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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447031/microfluidic-concentric-gradient-generator-design-for-high-throughput-cell-based-studies
#1
Elishai Ezra Tsur, Michal Zimerman, Idan Maor, Avner Elrich, Yaakov Nahmias
Gradients of diffusible signaling molecules play important role in various processes, ranging from cell differentiation to toxicological evaluation. Microfluidic technology provides an accurate control of tempospatial conditions. However, current microfluidic platforms are not designed to handle multiple gradients and cell populations simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a rapidly adaptable microfluidic design able to expose multiple cell populations to an array of chemical gradients. Our design is based on pressure-equilibrated concentric channels and a pressure-dissipating control layer, facilitating the seeding of multiple cell populations in a single device...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439516/engineering-muscle-networks-in-3d-gelatin-methacryloyl-hydrogels-influence-of-mechanical-stiffness-and-geometrical-confinement
#2
Marco Costantini, Stefano Testa, Ersilia Fornetti, Andrea Barbetta, Marcella Trombetta, Stefano Maria Cannata, Cesare Gargioli, Alberto Rainer
In this work, the influence of mechanical stiffness and geometrical confinement on the 3D culture of myoblast-laden gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) photo-crosslinkable hydrogels was evaluated in terms of in vitro myogenesis. We formulated a set of cell-laden GelMA hydrogels with a compressive modulus in the range 1 ÷ 17 kPa, obtained by varying GelMA concentration and degree of cross-linking. C2C12 myoblasts were chosen as the cell model to investigate the supportiveness of different GelMA hydrogels toward myotube formation up to 2 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424770/recent-advances-in-bioink-design-for-3d-bioprinting-of-tissues-and-organs
#3
REVIEW
Shen Ji, Murat Guvendiren
There is a growing demand for alternative fabrication approaches to develop tissues and organs as conventional techniques are not capable of fabricating constructs with required structural, mechanical, and biological complexity. 3D bioprinting offers great potential to fabricate highly complex constructs with precise control of structure, mechanics, and biological matter [i.e., cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components]. 3D bioprinting is an additive manufacturing approach that utilizes a "bioink" to fabricate devices and scaffolds in a layer-by-layer manner...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421180/usability-evaluations-of-a-wearable-inertial-sensing-system-and-quality-of-movement-metrics-for-stroke-survivors-by-care-professionals
#4
Bart Klaassen, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Jeremia P Held, Jasper Reenalda, Fokke B van Meulen, Peter H Veltink, Hermie J Hermens
BACKGROUND: Inertial motion capture systems are used in many applications such as measuring the movement quality in stroke survivors. The absence of clinical effectiveness and usability evidence in these assistive technologies into rehabilitation has delayed the transition of research into clinical practice. Recently, a new inertial motion capture system was developed in a project, called INTERACTION, to objectively measure the quality of movement (QoM) in stroke survivors during daily-life activity...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421179/synergy-based-bilateral-port-a-universal-control-module-for-tele-manipulation-frameworks-using-asymmetric-master-slave-systems
#5
Anais Brygo, Ioannis Sarakoglou, Giorgio Grioli, Nikos Tsagarakis
Endowing tele-manipulation frameworks with the capability to accommodate a variety of robotic hands is key to achieving high performances through permitting to flexibly interchange the end-effector according to the task considered. This requires the development of control policies that not only cope with asymmetric master-slave systems but also whose high-level components are designed in a unified space in abstraction from the devices specifics. To address this dual challenge, a novel synergy port is developed that resolves the kinematic, sensing, and actuation asymmetries of the considered system through generating motion and force feedback references in the hardware-independent hand postural synergy space...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396856/bidomain-predictions-of-virtual-electrode-induced-make-and-break-excitations-around-blood-vessels
#6
Adam J Connolly, Edward Vigmond, Martin J Bishop
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Virtual electrodes formed by field stimulation during defibrillation of cardiac tissue play an important role in eliciting activations. It has been suggested that the coronary vasculature is an important source of virtual electrodes, especially during low-energy defibrillation. This work aims to further the understanding of how virtual electrodes from the coronary vasculature influence defibrillation outcomes. METHODS: Using the bidomain model, we investigated how field stimulation elicited activations from virtual electrodes around idealized intramural blood vessels...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386538/biofabrication-and-bone-tissue-regeneration-cell-source-approaches-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Monia Orciani, Milena Fini, Roberto Di Primio, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte
