity for earlier detection of circulating cancer biomarkers. In vivo, NPs enhance the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer agents when compared with conventional chemotherapy, improving vectorization and delivery, and helping to overcome drug resistance. Nanomedicine has been mostly focused on solid cancers due to take advantage from the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect experienced by tissues in the close vicinity of tumors, which enhance nanomedicine's accumulation and, consequently, improve efficacy...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Midhun P Unni, Aniruddha Sinha, Kingshuk Chakravarty, Debatri Chatterjee, Abhijit Das
Developing a quantifier of the neural control of motion is extremely useful in characterizing motor disorders and personalizing the model equations using data. We approach this problem using a top-down optimal control methodology, with an aim that the quantity estimated from the collected data is representative of the underlying neural controller. For this purpose, we assume that during the flexion of an arm, human brain optimizes a functional. A functional is defined as a function of a function that returns a scalar...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Daniel Tang, Liang-Yo Yang, Keng-Liang Ou, Richard O C Oreffo
Although titanium alloys remain the preferred biomaterials for the manufacture of biomedical implants today, such devices can fail within 15 years of implantation due to inadequate osseointegration. Furthermore, wear debris toxicity due to alloy metal ion release has been found to cause side-effects including neurotoxicity and chronic inflammation. Titanium, with its known biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and high elastic modulus, could if harnessed in the form of a superficial scaffold or bridging device, resolve such issues...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Devon E Anderson, Brian Johnstone
Articular cartilage functions to transmit and translate loads. In a classical structure-function relationship, the tissue resides in a dynamic mechanical environment that drives the formation of a highly organized tissue architecture suited to its biomechanical role. The dynamic mechanical environment includes multiaxial compressive and shear strains as well as hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. As the mechanical environment is known to modulate cell fate and influence tissue development toward a defined architecture in situ, dynamic mechanical loading has been hypothesized to induce the structure-function relationship during attempts at in vitro regeneration of articular cartilage...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Saeed Abdulrahman Alnuaimi, Shihab Jimaa, Ahsan H Khandoker
The fetal Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) is commonly used for monitoring fetal heart rate and can also be used for identifying the event timings of fetal cardiac valve motions. In early-stage fetuses, the detected Doppler signal suffers from noise and signal loss due to the fetal movements and changing fetal location during the measurement procedure. The fetal cardiac intervals, which can be estimated by measuring the fetal cardiac event timings, are the most important markers of fetal development and well-being...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Phil D B Price, Conor Gissane, Daniel J Cleather
FreeBody is a musculoskeletal model of the lower limb used to calculate predictions of muscle and joint contact forces. The validation of FreeBody has been described in a number of publications; however, its reliability has yet to be established. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to establish the test-retest reliability of FreeBody in a population of healthy adults in order to add support to previous and future research using FreeBody that demonstrates differences between cohorts after an intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Vivek Jeyakumar, Eugenia Niculescu-Morzsa, Christoph Bauer, Zsombor Lacza, Stefan Nehrer
Articular cartilage regeneration is insufficient to restore sports injuries or defects that can occur from trauma. Treatment options for cartilage repair include autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) by isolation, expansion, and reimplantation of healthy donor chondrocytes. Chondrocyte expansion onto 2D substrates leads to dedifferentiation and loss of the cellular phenotype. We aimed to overcome the state of dedifferentiation by biochemical stimuli with platelet derivatives such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyperacute serum (HAS) to achieve sufficient cell numbers in combination with variable oxygen tension...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Thomas Lissek
Translating neural activity into nucleic acid modifications in a controlled manner harbors unique advantages for basic neurobiology and bioengineering. It would allow for a new generation of biological computers that store output in ultra-compact and long-lived DNA and enable the investigation of animal nervous systems at unprecedented scales. Furthermore, by exploiting the ability of DNA to precisely influence neuronal activity and structure, it could be possible to more effectively create cellular therapy approaches for psychiatric diseases that are currently difficult to treat...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Simon F Carroll, Conor T Buckley, Daniel J Kelly
Successfully regenerating damaged or diseased bone and other joint tissues will require a detailed understanding of how joint specific environmental cues regulate the fate of progenitor cells that are recruited or delivered to the site of injury. The goal of this study was to explore the role of cyclic tensile strain (CTS) in regulating the initiation of mesenchymal stem cell/multipotent stromal cell (MSC) differentiation, and specifically their progression along the endochondral pathway. To this end, we first explored the influence of CTS on the differentiation of MSCs in the absence of any specific growth factor, and secondly, we examined the influence of the long-term application of this mechanical stimulus on markers of endochondral ossification in MSCs maintained in chondrogenic culture conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Anita Muraglia, Van Thi Nguyen, Marta Nardini, Massimo Mogni, Domenico Coviello, Beatrice Dozin, Paolo Strada, Ilaria Baldelli, Matteo Formica, Ranieri Cancedda, Maddalena Mastrogiacomo
