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Schizophrenia Research. Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167381/social-functioning-impairments-in-schizotypy-when-social-cognition-and-neurocognition-are-not-impaired
#1
Maral Aghvinian, Mark J Sergi
The present study examined the social, cognitive, and emotional functioning of persons with schizotypy. Over 2000 undergraduate students were screened for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief over two consecutive semesters. Ninety-two persons with high schizotypy and 22 persons with low schizotypy completed measures of social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale, Social Functioning Scale, MOS Social Support Survey), working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Corsi Block Tapping Test) and empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Empathy Quotient)...
December 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112288/psychiatric-symptoms-and-related-dysfunction-in-a-general-population-sample
#2
Lauren Smith, Abraham Reichenberg, Jonathan Rabinowitz, Stephen Z Levine, Eva Velthorst
Background: Along with the key clinical features of major psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, mania, and depression, these disorders are also associated with cognitive, social, and functional deficits. A growing body of evidence suggests that these disorders exist at the extreme end of a continuum of symptoms rather than as binary entities, so it is plausible that the associated cognitive, social, and functional deficits assume a similar pattern. Consistent with this approach, we sought to determine whether adults in the general population with psychiatric symptoms also demonstrate milder forms of the cognitive, social, and functional deficits that are often associated with the psychiatric disorders...
December 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105212/superior-memory-performance-in-healthy-individuals-with-subclinical-psychotic-symptoms-but-without-genetic-load-for-schizophrenia
#3
G Gagnon, S Kumar, J-R Maltais, A N Voineskos, B H Mulsant, T K Rajji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105211/positive-symptoms-and-time-perception-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#4
Natsuki Ueda, Kazushi Maruo, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia may be related to distortions in time perception. To examine this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether positive symptoms are associated with deficits in time processing performance. MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched from January 1980 through March 2017, and all related articles and their references were scrutinized to find relevant studies. Studies were selected if they included participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and reported data from behavioral measures of interval timing (e...
September 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069436/the-role-of-functional-capacity-in-the-prediction-of-occupational-status-in-schizophrenia
#5
Lucas M Mantovani, João V Salgado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928600/increased-social-cognitive-bias-in-subclinical-paranoia
#6
Hans S Klein, Skylar Kelsven, Amy E Pinkham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928599/the-impact-of-reward-on-attention-in-schizophrenia
#7
Sonia Bansal, Benjamin M Robinson, Joy J Geng, Carly J Leonard, Britta Hahn, Steven J Luck, James M Gold
Traditionally, attention was thought to be directed by either top-down goals or bottom-up salience. Recent studies have shown that the reward history of a stimulus feature also acts as a powerful attentional cue. This is particularly relevant in schizophrenia, which is characterized by motivational and attentional deficits. Here, we examine the impact of reward on selective attention. Forty-eight people with schizophrenia (PSZ) and 34 non-psychiatric control subject (NCS) discriminated the location of a target dot appearing inside a left circle or right circle...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928598/the-relationship-between-clinical-insight-and-cognitive-and-affective-empathy-in-schizophrenia
#8
Mia Atoui, Fatima El Jamil, Joseph El Khoury, Mark Doumit, Nathalie Syriani, Munir Khani, Ziad Nahas
Background: Schizophrenia is often associated with poor clinical insight (unawareness of mental illness and its symptoms) and deficits in empathy, which are important for social functioning. Cognitive empathy has been linked to clinical insight while affective empathy and its role in insight and pathology have received mixed evidence. Methods: Instruments assessing symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), clinical insight (Scales to assess awareness of mental disorders; SUMD), and cognitive and affective empathy were administered to 22 participants with first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928597/effect-of-cognitive-function-on-jumping-to-conclusion-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#9
Tomoya Takeda, Masahito Nakataki, Masashi Ohta, Sayo Hamatani, Kanae Matsuura, Tetsuro Ohmori
The "jumping to conclusion" (JTC) bias is related to the formation and maintenance of delusions. Higher JTC bias can be based on both neurocognitive dysfunction and social cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between JTC bias, neurocognition, and social cognition in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 21 controls participated in this study. Neurocognition and social cognition were assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ), respectively...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928596/predictive-timing-disturbance-is-a-precise-marker-of-schizophrenia
#10
Valentina Ciullo, Federica Piras, Daniela Vecchio, Nerisa Banaj, Jennifer T Coull, Gianfranco Spalletta
Timing disturbances have being proposed as a key component of schizophrenia pathogenesis. However, the contribution of cognitive impairment to such disorders has not been clarified. Here, we investigated duration estimation and predictive timing in 30 patients with DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) compared to 30 healthy controls (HC). Duration estimation was examined in a temporal and colour discrimination task, fully controlled for working memory (WM) and attention requirements, and by more traditional temporal production and temporal bisection tasks...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928595/long-term-treatment-with-clozapine-and-verbal-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia
#11
Letícia S Czepielewski, Marina D B Londero, Mathias H de Sousa, Carolina P Perin, Helena C Maldonado, Felipe C A Claudino, Clarissa S Gama
