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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896266/in-vitro-bone-cell-models-impact-of-fluid-shear-stress-on-bone-formation
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Wittkowske, Gwendolen C Reilly, Damien Lacroix, Cecile M Perrault
This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872840/analysis-of-uncertainty-and-variability-in-finite-element-computational-models-for-biomedical-engineering-characterization-and-propagation
#2
REVIEW
Nerea Mangado, Gemma Piella, Jérôme Noailly, Jordi Pons-Prats, Miguel Ángel González Ballester
Computational modeling has become a powerful tool in biomedical engineering thanks to its potential to simulate coupled systems. However, real parameters are usually not accurately known, and variability is inherent in living organisms. To cope with this, probabilistic tools, statistical analysis and stochastic approaches have been used. This article aims to review the analysis of uncertainty and variability in the context of finite element modeling in biomedical engineering. Characterization techniques and propagation methods are presented, as well as examples of their applications in biomedical finite element simulations...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867934/a-comparison-of-molecular-biology-mechanism-of-shewanella-putrefaciens-between-fresh-and-terrestrial-sewage-wastewater
#3
Jiajie Xu, Weina He, Zhonghua Wang, Dijun Zhang, Jing Sun, Jun Zhou, Yanyan Li, Xiurong Su
Municipal and industrial wastewater is often discharged into the environment without appropriate treatment, especially in developing countries. As a result, many rivers and oceans are contaminated. It is urgent to control and administer treatments to these contaminated rivers and oceans. However, most mechanisms of bacterial colonization in contaminated rivers and oceans were unknown, especially in sewage outlets. We found Shewanella putrefaciens to be the primary bacteria in the terrestrial sewage wastewater outlets around Ningbo City, China...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847803/articular-contact-mechanics-from-an-asymptotic-modeling-perspective-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Ivan Argatov, Gennady Mishuris
In the present paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in asymptotic modeling of articular contact. Particular attention has been given to the knee joint contact mechanics with a special emphasis on implications drawn from the asymptotic models, including average characteristics for articular cartilage layer. By listing a number of complicating effects such as transverse anisotropy, non-homogeneity, variable thickness, nonlinear deformations, shear loading, and bone deformation, which may be accounted for by asymptotic modeling, some unsolved problems and directions for future research are also discussed...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843895/biomaterials-and-nanotherapeutics-for-enhancing-skin-wound-healing
#5
REVIEW
Subhamoy Das, Aaron B Baker
Wound healing is an intricate process that requires complex coordination between many cell types and an appropriate extracellular microenvironment. Chronic wounds often suffer from high protease activity, persistent infection, excess inflammation, and hypoxia. While there has been intense investigation to find new methods to improve cutaneous wound care, the management of chronic wounds, burns, and skin wound infection remain challenging clinical problems. Ideally, advanced wound dressings can provide enhanced healing and bridge the gaps in the healing processes that prevent chronic wounds from healing...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843894/linking-cellular-and-mechanical-processes-in-articular-cartilage-lesion-formation-a-mathematical-model
#6
Georgi I Kapitanov, Xiayi Wang, Bruce P Ayati, Marc J Brouillette, James A Martin
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis affects almost 20% of the adult US population. An injurious impact applies a significant amount of physical stress on articular cartilage and can initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions that can lead to the development of osteoarthritis. In our effort to understand the underlying biochemical mechanisms of this debilitating disease, we have constructed a multiscale mathematical model of the process with three components: cellular, chemical, and mechanical. The cellular component describes the different chondrocyte states according to the chemicals these cells release...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833909/a-comparative-proteome-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-%C3%AE-rela-mutant-cells
#7
Sónia Carneiro, Silas Villas-Bôas, Eugénio C Ferreira, Isabel Rocha