Present cell culture medium supplements, in most cases based on animal sera, are not fully satisfactory especially for the in vitro expansion of cells intended for human cell therapy. This paper refers to (i) an heparin-free human platelet lysate (PL) devoid of serum or plasma components (v-PL) and (ii) an heparin-free human serum derived from plasma devoid of PL components (Pl-s) and to their use as single components or in combination in primary or cell line cultures. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) primary cultures were obtained from adipose tissue, bone marrow, and umbilical cord...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Michaela Thomas, Stephanie M Willerth
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals in North America and cost the health-care industry billions of dollars for treatment. Current treatment options for degenerative diseases focus on physical rehabilitation or drug therapies, which temporarily mask the effects of cell damage, but quickly lose their efficacy. Cell therapies for the central nervous system remain an untapped market due to the complexity involved in growing neural tissues, controlling their differentiation, and protecting them from the hostile environment they meet upon implantation...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Regina Fraas, Juliane Diehm, Matthias Franzreb
Protein modification by covalent coupling of small ligands or markers is an important prerequisite for the use of proteins in many applications. Well-known examples are the use of proteins with fluorescent markers in many in vivo experiments or the binding of biotinylated antibodies via biotin-streptavidin coupling in the frame of numerous bioassays. Multiple protocols were established for the coupling of the respective molecules, e.g., via the C and N-terminus, or via cysteines and lysines exposed at the protein surface...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Ricardo Londono, Wei Wenzhong, Bing Wang, Rocky S Tuan, Thomas P Lozito
Introduction: Human cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited capacity for repair. By contrast, certain lizards are capable of musculoskeletal tissue regeneration following tail loss throughout all stages of their lives. This extraordinary ability is the result of a complex process in which a blastema forms and gives rise to the tissues of the regenerate. Blastemal cells have been shown to originate either from dedifferentiated tissues or from existing progenitor cells in various species, but their origin has not been determined in lizards...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Andrea Grosso, Maximilian G Burger, Alexander Lunger, Dirk J Schaefer, Andrea Banfi, Nunzia Di Maggio
Bone regeneration is a complex process requiring highly orchestrated interactions between different cells and signals to form new mineralized tissue. Blood vessels serve as a structural template, around which bone development takes place, and also bring together the key elements for bone homeostasis into the osteogenic microenvironment, including minerals, growth factors and osteogenic progenitor cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of vascular growth and it is required for effective coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis during both skeletal development and postnatal bone repair...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Giovana Y Nakashima, Theresa H Nakagawa, Ana F Dos Santos, Fábio V Serrão, Michel Bessani, Carlos D Maciel
The knowledge of motion dynamics during running activity is crucial to enhance the development of rehabilitation techniques and injury prevention programs. Recent studies investigated the interaction between joints, using several analysis techniques, as cross-correlation, sensitivity analysis, among others. However, the direction of the joints pairing is still not understood. This paper proposes a study of the influence direction pattern in healthy runners by using kinematic data together with partial directed coherence, a frequency approach of Granger causality...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Shailesh Appukuttan, Mithun Padmakumar, Keith L Brain, Rohit Manchanda
Action potential (AP) profiles vary based on the cell type, with cells of the same type typically producing APs with similar shapes. But in certain syncytial tissues, such as the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder wall, even a single cell is known to exhibit APs with diverse profiles. The origin of this diversity is not currently understood, but is often attributed to factors such as syncytial interactions and the spatial distribution of parasympathetic nerve terminals. Thus, the profile of an action potential is determined by the inherent properties of the cell and influenced by its biophysical environment...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Fabian Machens, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Katrin Messerschmidt
Orthogonal systems for heterologous protein expression as well as for the engineering of synthetic gene regulatory circuits in hosts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae depend on synthetic transcription factors (synTFs) and corresponding cis-regulatory binding sites. We have constructed and characterized a set of synTFs based on either transcription activator-like effectors or CRISPR/Cas9, and corresponding small synthetic promoters (synPs) with minimal sequence identity to the host's endogenous promoters. The resulting collection of functional synTF/synP pairs confers very low background expression under uninduced conditions, while expression output upon induction of the various synTFs covers a wide range and reaches induction factors of up to 400...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Jacopo Biasetti, Aliaksei Pustavoitau, Pier Giorgio Spazzini
Mechanical circulatory support devices, such as total artificial hearts and left ventricular assist devices, rely on external energy sources for their continuous operation. Clinically approved power supplies rely on percutaneous cables connecting an external energy source to the implanted device with the associated risk of infections. One alternative, investigated in the 70s and 80s, employs a fully implanted nuclear power source. The heat generated by the nuclear decay can be converted into electricity to power circulatory support devices...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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