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Life Sciences in Space Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198318/growth-in-spaceflight-hardware-results-in-alterations-to-the-transcriptome-and-proteome
#1
Proma Basu, Colin P S Kruse, Darron R Luesse, Sarah E Wyatt
The Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware has been used to house many biology experiments on both the Space Transport System (STS, commonly known as the space shuttle) and the International Space Station (ISS). However, microscopic examination of Arabidopsis seedlings by Johnson et al. (2015) indicated the hardware itself may affect cell morphology. The experiment herein was designed to assess the effects of the BRIC-Petri Dish Fixation Units (BRIC-PDFU) hardware on the transcriptome and proteome of Arabidopsis seedlings...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198317/effects-of-high-intensity-static-magnetic-fields-on-a-root-based-bioreactor-system-for-space-applications
#2
Maria Elena Villani, Silvia Massa, Vanni Lopresto, Rosanna Pinto, Anna Maria Salzano, Andrea Scaloni, Eugenio Benvenuto, Angiola Desiderio
Static magnetic fields created by superconducting magnets have been proposed as an effective solution to protect spacecrafts and planetary stations from cosmic radiations. This shield can deflect high-energy particles exerting injurious effects on living organisms, including plants. In fact, plant systems are becoming increasingly interesting for space adaptation studies, being useful not only as food source but also as sink of bioactive molecules in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). However, the application of protective magnetic shields would generate inside space habitats residual magnetic fields, of the order of few hundreds milli Tesla, whose effect on plant systems is poorly known...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198316/exploring-innovative-radiation-shielding-approaches-in-space-a-material-and-design-study-for-a-wearable-radiation-protection-spacesuit
#3
M Vuolo, G Baiocco, S Barbieri, L Bocchini, M Giraudo, T Gheysens, C Lobascio, A Ottolenghi
We present a design study for a wearable radiation-shielding spacesuit, designed to protect astronauts' most radiosensitive organs. The suit could be used in an emergency, to perform necessary interventions outside a radiation shelter in the space habitat in case of a Solar Proton Event (SPE). A wearable shielding system of the kind we propose has the potential to prevent the onset of acute radiation effects in this scenario. In this work, selection of materials for the spacesuit elements is performed based on the results of dedicated GRAS/Geant4 1-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, and after a trade-off analysis between shielding performance and availability of resources in the space habitat...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198315/mimicking-the-effects-of-spaceflight-on-bone-combined-effects-of-disuse-and-chronic-low-dose-rate-radiation-exposure-on-bone-mass-in-mice
#4
Kanglun Yu, Alison H Doherty, Paula C Genik, Sara E Gookin, Danielle M Roteliuk, Samantha J Wojda, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Michael M Weil, Seth W Donahue
During spaceflight, crewmembers are subjected to biomechanical and biological challenges including microgravity and radiation. In the skeleton, spaceflight leads to bone loss, increasing the risk of fracture. Studies utilizing hindlimb suspension (HLS) as a ground-based model of spaceflight often neglect the concomitant effects of radiation exposure, and even when radiation is accounted for, it is often delivered at a high-dose rate over a very short period of time, which does not faithfully mimic spaceflight conditions...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198314/t-cell-resistance-to-activation-by-dendritic-cells-requires-long-term-culture-in-simulated-microgravity
#5
Jillian H Bradley, Rachel Stein, Brad Randolph, Emily Molina, Jennifer P Arnold, Randal K Gregg
Immune impairment mediated by microgravity threatens the success of space exploration requiring long-duration spaceflight. The cells of most concern, T lymphocytes, coordinate the host response against microbial and cancerous challenges leading to elimination and long-term protection. T cells are activated upon recognition of specific microbial peptides bound on the surface of antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC). Subsequently, this engagement results in T cell proliferation and differentiation into effector T cells driven by autocrine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and other cytokines...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198313/modifiers-of-radiation-effects-in-the-eye
#6
REVIEW
Norman J Kleiman, Fiona A Stewart, Eric J Hall
World events, including the threat of radiological terrorism and the fear of nuclear accidents, have highlighted an urgent need to develop medical countermeasures to prevent or reduce radiation injury. Similarly, plans for manned spaceflight to a near-Earth asteroid or journey to Mars raise serious concerns about long-term effects of space radiation on human health and the availability of suitable therapeutic interventions. At the same time, the need to protect normal tissue from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy has driven considerable research into the design of effective radioprotectors...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198312/coupling-of-anaerobic-waste-treatment-to-produce-protein-and-lipid-rich-bacterial-biomass
#7
Lisa M Steinberg, Rachel E Kronyak, Christopher H House
