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Current Developmental Disorders Reports

Ruth Ann Luna, Tor C Savidge, Kent C Williams
The brain-gut-microbiome axis refers to the interactions between the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, and microorganisms that live in the gastrointestinal tract. Exploring these interactions provides a rationale for why gastrointestinal disorders commonly occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Signs of altered brain-gut interactions that are closely associated with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) commonly occur in children with ASD. Studies of microbiome in ASD suggest that changes in the gut microbiome may be associated with ASD and with GI disorders in children with ASD...
March 2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Joseph F McGuire, Emily J Ricketts, John Piacentini, Tanya K Murphy, Eric A Storch, Adam B Lewin
Behavior therapy is an evidenced-based intervention with moderate-to-large treatment effects in reducing tic symptom severity among individuals with Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs) and Tourette's Disorder (TD). This review describes the behavioral treatment model for tics, delineates components of evidence-based behavior therapy for tics, and reviews the empirical support among randomized controlled trials for individuals with PTDs or TD. Additionally, this review discusses several challenges confronting the behavioral management of tics, highlights emerging solutions for these challenges, and outlines new directions for treatment research...
December 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Deanna J Greene, Bradley L Schlaggar, Kevin J Black
Tourette Syndrome (ts) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder of the central nervous system defined by the presence of chronic tics. While investigations of the underlying brain mechanisms have provided valuable information, a complete understanding of the pathophysiology of ts remains elusive. Neuroimaging methods provide remarkable tools for examining the human brain, and have been used to study brain structure and function in ts. In this article, we review ts neuroimaging studies published in 2014-2015...
December 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Leah L Kapa, Elena Plante
This paper provides a review of recent research on executive function abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Across several studies, children with SLI are reported to perform worse than typically developing peers on measures of sustained attention, working memory, inhibition, and attention shifting. However, few studies have considered multiple executive function components simultaneously and even fewer have examined the underlying relationship between executive function deficits and impaired language acquisition...
September 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Eileen M Moore, Edward P Riley
The range of structural abnormalities and functional deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The disabilities associated with FASDs are said to be lifelong, but we know relatively little regarding outcomes beyond childhood and adolescence. Many of physical, brain, and neurobehavioral features that are present in children with FASDs will endure to adulthood. However, some features may diminish or change over time. Furthermore, secondary disabilities, such as school drop outs, trouble with the law, and substance/alcohol abuse problems are common in young adults with FASDs...
September 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Lauren R Doyle, Sarah N Mattson
The effects of prenatal alcohol use have been well documented. In this review, we discuss the inclusion of Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) as a condition for further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We present a review of the evidence for impairment in three domains highlighted in ND-PAE: neurocognitive functioning, self2 regulation, and adaptive functioning. In addition, we provide guidelines for clinical assessment of each domain...
September 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Christie L M Petrenko
Although the scientific community has recognized the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on development for over 40 years, the empirical study of positive behavioral interventions and family support programs for people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has only just emerged over the last 10 to 15 years. In this time, dedicated researchers have developed innovative programs that have generally produced large effects and have been acceptable to children with FASD and their families. This body of work demonstrates that children with FASD can benefit from interventions that are appropriately tailored to their neurodevelopmental disabilities...
September 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Ami C Bax, Carrie D Geurts, Tatiana N Balachova
Early identification of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is important for providing services and preventing secondary disabilities. Recent studies indicate that many FASDs are undiagnosed, partly because there is a need to improve detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The aims of this review are to characterize existing practices for assessing PAE in pediatric care, identify the most efficient, promising methods of detecting PAE, and recognize the knowledge and practice gaps. This review indicates that maternal self-reports remain the most common method utilized in routine clinical practice and highlights promising methods of PAE identification, including a single binge drinking question...
September 1, 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Taeko N Wydell, Tadahisa Kondo
Behavioral studies showed that AS, an English-Japanese bilingual, was a skilled reader in Japanese but was a phonological dyslexic in English. This behavioral dissociation was accounted for by the Hypothesis of Transparency and Granularity postulated by Wydell and Butterworth. However, a neuroimaging study using magnetoencephalography (MEG) revealed that AS has the same functional deficit in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG). This paper therefore offers an answer to this intriguing discrepancy between the behavioral dissociation and the neural unity in AS by reviewing existing behavioral and neuroimaging studies in alphabetic languages such as English, Finnish, French, and Italian, and nonalphabetic languages such as Japanese and Chinese...
2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Heikki Lyytinen, Jane Erskine, Jarmo Hämäläinen, Minna Torppa, Miia Ronimus
Over two decades of Finnish research, monitoring children born with risk for dyslexia has been carried out in the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD). Two hundred children, half at risk, have been assessed from birth to puberty on hundreds of measures. The aims were to identify measures of prediction of later reading difficulty and to instigate appropriate and earliest diagnosis and intervention. We can identify at-risk children from newborn electroencephalographic brain recordings (Guttorm et al...
