Read by QxMD icon Read

Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

Peter B Otoupal, Anushree Chatterjee
Economically-viable biofuel production is often limited by low levels of microbial tolerance to high biofuel concentrations. Here we demonstrate the first application of deactivated CRISPR perturbations of gene expression to improve Escherichia coli biofuel tolerance. We construct a library of 31 unique CRISPR inhibitions and activations of gene expression in E. coli and explore their impacts on growth during 10 days of exposure to n-butanol and n-hexane. We show that perturbation of metabolism and membrane-related genes induces the greatest impacts on growth in n-butanol, as does perturbation of redox-related genes in n-hexanes...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Milica Nikolic, Tijana Sustersic, Nenad Filipovic
In vitro models are very important in medicine and biology, because they provide an insight into cells' and microorganisms' behavior. Since these cells and microorganisms are isolated from their natural environment, these models may not completely or precisely predict the effects on the entire organism. Improvement in this area is secured by organ-on-a-chip development. The organ-on-a-chip assumes cells cultured in a microfluidic chip. The chip simulates bioactivities, mechanics and physiological behavior of organs or organ systems, generating artificial organs in that way...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Beatriz Padrino, Marta Lara-Serrano, Silvia Morales-delaRosa, José M Campos-Martín, José Luis García Fierro, Fernando Martínez, Juan Antonio Melero, Daniel Puyol
Lignocellulosic residues from energy crops offer a high potential to recover bioproducts and biofuels that can be used as raw matter for agriculture activities within a circular economy framework. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a well-established driver to convert these residues into energy and bioproducts. However, AD of lignocellulosic matter is slow and yields low methane potential, and therefore several pre-treatment methods have been proposed to increase the energy yield of this process. Hereby, we have assessed the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass (barley straw) with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its effect on the biochemical methane potential (BMP)...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Caterina Bossio, Ilaria Abdel Aziz, Gabriele Tullii, Elena Zucchetti, Doriana Debellis, Mattia Zangoli, Francesca Di Maria, Guglielmo Lanzani, Maria Rosa Antognazza
Optical modulation of living cells activity by light-absorbing exogenous materials is gaining increasing interest, due to the possibility both to achieve high spatial and temporal resolution with a minimally invasive and reversible technique and to avoid the need of viral transfection with light-sensitive proteins. In this context, conjugated polymers represent ideal candidates for photo-transduction, due to their excellent optoelectronic and biocompatibility properties. In this work, we demonstrate that organic polymer nanoparticles, based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) conjugated polymer, establish a functional interaction with an in vitro cell model (Human Embryonic Kidney cells, HEK-293)...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Cláudio R Frazão, Victor Maton, Jean M François, Thomas Walther
We have developed a fluorescence-based metabolite sensor enabling in vivo detection of various aldehydes of biotechnological interest in Escherichia coli . YqhC is a transcriptional regulator that is known to be involved in the upregulation of the yqhD-dgkA operon in the presence of aldehydes. We took advantage of this property by constructing a bi-modular biosensor, in which a sensing module constitutively expresses yqhC while a reporter module drives the expression of the syfp2 reporter gene that is put under control of the yqhD promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Hoang Trong Phan, Ulrike Gresch, Udo Conrad
The worldwide emergence of the novel influenza A H5N1 and H5N8 has notably and directly impacted the poultry industry, resulting in the need for effective and cheap vaccination strategies to protect poultry worldwide. Subunit vaccines from plants can be produced for a low cost, and plant production systems are easily scaled up at low infrastructure cost. However, subunit vaccines generally induce low immunogenicity against influenza. To address this issue, we present a new and innovative method to generate highly immunogenic H5 oligomers...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Julien Barthes, Camille Dollinger, Celine B Muller, Urmas Liivas, Agnes Dupret-Bories, Helena Knopf-Marques, Nihal E Vrana