Future long-term manned space missions will require effective recycling of water and nutrients as part of a life support system. Biological waste treatment is less energy intensive than physicochemical treatment methods, yet anaerobic methanogenic waste treatment has been largely avoided due to slow treatment rates and safety issues concerning methane production. However, methane is generated during atmosphere regeneration on the ISS. Here we propose waste treatment via anaerobic digestion followed by methanotrophic growth of Methylococcus capsulatus to produce a protein- and lipid-rich biomass that can be directly consumed, or used to produce other high-protein food sources such as fish...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198311/comparison-of-methods-for-individualized-astronaut-organ-dosimetry-morphometry-based-phantom-library-versus-body-contour-autoscaling-of-a-reference-phantom
#8
Michelle M Sands, David Borrego, Matthew R Maynard, Amir A Bahadori, Wesley E Bolch
One of the hazards faced by space crew members in low-Earth orbit or in deep space is exposure to ionizing radiation. It has been shown previously that while differences in organ-specific and whole-body risk estimates due to body size variations are small for highly-penetrating galactic cosmic rays, large differences in these quantities can result from exposure to shorter-range trapped proton or solar particle event radiations. For this reason, it is desirable to use morphometrically accurate computational phantoms representing each astronaut for a risk analysis, especially in the case of a solar particle event...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198310/whole-high-quality-light-environment-for-humans-and-plants
#9
Anton Sharakshane
Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198309/effects-of-simulated-microgravity-on-gene-expression-and-biological-phenotypes-of-a-single-generation-caenorhabditis-elegans-cultured-on-2-different-media
#10
Ling Fei Tee, Hui-Min Neoh, Sue Mian Then, Nor Azian Murad, Mohd Fairos Asillam, Mohd Helmy Hashim, Sheila Nathan, Rahman Jamal
Studies of multigenerational Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to long-term spaceflight have revealed expression changes of genes involved in longevity, DNA repair, and locomotion. However, results from spaceflight experiments are difficult to reproduce as space missions are costly and opportunities are rather limited for researchers. In addition, multigenerational cultures of C. elegans used in previous studies contribute to mixture of gene expression profiles from both larvae and adult worms, which were recently reported to be different...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198308/payload-hardware-and-experimental-protocol-development-to-enable-future-testing-of-the-effect-of-space-microgravity-on-the-resistance-to-gentamicin-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-%C3%AF-s-deficient-mutant
#11
A C Matin, J-H Wang, Mimi Keyhan, Rachna Singh, Michael Benoit, Macarena P Parra, Michael R Padgen, Antonio J Ricco, Matthew Chin, Charlie R Friedericks, Tori N Chinn, Aaron Cohen, Michael B Henschke, Timothy V Snyder, Matthew P Lera, Shannon S Ross, Christina M Mayberry, Sungshin Choi, Diana T Wu, Ming X Tan, Travis D Boone, Christopher C Beasley, Matthew E Piccini, Stevan M Spremo
Human immune response is compromised and bacteria can become more antibiotic resistant in space microgravity (MG). We report that under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), stationary-phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) become more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), and that this increase is dependent on the presence of σs (a transcription regulator encoded by the rpoS gene). UPEC causes urinary tract infections (UTIs), reported to afflict astronauts; Gm is a standard treatment, so these findings could impact astronaut health...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887946/comparing-hzetrn-shield-fluka-and-geant-transport-codes
#12
John W Norbury, Tony C Slaba, Nikolai Sobolevsky, Brandon Reddell
For the first time, the American (NASA) and Russian (ROSCOSMOS) space radiation transport codes, HZETRN and SHIELD respectively, are directly compared to each other. Calculations are presented for Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) minimum Hydrogen, Oxygen and Iron projectiles incident on a uniform Aluminum cylinder of varying thickness. Comparisons are made for the flux spectra of neutrons, light ions (Z≤ 2), heavy ions (Z> 2) and pions emitted from the back of the Aluminum cylinder. In order to provide more benchmark comparisons, some calculations with the GEANT and FLUKA transport codes are also shown...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887945/the-radiation-environment-on-the-surface-of-mars-numerical-calculations-of-the-galactic-component-with-geant4-planetocosmics
#13
Daniel Matthiä, Thomas Berger
Galactic cosmic radiation and secondary particles produced in the interaction with the atmosphere lead to a complex radiation field on the Martian surface. A workshop ("1st Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop") organized by the MSL-RAD science team was held in June 2016 in Boulder with the goal to compare models capable to predict this radiation field with each other and measurements from the RAD instrument onboard the curiosity rover taken between November 15, 2015 and January 15, 2016. In this work the results of PLANETOCOSMICS/GEANT4 contributed to the workshop are presented...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887944/a-calculation-of-the-radiation-environment-on-the-martian-surface
#14
Wouter C de Wet, Lawrence W Townsend
