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Schizophrenia Research. Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774411/effectiveness-of-fast-mapping-to-promote-learning-in-schizophrenia
#1
Stephanie A Korenic, Sarah J Nisonger, Benjamin W Krause, S Andrea Wijtenburg, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Fast mapping (FM), a process that promotes the expeditious incidental learning of information, is thought to support rapid vocabulary acquisition in young children through extra-medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. A recent study suggested that patients with MTL damage resulting in profound amnesia were able to learn novel word-image associations using an FM paradigm. The present study investigated whether FM would be an effective strategy to promote learning for individuals with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness associated with compromised MTL functionality...
June 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284531/are-persistent-delusions-in-schizophrenia-associated-with-aberrant-salience
#2
Rafeef Abboud, Jonathan P Roiser, Hind Khalifeh, Sheila Ali, Isobel Harrison, Helen T Killaspy, Eileen M Joyce
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that positive psychotic symptoms reflect 'aberrant salience'. Previously we provided support for this hypothesis in first-episode schizophrenia patients, demonstrating that delusional symptoms were associated with aberrant reward processing, indexed by the Salience Attribution Test (SAT). Here we tested whether salience processing is abnormal in schizophrenia patients with long-standing treatment-refractory persistent delusions (TRS). METHOD: Eighteen medicated TRS patients and 31 healthy volunteers completed the SAT, on which participants made a speeded response to earn money in the presence of cues...
June 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069875/kynurenine-pathway-and-cognitive-impairments-in-schizophrenia-pharmacogenetics-of-galantamine-and-memantine
#3
Maju Mathew Koola
The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) project designed to facilitate the development of new drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia, identified three drug mechanisms of particular interest: dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic receptors. Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. There is evidence to suggest that the combination of galantamine and memantine may be effective in the treatment of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia...
June 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26705516/neuroscience-informed-auditory-training-in-schizophrenia-a-final-report-of-the-effects-on-cognition-and-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#4
Melissa Fisher, Synthia H Mellon, Owen Wolkowitz, Sophia Vinogradov
OBJECTIVE: We previously reported the interim effects in a per protocol analysis of a randomized controlled trial of an innovative neuroscience-informed computerized cognitive training approach in schizophrenia. Here we report the effects of training on behavioral outcome measures in our final sample using an intent-to-treat analysis. We also report the effects on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). METHOD: Eighty-seven clinically stable participants with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either targeted auditory training (AT, N=46) or a computer games control condition (CG, N=41)...
March 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855886/increased-internet-use-and-poorer-ability-to-manage-emotions-in-youth-at-high-risk-for-psychosis
#5
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Lindsay Ives, Vijay A Mittal
The relationship between Internet use and social behavior remains unknown. However, research indicates that Internet use (IU) may have some causal role in certain types of psychopathology and overall functioning. In contrast, other work suggests that IU may be protective and buffer against social isolation. Poorer emotional processing (EP) is characteristic of schizophrenia, and these deficits are present prior to illness onset (the ultra high-risk period (UHR)). UHR adolescents/young adults also fall within an age demographic characterized by extensive IU, which suggests that evaluating a link between IU and social behavior in this population may be especially informative...
December 1, 2015: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695675/theory-of-mind-emotion-recognition-and-social-perception-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-findings-from-the-napls-2-cohort
#6
Mariapaola Barbato, Lu Liu, Kristin S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods, Carrie E Bearden, Daniel H Mathalon, Robert Heinssen, Jean Addington
Social cognition, the mental operations that underlie social interactions, is a major construct to investigate in schizophrenia. Impairments in social cognition are present before the onset of psychosis, and even in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting that social cognition may be a trait marker of the illness. In a large cohort of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and healthy controls, three domains of social cognition (theory of mind, facial emotion recognition and social perception) were assessed to clarify which domains are impaired in this population...
September 2015: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973810/insight-and-subjective-measures-of-quality-of-life-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#7
Cynthia O Siu, Philip D Harvey, Ofer Agid, Mary Waye, Carla Brambilla, Wing-Kit Choi, Gary Remington
Lack of insight is a well-established phenomenon in schizophrenia, and has been associated with reduced rater-assessed functional performance but increased self-reported well-being in previous studies. The objective of this study was to examine factors that might influence insight (as assessed by the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire [ITAQ] or PANSS item G12) and subjective quality-of-life (as assessed by Lehman QoL Interview [LQOLI]), using the large National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) dataset...
September 1, 2015: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26346124/hierarchical-classes-analysis-hiclas-a-novel-data-reduction-method-to-examine-associations-between-biallelic-snps-and-perceptual-organization-phenotypes-in-schizophrenia
#8
Jamie Joseph, Michael A Gara, Steven M Silverstein
The power of SNP association studies to detect valid relationships with clinical phenotypes in schizophrenia is largely limited by the number of SNPs selected and non-specificity of phenotypes. To address this, we first assessed performance on two visual perceptual organization tasks designed to avoid many generalized deficit confounds, Kanizsa shape perception and contour integration, in a schizophrenia patient sample. Then, to reduce the total number of candidate SNPs analyzed in association with perceptual organization phenotypes, we employed a two-stage strategy: first a priori SNPs from three candidate genes were selected (GAD1, NRG1 and DTNBP1); then a Hierarchical Classes Analysis (HICLAS) was performed to reduce the total number of SNPs, based on statistically related SNP clusters...
June 1, 2015: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26345525/schizophrenia-and-the-eye
#9
Steven M Silverstein, Richard Rosen
Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein...
