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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

Norman C Ellstrand
The possibility of transgenes from engineered plants ending up in unmanaged populations with undesirable consequences has been a long-term biosafety concern. Experience with traditionally improved plants reveals that most cases of such gene escape have been of little consequence, but on occasion they have led to the evolution of problematic plants or have resulted in an increased extinction risk for wild taxa. Three decades have passed since the first environmental release of transgenic plants, and more than two decades since their first commercialization...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Aliaksei S Vasilevich, Frédéric Mourcin, Anouk Mentink, Frits Hulshof, Nick Beijer, Yiping Zhao, Marloes Levers, Bernke Papenburg, Shantanu Singh, Anne E Carpenter, Dimitrios Stamatialis, Clemens van Blitterswijk, Karin Tarte, Jan de Boer
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), the T-cell zone stromal cell subtype in the lymph nodes, create a scaffold for adhesion and migration of immune cells, thus allowing them to communicate. Although known to be important for the initiation of immune responses, studies about FRCs and their interactions have been impeded because FRCs are limited in availability and lose their function upon culture expansion. To circumvent these limitations, stromal cell precursors can be mechanotranduced to form mature FRCs...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Federico Cabitza, Angela Locoro, Giuseppe Banfi
In this paper we present the findings of a systematic literature review covering the articles published in the last two decades in which the authors described the application of a machine learning technique and method to an orthopedic problem or purpose. By searching both in the Scopus and Medline databases, we retrieved, screened and analyzed the content of 70 journal articles, and coded these resources following an iterative method within a Grounded Theory approach. We report the survey findings by outlining the articles' content in terms of the main machine learning techniques mentioned therein, the orthopedic application domains, the source data and the quality of their predictive performance...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Nagarajan Thirunavukkarasu, Eric Johnson, Segaran Pillai, David Hodge, Larry Stanker, Travis Wentz, BalRam Singh, Kodumudi Venkateswaran, Patrick McNutt, Michael Adler, Eric Brown, Thomas Hammack, Donald Burr, Shashi Sharma
Botulism outbreak due to consumption of food contaminated with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is a public health emergency. The threat of bioterrorism through deliberate distribution in food sources and/or aerosolization of BoNTs raises global public health and security concerns due to the potential for high mortality and morbidity. Rapid and reliable detection methods are necessary to support clinical diagnosis and surveillance for identifying the source of contamination, performing epidemiological analysis of the outbreak, preventing and responding to botulism outbreaks...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Yan T Wong, Arman Ahnood, Matias I Maturana, William Kentler, Kumaravelu Ganesan, David B Grayden, Hamish Meffin, Steven Prawer, Michael R Ibbotson, Anthony N Burkitt
Neural prostheses that can monitor the physiological state of a subject are becoming clinically viable through improvements in the capacity to record from neural tissue. However, a significant limitation of current devices is that it is difficult to fabricate electrode arrays that have both high channel counts and the appropriate electrical properties required for neural recordings. In earlier work, we demonstrated nitrogen doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) can provide efficacious electrical stimulation of neural tissue, with high charge injection capacity, surface stability and biocompatibility...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Katinka Becker, Hannes Klarner, Melania Nowicka, Heike Siebert
Cell classifier circuits are synthetic biological circuits capable of distinguishing between different cell states depending on specific cellular markers and engendering a state-specific response. An example are classifiers for cancer cells that recognize whether a cell is healthy or diseased based on its miRNA fingerprint and trigger cell apoptosis in the latter case. Binarization of continuous miRNA expression levels allows to formalize a classifier as a Boolean function whose output codes for the cell condition...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Martha G Rocha-Munive, Mario Soberón, Saúl Castañeda, Esteban Niaves, Enrique Scheinvar, Luis E Eguiarte, David Mota-Sánchez, Enrique Rosales-Robles, Urbano Nava-Camberos, José L Martínez-Carrillo, Carlos A Blanco, Alejandra Bravo, Valeria Souza
For more than 20 years cotton has been the most widely sown genetically modified (GM) crop in Mexico. Its cultivation has fulfilled all requirements and has gone through the different regulatory stages. During the last 20 years, both research-institutions and biotech-companies have generated scientific and technical information regarding GM cotton cultivation in Mexico. In this work, we collected data in order to analyze the environmental and agronomic effects of the use of GM cotton in Mexico. In 1996, the introduction of Bt cotton made it possible to reactivate this crop, which in previous years was greatly reduced due to pest problems, production costs and environmental concerns...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Özlem Şen, Melis Emanet, Mustafa Çulha
Hexagonal boron nitrides (hBNs) have recently been investigated for several novel applications due to their unique properties such as biocompatibility, superhydrophobicity, electrical insulation, and thermal and chemical stability. In addition, their biodegradation products have recently reported to have therapeutic effect on certain cancer types. hBNs are easily synthesized from boron and nitrogen precursors at moderately low temperatures. However, crystallinity and yield vary depending on the type of precursor, reaction temperature, and duration...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Manuel Fankhauser, Christian Moser, Theodor Nyfeler
The human microbiome is the collective of microbes living in symbiosis on and within humans. Modulating its composition and function has become an attractive means for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases including cancer. Since the initiation of the human microbiome project in 2007, the number of academic publications and active patent families around the microbiome has grown exponentially. Screening patent databases can be useful for the early detection and the tracking of new technology trends...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Nina Duensing, Thorben Sprink, Wayne A Parrott, Maria Fedorova, Martin A Lema, Jeffrey D Wolt, Detlef Bartsch
