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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620603/advances-in-the-knowledge-about-kidney-decellularization-and-repopulation
#1
REVIEW
Afrânio Côgo Destefani, Gabriela Modenesi Sirtoli, Breno Valentim Nogueira
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by the progressive deterioration of renal function that may compromise different tissues and organs. The major treatment indicated for patients with ESRD is kidney transplantation. However, the shortage of available organs, as well as the high rate of organ rejection, supports the need for new therapies. Thus, the implementation of tissue bioengineering to organ regeneration has emerged as an alternative to traditional organ transplantation. Decellularization of organs with chemical, physical, and/or biological agents generates natural scaffolds, which can serve as basis for tissue reconstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596955/flux-enabled-exploration-of-the-role-of-sip1-in-galactose-yeast-metabolism
#2
Christopher M Shymansky, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Jennifer Gin, Amanda Reider Apel, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Héctor García Martín, Jay D Keasling
(13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C MFA) is an important systems biology technique that has been used to investigate microbial metabolism for decades. The heterotrimer Snf1 kinase complex plays a key role in the preference Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits for glucose over galactose, a phenomenon known as glucose repression or carbon catabolite repression. The SIP1 gene, encoding a part of this complex, has received little attention, presumably, because its knockout lacks a growth phenotype. We present a fluxomic investigation of the relative effects of the presence of galactose in classically glucose-repressing media and/or knockout of SIP1 using a multi-scale variant of (13)C MFA known as 2-Scale (13)C metabolic flux analysis (2S-(13)C MFA)...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567373/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-acetic-acid-producing-acetobacter-pasteurianus-strains-subsp-ascendens-lmg-1590-t-and-subsp-paradoxus-lmg-1591-t
#3
Baolei Jia, Byung Hee Chun, Ga Youn Cho, Kyung Hyun Kim, Ji Young Moon, Soo-Hwan Yeo, Che Ok Jeon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567372/soluble-factors-on-stage-to-direct-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fate
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Sobacchi, Eleonora Palagano, Anna Villa, Ciro Menale
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that are identified by in vitro plastic adherence, colony-forming capacity, expression of a panel of surface molecules, and ability to differentiate at least toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. They also produce trophic factors with immunomodulatory, proangiogenic, and antiapoptotic functions influencing the behavior of neighboring cells. On the other hand, a reciprocal regulation takes place; in fact, MSCs can be isolated from several tissues, and depending on the original microenvironment and the range of stimuli received from there, they can display differences in their essential characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567371/the-use-of-finite-element-analyses-to-design-and-fabricate-three-dimensional-scaffolds-for-skeletal-tissue-engineering
#5
REVIEW
Wim J Hendrikson, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Jeroen Rouwkema, Lorenzo Moroni
Computational modeling has been increasingly applied to the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Where in early days computational models were used to better understand the biomechanical requirements of targeted tissues to be regenerated, recently, more and more models are formulated to combine such biomechanical requirements with cell fate predictions to aid in the design of functional three-dimensional scaffolds. In this review, we highlight how computational modeling has been used to understand the mechanisms behind tissue formation and can be used for more rational and biomimetic scaffold-based tissue regeneration strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534025/atrial-fibrillation-dynamics-and-ionic-block-effects-in-six-heterogeneous-human-3d-virtual-atria-with-distinct-repolarization-dynamics
#6
Carlos Sánchez, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Esther Pueyo, Blanca Rodríguez
Atrial fibrillation (AF) usually manifests as reentrant circuits propagating through the whole atria creating chaotic activation patterns. Little is yet known about how differences in electrophysiological and ionic properties between patients modulate reentrant patterns in AF. The goal of this study is to quantify how variability in action potential duration (APD) at different stages of repolarization determines AF dynamics and their modulation by ionic block using a set of virtual whole-atria human models...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512630/hand-grasping-synergies-as-biometrics
#7
Vrajeshri Patel, Poojita Thukral, Martin K Burns, Ionut Florescu, Rajarathnam Chandramouli, Ramana Vinjamuri
Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503549/learning-from-mother-nature-innovative-tools-to-boost-endogenous-repair-of-critical-or-difficult-to-heal-large-tissue-defects
