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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

Faez Iqbal Khan, Dongming Lan, Rabia Durrani, Weiqian Huan, Zexin Zhao, Yonghua Wang
Lipases are important industrial enzymes. Most of the lipases operate at lipid-water interfaces enabled by a mobile lid domain located over the active site. Lid protects the active site and hence responsible for catalytic activity. In pure aqueous media, the lid is predominantly closed, whereas in the presence of a hydrophobic layer, it is partially opened. Hence, the lid controls the enzyme activity. In the present review, we have classified lipases into different groups based on the structure of lid domains...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Eric Denes, Guislaine Barrière, Evelyne Poli, Guillaume Lévêque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Aaron J Young, Jessica Foss, Hannah Gannon, Daniel P Ferris
A broad goal in the field of powered lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of walking. Ankle exoskeletons have successfully achieved this goal by correctly timing a plantarflexor torque during late stance phase. Hip exoskeletons have the potential to assist with both flexion and extension during walking gait, but the optimal timing for maximally reducing metabolic cost is unknown. The focus of our study was to determine the best assistance timing for applying hip assistance through a pneumatic exoskeleton on human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Naveen Ramalingam, Brian Fowler, Lukasz Szpankowski, Anne A Leyrat, Kyle Hukari, Myo Thu Maung, Wiganda Yorza, Michael Norris, Chris Cesar, Joe Shuga, Michael L Gonzales, Chad D Sanada, Xiaohui Wang, Rudy Yeung, Win Hwang, Justin Axsom, Naga Sai Gopi Krishna Devaraju, Ninez Delos Angeles, Cassandra Greene, Ming-Fang Zhou, Eng-Seng Ong, Chang-Chee Poh, Marcos Lam, Henry Choi, Zaw Htoo, Leo Lee, Chee-Sing Chin, Zhong-Wei Shen, Chong T Lu, Ilona Holcomb, Aik Ooi, Craig Stolarczyk, Tony Shuga, Kenneth J Livak, Cate Larsen, Marc Unger, Jay A A West
[This corrects the article on p. 70 in vol. 4, PMID: 27709111.].
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Kentaro Miyazaki, Mitsuharu Sato, Miyuki Tsukuda
We recently demonstrated that the Escherichia coli ribosome is robust enough to accommodate foreign 16S rRNAs from diverse gamma- and betaproteobacteria bacteria (Kitahara et al., 2012). Therein, we used the common universal primers Bac8f and UN1541r to obtain a nearly full-length gene. However, we noticed that these primers overlap variable sites at 19[A/C] and 1527[U/C] in Bac8f and UN1541r, respectively, and thus, the amplicon could contain mutations. This is problematic, particularly for the former site, because the 19th nucleotide pairs with the 916th nucleotide, which is a part of the "central pseudoknot" and is critical for function...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Vrajeshri Patel, Jamie Craig, Michelle Schumacher, Martin K Burns, Ionut Florescu, Ramana Vinjamuri
Traditionally, repetitive practice of a task is used to learn a new skill, exhibiting as immediately improved performance. Research suggests, however, that a more experience-based rather than exposure-based training protocol may allow for better transference of the skill to related tasks. In synergy-based motor control theory, fundamental motor skills, such as hand grasping, are represented with a synergy subspace that captures essential motor patterns. In this study, we propose that motor-skill learning through synergy-based mechanisms may provide advantages over traditional task repetition learning...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Atabak Ghanizadeh Tabriz, Christopher G Mills, John J Mullins, Jamie A Davies, Wenmiao Shu
Development of a simple, straightforward 3D fabrication method to culture cells in 3D, without relying on any complex fabrication methods, remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe a new technique that allows fabrication of scalable 3D cell-laden hydrogel structures easily, without complex machinery: the technique can be done using only apparatus already available in a typical cell biology laboratory. The fabrication method involves micro dip-coating of cell-laden hydrogels covering the surface of a metal bar, into the cross-linking reagents calcium chloride or barium chloride to form hollow tubular structures...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Mark Shelhamer, Steven B Lowen
Extraction of fractal exponents via the slope of the power spectrum is common in the analysis of many physiological time series. The fractal structure thus characterized is a manifestation of long-term correlations, for which the temporal order of the sample values is crucial. However, missing data points due to artifacts and dropouts are common in such data sets, which can seriously disrupt the computation of fractal parameters. We evaluated a number of methods for replacing missing data in time series to enable reliable extraction of the fractal exponent and make recommendations as to the preferred replacement method depending on the proportion of missing values and any a priori estimate of the fractal exponent...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Aline Meireles Dos Santos, Karem Rodrigues Vieira, Rafaela Basso Sartori, Alberto Meireles Dos Santos, Maria Isabel Queiroz, Leila Queiroz Zepka, Eduardo Jacob-Lopes
The production of bioproducts from cyanobacteria with techno-economic feasibility is a challenge to these biotechnological processes. The choice of low-cost raw materials is of great importance for the overall economy of bioprocesses, as they represent a significant percentage in the final cost of the product. The objective of this work was to study the operational parameters of cultivation (exogenous sources of organic carbon and absolute amount of nutrients) to optimize productivity in bioproducts by Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli, for further evaluation of stirring speed...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Stephen J Andersen, Vicky De Groof, Way Cern Khor, Hugo Roume, Ruben Props, Marta Coma, Korneel Rabaey
A microbial community is engaged in a complex economy of cooperation and competition for carbon and energy. In engineered systems such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation, these relationships are exploited for conversion of a broad range of substrates into products, such as biogas, ethanol, and carboxylic acids. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), for example, hexanoic acid, are valuable, energy dense microbial fermentation products, however, MCFA tend to exhibit microbial toxicity to a broad range of microorganisms at low concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Weili Jiang, Xudong Zheng, Qian Xue
