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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

Kristy A Campbell, Kolton T Drake, Elisa H Barney Smith
Ion-conducting memristors comprised of the layered materials Ge2Se3/SnSe/Ag are promising candidates for neuromorphic computing applications. Here, the spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) application is demonstrated for the first time with a single memristor type operating as a synapse over a timescale of 10 orders of magnitude, from nanoseconds through seconds. This large dynamic range allows the memristors to be useful in applications that require slow biological times, as well as fast times such as needed in neuromorphic computing, thus allowing multiple functions in one design for one memristor type-a "one size fits all" approach...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Stefanie Westermark, Ralf Steuer
Oxygenic photosynthesis dominates global primary productivity ever since its evolution more than three billion years ago. While many aspects of phototrophic growth are well understood, it remains a considerable challenge to elucidate the manifold dependencies and interconnections between the diverse cellular processes that together facilitate the synthesis of new cells. Phototrophic growth involves the coordinated action of several layers of cellular functioning, ranging from the photosynthetic light reactions and the electron transport chain, to carbon-concentrating mechanisms and the assimilation of inorganic carbon...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sonja J Messerschmidt, Daniel Schindler, Celine M Zumkeller, Franziska S Kemter, Nadine Schallopp, Torsten Waldminghaus
Learning by building is one of the core ideas of synthetic biology research. Consequently, building synthetic chromosomes is the way to fully understand chromosome characteristics. The last years have seen exciting synthetic chromosome studies. We had previously introduced the synthetic secondary chromosome synVicII in Escherichia coli. It is based on the replication mechanism of the secondary chromosome in Vibrio cholerae. Here, we present a detailed analysis of its genetic characteristics and a selection approach to optimize replicon stability...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Elham Ahmadi Moghaddam, Serina Ahlgren, Åke Nordberg
Biomethane, as a replacement for natural gas, reduces the use of fossil-based sources and supports the intended change from fossil to bio-based industry. The study assessed different biomethane utilization routes for production of methanol, dimethyl ether (DME), and ammonia, as fuel or platform chemicals and combined heat and power (CHP). Energy efficiency and environmental impacts of the different pathways was studied in a life cycle perspective covering the technical system from biomass production to the end product...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Çağla Defteralı, Raquel Verdejo, Shahid Majeed, Adriana Boschetti-de-Fierro, Héctor R Méndez-Gómez, Eva Díaz-Guerra, Daniel Fierro, Kristian Buhr, Clarissa Abetz, Ricardo Martínez-Murillo, Daniela Vuluga, Michaël Alexandre, Jean-Michel Thomassin, Christophe Detrembleur, Christine Jérôme, Volker Abetz, Miguel Ángel López-Manchado, Carlos Vicario-Abejón
Graphene, graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated as potential substrates for the growth of neural cells. However, in most in vitro studies, the cells were seeded on these materials coated with various proteins implying that the observed effects on the cells could not solely be attributed to the GBN and CNT properties. Here, we studied the biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene (TRG) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes loaded with multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) using neural stem cells isolated from the adult mouse olfactory bulb (termed aOBSCs)...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Cynthia K Overstreet, Randall B Hellman, Ruben D Ponce Wong, Veronica J Santos, Stephen I Helms Tillery
The addition of tactile and proprioceptive feedback to neuroprosthetic limbs is expected to significantly improve the control of these devices. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of somatosensory cortex is a promising method of delivering this sensory feedback. To date, the main focus of somatosensory ICMS studies has been to deliver discriminable signals, corresponding to varying intensity, to a single location in cortex. However, multiple independent and simultaneous streams of sensory information will need to be encoded by ICMS to provide functionally relevant feedback for a neuroprosthetic limb (e...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Jessica S Coogan, W Loren Francis, Travis D Eliason, Todd L Bredbenner, Brian D Stemper, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A Pintar, Daniel P Nicolella
Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3-L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Grazina Juodeikiene, Daiva Zadeike, Elena Bartkiene, Vadims Bartkevics, Alexander Dikiy, Elena Shumilina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Shiqin Yu, Manuel R Plan, Gal Winter, Jens O Krömer
para-Hydroxy benzoic acid (PHBA) is the key component for preparing parabens, a common preservatives in food, drugs, and personal care products, as well as high-performance bioplastics such as liquid crystal polymers. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was engineered to produce PHBA from glucose via the shikimate pathway intermediate chorismate. To obtain the PHBA production strain, chorismate lyase UbiC from Escherichia coli and a feedback resistant 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase encoded by gene aroG(D146N) were overexpressed individually and simultaneously...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Waldo Nogueira, Daniel Schurzig, Andreas Büchner, Richard T Penninger, Waldemar Würfel
Cochlear Implants (CIs) are medical implantable devices that can restore the sense of hearing in people with profound hearing loss. Clinical trials assessing speech intelligibility in CI users have found large intersubject variability. One possibility to explain the variability is the individual differences in the interface created between electrodes of the CI and the auditory nerve. In order to understand the variability, models of the voltage distribution of the electrically stimulated cochlea may be useful...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Ryo Watanabe, Hiroyuki Kajimoto