The growing occurrence of bone disorders and the increase in aging population have resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this request. Bone tissue engineering strategies, by combining biomaterials, cells, and signaling factors, are seen as alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or rebuilding bone defects. Indeed, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice because of several challenges. Bone biofabrication by additive manufacturing techniques may represent a possible solution, with its intrinsic capability for accuracy, reproducibility, and customization of scaffolds as well as cell and signaling molecule delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337436/the-lid-domain-in-lipases-structural-and-functional-determinant-of-enzymatic-properties
#8
REVIEW
Faez Iqbal Khan, Dongming Lan, Rabia Durrani, Weiqian Huan, Zexin Zhao, Yonghua Wang
Lipases are important industrial enzymes. Most of the lipases operate at lipid-water interfaces enabled by a mobile lid domain located over the active site. Lid protects the active site and hence responsible for catalytic activity. In pure aqueous media, the lid is predominantly closed, whereas in the presence of a hydrophobic layer, it is partially opened. Hence, the lid controls the enzyme activity. In the present review, we have classified lipases into different groups based on the structure of lid domains...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337435/commentary-bioceramics-and-scaffolds-a-winning-combination-for-tissue-engineering
#9
COMMENT
Eric Denes, Guislaine Barrière, Evelyne Poli, Guillaume Lévêque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337434/influence-of-power-delivery-timing-on-the-energetics-and-biomechanics-of-humans-wearing-a-hip-exoskeleton
#10
Aaron J Young, Jessica Foss, Hannah Gannon, Daniel P Ferris
A broad goal in the field of powered lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of walking. Ankle exoskeletons have successfully achieved this goal by correctly timing a plantarflexor torque during late stance phase. Hip exoskeletons have the potential to assist with both flexion and extension during walking gait, but the optimal timing for maximally reducing metabolic cost is unknown. The focus of our study was to determine the best assistance timing for applying hip assistance through a pneumatic exoskeleton on human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299310/corrigendum-fluidic-logic-used-in-a-systems-approach-to-enable-integrated-single-cell-functional-analysis
#11
Naveen Ramalingam, Brian Fowler, Lukasz Szpankowski, Anne A Leyrat, Kyle Hukari, Myo Thu Maung, Wiganda Yorza, Michael Norris, Chris Cesar, Joe Shuga, Michael L Gonzales, Chad D Sanada, Xiaohui Wang, Rudy Yeung, Win Hwang, Justin Axsom, Naga Sai Gopi Krishna Devaraju, Ninez Delos Angeles, Cassandra Greene, Ming-Fang Zhou, Eng-Seng Ong, Chang-Chee Poh, Marcos Lam, Henry Choi, Zaw Htoo, Leo Lee, Chee-Sing Chin, Zhong-Wei Shen, Chong T Lu, Ilona Holcomb, Aik Ooi, Craig Stolarczyk, Tony Shuga, Kenneth J Livak, Cate Larsen, Marc Unger, Jay A A West
[This corrects the article on p. 70 in vol. 4, PMID: 27709111.].
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293553/pcr-primer-design-for-16s-rrnas-for-experimental-horizontal-gene-transfer-test-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Kentaro Miyazaki, Mitsuharu Sato, Miyuki Tsukuda
We recently demonstrated that the Escherichia coli ribosome is robust enough to accommodate foreign 16S rRNAs from diverse gamma- and betaproteobacteria bacteria (Kitahara et al., 2012). Therein, we used the common universal primers Bac8f and UN1541r to obtain a nearly full-length gene. However, we noticed that these primers overlap variable sites at 19[A/C] and 1527[U/C] in Bac8f and UN1541r, respectively, and thus, the amplicon could contain mutations. This is problematic, particularly for the former site, because the 19th nucleotide pairs with the 916th nucleotide, which is a part of the "central pseudoknot" and is critical for function...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289680/synergy-repetition-training-versus-task-repetition-training-in-acquiring-new-skill
#13
Vrajeshri Patel, Jamie Craig, Michelle Schumacher, Martin K Burns, Ionut Florescu, Ramana Vinjamuri
Traditionally, repetitive practice of a task is used to learn a new skill, exhibiting as immediately improved performance. Research suggests, however, that a more experience-based rather than exposure-based training protocol may allow for better transference of the skill to related tasks. In synergy-based motor control theory, fundamental motor skills, such as hand grasping, are represented with a synergy subspace that captures essential motor patterns. In this study, we propose that motor-skill learning through synergy-based mechanisms may provide advantages over traditional task repetition learning...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286747/rapid-fabrication-of-cell-laden-alginate-hydrogel-3d-structures-by-micro-dip-coating
#14
Atabak Ghanizadeh Tabriz, Christopher G Mills, John J Mullins, Jamie A Davies, Wenmiao Shu
