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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780802/exploring-the-potential-of-generative-adversarial-networks-for-synthesizing-radiological-images-of-the-spine-to-be-used-in-in-silico-trials
#1
Fabio Galbusera, Frank Niemeyer, Maike Seyfried, Tito Bassani, Gloria Casaroli, Annette Kienle, Hans-Joachim Wilke
In silico trials recently emerged as a disruptive technology, which may reduce the costs related to the development and marketing approval of novel medical technologies, as well as shortening their time-to-market. In these trials, virtual patients are recruited from a large database and their response to the therapy, such as the implantation of a medical device, is simulated by means of numerical models. In this work, we propose the use of generative adversarial networks to produce synthetic radiological images to be used in in silico trials...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780801/recovering-the-original-intentions-of-risk-assessment-and-management-of-genetically-modified-organisms-in-the-european-union
#2
Dennis Eriksson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770323/dental-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-translational-regenerative-dentistry-from-artificial-to-biological-replacement
#3
REVIEW
Mona K Marei, Rania M El Backly
Dentistry is a continuously changing field that has witnessed much advancement in the past century. Prosthodontics is that branch of dentistry that deals with replacing missing teeth using either fixed or removable appliances in an attempt to simulate natural tooth function. Although such "replacement therapies" appear to be easy and economic they fall short of ever coming close to their natural counterparts. Complications that arise often lead to failures and frequent repairs of such devices which seldom allow true physiological function of dental and oral-maxillofacial tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765941/nano-and-micro-patterned-s-h-and-x-pdms-for-cell-based-applications-comparison-of-wettability-roughness-and-cell-derived-parameters
#4
Marina Scharin-Mehlmann, Aaron Häring, Mathias Rommel, Tobias Dirnecker, Oliver Friedrich, Lothar Frey, Daniel F Gilbert
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a promising biomaterial for generating artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) like patterned topographies, yet its hydrophobic nature limits its applicability to cell-based approaches. Although plasma treatment can enhance the wettability of PDMS, the surface is known to recover its hydrophobicity within a few hours after exposure to air. To investigate the capability of a novel PDMS-type (X-PDMS) for in vitro based assessment of physiological cell properties, we designed and fabricated plane as well as nano- and micrometer-scaled pillar-patterned growth substrates using the elastomer types S-, H- and X-PDMS, which were fabricated from commercially available components...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765940/a-comparative-survey-of-methods-for-remote-heart-rate-detection-from-frontal-face-videos
#5
Chen Wang, Thierry Pun, Guillaume Chanel
Remotely measuring physiological activity can provide substantial benefits for both the medical and the affective computing applications. Recent research has proposed different methodologies for the unobtrusive detection of heart rate (HR) using human face recordings. These methods are based on subtle color changes or motions of the face due to cardiovascular activities, which are invisible to human eyes but can be captured by digital cameras. Several approaches have been proposed such as signal processing and machine learning...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755978/development-of-an-effective-chain-elongation-process-from-acidified-food-waste-and-ethanol-into-n-caproate
#6
Mark Roghair, Yuchen Liu, David P B T B Strik, Ruud A Weusthuis, Marieke E Bruins, Cees J N Buisman
Introduction: Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), such as n-caproate, are potential valuable platform chemicals. MCFAs can be produced from low-grade organic residues by anaerobic reactor microbiomes through two subsequent biological processes: hydrolysis combined with acidogenesis and chain elongation. Continuous chain elongation with organic residues becomes effective when the targeted MCFA(s) are produced at high concentrations and rates, while excessive ethanol oxidation and base consumption are limited. The objective of this study was to develop an effective continuous chain elongation process with hydrolyzed and acidified food waste and additional ethanol...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755977/wearable-technology-for-chronic-wound-monitoring-current-dressings-advancements-and-future-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Matthew S Brown, Brandon Ashley, Ahyeon Koh
Chronic non-healing wounds challenge tissue regeneration and impair infection regulation for patients afflicted with this condition. Next generation wound care technology capable of in situ physiological surveillance which can diagnose wound parameters, treat various chronic wound symptoms, and reduce infection at the wound noninvasively with the use of a closed loop therapeutic system would provide patients with an improved standard of care and an accelerated wound repair mechanism. The indicating biomarkers specific to chronic wounds include blood pressure, temperature, oxygen, pH, lactate, glucose, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and infection status...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755976/a-general-safety-assessment-for-purified-food-ingredients-derived-from-biotechnology-crops-case-study-of-brazilian-sugar-and-beverages-produced-from-insect-protected-sugarcane