The bacterial RelA-dependent stringent response exerts a strong influence over various processes. In this work, the impact of the relA gene mutation in Escherichia coli cells was evaluated by a quantitative proteomics analysis, employing stable-isotope labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Chemostat cultures of E. coli W3110 and ΔrelA mutant strains were performed at two dilution rates (0.1 and 0.2 h(-1)) to assess the influence of the relA gene mutation in steady-state protein levels. A total of 121 proteins showed significant alterations in their abundance when comparing the proteome of mutant to wild-type cells...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826547/electronic-noses-and-tongues-in-wine-industry
#8
REVIEW
María L Rodríguez-Méndez, José A De Saja, Rocio González-Antón, Celia García-Hernández, Cristina Medina-Plaza, Cristina García-Cabezón, Fernando Martín-Pedrosa
The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses (e-noses) and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800475/in-vitro-bioconversion-of-pyruvate-to-n-butanol-with-minimized-cofactor-utilization
#9
Steven Reiße, Martina Haack, Daniel Garbe, Bettina Sommer, Fabian Steffler, Jörg Carsten, Frank Bohnen, Volker Sieber, Thomas Brück
Due to enhanced energy content and reduced hygroscopicity compared with ethanol, n-butanol is flagged as the next generation biofuel and platform chemical. In addition to conventional cellular systems, n-butanol bioproduction by enzyme cascades is gaining momentum due to simplified process control. In contrast to other bio-based alcohols like ethanol and isobutanol, cell-free n-butanol biosynthesis from the central metabolic intermediate pyruvate involves cofactors [NAD(P)H, CoA] and acetyl-CoA-dependent intermediates, which complicates redox and energy balancing of the reaction system...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790612/muscle-synergies-facilitate-computational-prediction-of-subject-specific-walking-motions
#10
Andrew J Meyer, Ilan Eskinazi, Jennifer N Jackson, Anil V Rao, Carolynn Patten, Benjamin J Fregly
Researchers have explored a variety of neurorehabilitation approaches to restore normal walking function following a stroke. However, there is currently no objective means for prescribing and implementing treatments that are likely to maximize recovery of walking function for any particular patient. As a first step toward optimizing neurorehabilitation effectiveness, this study develops and evaluates a patient-specific synergy-controlled neuromusculoskeletal simulation framework that can predict walking motions for an individual post-stroke...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777927/mechanobiology-in-cardiovascular-disease-management-potential-strategies-and-current-needs
#11
Samantha K Atkins, Andrew McNally, Philippe Sucosky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761435/-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-for-systematic-metabolic-engineering-of-s-cerevisiae-for-overproduction-of-fatty-acids
#12
Amit Ghosh, David Ando, Jennifer Gin, Weerawat Runguphan, Charles Denby, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Chris Shymansky, Jay D Keasling, Héctor García Martín
Efficient redirection of microbial metabolism into the abundant production of desired bioproducts remains non-trivial. Here, we used flux-based modeling approaches to improve yields of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We combined (13)C labeling data with comprehensive genome-scale models to shed light onto microbial metabolism and improve metabolic engineering efforts. We concentrated on studying the balance of acetyl-CoA, a precursor metabolite for the biosynthesis of fatty acids. A genome-wide acetyl-CoA balance study showed ATP citrate lyase from Yarrowia lipolytica as a robust source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and malate synthase as a desirable target for downregulation in terms of acetyl-CoA consumption...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747211/subfailure-overstretch-injury-leads-to-reversible-functional-impairment-and-purinergic-p2x7-receptor-activation-in-intact-vascular-tissue
#13
Weifeng Luo, Christy M Guth, Olukemi Jolayemi, Craig L Duvall, Colleen Marie Brophy, Joyce Cheung-Flynn
Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint, where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747210/fluid-dynamic-modeling-to-support-the-development-of-flow-based-hepatocyte-culture-systems-for-metabolism-studies
#14
Jenny M Pedersen, Yoo-Sik Shim, Vaibhav Hans, Martin B Phillips, Jeffrey M Macdonald, Glenn Walker, Melvin E Andersen, Harvey J Clewell, Miyoung Yoon
