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Life Sciences in Space Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212709/erythrocyte-deformability-and-aggregation-responses-to-intermittent-and-continuous-artificial-gravity-exposure
#1
Grau Marijke, Abeln Vera, Vogt Tobias, Bloch Wilhelm, Schneider Stefan
Artificial gravity protocols are used to improve g-tolerance of aviators and discussed as countermeasure during prolonged space flight. Little is known about the impact of artificial gravity on the red blood cells (RBC). The purpose of the study was to test how artificial gravity affects RBC deformability and aggregation, which are important determinants of microcirculation. Nine male subjects were exposed to two hypergravity protocols using a short arm human centrifuge: a continuous (CONT) protocol with constant +2Gz for 30min and an intermittent (INTER) protocol with repeated intervals of +2Gz and rest...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212708/development-and-performance-evaluation-of-a-three-dimensional-clinostat-synchronized-heavy-ion-irradiation-system
#2
Hiroko Ikeda, Hikaru Souda, Anggraeini Puspitasari, Kathryn D Held, Jun Hidema, Takeshi Nikawa, Yukari Yoshida, Tatsuaki Kanai, Akihisa Takahashi
Outer space is an environment characterized by microgravity and space radiation, including high-energy charged particles. Astronauts are constantly exposed to both microgravity and radiation during long-term stays in space. However, many aspects of the biological effects of combined microgravity and space radiation remain unclear. We developed a new three-dimensional (3D) clinostat synchronized heavy-ion irradiation system for use in ground-based studies of the combined exposures. Our new system uses a particle accelerator and a respiratory gating system from heavy-ion radiotherapy to irradiate samples being rotated in the 3D clinostat with carbon-ion beams only when the samples are in the horizontal position...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212707/astrobiological-implications-of-dim-light-phototrophy-in-deep-sea-red-clays
#3
Anindita Das, Tanya Singh, P A LokaBharathi, Prashant K Dhakephalkar, Sweta Mallik, Pranav R Kshirsagar, N H Khadge, B Nagender Nath, Satadru Bhattacharya, Aditya Kumar Dagar, Prabhjot Kaur, Dwijesh Ray, Anil D Shukla, Christabelle E G Fernandes, Sheryl O Fernandes, Tresa Remya A Thomas, Mamatha S S, Babu Shashikant Mourya, Ram Murti Meena
Red clays of Central Indian Basin (CIB) under influence of trace of Rodriguez Triple Junction exhibited chemoautotrophy, low temperature hydrothermal alterations and photoautotrophic potential. Seamount flank TVBC-08, hosting such signatures revealed dominance of aerobic anoxygenic phototroph Erythrobacter, with 93% of total 454 pyrosequencing tags. Subsequently, enrichments for both aerobic (Erythrobacter) and anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (green and purple sulphur bacteria) under red and white LED light illumination, with average irradiance 30...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212706/sclerostin-antibody-inhibits-skeletal-deterioration-in-mice-exposed-to-partial-weight-bearing
#4
J M Spatz, R Ellman, A M Cloutier, L Louis, M van Vliet, D Dwyer, M Stolina, H Z Ke, M L Bouxsein
Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212705/detection-of-dna-damage-by-space-radiation-in-human-fibroblasts-flown-on-the-international-space-station
#5
Tao Lu, Ye Zhang, Michael Wong, Alan Feiveson, Ramona Gaza, Nicholas Stoffle, Huichen Wang, Bobby Wilson, Larry Rohde, Louis Stodieck, Fathi Karouia, Honglu Wu
Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212704/neurochemical-differences-in-learning-and-memory-paradigms-among-rats-supplemented-with-anthocyanin-rich-blueberry-diets-and-exposed-to-acute-doses-of-56-fe-particles
#6
Shibu M Poulose, Bernard M Rabin, Donna F Bielinski, Megan E Kelly, Marshall G Miller, Nopporn Thanthaeng, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to "accelerated aging." One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as (56)Fe, within 24-48h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212703/optimal-shielding-thickness-for-galactic-cosmic-ray-environments
#7
Tony C Slaba, Amir A Bahadori, Brandon D Reddell, Robert C Singleterry, Martha S Clowdsley, Steve R Blattnig
Models have been extensively used in the past to evaluate and develop material optimization and shield design strategies for astronauts exposed to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on long duration missions. A persistent conclusion from many of these studies was that passive shielding strategies are inefficient at reducing astronaut exposure levels and the mass required to significantly reduce the exposure is infeasible, given launch and associated cost constraints. An important assumption of this paradigm is that adding shielding mass does not substantially increase astronaut exposure levels...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993191/optimizing-led-lighting-for-space-plant-growth-unit-joint-effects-of-photon-flux-density-red-to-white-ratios-and-intermittent-light-pulses
#8
O V Avercheva, Yu A Berkovich, I O Konovalova, S G Radchenko, S N Lapach, E M Bassarskaya, G V Kochetova, T V Zhigalova, O S Yakovleva, I G Tarakanov
The aim of this work were to choose a quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the quality of plant LED lighting regimes inside space greenhouses and to construct regression models of crop productivity and the optimality criterion depending on the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), the proportion of the red component in the light spectrum and the duration of the duty cycle (Chinese cabbage Brassica сhinensis L. as an example). The properties of the obtained models were described in the context of predicting crop dry weight and the optimality criterion behavior when varying plant lighting parameters...