In this work, the radiation environment on the Martian surface, as produced by galactic cosmic radiation incident on the atmosphere, is modeled using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, High Energy Transport Code-Human Exploration and Development in Space (HETC-HEDS). This work is performed in participation of the 2016 Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop held in Boulder, CO, and is part of a larger collaborative effort to study the radiation environment on the surface of Mars. Calculated fluxes for neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helions, alpha particles, and heavier ions up to Fe are compared with measurements taken by Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory over a period of 2 months...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887943/simulation-of-the-gcr-spectrum-in-the-mars-curiosity-rover-s-rad-detector-using-mcnp6
#15
Hunter N Ratliff, Michael B R Smith, Lawrence Heilbronn
The paper presents results from MCNP6 simulations of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) propagation down through the Martian atmosphere to the surface and comparison with RAD measurements made there. This effort is part of a collaborative modeling workshop for space radiation hosted by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). All modeling teams were tasked with simulating the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum through the Martian atmosphere and the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on-board the Curiosity rover. The detector had two separate particle acceptance angles, 4π and 30 ° off zenith...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887942/radiation-transport-simulation-of-the-martian-gcr-surface-flux-and-dose-estimation-using-spherical-geometry-in-phits-compared-to-msl-rad-measurements
#16
John Flores-McLaughlin
Planetary bodies and spacecraft are predominantly exposed to isotropic radiation environments that are subject to transport and interaction in various material compositions and geometries. Specifically, the Martian surface radiation environment is composed of galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced by their interaction with the Martian atmosphere, albedo particles from the Martian regolith and occasional solar particle events. Despite this complex physical environment with potentially significant locational and geometric dependencies, computational resources often limit radiation environment calculations to a one-dimensional or slab geometry specification...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887941/the-charged-particle-radiation-environment-on-mars-measured-by-msl-rad-from-november-15-2015-to-january-15-2016
#17
Bent Ehresmann, Cary J Zeitlin, Donald M Hassler, Daniel Matthiä, Jingnan Guo, Robert F Wimmer-Schweingruber, Jan K Appel, David E Brinza, Scot C R Rafkin, Stephan I Böttcher, Sönke Burmeister, Henning Lohf, Cesar Martin, Eckart Böhm, Günther Reitz
The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has been measuring the radiation environment in Gale crater on Mars since August, 2012. These first in-situ measurements provide an important data set for assessing the radiation-associated health risks for future manned missions to Mars. Mainly, the radiation field on the Martian surface stems from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and secondary particles created by the GCRs' interactions with the Martian atmosphere and soil...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887940/evaluation-of-hzetrn-on-the-martian-surface-sensitivity-tests-and-model-results
#18
Tony C Slaba, Nicholas N Stoffle
The Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSLRAD) is providing continuous measurements of dose, dose equivalent, and particle flux on the surface of Mars. These measurements have been highly useful in validating environmental and radiation transport models that will be heavily relied upon for future deep space missions. In this work, the HZETRN code is utilized to estimate radiation quantities of interest on the Martian surface. A description of the modeling approach used with HZETRN is given along with the various input models and parameters used to define the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment and Martian geometry...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887939/the-radiation-environment-on-the-surface-of-mars-summary-of-model-calculations-and-comparison-to-rad-data
#19
Daniel Matthiä, Donald M Hassler, Wouter de Wet, Bent Ehresmann, Ana Firan, John Flores-McLaughlin, Jingnan Guo, Lawrence H Heilbronn, Kerry Lee, Hunter Ratliff, Ryan R Rios, Tony C Slaba, Michael Smith, Nicholas N Stoffle, Lawrence W Townsend, Thomas Berger, Günther Reitz, Robert F Wimmer-Schweingruber, Cary Zeitlin
The radiation environment at the Martian surface is, apart from occasional solar energetic particle events, dominated by galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced in their interaction with the Martian atmosphere and albedo particles from the Martian regolith. The highly energetic primary cosmic radiation consists mainly of fully ionized nuclei creating a complex radiation field at the Martian surface. This complex field, its formation and its potential health risk posed to astronauts on future manned missions to Mars can only be fully understood using a combination of measurements and model calculations...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887938/measurements-of-the-neutral-particle-spectra-on-mars-by-msl-rad-from-2015-11-15-to-2016-01-15
#20
Jingnan Guo, Cary Zeitlin, Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber, Donald M Hassler, Jan Köhler, Bent Ehresmann, Stephan Böttcher, Eckart Böhm, David E Brinza
The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, has been measuring the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars since the landing of the rover in August 2012. In contrast to charged particles, neutral particles (neutrons and γ-rays) are measured indirectly: the energy deposition spectra produced by neutral particles are complex convolutions of the incident particle spectra with the detector response functions...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
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