The function of soft tissues is intricately linked to their connections with the other systems of the body such as circulation, nervous system, and immune system. The presence of resident macrophages in tissues provides a means to control tissue homeostasis and also a way to react to the physical/biological insults and tissue damage. Thus, incorporation of resident macrophage like phenotype-controlled macrophages in engineered tissues can improve their fidelity as model tissues and also improve their rate of integration and facilitate the resolution of inflammation for regenerative medicine applications...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Vincent Ball
Polydopamine (PDA), the final oxidation product of dopamine or other catecholamines, attracted much attention as versatile coatings that can be used to cover the surface of almost all materials with a conformal layer of adjustable thickness ranging from a few to about 100 nm. These PDA layers can be subsequently modified with molecules carrying nucleophilic groups or with metallic nanoparticles from solutions containing metallic cations. However, during the deposition of PDA film on the surfaces, the reaction products that are simultaneously obtained from the oxidation of catecholamines in solution precipitate...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
John K Hermann, Shushen Lin, Arielle Soffer, Chun Wong, Vishnupriya Srivastava, Jeremy Chang, Smrithi Sunil, Shruti Sudhakar, William H Tomaszewski, Grace Protasiewicz, Stephen M Selkirk, Robert H Miller, Jeffrey R Capadona
We have recently demonstrated that partial inhibition of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) innate immunity co-receptor pathway improves the long-term performance of intracortical microelectrodes better than complete inhibition. We hypothesized that partial activation of the CD14 pathway was critical to a neuroprotective response to the injury associated with initial and sustained device implantation. Therefore, here we investigated the role of two innate immunity receptors that closely interact with CD14 in inflammatory activation...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
N Vijayakameswara Rao, Hyewon Ko, Jeongjin Lee, Jae Hyung Park
The conventional chemotherapeutic agents, used for cancer chemotherapy, have major limitations including non-specificity, ubiquitous biodistribution, low concentration in tumor tissue, and systemic toxicity. In recent years, owing to their unique features, polymeric nanoparticles have been widely used for the target-specific delivery of drugs in the body. Although polymeric nanoparticles have addressed a number of important issues, the bioavailability of drugs at the disease site, and especially upon cellular internalization, remains a challenge...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sarah Al-Maawi, Chakorn Vorakulpipat, Anna Orlowska, Tomislav A Zrnc, Robert A Sader, C James Kirkpatrick, Shahram Ghanaati
The present study evaluated the tissue response toward a resorbable collagen membrane derived from bovine achilles tendon (test group) in comparison to physiological wound healing (control group). After subcutaneous implantation in Wistar rats over 30 days, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods elucidated the cellular inflammatory response, vascularization pattern, membrane protein and cell absorbance capacity. After 30 days, the test-group induced two different inflammatory patterns. On the membrane surface, multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) were formed after the accumulation of CD-68-positive cells (macrophages), whereas only mononuclear cells (MNCs) were found within the membrane central region...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Richard Berlin, Russell Gruen, James Best
In order to accommodate the forthcoming wealth of health and disease related information, from genome to body sensors to population and the environment, the approach to disease description and definition demands re-examination. Traditional classification methods remain trapped by history; to provide the descriptive features that are required for a comprehensive description of disease, systems science, which realizes dynamic processes, adaptive response, and asynchronous communication channels, must be applied (Wolkenhauer et al...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
A M Shelton, M J Hossain, V Paranjape, A K Azad, M L Rahman, A S M M R Khan, M Z H Prodhan, M A Rashid, R Majumder, M A Hossain, S S Hussain, J E Huesing, L McCandless
The purpose of this article is to provide information on the history, accomplishments, and future direction of the Bt brinjal (eggplant) program in Bangladesh, formerly under the Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project II, now the South Asia Eggplant Improvement Partnership (SAEIP). The India-based Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company (Mahyco) developed an eggplant expressing Cry1Ac (EE-1) for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB). In a partnership among Mahyco, USAID, Sathguru Management Consultants and Cornell University EE-1 was provided to the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) who bred it into local varieties...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Amy L Klocko, Haiwei Lu, Anna Magnuson, Amy M Brunner, Cathleen Ma, Steven H Strauss