Accurate prediction of metabolism is a significant outstanding challenge in toxicology. The best predictions are based on experimental data from in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes. The predictivity of the primary hepatocyte-based culture systems, however, is still limited due to well-known phenotypic instability and rapid decline of metabolic competence within a few hours. Dynamic flow bioreactors for three-dimensional cell cultures are thought to be better at recapitulating tissue microenvironments and show potential to improve in vivo extrapolations of chemical or drug toxicity based on in vitro test results...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725929/enhanced-product-recovery-from-glycerol-fermentation-into-3-carbon-compounds-in-a-bioelectrochemical-system-combined-with-in-situ-extraction
#15
Hugo Roume, Jan B A Arends, Camar P Ameril, Sunil A Patil, Korneel Rabaey
Given the large amount of crude glycerol formed as a by-product in the biodiesel industries and the concomitant decrease in its overall market price, there is a need to add extra value to this biorefinery side stream. Upgrading can be achieved by new biotechnologies dealing with recovery and conversion of glycerol present in wastewaters into value-added products, aiming at a zero-waste policy and developing an economically viable process. In microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), the mixed microbial community growing on the cathode can convert glycerol reductively to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO)...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709111/fluidic-logic-used-in-a-systems-approach-to-enable-integrated-single-cell-functional-analysis
#16
Naveen Ramalingam, Brian Fowler, Lukasz Szpankowski, Anne A Leyrat, Kyle Hukari, Myo Thu Maung, Wiganda Yorza, Michael Norris, Chris Cesar, Joe Shuga, Michael L Gonzales, Chad D Sanada, Xiaohui Wang, Rudy Yeung, Win Hwang, Justin Axsom, Naga Sai Gopi Krishna Devaraju, Ninez Delos Angeles, Cassandra Greene, Ming-Fang Zhou, Eng-Seng Ong, Chang-Chee Poh, Marcos Lam, Henry Choi, Zaw Htoo, Leo Lee, Chee-Sing Chin, Zhong-Wei Shen, Chong T Lu, Ilona Holcomb, Aik Ooi, Craig Stolarczyk, Tony Shuga, Kenneth J Livak, Marc Unger, Jay A A West
The study of single cells has evolved over the past several years to include expression and genomic analysis of an increasing number of single cells. Several studies have demonstrated wide spread variation and heterogeneity within cell populations of similar phenotype. While the characterization of these populations will likely set the foundation for our understanding of genomic- and expression-based diversity, it will not be able to link the functional differences of a single cell to its underlying genomic structure and activity...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668213/the-quest-for-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-infective-biomaterials-in-clinical-translation
#17
REVIEW
May Griffith, Mohammad M Islam, Joel Edin, Georgia Papapavlou, Oleksiy Buznyk, Hirak K Patra
Biomaterials are now being used or evaluated clinically as implants to supplement the severe shortage of available human donor organs. To date, however, such implants have mainly been developed as scaffolds to promote the regeneration of failing organs due to old age or congenital malformations. In the real world, however, infection or immunological issues often compromise patients. For example, bacterial and viral infections can result in uncontrolled immunopathological damage and lead to organ failure. Hence, there is a need for biomaterials and implants that not only promote regeneration but also address issues that are specific to compromised patients, such as infection and inflammation...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630985/a-novel-peptide-thrombopoietin-mimetic-designing-and-optimization-using-computational-approach
#18
Vimal Kishor Singh, Neeraj Kumar, Manisha Kalsan, Abhishek Saini, Ramesh Chandra
Thrombopoietin receptor (TPOR) is a cytokine receptor protein present on the cell surface. The activation of TPOR by thrombopoietin (TPO) (a glycoprotein hormone) triggers an intracellular cascade of megakaryocytopoiesis for the formation of platelets. Recent studies on ex vivo megakaryocytopoiesis have evolved the possibilities of therapeutics uses. These findings have paved the way for the development of various TPO alternatives (recombinant TPO, peptide, and non-peptide TPO mimetics), which are useful in regenerative medicine...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597940/editorial-computational-methods-for-understanding-complexity-the-use-of-formal-methods-in-biology
#19
EDITORIAL
David A Rosenblueth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563643/corrigendum-voice-pathology-detection-using-modulation-spectrum-optimized-metrics
#20
Laureano Moro-Velázquez, Jorge Andrés Gómez-García, Juan Ignacio Godino-Llorente
[This corrects the article on p. 1 in vol. 4, PMID: 26835449.].
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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