#8
REVIEW
Ranieri Cancedda, Sveva Bollini, Fiorella Descalzi, Maddalena Mastrogiacomo, Roberta Tasso
For repair of chronic or difficult-to-heal tissue lesions and defects, major constraints exist to a broad application of cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches, i.e., transplantation of "ex vivo" expanded autologous stem/progenitor cells, alone or associated with carrier biomaterials. To enable a large number of patients to benefit, new strategies should be considered. One of the main goals of contemporary regenerative medicine is to develop new regenerative therapies, inspired from Mother Nature. In all injured tissues, when platelets are activated by tissue contact, their released factors promote innate immune cell migration to the wound site...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503548/exploiting-self-organization-in-bioengineered-systems-a-computational-approach
#9
Delin Davis, Anna Doloman, Gregory J Podgorski, Elizabeth Vargis, Nicholas S Flann
The productivity of bioengineered cell factories is limited by inefficiencies in nutrient delivery and waste and product removal. Current solution approaches explore changes in the physical configurations of the bioreactors. This work investigates the possibilities of exploiting self-organizing vascular networks to support producer cells within the factory. A computational model simulates de novo vascular development of endothelial-like cells and the resultant network functioning to deliver nutrients and extract product and waste from the cell culture...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470000/input-estimation-for-extended-release-formulations-exemplified-with-exenatide
#10
Magnus Trägårdh, Michael J Chappell, Johan E Palm, Neil D Evans, David L I Janzén, Peter Gennemark
Estimating the in vivo absorption profile of a drug is essential when developing extended-release medications. Such estimates can be obtained by measuring plasma concentrations over time and inferring the absorption from a model of the drug's pharmacokinetics. Of particular interest is to predict the bioavailability-the fraction of the drug that is absorbed and enters the systemic circulation. This paper presents a framework for addressing this class of estimation problems and gives advice on the choice of method...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459049/engineering-blood-and-lymphatic-microvascular-networks-in-fibrin-matrices
#11
Lea Knezevic, Mira Schaupper, Severin Mühleder, Katharina Schimek, Tobias Hasenberg, Uwe Marx, Eleni Priglinger, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
Vascular network engineering is essential for nutrient delivery to tissue-engineered constructs and, consequently, their survival. In addition, the functionality of tissues also depends on tissue drainage and immune cell accessibility, which are the main functions of the lymphatic system. Engineering both the blood and lymphatic microvasculature would advance the survival and functionality of tissue-engineered constructs. The aim of this study was to isolate pure populations of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and blood vascular endothelial cells (BEC) from human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and to study their network formation in our previously described coculture model with adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) in fibrin scaffolds...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447031/microfluidic-concentric-gradient-generator-design-for-high-throughput-cell-based-studies
#12
Elishai Ezra Tsur, Michal Zimerman, Idan Maor, Avner Elrich, Yaakov Nahmias
Gradients of diffusible signaling molecules play important role in various processes, ranging from cell differentiation to toxicological evaluation. Microfluidic technology provides an accurate control of tempospatial conditions. However, current microfluidic platforms are not designed to handle multiple gradients and cell populations simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a rapidly adaptable microfluidic design able to expose multiple cell populations to an array of chemical gradients. Our design is based on pressure-equilibrated concentric channels and a pressure-dissipating control layer, facilitating the seeding of multiple cell populations in a single device...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439516/engineering-muscle-networks-in-3d-gelatin-methacryloyl-hydrogels-influence-of-mechanical-stiffness-and-geometrical-confinement
#13
Marco Costantini, Stefano Testa, Ersilia Fornetti, Andrea Barbetta, Marcella Trombetta, Stefano Maria Cannata, Cesare Gargioli, Alberto Rainer
In this work, the influence of mechanical stiffness and geometrical confinement on the 3D culture of myoblast-laden gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) photo-crosslinkable hydrogels was evaluated in terms of in vitro myogenesis. We formulated a set of cell-laden GelMA hydrogels with a compressive modulus in the range 1 ÷ 17 kPa, obtained by varying GelMA concentration and degree of cross-linking. C2C12 myoblasts were chosen as the cell model to investigate the supportiveness of different GelMA hydrogels toward myotube formation up to 2 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424770/recent-advances-in-bioink-design-for-3d-bioprinting-of-tissues-and-organs
