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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124054/a-method-for-the-analysis-of-ap-foot-convexity-insights-into-smooth-muscle-biophysics
#1
Shailesh Appukuttan, Mithun Padmakumar, Keith L Brain, Rohit Manchanda
Action potential (AP) profiles vary based on the cell type, with cells of the same type typically producing APs with similar shapes. But in certain syncytial tissues, such as the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder wall, even a single cell is known to exhibit APs with diverse profiles. The origin of this diversity is not currently understood, but is often attributed to factors such as syncytial interactions and the spatial distribution of parasympathetic nerve terminals. Thus, the profile of an action potential is determined by the inherent properties of the cell and influenced by its biophysical environment...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098147/synthetic-promoters-and-transcription-factors-for-heterologous-protein-expression-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Fabian Machens, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Katrin Messerschmidt
Orthogonal systems for heterologous protein expression as well as for the engineering of synthetic gene regulatory circuits in hosts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae depend on synthetic transcription factors (synTFs) and corresponding cis-regulatory binding sites. We have constructed and characterized a set of synTFs based on either transcription activator-like effectors or CRISPR/Cas9, and corresponding small synthetic promoters (synPs) with minimal sequence identity to the host's endogenous promoters. The resulting collection of functional synTF/synP pairs confers very low background expression under uninduced conditions, while expression output upon induction of the various synTFs covers a wide range and reaches induction factors of up to 400...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094038/intracorporeal-heat-distribution-from-fully-implantable-energy-sources-for-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-computational-proof-of-concept-study
#3
Jacopo Biasetti, Aliaksei Pustavoitau, Pier Giorgio Spazzini
Mechanical circulatory support devices, such as total artificial hearts and left ventricular assist devices, rely on external energy sources for their continuous operation. Clinically approved power supplies rely on percutaneous cables connecting an external energy source to the implanted device with the associated risk of infections. One alternative, investigated in the 70s and 80s, employs a fully implanted nuclear power source. The heat generated by the nuclear decay can be converted into electricity to power circulatory support devices...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090211/integrating-cellular-and-bioprocess-engineering-in-the-non-conventional-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-biodiesel-production-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Dongming Xie
As one of the major biofuels to replace fossil fuel, biodiesel has now attracted more and more attention due to its advantages in higher energy density and overall less greenhouse gas generation. Biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) is produced by chemically or enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of lipids from microbial cells, microalgae, oil crops, or animal fats. Currently, plant oils or waste cooking oils/fats remain the major source for biodiesel production via enzymatic route, but the production capacity is limited either by the uncertain supplement of plant oils or by the low or inconsistent quality of waste oils/fats...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090210/four-dimensional-bioprinting-as-a-new-era-for-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#5
Pedro Morouço, Wanda Lattanzi, Nuno Alves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082227/muscle-synergies-based-characterization-and-clustering-of-poststroke-patients-in-reaching-movements
#6
Alessandro Scano, Andrea Chiavenna, Matteo Malosio, Lorenzo Molinari Tosatti, Franco Molteni
BACKGROUND: A deep characterization of neurological patients is a crucial step for a detailed knowledge of the pathology and maximal exploitation and customization of the rehabilitation therapy. The muscle synergies analysis was designed to investigate how muscles coactivate and how their eliciting commands change in time during movement production. Few studies investigated the value of muscle synergies for the characterization of neurological patients before rehabilitation therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067286/recognition-of-a-virtual-scene-via-simulated-prosthetic-vision
#7
Ying Zhao, Xiulin Geng, Qi Li, Guangqi Jiang, Yu Gu, Xiaoqi Lv