The paper presented a three-dimensional, first-principle based fluid-structure-acoustics interaction computer model of voice production, which employed a more realistic human laryngeal and vocal tract geometries. Self-sustained vibrations, important convergent-divergent vibration pattern of the vocal folds, and entrainment of the two dominant vibratory modes were captured. Voice quality-associated parameters including the frequency, open quotient, skewness quotient, and flow rate of the glottal flow waveform were found to be well within the normal physiological ranges...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Wim J Hendrikson, Anthony J Deegan, Ying Yang, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Nico Verdonschot, Lorenzo Moroni, Jeroen Rouwkema
Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical stability. Since both scaffold strength and stress-strain distributions throughout the scaffold depend on the scaffold's internal architecture, it is important to understand how changes in architecture influence these parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Martin K Burns, Vrajeshri Patel, Ionut Florescu, Kishore V Pochiraju, Ramana Vinjamuri
Kinematic and neuromuscular synergies have been found in numerous aspects of human motion. This study aims to determine how effectively kinematic synergies in bilateral upper arm movements can be used to replicate complex activities of daily living (ADL) tasks using a sparse optimization algorithm. Ten right-handed subjects executed 18 rapid and 11 natural-paced ADL tasks requiring bimanual coordination while sitting at a table. A position tracking system was used to track the subjects' arms in space, and angular velocities over time for shoulder abduction, shoulder flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and elbow flexion for each arm were computed...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Davide Fissore
Model-based process analytical technologies can be used for the in-line control and optimization of a pharmaceuticals freeze-drying process, as well as for the off-line design of the process, i.e., the identification of the optimal operating conditions. This paper aims at presenting the state of the art in this field, focusing, particularly, on three groups of systems, namely, those based on the temperature measurement (i.e., the soft sensor), on the chamber pressure measurement (i.e., the systems based on the test of pressure rise and of pressure decrease), and on the sublimation flux estimate (i...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Bahareh Tolooshams, Ning Jiang
Contraction-level invariant surface electromyography pattern recognition introduces the decrease of training time and decreases the limitation of clinical prostheses. This study intended to examine whether a signal pre-processing method named frequency division technique (FDT) for online myoelectric pattern recognition classification is robust against contraction-level variation, and whether this pre-processing method has an advantage over traditional time-domain pattern recognition techniques even in the absence of muscle contraction-level variation...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Tito Bassani, Claudia Ottardi, Francesco Costa, Marco Brayda-Bruno, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Fabio Galbusera
The present study proposes a semiautomatic software approach to reconstruct 3D subject-specific musculoskeletal model of thoracolumbar spine from radiographic digitized images acquired with EOS system. The approach is applied to evaluate the intervertebral loads in 38 standing adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis. For each vertebra, a set of landmarks was manually identified on radiographic images. The landmark coordinates were processed to calculate the following vertebral geometrical properties in the 3D space (i) location (ii) dimensions; and (iii) rotations...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Jeremia P Held, Bart Klaassen, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Andreas R Luft, Peter H Veltink
BACKGROUND: To increase the functional capabilities of stroke subjects during activities of daily living, patients receive rehabilitative training to recover adequate motor control. With the goal to motivate self-training by use of the arm in daily life tasks, a sensor system (Arm Usage Coach, AUC) was developed that provides VibroTactile (VT) feedback if the patient does not move the affected arm above a certain threshold level. The objective of this study is to investigate the usability of this system in stroke subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Leonardo Chicaybam, Camila Barcelos, Barbara Peixoto, Mayra Carneiro, Cintia Gomez Limia, Patrícia Redondo, Carla Lira, Flávio Paraguassú-Braga, Zilton Farias Meira De Vasconcelos, Luciana Barros, Martin Hernán Bonamino
Genetic modification of cell lines and primary cells is an expensive and cumbersome approach, often involving the use of viral vectors. Electroporation using square-wave generating devices, like Lonza's Nucleofector, is a widely used option, but the costs associated with the acquisition of electroporation kits and the transient transgene expression might hamper the utility of this methodology. In the present work, we show that our in-house developed buffers, termed Chicabuffers, can be efficiently used to electroporate cell lines and primary cells from murine and human origin...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Calvin A Henard, Michael T Guarnieri, Eric P Knoshaug
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Kristy A Campbell, Kolton T Drake, Elisa H Barney Smith
Ion-conducting memristors comprised of the layered materials Ge2Se3/SnSe/Ag are promising candidates for neuromorphic computing applications. Here, the spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) application is demonstrated for the first time with a single memristor type operating as a synapse over a timescale of 10 orders of magnitude, from nanoseconds through seconds. This large dynamic range allows the memristors to be useful in applications that require slow biological times, as well as fast times such as needed in neuromorphic computing, thus allowing multiple functions in one design for one memristor type-a "one size fits all" approach...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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