Genetic engineering (GE) has the potential to help meet demand for forest products and ecological services. However, high research and development costs, market restrictions, and regulatory obstacles to performing field tests have severely limited the extent and duration of field research. There is a notable paucity of field studies of flowering GE trees due to the time frame required and regulatory constraints. Here we summarize our findings from field testing over 3,300 GE poplar trees and 948 transformation events in a single, 3...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Wagner Artifon, Charline Bonatto, Eduarda R Bordin, Suzana F Bazoti, Adriana Dervanoski, Sérgio L Alves, Helen Treichel
Bioethanol production has been presented as an alternative for supplying energy demand and minimizing greenhouse gases effects. However, due to abrasively conditions employed on the biomass during pretreatment and hydrolysis processes, inhibitors for fermentation phase such as acetic acid and others can be generated. Based on this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the adsorption of acetic acid on microporous activated carbon and investigate the stripping of the same component with dried air. For adsorption process, three concentrations of acetic acid (5, 10, and 20%) were analyzed by adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich models)...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Jose R Perez, Dimitrios Kouroupis, Deborah J Li, Thomas M Best, Lee Kaplan, Diego Correa
Bone fractures and segmental bone defects are a significant source of patient morbidity and place a staggering economic burden on the healthcare system. The annual cost of treating bone defects in the US has been estimated to be $5 billion, while enormous costs are spent on bone grafts for bone injuries, tumors, and other pathologies associated with defective fracture healing. Autologous bone grafts represent the gold standard for the treatment of bone defects. However, they are associated with variable clinical outcomes, postsurgical morbidity, especially at the donor site, and increased surgical costs...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Houman Savoji, Brent Godau, Mohsen Sheikh Hassani, Mohsen Akbari
Tremendous progress has been made over the past few decades to develop skin substitutes for the management of acute and chronic wounds. With the advent of tissue engineering and the ability to combine advanced manufacturing technologies with biomaterials and cell culture systems, more biomimetic tissue constructs have been emerged. Synthetic and natural biomaterials are the main constituents of these skin-like constructs, which play a significant role in tissue grafting, the body's immune response, and the healing process...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Ola A Nada, Rania M El Backly
Stem cells extracted from developing tissues possibly exhibit not only unique but also superior traits against their developed counterparts. Indeed, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP); a unique group of dental stem cells related to developing roots have been shown to be a promising tool for regenerative endodontic procedures and regeneration in general. Studies have characterized the phenotypic traits as well as other regenerative potentials of these cells. Specific sub-populations have been highlighted as well as their neurogenic and angiogenic properties...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Aatif Alam, Linda Jiang, Gregory A Kittleson, Kenneth D Steadman, Somen Nandi, Joshua L Fuqua, Kenneth E Palmer, Daniel Tusé, Karen A McDonald
Griffithsin is a marine algal lectin that exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity by binding oligomannose glycans on viral envelope glycoproteins, including those found in HIV-1, HSV-2, SARS, HCV and other enveloped viruses. An efficient, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing process for Griffithsin is essential for the adoption of this drug in human antiviral prophylaxis and therapy, particularly in cost-sensitive indications such as topical microbicides for HIV-1 prevention. The production of certain classes of recombinant biologics in plants can offer scalability, cost and environmental impact advantages over traditional biomanufacturing platforms...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Maja Česen Mazič, Lenart Girandon, Miomir Kneževič, Simona L Avčin, Janez Jazbec
The most effective treatment of steroid refractory acute graft vs. host disease (aGvHD) is not yet established and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear to be a promising therapy for the condition. We report single center case series of three patients, who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and later developed steroid refractory graft-vs.-host disease, treated with MSC infusions. Two patients achieved complete remission and one patient partial remission of skin and/or gastrointestinal aGvHD...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"