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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929099/harnessing-endogenous-cellular-mechanisms-for-bone-repair
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Lo Sicco, Roberta Tasso
Although autologous tissue transplantation represents a valid approach for bone repair, it has encountered crucial barriers in therapeutic translation, not least the invasive process necessary for stem cell isolation. In recent years, the scientific community has made significant strides for identifying new treatment options, and great emphasis has been placed on the tight interaction between skeletal and immune system in modulating the outcome of bone repair. Within the context of specific injury environmental cues, the cross talk among inflammatory cells and tissue resident and/or circulating progenitor cells is crucial to finely coordinate repair and remodeling processes...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894735/navigating-the-functional-landscape-of-transcription-factors-via-non-negative-tensor-factorization-analysis-of-medline-abstracts
#2
Sujoy Roy, Daqing Yun, Behrouz Madahian, Michael W Berry, Lih-Yuan Deng, Daniel Goldowitz, Ramin Homayouni
In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel text-mining approach, using non-negative tensor factorization (NTF), to simultaneously extract and functionally annotate transcriptional modules consisting of sets of genes, transcription factors (TFs), and terms from MEDLINE abstracts. A sparse 3-mode term × gene × TF tensor was constructed that contained weighted frequencies of 106,895 terms in 26,781 abstracts shared among 7,695 genes and 994 TFs. The tensor was decomposed into sub-tensors using non-negative tensor factorization (NTF) across 16 different approximation ranks...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879179/capturing-the-cranio-caudal-signature-of-a-turn-with-inertial-measurement-systems-methods-parameters-robustness-and-reliability
#3
Karina Lebel, Hung Nguyen, Christian Duval, Réjean Plamondon, Patrick Boissy
BACKGROUND: Turning is a challenging mobility task requiring coordination and postural stability. Optimal turning involves a cranio-caudal sequence (i.e., the head initiates the motion, followed by the trunk and the pelvis), which has been shown to be altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease as well as in fallers and frails. Previous studies have suggested that the cranio-caudal sequence exhibits a specific signature corresponding to the adopted turn strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861412/stable-production-of-the-antimalarial-drug-artemisinin-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#4
Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul Ikram, Arman Beyraghdar Kashkooli, Anantha Vithakshana Peramuna, Alexander R van der Krol, Harro Bouwmeester, Henrik Toft Simonsen
Malaria is a real and constant danger to nearly half of the world's population of 7.4 billion people. In 2015, 212 million cases were reported along with 429,000 estimated deaths. The World Health Organization recommends artemisinin-based combinatorial therapies, and the artemisinin for this purpose is mainly isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. However, the plant supply of artemisinin is irregular, leading to fluctuation in prices. Here, we report the development of a simple, sustainable, and scalable production platform of artemisinin...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856135/plant-science-view-on-biohybrid-development
#5
REVIEW
Tomasz Skrzypczak, Rafał Krela, Wojciech Kwiatkowski, Shraddha Wadurkar, Aleksandra Smoczyńska, Przemysław Wojtaszek
Biohybrid consists of a living organism or cell and at least one engineered component. Designing robot-plant biohybrids is a great challenge: it requires interdisciplinary reconsideration of capabilities intimate specific to the biology of plants. Envisioned advances should improve agricultural/horticultural/social practice and could open new directions in utilization of plants by humans. Proper biohybrid cooperation depends upon effective communication. During evolution, plants developed many ways to communicate with each other, with animals, and with microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824907/proteomic-insights-on-the-metabolism-of-penicillium-janczewskii-during-the-biotransformation-of-the-plant-terpenoid-labdanolic-acid
#6
Isabel Martins, Adélia Varela, Luís M T Frija, Mónica A S Estevão, Sébastien Planchon, Jenny Renaut, Carlos A M Afonso, Cristina Silva Pereira
Plant terpenoids compose a natural source of chemodiversity of exceptional value. Many of these compounds own biological/pharmacological activity, others are regarded as unique chemical skeletons for the synthesis of derivatives with improved properties. Functional chemical modification of terpenoids through biotransformation frequently relies on the use of Ascomycota strains, but information on major cellular responses is still largely lacking. Penicillium janczewskii mediates a stereo-selective hydroxylation of labdanolic acid (LA)-terpenoid found abundantly in Cistus ladanifer-producing 3β-hydroxy-labdanolic acid with yields >90%...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798914/rapid-characterization-of-bacterial-electrogenicity-using-a-single-sheet-paper-based-electrofluidic-array
#7
Yang Gao, Daniel J Hassett, Seokheun Choi