#8
Reese D Kennedy, Adriana Cheavegatti-Gianotto, Wladecir S de Oliveira, Ronald P Lirette, Jerry J Hjelle
Insect-protected sugarcane that expresses Cry1Ab has been developed in Brazil. Analysis of trade information has shown that effectively all the sugarcane-derived Brazilian exports are raw or refined sugar and ethanol. The fact that raw and refined sugar are highly purified food ingredients, with no detectable transgenic protein, provides an interesting case study of a generalized safety assessment approach. In this study, both the theoretical protein intakes and safety assessments of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, NPTII, and Bar proteins used in insect-protected biotechnology crops were examined...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755975/policy-led-comparative-environmental-risk-assessment-of-genetically-modified-crops-testing-for-increased-risk-rather-than-profiling-phenotypes-leads-to-predictable-and-transparent-decision-making
#9
Alan Raybould, Phil Macdonald
We describe two contrasting methods of comparative environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM) crops. Both are science-based, in the sense that they use science to help make decisions, but they differ in the relationship between science and policy. Policy-led comparative risk assessment begins by defining what would be regarded as unacceptable changes when the use a particular GM crop replaces an accepted use of another crop. Hypotheses that these changes will not occur are tested using existing or new data, and corroboration or falsification of the hypotheses is used to inform decision-making...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755974/a-curriculum-based-approach-to-teaching-biosafety-through-elearning
#10
Dennis O Ndolo, Michael Wach, Patrick Rüdelsheim, Wendy Craig
Anyone working in biosafety capacity enhancement faces the challenge of ensuring that the impact of a capacity enhancing activity continues and becomes sustainable beyond the depletion of funding. Many training efforts face the limitation of one-off events: they only reach those people present at the time. It becomes incumbent upon the trainees to pass on the training to colleagues as best they can, whilst the demand for the training never appears to diminish. However, beyond the initial effort to establish the basic content, repeating capacity enhancement events in different locations is usually not economically feasible...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721495/current-strategies-for-the-manufacture-of-small-size-tissue-engineering-vascular-grafts
#11
REVIEW
Michele Carrabba, Paolo Madeddu
Occlusive arterial disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), is the main cause of death, with an annual mortality incidence predicted to rise to 23.3 million worldwide by 2030. Current revascularization techniques consist of angioplasty, placement of a stent, or surgical bypass grafting. Autologous vessels, such as the saphenous vein and internal thoracic artery, represent the gold standard grafts for small-diameter vessels. However, they require invasive harvesting and are often unavailable...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707539/the-emerging-field-of-epitranscriptomics-in-neurodevelopmental-and-neuronal-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Margarita T Angelova, Dilyana G Dimitrova, Nadja Dinges, Tina Lence, Lina Worpenberg, Clément Carré, Jean-Yves Roignant
Analogous to DNA methylation and histone modifications, RNA modifications represent a novel layer of regulation of gene expression. The dynamic nature and increasing number of RNA modifications offer new possibilities to rapidly alter gene expression upon specific environmental changes. Recent lines of evidence indicate that modified RNA molecules and associated complexes regulating and "reading" RNA modifications play key roles in the nervous system of several organisms, controlling both, its development and function...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707538/insulin-like-growth-factor-axis-expression-in-dental-pulp-cells-derived-from-carious-teeth
#13
Hanaa Esa Alkharobi, Hasanain Al-Khafaji, James Beattie, Deirdre Ann Devine, Reem El-Gendy
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays an important role in dental tissue regeneration and most components of this axis are expressed in human dental pulp cells (DPCs). In our previous study, we analyzed IGF axis gene expression in DPCs and demonstrated a novel role of IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and -3 in coordinating mineralized matrix formation in differentiating DPCs. A more recent study from our laboratory partially characterized dental pulp stem cells from teeth with superficial caries (cDPCs) and showed that their potential to differentiate odontoblasts and/or into osteoblasts is enhanced by exposure to the mild inflammatory conditions characteristic of superficial caries...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707537/inertial-sensor-measurements-of-upper-limb-kinematics-in-stroke-patients-in-clinic-and-home-environment
#14
Jeremia P O Held, Bart Klaassen, Albert Eenhoorn, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Jaap H Buurke, Peter H Veltink, Andreas R Luft