November 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993190/investigation-on-contribution-of-neutron-monitor-data-to-estimation-of-aviation-doses
#9
M Kákona, O Ploc, D Kyselová, J Kubančák, R Langer, K Kudela
Recently, many efforts have appeared to routinely measure radiation exposure (RE) of aircraft crew due to cosmic rays (CR). On the other hand real-time CR data measured with the ground based neutron monitors (NMs) are collected worldwide and available online. This is an opportunity for comparison of long-term observations of RE at altitudes of about 10km, where composition and energy spectra of secondary particles differ from those on the ground, with the data from NMs. Our contribution presents examples of such type of comparison...
November 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993189/overview-of-the-nasa-space-radiation-laboratory
#10
Chiara La Tessa, Michael Sivertz, I-Hung Chiang, Derek Lowenstein, Adam Rusek
The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) is a multidisciplinary center for space radiation research funded by NASA and located at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton NY. Operational since 2003, the scope of NSRL is to provide ion beams in support of the NASA Humans in Space program in radiobiology, physics and engineering to measure the risk and ameliorate the effect of radiation in space. Recently, it has also been recognized as the only facility in the U.S. currently capable of contributing to heavy ion radiotherapy research...
November 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993188/gene-expression-of-rice-seeds-surviving-13-and-20-month-exposure-to-space-environment
#11
Manabu Sugimoto, Youko Oono, Yoshihiro Kawahara, Oleg Gusev, Masahiko Maekawa, Takashi Matsumoto, Margarita Levinskikh, Vladimir Sychev, Natalia Novikova, Anatoly Grigoriev
Rice seeds were exposed outside of the international space station to assess the risk of space environment exposure on gene expression associated with seed germination. The germination percentages of the space-stored and ground-stored seeds exposed for 13 months were 48 and 96% respectively. Those for 20 months were 7 and 76%, respectively. Germination was defined 3 days after imbibition, except for the space-stored seeds exposed for 20 months, which germinated 5 days after imbibition. Subsequent RNA-seq analyses of the dry seeds, germinated seeds, and roots and shoots of seedlings revealed that the mutation rates of mRNA sequences were not significantly different between space-stored and ground-stored samples exposed for 13 months and 20 months...
November 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993187/hibernation-for-space-travel-impact-on-radioprotection
#12
REVIEW
Matteo Cerri, Walter Tinganelli, Matteo Negrini, Alexander Helm, Emanuele Scifoni, Francesco Tommasino, Maximiliano Sioli, Antonio Zoccoli, Marco Durante
Hibernation is a state of reduced metabolic activity used by some animals to survive in harsh environmental conditions. The idea of exploiting hibernation for space exploration has been proposed many years ago, but in recent years it is becoming more realistic, thanks to the introduction of specific methods to induce hibernation-like conditions (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating animals. In addition to the expected advantages in long-term exploratory-class missions in terms of resource consumptions, aging, and psychology, hibernation may provide protection from cosmic radiation damage to the crew...