In order to effectively aid the blind with optimal low-resolution vision and visual recovery training, pathfinding and recognition tests were performed using a simulated visual prosthetic scene. Simple and complex virtual scenes were built using 3DMAX and Unity, and pixelated to three different resolutions (32 × 32, 64 × 64, and 128 × 128) for real-time pixel processing. Twenty subjects were recruited to complete the pathfinding and object recognition tasks within the scene. The recognition accuracy and time required were recorded and analyzed after the trials...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057224/commentary-atrial-fibrillation-dynamics-and-ionic-block-effects-in-six-heterogeneous-human-3d-virtual-atria-with-distinct-repolarization-dynamics
#8
COMMENT
Chiara Campana, Fadi G Akar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057223/complete-genome-sequence-and-comparative-analysis-of-staphylococcus-condimenti-dsm-11674-a-potential-starter-culture-isolated-from-soy-sauce-mash
#9
Huihui Dong, Jian Chen, Andrew K Hastings, Lihua Guo, Beiwen Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021981/commentary-crispr-cas-encoding-of-a-digital-movie-into-the-genomes-of-a-population-of-living-bacteria
#10
COMMENT
Ianis G Matsoukas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993805/addressing-pressing-needs-in-the-development-of-advanced-therapies
#11
David Morrow, Anton Ussi, Giovanni Migliaccio
The commercial development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represents great opportunity for therapeutic innovation but is beset by many challenges for its developers. Although the ATMP field continues to progress at a rapid pace, evidenced by the increasing number of clinical trials conducted over the past few years, several factors continue to complicate the introduction of ATMPs as a curative treatment for multiple disease types, by blocking their translational pathway from research to the patient...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983481/heparan-sulfate-a-potential-candidate-for-the-development-of-biomimetic-immunomodulatory-membranes
#12
Bruna Corradetti, Francesca Taraballi, Ilaria Giretti, Guillermo Bauza, Rossella S Pistillo, Federica Banche Niclot, Laura Pandolfi, Ennio Tasciotti
Clinical trials have demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS) could be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Its anti-inflammatory effect makes it suitable for the development of biomimetic innovative strategies aiming at modulating stem cells behavior toward a pro-regenerative phenotype in case of injury or inflammation. Here, we propose collagen type I meshes fabricated by solvent casting and further crosslinked with HS (HS-Col) to create a biomimetic environment resembling the extracellular matrix of soft tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944222/fetal-heart-sounds-detection-using-wavelet-transform-and-fractal-dimension
#13
Elisavet Koutsiana, Leontios J Hadjileontiadis, Ioanna Chouvarda, Ahsan H Khandoker
Phonocardiography is a non-invasive technique for the detection of fetal heart sounds (fHSs). In this study, analysis of fetal phonocardiograph (fPCG) signals, in order to achieve fetal heartbeat segmentation, is proposed. The proposed approach (namely WT-FD) is a wavelet transform (WT)-based method that combines fractal dimension (FD) analysis in the WT domain for the extraction of fHSs from the underlying noise. Its adoption in this field stems from its successful use in the fields of lung and bowel sounds de-noising analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929099/harnessing-endogenous-cellular-mechanisms-for-bone-repair
#14
REVIEW
Claudia Lo Sicco, Roberta Tasso
Although autologous tissue transplantation represents a valid approach for bone repair, it has encountered crucial barriers in therapeutic translation, not least the invasive process necessary for stem cell isolation. In recent years, the scientific community has made significant strides for identifying new treatment options, and great emphasis has been placed on the tight interaction between skeletal and immune system in modulating the outcome of bone repair. Within the context of specific injury environmental cues, the cross talk among inflammatory cells and tissue resident and/or circulating progenitor cells is crucial to finely coordinate repair and remodeling processes...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894735/navigating-the-functional-landscape-of-transcription-factors-via-non-negative-tensor-factorization-analysis-of-medline-abstracts
#15
Sujoy Roy, Daqing Yun, Behrouz Madahian, Michael W Berry, Lih-Yuan Deng, Daniel Goldowitz, Ramin Homayouni