#14
REVIEW
Shen Ji, Murat Guvendiren
There is a growing demand for alternative fabrication approaches to develop tissues and organs as conventional techniques are not capable of fabricating constructs with required structural, mechanical, and biological complexity. 3D bioprinting offers great potential to fabricate highly complex constructs with precise control of structure, mechanics, and biological matter [i.e., cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components]. 3D bioprinting is an additive manufacturing approach that utilizes a "bioink" to fabricate devices and scaffolds in a layer-by-layer manner...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421180/usability-evaluations-of-a-wearable-inertial-sensing-system-and-quality-of-movement-metrics-for-stroke-survivors-by-care-professionals
#15
Bart Klaassen, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Jeremia P Held, Jasper Reenalda, Fokke B van Meulen, Peter H Veltink, Hermie J Hermens
BACKGROUND: Inertial motion capture systems are used in many applications such as measuring the movement quality in stroke survivors. The absence of clinical effectiveness and usability evidence in these assistive technologies into rehabilitation has delayed the transition of research into clinical practice. Recently, a new inertial motion capture system was developed in a project, called INTERACTION, to objectively measure the quality of movement (QoM) in stroke survivors during daily-life activity...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421179/synergy-based-bilateral-port-a-universal-control-module-for-tele-manipulation-frameworks-using-asymmetric-master-slave-systems
#16
Anais Brygo, Ioannis Sarakoglou, Giorgio Grioli, Nikos Tsagarakis
Endowing tele-manipulation frameworks with the capability to accommodate a variety of robotic hands is key to achieving high performances through permitting to flexibly interchange the end-effector according to the task considered. This requires the development of control policies that not only cope with asymmetric master-slave systems but also whose high-level components are designed in a unified space in abstraction from the devices specifics. To address this dual challenge, a novel synergy port is developed that resolves the kinematic, sensing, and actuation asymmetries of the considered system through generating motion and force feedback references in the hardware-independent hand postural synergy space...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396856/bidomain-predictions-of-virtual-electrode-induced-make-and-break-excitations-around-blood-vessels
#17
Adam J Connolly, Edward Vigmond, Martin J Bishop
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Virtual electrodes formed by field stimulation during defibrillation of cardiac tissue play an important role in eliciting activations. It has been suggested that the coronary vasculature is an important source of virtual electrodes, especially during low-energy defibrillation. This work aims to further the understanding of how virtual electrodes from the coronary vasculature influence defibrillation outcomes. METHODS: Using the bidomain model, we investigated how field stimulation elicited activations from virtual electrodes around idealized intramural blood vessels...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386538/biofabrication-and-bone-tissue-regeneration-cell-source-approaches-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Monia Orciani, Milena Fini, Roberto Di Primio, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte
The growing occurrence of bone disorders and the increase in aging population have resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this request. Bone tissue engineering strategies, by combining biomaterials, cells, and signaling factors, are seen as alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or rebuilding bone defects. Indeed, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice because of several challenges. Bone biofabrication by additive manufacturing techniques may represent a possible solution, with its intrinsic capability for accuracy, reproducibility, and customization of scaffolds as well as cell and signaling molecule delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337436/the-lid-domain-in-lipases-structural-and-functional-determinant-of-enzymatic-properties
#19
REVIEW
Faez Iqbal Khan, Dongming Lan, Rabia Durrani, Weiqian Huan, Zexin Zhao, Yonghua Wang
Lipases are important industrial enzymes. Most of the lipases operate at lipid-water interfaces enabled by a mobile lid domain located over the active site. Lid protects the active site and hence responsible for catalytic activity. In pure aqueous media, the lid is predominantly closed, whereas in the presence of a hydrophobic layer, it is partially opened. Hence, the lid controls the enzyme activity. In the present review, we have classified lipases into different groups based on the structure of lid domains...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337435/commentary-bioceramics-and-scaffolds-a-winning-combination-for-tissue-engineering
#20
COMMENT
Eric Denes, Guislaine Barrière, Evelyne Poli, Guillaume Lévêque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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