2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Marina M Schoemaker, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is often called a motor learning deficit. The question addressed in this paper is whether improvement of motor skills is just a matter of mere practice. Without any kind of intervention, children with DCD do not improve their motor skills generally, whereas they do improve after task-oriented intervention. Merely offering children the opportunity to practice motor skills, for instance by playing active video games, did lead to improved motor performance according to recent research findings, but to a lesser extent than task-oriented intervention...
2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Reint H Geuze, Marina M Schoemaker, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
The aim of this paper is to discuss if criteria used for diagnosing children for clinical purposes should be the same as for the selection of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder for research. Next, we give an overview of the criteria mentioned in the development of the European guideline for diagnosing Developmental Coordination Disorder and the implementation of this guideline in different countries. To gain insight into current clinical practice, we also reviewed the medical files of children attending rehabilitation centers for the criteria used to diagnose Developmental Coordination Disorder in the Netherlands...
2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Gwynnyth Llewellyn, Gabrielle Hindmarsh
Parenting by people with intellectual disability continues to confront societal sensibilities. On the one hand, parents with intellectual disability engage in the valued social role of raising children; on the other, their parenting attracts (typically negative) attention based on an expectation of their limited capacities to parent. The literature primarily addresses the question of whether or not parents with intellectual disability can be adequate parents or reports on methods for improving their parenting skills...
2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
David C Houghton, Matthew R Capriotti, Christine A Conelea, Douglas W Woods
The primary symptoms of Tourette Syndrome (TS) are motor and vocal tics, but increasingly, researchers have examined the role of sensory phenomena in biobehavioral models of the disorder. These sensory phenomena involve tic-related premonitory urge sensations as well as potential abnormalities in the perceptual and behavioral experiences associated with external sensory input. As such, dysfunctional sensorimotor integration might represent a key facet of TS pathology. The current paper reviews the literature on sensory phenomena in tic disorders and highlights possible connections to TS symptoms and directions for future research...
December 2014: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Eileen M Moore, Robyn Migliorini, M Alejandra Infante, Edward P Riley
Since the identification of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome over 40 years ago, much has been learned about the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain. This review highlights recent neuroimaging studies, within the context of previous work. Structural magnetic resonance imaging has described morphological differences in the brain and their relationships to cognitive deficits and measures of facial dysmorphology. Diffusion tensor imaging has elaborated on the relationship between white matter microstructure and behavior...
September 2014: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Edwin Maas, Christina Gildersleeve-Neumann, Kathy J Jakielski, Ruth Stoeckel
This paper reviews current trends in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), with a particular emphasis on motor-based intervention protocols. The paper first briefly discusses how CAS fits into the typology of speech sound disorders, followed by a discussion of the potential relevance of principles derived from the motor learning literature for CAS treatment. Next, different motor-based treatment protocols are reviewed, along with their evidence base. The paper concludes with a summary and discussion of future research needs...
September 2014: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Opal Ousley, Tracy Cermak
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with the presence of social-communication deficits and restricted and repetitive behaviors. In the latest conceptualization of ASD, these two behavioral dimensions represent the core defining features of ASD, whereas associated dimensions, such as intellectual and language ability, provide a means for describing the ASD heterogeneity. In addition, the characterization of ASD subgroups, defined by the presence of known medical, genetic, or other psychiatric disorders, furthers our understanding of ASD heterogeneity...
March 1, 2014: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
John Stein
Dyslexia is more than just difficulty with translating letters into sounds. Many dyslexics have problems with clearly seeing letters and their order. These difficulties may be caused by abnormal development of their visual "magnocellular" (M) nerve cells; these mediate the ability to rapidly identify letters and their order because they control visual guidance of attention and of eye fixations. Evidence for M cell impairment has been demonstrated at all levels of the visual system: in the retina, in the lateral geniculate nucleus, in the primary visual cortex and throughout the dorsal visuomotor "where" pathway forward from the visual cortex to the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices...
2014: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Frédérique Liégeois, Angela Mayes, Angela Morgan
Disorders of speech and language arise out of a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and neural factors. Little is understood about the neural bases of these disorders. Here we systematically reviewed neuroimaging findings in Speech disorders (SD) and Language disorders (LD) over the last five years (2008-2013; 10 articles). In participants with SD, structural and functional anomalies in the left supramarginal gyrus suggest a possible deficit in sensory feedback or integration. In LD, cortical and subcortical anomalies were reported in a widespread language network, with little consistency across studies except in the superior temporal gyri...
2014: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
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