Clozapine is more efficacious than first-generation antipsychotics for positive and negative symptoms, although it is related with serious adverse effects. Because of this profile, it could also have an impact on cognition. Therefore, we evaluated learning ability of 31 treatment-resistant individuals with SZ using clozapine uninterruptedly for 18.23 ± 4.71 years and 26 non-treatment-resistant using other antipsychotics that never used clozapine. Long-term treatment with clozapine did not improve verbal learning ability better than other antipsychotics...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928594/speech-on-speech-masking-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#12
Chao Wu, Chuanyue Wang, Liang Li
People with schizophrenia have impairments of target-speech recognition (TSR) in noisy environments with multiple people talking. This study investigated whether the TSR impairment in schizophrenia is associated with their impaired auditory working memory or certain psychotic symptoms. Thirty participants with schizophrenia (mean age = 35.2 ± 12.7 years) and 30 demographics-matched healthy controls (mean age = 32.9 ± 10.9 years) were tested for their TSR against a two-talker-speech masker...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928593/diminished-hedonic-response-in-neuroleptic-free-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#13
Gregory P Strauss, Ivan Ruiz, Katherine H Visser, Laura P Crespo, Elizabeth K Dickinson
Hedonic response is preserved in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether this is also true in individuals meeting criteria for "prodromal" psychosis, who are considered to be at symptomatic high risk for developing the disorder. In this study, we examined neurophysiological and self-reported response to emotional stimuli in UHR ( n  = 23) and healthy control (CN: n  = 30) participants who passively viewed pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images for 500 ms while the electroencephalogram was recorded and then provided self-reports of valence and arousal to the stimuli...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552509/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-and-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-phase-ii-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#14
J S Gomes, A P Trevizol, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A O Fonseca, H T Akiba, C C Azevedo, L S P Guimaraes, P Shiozawa, Q Cordeiro, A Lacerda, A M Dias
Background: The lack of efficacy of pharmacological treatments for cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia highlights the need for new interventions. We investigated the effects of tDCS on working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, investigating the effects of 10 sessions of tDCS in schizophrenia subjects. Stimulation used 2 mA, for 20 min, with electrodes of 25 cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552508/polygenic-signal-for-symptom-dimensions-and-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-chronic-schizophrenia
#15
Rose Mary Xavier, Jennifer R Dungan, Richard S E Keefe, Allison Vorderstrasse
Genetic etiology of psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia is supported by candidate gene and polygenic risk score (PRS) association studies. Such associations are reported to be dependent on several factors - sample characteristics, illness phase, illness severity etc. We aimed to examine if schizophrenia PRS predicted psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with chronic schizophrenia. We also examined if schizophrenia associated autosomal loci were associated with specific symptoms or cognitive domains...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552507/galantamine-memantine-combination-effective-in-dementia-translate-to-dementia-praecox
#16
Maju Mathew Koola, Ajay K Parsaik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527507/cognitive-and-psychopathology-correlates-of-brain-white-grey-matter-structure-in-severely-psychotic-schizophrenic-inpatients
#17
Nerisa Banaj, Federica Piras, Fabrizio Piras, Valentina Ciullo, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Battaglia, Donatella Pantoli, Giuseppe Ducci, Gianfranco Spalletta
The brain structural correlates of cognitive and psychopathological symptoms within the active phase in severely psychotic schizophrenic inpatients have been rarely investigated. Twenty-eight inpatients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of Schizophrenia (SZ), admitted for acute psychotic decompensation, were assessed through a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychopathological battery. All patients underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Increased psychotic severity was related to reduced grey matter volumes in the medial portion of the right superior frontal cortex, the superior orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally and to white matter volume reduction in the medial portion of the left superior frontal area...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159135/the-influence-of-schizotypal-traits-on-attention-under-high-perceptual-load
#18
Hanne Stotesbury, Sebastian B Gaigg, Saim Kirhan, Corinna Haenschel
Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159134/model-selection-and-prediction-of-outcomes-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia-patients-who-undergo-cognitive-training
#19
Ian S Ramsay, Sisi Ma, Melissa Fisher, Rachel L Loewy, J Daniel Ragland, Tara Niendam, Cameron S Carter, Sophia Vinogradov
Predicting treatment outcomes in psychiatric populations remains a challenge, but is increasingly important in the pursuit of personalized medicine. Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in cognition, and targeted cognitive training (TCT) of auditory processing and working memory has been shown to improve some of these impairments; but little is known about the baseline patient characteristics predictive of cognitive improvement. Here we use a model selection and regression approach called least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to examine predictors of cognitive improvement in response to TCT for patients with recent onset schizophrenia...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114452/using-virtual-reality-to-assess-theory-of-mind-subprocesses-and-error-types-in-early-and-chronic-schizophrenia
#20
Allana L Canty, David L Neumann, David H K Shum
Individuals with schizophrenia often demonstrate theory of mind (ToM) impairment relative to healthy adults. However, the exact nature of this impairment (first- vs. second-order ToM and cognitive vs. affective ToM) and the extent to which ToM abilities deteriorate with illness chronicity is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the relationships between clinical symptoms and ToM error types (overmentalising, reduced mentalising and no ToM) in early and chronic schizophrenia. This study examined the nature and types of ToM impairment in individuals with early ( n  = 26) and chronic schizophrenia ( n  = 32) using a novel virtual reality task...
December 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
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