Electrogenicity, or bacterial electron transfer capacity, is an important application which offers environmentally sustainable advances in the fields of biofuels, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, desalination, and biosensing. Significant boosts in this technology can be achieved with the growth of synthetic biology that manipulates microbial electron transfer pathways, thereby potentially significantly improving their electrogenic potential. There is currently a need for a high-throughput, rapid, and highly sensitive test array to evaluate the electrogenic properties of newly discovered and/or genetically engineered bacterial species...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798913/assessing-nutrient-removal-kinetics-in-flushed-manure-using-chlorella-vulgaris-biomass-production
#8
Pramod Pandey, Jun Shi
The utilization of dairy wastewater for producing algal biomass is seen as a two-fold opportunity to treat wastewater and produce algae biomass, which can be potentially used for production of biofuels. In animal agriculture system, one of the major waste streams is dairy manure that contains high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Furthermore, it is produced abundantly in California's dairy industry, as well as many other parts of the world. We hypothesized that flushed manure, wastewater from a dairy farm, can be used as a potential feedstock after pretreatment to grow Chlorella vulgaris biomass and to reduce nutrients of manure...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798912/force-myography-for-monitoring-grasping-in-individuals-with-stroke-with-mild-to-moderate-upper-extremity-impairments-a-preliminary-investigation-in-a-controlled-environment
#9
Gautam P Sadarangani, Xianta Jiang, Lisa A Simpson, Janice J Eng, Carlo Menon
There is increasing research interest in technologies that can detect grasping, to encourage functional use of the hand as part of daily living, and thus promote upper-extremity motor recovery in individuals with stroke. Force myography (FMG) has been shown to be effective for providing biofeedback to improve fine motor function in structured rehabilitation settings, involving isolated repetitions of a single grasp type, elicited at a predictable time, without upper-extremity movements. The use of FMG, with machine learning techniques, to detect and distinguish between grasping and no grasping, continues to be an active area of research, in healthy individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798911/tissue-engineering-approaches-in-the-design-of-healthy-and-pathological-in-vitro-tissue-models
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Caddeo, Monica Boffito, Susanna Sartori
In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770196/functionality-of-immunoglobulin-g-and-immunoglobulin-m-antibody-physisorbed-on-cellulosic-films
#11
Ziwei Huang, Vikram Singh Raghuwanshi, Gil Garnier
The functionality and aging mechanism of antibodies physisorbed onto cellulosic films was investigated. Blood grouping antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) were adsorbed onto smooth cellulose acetate (CAF) and regenerated cellulose (RCF) films. Cellulose films and adsorbed IgG layers were characterized at the air and liquid interface by X-ray and neutron reflectivity (NR), respectively. Cellulose film 208 Å thick (in air) swell to 386 Å once equilibrated in water. IgG adsorbs from solution onto cellulose as a partial layer 62 Å thick...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713811/reducing-the-impact-of-shoulder-abduction-loading-on-the-classification-of-hand-opening-and-grasping-in-individuals-with-poststroke-flexion-synergy
#12
Yiyun Lan, Jun Yao, Julius P A Dewald
Application of neural machine interface in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke is regarded as a great challenge, especially for classification of the hand opening and grasping during a functional upper extremity movement such as reach-to-grasp. The overall accuracy of classifying hand movements, while actively lifting the paretic arm, is subject to a significant reduction compared to the accuracy when the arm is fully supported. Such a reduction is believed to be due to the expression of flexion synergy, which couples shoulder abduction (SABD) with elbow/wrist and finger flexion, and is common in up to 60% of the stroke population...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713810/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-proportional-electromyography-control-to-biological-torque-control-using-a-powered-hip-exoskeleton
#13
Aaron J Young, Hannah Gannon, Daniel P Ferris
BACKGROUND: Despite a large increase in robotic exoskeleton research, there are few studies that have examined human performance with different control strategies on the same exoskeleton device. Direct comparison studies are needed to determine how users respond to different types of control. The purpose of this study was to compare user performance using a robotic hip exoskeleton with two different controllers: a controller that targeted a biological hip torque profile and a proportional myoelectric controller...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702455/synergistic-interactions-of-a-synthetic-lubricin-mimetic-with-fibronectin-for-enhanced-wear-protection
#14
Roberto C Andresen Eguiluz, Sierra G Cook, Mingchee Tan, Cory N Brown, Noah J Pacifici, Mihir S Samak, Lawrence J Bonassar, David Putnam, Delphine Gourdon