Genome editing describes a variety of molecular biology applications enabling targeted and precise alterations of the genomes of plants, animals and microorganisms. These rapidly developing techniques are likely to revolutionize the breeding of new crop varieties. Since genome editing can lead to the development of plants that could also have come into existence naturally or by conventional breeding techniques, there are strong arguments that these cases should not be classified as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and be regulated no differently from conventionally bred crops...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Laura Montero-Morales, Herta Steinkellner
With respect to biomanufacturing, glycosylation is one of the most addressed post-translational modifications, since it is well-known that the attachment of sugar residues efficiently affects protein homogeneity and functionality. Much effort has been taken into engineering various expression systems to control glycosylation and to generate molecules with targeted sugar profiles. Nevertheless, engineering of N - and O -linked glycans on well-established expression systems remains challenging. On the one side the glycosylation machinery in mammalian cells is hard to control due to its complexity...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Caterina Sturtzel, Karoline Lipnik, Renate Hofer-Warbinek, Julia Testori, Bettina Ebner, Jaqueline Seigner, Ping Qiu, Martin Bilban, Anita Jandrositz, Karl-Heinz Preisegger, Gerold Untergasser, Eberhard Gunsilius, Rainer de Martin, Jens Kroll, Erhard Hofer
Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) or late blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) have been proposed to contribute to neovascularization in humans. Exploring genes characteristic for the progenitor status of ECFC we have identified the forkhead box transcription factor FOXF1 to be selectively expressed in ECFC compared to mature endothelial cells isolated from the vessel wall. Analyzing the role of FOXF1 by gain- and loss-of-function studies we detected a strong impact of FOXF1 expression on the particularly high sprouting capabilities of endothelial progenitors...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Ruoli Wang, Johan Gäverth, Pawel A Herman
Quantifying neural and non-neural contributions to the joint resistance in spasticity is essential for a better evaluation of different intervention strategies such as botulinum toxin A (BoTN-A). However, direct measurement of muscle mechanical properties and spasticity-related parameters in humans is extremely challenging. The aim of this study was to use a previously developed musculoskeletal model and optimization scheme to evaluate the changes of neural and non-neural related properties of the spastic wrist flexors during passive wrist extension after BoTN-A injection...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Dandan Liu, Marta Roca-Puigros, Florian Geppert, Leire Caizán-Juanarena, Susakul P Na Ayudthaya, Cees Buisman, Annemiek Ter Heijne
Methane-producing bioelectrochemical systems generate methane by using microorganisms to reduce carbon dioxide at the cathode with external electricity supply. This technology provides an innovative approach for renewable electricity conversion and storage. Two key factors that need further attention are production of methane at high rate, and stable performance under intermittent electricity supply. To study these key factors, we have used two electrode materials: granular activated carbon (GAC) and graphite granules (GG)...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Chiara Enrico Bena, Alice Grob, Mark Isalan, Carla Bosia, Francesca Ceroni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Roland M Klar
A paradigmatic shift in the way of thinking is what bone tissue engineering science requires to decrypt the translation conundrum from animal models into human. The deductive work of Urist (1965), who discerned the principle of bone induction from the pioneering works of Senn, Huggins, Lacroix, Levander, and other bone regenerative scientists, provided the basis that has assisted future bone tissue regenerative scientists to extend the bone tissue engineering field and its potential uses for bone regenerative medicine in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sandy J Snyman, Dennis M Komape, Hlobisile Khanyi, Johnnie van den Berg, Dirk Cilliers, Dyfed Lloyd Evans, Sandra Barnard, Stefan J Siebert
Pre-commercialization studies on environmental biosafety of genetically modified (GM) crops are necessary to evaluate the potential for sexual hybridization with related plant species that occur in the release area. The aim of the study was a preliminary assessment of factors that may contribute to gene flow from sugarcane ( Saccharum hybrids) to indigenous relatives in the sugarcane production regions of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, South Africa. In the first instance, an assessment of Saccharum wild relatives was conducted based on existing phylogenies and literature surveys...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Patrick Rüdelsheim, Philippe Dumont, Georges Freyssinet, Ine Pertry, Marc Heijde
More than 20 years ago, the first genetically modified (GM) plants entered the seed market. The patents covering the first GM plants have begun to expire and these can now be considered as Off-Patent Events. Here we describe the challenges that will be faced by a Secondary Party by further use and development of these Off-Patent Events. Indeed, the conditions for Off-Patent Events are not available yet to form the basis for a new viable industry similar to the generic manufacturers of agrochemicals or pharmaceutical products, primarily because of (i) unharmonized global regulatory requirements for GM organisms, (ii) inaccessibility of regulatory submissions and data, and (iii) potential difficulties to obtain seeds and genetic material of the unique genotypes used to generate regulatory data...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Soneela Ankam, Benjamin K K Teo, Grace Pohan, Shawn W L Ho, Choon K Lim, Evelyn K F Yim
Stem cell differentiation can be regulated by biophysical cues such as nanotopography. It involves sensing and integration of these biophysical cues into their transcriptome with a mechanism that is yet to be discovered. In addition to the cytoskeletal and focal adhesion remodeling, nanotopography has also been shown to modulate nucleus morphology. Here, we studied the effect of nanotopography on the temporal changes in nuclei of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Using a high throughput Multi-architecture (MARC) chip analysis, the circularity of the stem cell nuclei changed significantly on different patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Adrian Derungs, Corina Schuster-Amft, Oliver Amft
Background: Longitudinal movement parameter analysis of hemiparetic patients over several months could reveal potential recovery trends and help clinicians adapting therapy strategies to maximize recovery outcome. Wearable sensors offer potential for day-long movement recordings in realistic rehabilitation settings including activities of daily living, e.g., walking. The measurement of walking-related movement parameters of affected and non-affected body sides are of interest to determine mobility and investigate recovery trends...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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