June 2015: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26345386/a-vision-science-perspective-on-schizophrenia
#10
Steven M Silverstein, Judy L Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273568/intermittent-degradation-and-schizotypy
#11
Matthew W Roché, Steven M Silverstein, Mark F Lenzenweger
Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy) is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e...
June 1, 2015: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25530948/positive-and-negative-subclinical-symptoms-and-mccb-performance-in-non-psychiatric-controls
#12
Cole Korponay, George C Nitzburg, Anil K Malhotra, Pamela DeRosse
Considerable data support the phenomenological and temporal continuity between subclinical psychosis and psychotic disorders. In recent years, neurocognitive deficits have increasingly been recognized as a core feature of psychotic illness but there are few data seeking to elucidate the relationship between subclinical psychosis and neurocogntive deficits in non-clinical samples. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between subclinical positive and negative symptoms, as measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in a large (n=303) and demographically diverse non-clinical sample...
December 1, 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25705590/enhanced-vulnerability-to-distraction-does-not-account-for-working-memory-capacity-reduction-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#13
Molly Erickson, Britta Hahn, Carly Leonard, Benjamin Robinson, Steven Luck, James Gold
Although working memory impairment has been well-documented among people with schizophrenia (PSZ), the underlying mechanism of this impairment remains unknown. The present study was conducted in a large sample of PSZ and healthy control subjects (HCS) to test the hypothesis that one putative mechanism-vulnerability to distraction from task-irrelevant stimuli-(1) can account for working memory impairment among PSZ, and (2) is associated with other neurocognitive and clinical variables that are highly predictive of functional outcome in schizophrenia...
September 1, 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25419516/brief-report-the-impact-of-alcohol-and-cannabis-misuse-on-cognition-among-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#14
Amber L Bahorik, Jack R Cornelius, Srihari S Bangalore, Christina E Newhill, Matcheri S Keshavan, Shaun M Eack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25414816/working-memory-impairment-as-an-endophenotypic-marker-of-a-schizophrenia-diathesis
#15
Sohee Park, Diane C Gooding
This chapter focuses on the viability of working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis. It begins with an introduction of the construct of working memory. It follows with a review of the operational criteria for defining an endophenotype. Research findings regarding the working memory performance of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum patients, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, are reviewed in terms of the criteria for being considered an endophenotypic marker...
September 1, 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25267939/a-longitudinal-examination-of-the-moderating-effects-of-symptoms-on-the-relationship-between-functional-competence-and-real-world-functional-performance-in-schizophrenia
#16
Michael W Best, Maya Gupta, Christopher R Bowie, Philip D Harvey
BACKGROUND: Many individuals with schizophrenia experience remission of prominent positive symptoms but continue to experience impairments in real world functioning. Residual negative and depressive symptoms may have a direct impact on functioning and impair patients' ability to use the cognitive and functional skills that they possess (competence) in the real world (functional performance). METHODS: 136 individuals (100 men, 36 women) with schizophrenia were classified as having primarily positive symptoms, primarily negative symptoms, primarily depressive symptoms, or undifferentiated symptom profiles...
June 1, 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25254158/physical-performance-and-disability-in-schizophrenia
#17
M Strassnig, J Signorile, C Gonzalez, P D Harvey
Despite 50 years of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, schizophrenia remains one of the leading causes of disability. Schizophrenia is also a life-shortening illness, caused mainly by poor physical health and its complications. The end result is a considerably reduced lifespan that is marred by reduced levels of independence, with few novel treatment options available. Disability is a multidimensional construct that results from different, and often interacting, factors associated with specific types and levels of impairment...
June 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25267937/a-novel-online-social-cognitive-training-program-for-young-adults-with-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#18
Mor Nahum, Melissa Fisher, Rachel Loewy, Gina Poelke, Joseph Ventura, Keith H Nuechterlein, Christine I Hooker, Michael F Green, Mike Merzenich, Sophia Vinogradov
BACKGROUND: Pervasive social cognition deficits are evident early in the course of schizophrenia and are directly linked to functional outcome, making them an important target for intervention. Here, we tested the feasibility of use, and initiated the evaluation of efficacy, of a novel, neuroplasticity-based online training program (SocialVille) in young adults with schizophrenia. METHODS: Schizophrenia patients (n=17) completed 24 hours of online SocialVille game play either from home or at a clinic, over a 6-10 week period...
March 1, 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25254157/the-course-of-vocational-functioning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-re-examining-social-drift
#19
Gabriela Vargas, Martin Strassnig, Samir Sabbag, Felicia Gould, Dante Durand, Laura Stone, Thomas L Patterson, Philip D Harvey
Vocational functioning is markedly impaired in people with schizophrenia. In addition to low rates of employment, people with schizophrenia have been reported to be underachieved compared to other family members. Among the causes of this vocational impairment may be cognitive deficits and other skills deficits, as well as social factors impacting on opportunities for employment. In this study, we examined two separate samples of people with schizophrenia who differed in their educational and social backgrounds...
March 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25254156/cognition-in-schizophrenia-past-present-and-future
#20
Michael F Green, Philip D Harvey
Schizophrenia Research: Cognition will serve an important function - a place where interests converge and investigators can learn about the recent developments in this area. This new journal will provide rapid dissemination of information to people who will make good use of it. In this initial article, we comment globally on the study of cognition in schizophrenia: how we got here, where we are, and where we are going. The goal of this first article is to place the study of cognition in schizophrenia within a historical and scientific context...
March 2014: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
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