Lubricin (LUB), a major mucinous glycoprotein of mammalian synovial fluids, is believed to provide excellent lubrication to cartilage surfaces. Consequently, when joint disease or replacement leads to increased friction and surface damage in the joint, robust synthetic LUB alternatives that could be used therapeutically to improve lubrication and surface protection are needed. Here, we report the characterization of a lubricating multiblock bottlebrush polymer whose architecture was inspired by LUB, and we investigate the role of fibronectin (FN), a glycoprotein found in the superficial zone of cartilage, in mediating the tribological properties of the polymer upon shear between mica surfaces...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660185/dedifferentiated-chondrocytes-in-composite-microfibers-as-tool-for-cartilage-repair
#15
Marco Angelozzi, Letizia Penolazzi, Stefania Mazzitelli, Elisabetta Lambertini, Andrea Lolli, Roberta Piva, Claudio Nastruzzi
Tissue engineering (TE) approaches using biomaterials have gain important roles in the regeneration of cartilage. This paper describes the production by microfluidics of alginate-based microfibers containing both extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived biomaterials and chondrocytes. As ECM components gelatin or decellularized urinary bladder matrix (UBM) were investigated. The effectiveness of the composite microfibers has been tested to modulate the behavior and redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620603/advances-in-the-knowledge-about-kidney-decellularization-and-repopulation
#16
REVIEW
Afrânio Côgo Destefani, Gabriela Modenesi Sirtoli, Breno Valentim Nogueira
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by the progressive deterioration of renal function that may compromise different tissues and organs. The major treatment indicated for patients with ESRD is kidney transplantation. However, the shortage of available organs, as well as the high rate of organ rejection, supports the need for new therapies. Thus, the implementation of tissue bioengineering to organ regeneration has emerged as an alternative to traditional organ transplantation. Decellularization of organs with chemical, physical, and/or biological agents generates natural scaffolds, which can serve as basis for tissue reconstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596955/flux-enabled-exploration-of-the-role-of-sip1-in-galactose-yeast-metabolism
#17
Christopher M Shymansky, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Jennifer Gin, Amanda Reider Apel, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Héctor García Martín, Jay D Keasling
(13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C MFA) is an important systems biology technique that has been used to investigate microbial metabolism for decades. The heterotrimer Snf1 kinase complex plays a key role in the preference Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits for glucose over galactose, a phenomenon known as glucose repression or carbon catabolite repression. The SIP1 gene, encoding a part of this complex, has received little attention, presumably, because its knockout lacks a growth phenotype. We present a fluxomic investigation of the relative effects of the presence of galactose in classically glucose-repressing media and/or knockout of SIP1 using a multi-scale variant of (13)C MFA known as 2-Scale (13)C metabolic flux analysis (2S-(13)C MFA)...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567373/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-acetic-acid-producing-acetobacter-pasteurianus-strains-subsp-ascendens-lmg-1590-t-and-subsp-paradoxus-lmg-1591-t
#18
Baolei Jia, Byung Hee Chun, Ga Youn Cho, Kyung Hyun Kim, Ji Young Moon, Soo-Hwan Yeo, Che Ok Jeon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567372/soluble-factors-on-stage-to-direct-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fate
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Sobacchi, Eleonora Palagano, Anna Villa, Ciro Menale
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that are identified by in vitro plastic adherence, colony-forming capacity, expression of a panel of surface molecules, and ability to differentiate at least toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. They also produce trophic factors with immunomodulatory, proangiogenic, and antiapoptotic functions influencing the behavior of neighboring cells. On the other hand, a reciprocal regulation takes place; in fact, MSCs can be isolated from several tissues, and depending on the original microenvironment and the range of stimuli received from there, they can display differences in their essential characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567371/the-use-of-finite-element-analyses-to-design-and-fabricate-three-dimensional-scaffolds-for-skeletal-tissue-engineering
#20
REVIEW
Wim J Hendrikson, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Jeroen Rouwkema, Lorenzo Moroni
Computational modeling has been increasingly applied to the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Where in early days computational models were used to better understand the biomechanical requirements of targeted tissues to be regenerated, recently, more and more models are formulated to combine such biomechanical requirements with cell fate predictions to aid in the design of functional three-dimensional scaffolds. In this review, we highlight how computational modeling has been used to understand the mechanisms behind tissue formation and can be used for more rational and biomimetic scaffold-based tissue regeneration strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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