We have previously found that a vertical force or tactile sensation occurs when the temperature of a participant's skin changes rapidly. In this illusion, upward motion, pressure, or force sensation is elicited when stimulus temperature rises rapidly, whereas in the opposite case, downward motion or pulling sensation is elicited. In this paper, we applied this phenomenon to the sole (plantar surface of the foot) to present the sensation of ground slope. To investigate this, we conducted an experiment that measured the correlation between stimulation temperature and front-back direction position of the center of gravity...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Claudia Wittkowske, Gwendolen C Reilly, Damien Lacroix, Cecile M Perrault
This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Nerea Mangado, Gemma Piella, Jérôme Noailly, Jordi Pons-Prats, Miguel Ángel González Ballester
Computational modeling has become a powerful tool in biomedical engineering thanks to its potential to simulate coupled systems. However, real parameters are usually not accurately known, and variability is inherent in living organisms. To cope with this, probabilistic tools, statistical analysis and stochastic approaches have been used. This article aims to review the analysis of uncertainty and variability in the context of finite element modeling in biomedical engineering. Characterization techniques and propagation methods are presented, as well as examples of their applications in biomedical finite element simulations...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Jiajie Xu, Weina He, Zhonghua Wang, Dijun Zhang, Jing Sun, Jun Zhou, Yanyan Li, Xiurong Su
Municipal and industrial wastewater is often discharged into the environment without appropriate treatment, especially in developing countries. As a result, many rivers and oceans are contaminated. It is urgent to control and administer treatments to these contaminated rivers and oceans. However, most mechanisms of bacterial colonization in contaminated rivers and oceans were unknown, especially in sewage outlets. We found Shewanella putrefaciens to be the primary bacteria in the terrestrial sewage wastewater outlets around Ningbo City, China...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Ivan Argatov, Gennady Mishuris
In the present paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in asymptotic modeling of articular contact. Particular attention has been given to the knee joint contact mechanics with a special emphasis on implications drawn from the asymptotic models, including average characteristics for articular cartilage layer. By listing a number of complicating effects such as transverse anisotropy, non-homogeneity, variable thickness, nonlinear deformations, shear loading, and bone deformation, which may be accounted for by asymptotic modeling, some unsolved problems and directions for future research are also discussed...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Subhamoy Das, Aaron B Baker
Wound healing is an intricate process that requires complex coordination between many cell types and an appropriate extracellular microenvironment. Chronic wounds often suffer from high protease activity, persistent infection, excess inflammation, and hypoxia. While there has been intense investigation to find new methods to improve cutaneous wound care, the management of chronic wounds, burns, and skin wound infection remain challenging clinical problems. Ideally, advanced wound dressings can provide enhanced healing and bridge the gaps in the healing processes that prevent chronic wounds from healing...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Georgi I Kapitanov, Xiayi Wang, Bruce P Ayati, Marc J Brouillette, James A Martin
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis affects almost 20% of the adult US population. An injurious impact applies a significant amount of physical stress on articular cartilage and can initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions that can lead to the development of osteoarthritis. In our effort to understand the underlying biochemical mechanisms of this debilitating disease, we have constructed a multiscale mathematical model of the process with three components: cellular, chemical, and mechanical. The cellular component describes the different chondrocyte states according to the chemicals these cells release...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sónia Carneiro, Silas Villas-Bôas, Eugénio C Ferreira, Isabel Rocha
The bacterial RelA-dependent stringent response exerts a strong influence over various processes. In this work, the impact of the relA gene mutation in Escherichia coli cells was evaluated by a quantitative proteomics analysis, employing stable-isotope labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Chemostat cultures of E. coli W3110 and ΔrelA mutant strains were performed at two dilution rates (0.1 and 0.2 h(-1)) to assess the influence of the relA gene mutation in steady-state protein levels. A total of 121 proteins showed significant alterations in their abundance when comparing the proteome of mutant to wild-type cells...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
María L Rodríguez-Méndez, José A De Saja, Rocio González-Antón, Celia García-Hernández, Cristina Medina-Plaza, Cristina García-Cabezón, Fernando Martín-Pedrosa
The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses (e-noses) and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Steven Reiße, Martina Haack, Daniel Garbe, Bettina Sommer, Fabian Steffler, Jörg Carsten, Frank Bohnen, Volker Sieber, Thomas Brück
Due to enhanced energy content and reduced hygroscopicity compared with ethanol, n-butanol is flagged as the next generation biofuel and platform chemical. In addition to conventional cellular systems, n-butanol bioproduction by enzyme cascades is gaining momentum due to simplified process control. In contrast to other bio-based alcohols like ethanol and isobutanol, cell-free n-butanol biosynthesis from the central metabolic intermediate pyruvate involves cofactors [NAD(P)H, CoA] and acetyl-CoA-dependent intermediates, which complicates redox and energy balancing of the reaction system...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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