November 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662788/no-evidence-for-an-increase-in-circulatory-disease-mortality-in-astronauts-following-space-radiation-exposures
#13
Francis A Cucinotta, Nobuyuki Hamada, Mark P Little
Previous analysis has shown that astronauts have a significantly lower standardized mortality ratio for circulatory disease mortality compared to the U.S. population, which is consistent with the rigorous selection process and healthy lifestyles of astronauts, and modest space radiation exposures from past space missions. However, a recent report by Delp et al. estimated the proportional mortality ratio for ages of 55-64 y of Apollo lunar mission astronauts to claim a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to space radiation compared to the U...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662787/simulated-sudden-increase-in-geomagnetic-activity-and-its-effect-on-heart-rate-variability-experimental-verification-of-correlation-studies
#14
Joseph M Caswell, Manraj Singh, Michael A Persinger
Previous research investigating the potential influence of geomagnetic factors on human cardiovascular state has tended to converge upon similar inferences although the results remain relatively controversial. Furthermore, previous findings have remained essentially correlational without accompanying experimental verification. An exception to this was noted for human brain activity in a previous study employing experimental simulation of sudden geomagnetic impulses in order to assess correlational results that had demonstrated a relationship between geomagnetic perturbations and neuroelectrical parameters...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662786/the-effects-of-short-term-hypergravity-on-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Jenifer N Saldanha, Santosh Pandey, Jo Anne Powell-Coffman
As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662785/charged-particle-spectra-measured-during-the-transit-to-mars-with-the-mars-science-laboratory-radiation-assessment-detector-msl-rad
#16
Bent Ehresmann, Donald M Hassler, Cary Zeitlin, Jingnan Guo, Jan Köhler, Robert F Wimmer-Schweingruber, Jan K Appel, David E Brinza, Scot C R Rafkin, Stephan I Böttcher, Sönke Burmeister, Henning Lohf, Cesar Martin, Eckart Böhm, Daniel Matthiä, Günther Reitz
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662784/mechanisms-of-phosphene-generation-in-ocular-proton-therapy-as-related-to-space-radiation-exposure
#17
D Chuard, V Anthonipillai, R Dendale, C Nauraye, E Khan, C Mabit, L De Marzi, L Narici
Particle therapy provides an opportunity to study the human response to space radiation in ground-based facilities. On this basis, a study of light flashes analogous to astronauts' phosphenes reported by patients undergoing ocular proton therapy has been undertaken. The influence of treatment parameters on phosphene generation was investigated for 430 patients treated for a choroidal melanoma at the proton therapy centre of the Institut Curie (ICPO) in Orsay, France, between 2008 and 2011. 60% of them report light flashes, which are predominantly (74%) blue...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662783/performance-in-hippocampus-and-pfc-dependent-cognitive-domains-are-not-concomitantly-impaired-in-rats-exposed-to-20cgy-of-1gev-n-56-fe-particles
#18
Richard A Britten, Vania D Miller, Melissa M Hadley, Jessica S Jewell, Evangeline Macadat
NASA is currently conducting ground based experiments to determine whether the radiation environment that astronauts will encounter on deep space missions will have an impact on their long-term health and their ability to complete the various tasks during the mission. Emerging data suggest that exposure of rodents to mission-relevant HZE radiation doses does result in the impairment of various neurocognitive processes. An essential part of mission planning is a probabilistic risk assessment process that takes into account the likely incidence and severity of a problem...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662782/review-and-analysis-of-over-40-years-of-space-plant-growth-systems
#19
REVIEW
P Zabel, M Bamsey, D Schubert, M Tajmar
The cultivation of higher plants occupies an essential role within bio-regenerative life support systems. It contributes to all major functional aspects by closing the different loops in a habitat like food production, CO2 reduction, O2 production, waste recycling and water management. Fresh crops are also expected to have a positive impact on crew psychological health. Plant material was first launched into orbit on unmanned vehicles as early as the 1960s. Since then, more than a dozen different plant cultivation experiments have been flown on crewed vehicles beginning with the launch of Oasis 1, in 1971...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345206/corrigendum-to-monte-carlo-simulations-of-the-secondary-neutron-ambient-and-effective-dose-equivalent-rates-from-surface-to-suborbital-altitudes-and-low-earth-orbit
#20
Samy El-Jaby
A recent paper published in Life Sciences in Space Research (El-Jaby and Richardson, 2015) presented estimates of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates, in air, from surface altitudes up to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit. These estimates were based on MCNPX (LANL, 2011) (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) radiation transport simulations of galactic cosmic radiation passing through Earth's atmosphere. During a recent review of the input decks used for these simulations, a systematic error was discovered that is addressed here...
June 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
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