In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel text-mining approach, using non-negative tensor factorization (NTF), to simultaneously extract and functionally annotate transcriptional modules consisting of sets of genes, transcription factors (TFs), and terms from MEDLINE abstracts. A sparse 3-mode term × gene × TF tensor was constructed that contained weighted frequencies of 106,895 terms in 26,781 abstracts shared among 7,695 genes and 994 TFs. The tensor was decomposed into sub-tensors using non-negative tensor factorization (NTF) across 16 different approximation ranks...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879179/capturing-the-cranio-caudal-signature-of-a-turn-with-inertial-measurement-systems-methods-parameters-robustness-and-reliability
#16
Karina Lebel, Hung Nguyen, Christian Duval, Réjean Plamondon, Patrick Boissy
BACKGROUND: Turning is a challenging mobility task requiring coordination and postural stability. Optimal turning involves a cranio-caudal sequence (i.e., the head initiates the motion, followed by the trunk and the pelvis), which has been shown to be altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease as well as in fallers and frails. Previous studies have suggested that the cranio-caudal sequence exhibits a specific signature corresponding to the adopted turn strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861412/stable-production-of-the-antimalarial-drug-artemisinin-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#17
Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul Ikram, Arman Beyraghdar Kashkooli, Anantha Vithakshana Peramuna, Alexander R van der Krol, Harro Bouwmeester, Henrik Toft Simonsen
Malaria is a real and constant danger to nearly half of the world's population of 7.4 billion people. In 2015, 212 million cases were reported along with 429,000 estimated deaths. The World Health Organization recommends artemisinin-based combinatorial therapies, and the artemisinin for this purpose is mainly isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. However, the plant supply of artemisinin is irregular, leading to fluctuation in prices. Here, we report the development of a simple, sustainable, and scalable production platform of artemisinin...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856135/plant-science-view-on-biohybrid-development
#18
REVIEW
Tomasz Skrzypczak, Rafał Krela, Wojciech Kwiatkowski, Shraddha Wadurkar, Aleksandra Smoczyńska, Przemysław Wojtaszek
Biohybrid consists of a living organism or cell and at least one engineered component. Designing robot-plant biohybrids is a great challenge: it requires interdisciplinary reconsideration of capabilities intimate specific to the biology of plants. Envisioned advances should improve agricultural/horticultural/social practice and could open new directions in utilization of plants by humans. Proper biohybrid cooperation depends upon effective communication. During evolution, plants developed many ways to communicate with each other, with animals, and with microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824907/proteomic-insights-on-the-metabolism-of-penicillium-janczewskii-during-the-biotransformation-of-the-plant-terpenoid-labdanolic-acid
#19
Isabel Martins, Adélia Varela, Luís M T Frija, Mónica A S Estevão, Sébastien Planchon, Jenny Renaut, Carlos A M Afonso, Cristina Silva Pereira
Plant terpenoids compose a natural source of chemodiversity of exceptional value. Many of these compounds own biological/pharmacological activity, others are regarded as unique chemical skeletons for the synthesis of derivatives with improved properties. Functional chemical modification of terpenoids through biotransformation frequently relies on the use of Ascomycota strains, but information on major cellular responses is still largely lacking. Penicillium janczewskii mediates a stereo-selective hydroxylation of labdanolic acid (LA)-terpenoid found abundantly in Cistus ladanifer-producing 3β-hydroxy-labdanolic acid with yields >90%...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798914/rapid-characterization-of-bacterial-electrogenicity-using-a-single-sheet-paper-based-electrofluidic-array
#20
Yang Gao, Daniel J Hassett, Seokheun Choi
Electrogenicity, or bacterial electron transfer capacity, is an important application which offers environmentally sustainable advances in the fields of biofuels, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, desalination, and biosensing. Significant boosts in this technology can be achieved with the growth of synthetic biology that manipulates microbial electron transfer pathways, thereby potentially significantly improving their electrogenic potential. There is currently a need for a high-throughput, rapid, and highly sensitive test array to evaluate the electrogenic properties of newly discovered and/or genetically engineered bacterial species...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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