Development of a simple, straightforward 3D fabrication method to culture cells in 3D, without relying on any complex fabrication methods, remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe a new technique that allows fabrication of scalable 3D cell-laden hydrogel structures easily, without complex machinery: the technique can be done using only apparatus already available in a typical cell biology laboratory. The fabrication method involves micro dip-coating of cell-laden hydrogels covering the surface of a metal bar, into the cross-linking reagents calcium chloride or barium chloride to form hollow tubular structures...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271060/repair-of-physiologic-time-series-replacement-of-anomalous-data-points-to-preserve-fractal-exponents
#15
Mark Shelhamer, Steven B Lowen
Extraction of fractal exponents via the slope of the power spectrum is common in the analysis of many physiological time series. The fractal structure thus characterized is a manifestation of long-term correlations, for which the temporal order of the sample values is crucial. However, missing data points due to artifacts and dropouts are common in such data sets, which can seriously disrupt the computation of fractal parameters. We evaluated a number of methods for replacing missing data in time series to enable reliable extraction of the fractal exponent and make recommendations as to the preferred replacement method depending on the proportion of missing values and any a priori estimate of the fractal exponent...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265559/heterotrophic-cultivation-of-cyanobacteria-study-of-effect-of-exogenous-sources-of-organic-carbon-absolute-amount-of-nutrients-and-stirring-speed-on-biomass-and-lipid-productivity
#16
Aline Meireles Dos Santos, Karem Rodrigues Vieira, Rafaela Basso Sartori, Alberto Meireles Dos Santos, Maria Isabel Queiroz, Leila Queiroz Zepka, Eduardo Jacob-Lopes
The production of bioproducts from cyanobacteria with techno-economic feasibility is a challenge to these biotechnological processes. The choice of low-cost raw materials is of great importance for the overall economy of bioprocesses, as they represent a significant percentage in the final cost of the product. The objective of this work was to study the operational parameters of cultivation (exogenous sources of organic carbon and absolute amount of nutrients) to optimize productivity in bioproducts by Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli, for further evaluation of stirring speed...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265558/a-clostridium-group-iv-species-dominates-and-suppresses-a-mixed-culture-fermentation-by-tolerance-to-medium-chain-fatty-acids-products
#17
Stephen J Andersen, Vicky De Groof, Way Cern Khor, Hugo Roume, Ruben Props, Marta Coma, Korneel Rabaey
A microbial community is engaged in a complex economy of cooperation and competition for carbon and energy. In engineered systems such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation, these relationships are exploited for conversion of a broad range of substrates into products, such as biogas, ethanol, and carboxylic acids. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), for example, hexanoic acid, are valuable, energy dense microbial fermentation products, however, MCFA tend to exhibit microbial toxicity to a broad range of microorganisms at low concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243588/computational-modeling-of-fluid-structure-acoustics-interaction-during-voice-production
#18
Weili Jiang, Xudong Zheng, Qian Xue
The paper presented a three-dimensional, first-principle based fluid-structure-acoustics interaction computer model of voice production, which employed a more realistic human laryngeal and vocal tract geometries. Self-sustained vibrations, important convergent-divergent vibration pattern of the vocal folds, and entrainment of the two dominant vibratory modes were captured. Voice quality-associated parameters including the frequency, open quotient, skewness quotient, and flow rate of the glottal flow waveform were found to be well within the normal physiological ranges...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239606/influence-of-additive-manufactured-scaffold-architecture-on-the-distribution-of-surface-strains-and-fluid-flow-shear-stresses-and-expected-osteochondral-cell-differentiation
#19
Wim J Hendrikson, Anthony J Deegan, Ying Yang, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Nico Verdonschot, Lorenzo Moroni, Jeroen Rouwkema
Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical stability. Since both scaffold strength and stress-strain distributions throughout the scaffold depend on the scaffold's internal architecture, it is important to understand how changes in architecture influence these parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239605/low-dimensional-synergistic-representation-of-bilateral-reaching-movements
#20
Martin K Burns, Vrajeshri Patel, Ionut Florescu, Kishore V Pochiraju, Ramana Vinjamuri
Kinematic and neuromuscular synergies have been found in numerous aspects of human motion. This study aims to determine how effectively kinematic synergies in bilateral upper arm movements can be used to replicate complex activities of daily living (ADL) tasks using a sparse optimization algorithm. Ten right-handed subjects executed 18 rapid and 11 natural-paced ADL tasks requiring bimanual coordination while sitting at a table. A position tracking system was used to track the subjects' arms in space, and angular velocities over time for shoulder abduction, shoulder flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and elbow flexion for each arm were computed...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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