Background: Upper-limb impairments in stroke patients are usually measured in clinical setting using standard clinical assessment. In addition, kinematic analysis using opto-electronic systems has been used in the laboratory setting to map arm recovery. Such kinematic measurements cannot capture the actual function of the upper extremity in daily life. The aim of this study is to longitudinally explore the complementarity of post-stroke upper-limb recovery measured by standard clinical assessments and daily-life recorded kinematics...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696140/harnessing-nanotopography-to-enhance-osseointegration-of-clinical-orthopedic-titanium-implants-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis
#15
Vitali Goriainov, Gry Hulsart-Billstrom, Terje Sjostrom, Douglas G Dunlop, Bo Su, Richard O C Oreffo
Despite technological advancements, further innovations in the field of orthopedics and bone regeneration are essential to meet the rising demands of an increasing aging population and associated issues of disease, injury and trauma. Nanotopography provides new opportunities for novel implant surface modifications and promises to deliver further improvements in implant performance. However, the technical complexities of nanotopography fabrication and surface analysis have precluded identification of the optimal surface features to trigger osteogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696139/a-machine-learning-application-based-in-random-forest-for-integrating-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomic-data-a-simple-screening-method-for-patients-with-zika-virus
#16
Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues Melo, Luiz Claudio Navarro, Diogo Noin de Oliveira, Tatiane Melina Guerreiro, Estela de Oliveira Lima, Jeany Delafiori, Mohamed Ziad Dabaja, Marta da Silva Ribeiro, Maico de Menezes, Rafael Gustavo Martins Rodrigues, Karen Noda Morishita, Cibele Zanardi Esteves, Aline Lopes Lucas de Amorim, Caroline Tiemi Aoyagui, Pierina Lorencini Parise, Guilherme Paier Milanez, Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, André Ricardo Ribas Freitas, Rodrigo Angerami, Fábio Trindade Maranhão Costa, Clarice Weis Arns, Mariangela Ribeiro Resende, Eliana Amaral, Renato Passini Junior, Carolina C Ribeiro-do-Valle, Helaine Milanez, Maria Luiza Moretti, Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena, Sandra Avila, Anderson Rocha, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino
Recent Zika outbreaks in South America, accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications have brought much interest in fast and reliable screening methods for ZIKV (Zika virus) identification. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is currently the method of choice to detect ZIKV in biological samples. This approach, nonetheless, demands a considerable amount of time and resources such as kits and reagents that, in endemic areas, may result in a substantial financial burden over affected individuals and health services veering away from RT-PCR analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675412/capacities-for-the-risk-assessment-of-gmos-challenges-to-build-sustainable-systems
#17
Danilo Fernández Ríos, Clara Rubinstein, Carmen Vicién
The need for functional risk assessment bodies in general, and in the biosafety field in particular, demands continued efforts and commitment from regulatory agencies, if results that are sustainable in time are to be achieved. The lack of formal processes that ensure continuity in the application of state of the art scientific criteria, the high rotation in some cases or the lack of experienced professionals, in others, is a challenge to be addressed. Capacity building initiatives with different approaches and degrees of success have been implemented in many countries over the years, supported by diverse governmental and non-governmental organizations...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675411/cyberbiosecurity-an-emerging-new-discipline-to-help-safeguard-the-bioeconomy
#18
Randall S Murch, William K So, Wallace G Buchholz, Sanjay Raman, Jean Peccoud
Cyberbiosecurity is being proposed as a formal new enterprise which encompasses cybersecurity, cyber-physical security and biosecurity as applied to biological and biomedical-based systems. In recent years, an array of important meetings and public discussions, commentaries and publications have occurred that highlight numerous vulnerabilities. While necessary first steps, they do not provide a systematized structure for effectively promoting communication, education and training, elucidation and prioritization for analysis, research, development, test and evaluation and implementation of scientific, technological, standards of practice, policy, or even regulatory or legal considerations for protecting the bioeconomy...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675410/addressing-the-misuse-potential-of-life-science-research-perspectives-from-a-bottom-up-initiative-in-switzerland
#19
Franziska M Oeschger, Ursula Jenal
Codes of conduct have received wide attention as a bottom-up approach to foster responsibility for dual use aspects of life science research within the scientific community. In Switzerland, a series of discussion sessions led by the Swiss Academy of Sciences with over 40 representatives of most Swiss academic life science research institutions has revealed that while a formal code of conduct was considered too restrictive, a bottom-up approach toward awareness raising and education and demonstrating scientists' responsibility toward society was highly welcomed...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675409/genome-sequence-of-the-oleaginous-green-alga-chlorella-vulgaris-utex-395
#20
Michael T Guarnieri, Jennifer Levering, Calvin A Henard, Jeffrey L Boore, Michael J Betenbaugh, Karsten Zengler, Eric P Knoshaug
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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