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Current Developmental Disorders Reports

Jacqui Rodgers, A Ofield
Purpose of Review: Autistic people are at increased risk of anxiety, with around 50% of autistic adults and children experiencing this debilitating mental health condition. The purpose of this review is to consider some contemporary ideas about underlying mechanisms for anxiety in autism, explore issues in the identification and assessment of anxiety and discuss emerging trends in anxiety interventions for autistic people, before identifying some important next steps in the field. Recent Findings: Emerging evidence suggests that anxiety may present differently in autism compared to the general population and that whilst CBT holds promise, there may be important differences in neurobiological, affective and cognitive responses to stressors for autistic people, which warrant tailored anxiety models, assessments and interventions...
2018: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Dido Green, Sally Payne
Purpose of the Review: This paper examines physical and emotional coherence in young people with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Specifically, the transactional relationship between motor and non-motor/executive dysfunction in children with DCD and its impact on psychosocial functioning is explored. Recent Findings: This paper integrates the subjective reported experiences of young people with DCD with objective measurements and findings from neuroimaging studies...
2018: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Sally Scott-Roberts, Catherine Purcell
Purpose of Review: This phenomenological study explored the lived experience of six adults with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and its potential impact on functional mobility. Utilising the International Classification of Functioning (World Health Organisation, 2001), the data derived from interviews were analysed to consider how persistent motor impairments impact on activity engagement and participation. Recent Findings: Much of the research evidence pertaining to DCD focuses on children...
2018: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Lisa Kronbichler, Martin Kronbichler
Purpose of Review: Developmental dyslexia is characterized by an impaired acquisition of fluent and skilled reading ability. Numerous studies have explored the neural correlates of this neurodevelopmental disorder, with most classic accounts strongly focussing on left temporoparietal regions. We will review recent findings from structural and functional MRI studies that suggest a more important role of occipitotemporal cortex abnormalities in dyslexia. Recent Findings: Recent findings highlight the role of the occipitotemporal cortex which exhibits functional as well as structural abnormalities in dyslexic readers and in children at risk for dyslexia and suggest a more central role for the occipitotemporal cortex in the pathophysiology of dyslexia...
2018: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Barbara J Howard, Raymond Sturner
Purpose of review: To describe benefits and problems with screening and addressing developmental and behavioral problems in primary care and using an online clinical process support system as a solution. Recent findings: Screening has been found to have various implementation barriers including time costs, accuracy, workflow and knowledge of tools. In addition, training of clinicians in dealing with identified issues is lacking. Patients disclose more to and prefer computerized screening...
December 2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Alison R Marvin, Daniel J Marvin, Paul H Lipkin, J Kiely Law
Purpose of Review: The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screener for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) validated for age 4.0 +. There is a clinical need for an ASD screener for children beyond the 30-month age limit of the M-CHAT-R/F. We evaluate the literature on the use of the SCQ in children < 4.0 years. Recent Findings: Recent studies have used very large samples; included typically developing children, rather than just those with developmental disorders; compared the SCQ Lifetime and Current versions; and increased scrutiny of internal validity...
2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Renece Willis, Suyog Dhakras, Samuele Cortese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically review the literature on the prevalence and pharmacological treatment of ADHD in looked-after children (LAC). RECENT FINDINGS: LAC are a very challenging population from a clinical and psychosocial standpoint, with higher mental health needs compared to non LAC. To date, no systematic review on the prevalence of ADHD, and its treatment, in LAC is available. SUMMARY: We searched Pubmed, PsycInfo EMBASE + EMBASE CLASSIC, OVID Medline and Web of Science up to November 9 th, 2016...
2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Hanna Kovshoff, Katie Cebula, Hsiao-Wei Joy Tsai, Richard P Hastings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A range of interacting factors/mechanisms at the individual, family, and wider systems levels influences siblings living in families where one sibling has autism. We introduce the Sibling Embedded Systems Framework which aims to contextualise siblings' experience and characterise the multiple and interacting factors influencing family and, in particular, sibling outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings from studies that have reported outcomes for siblings of children with autism are equivocal, ranging from negative impact, no difference, to positive experience...
2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Jess Nithianantharajah, Gayathri K Balasuriya, Ashley E Franks, Elisa L Hill-Yardin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly also suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction; however, few animal model studies have systematically examined both ASD and GI dysfunction. In this review, we highlight studies investigating GI dysfunction and alterations in gut microbiota in animal models of ASD with the aim of determining if routinely used microbiology and enteric neurophysiology assays could expand our understanding of the link between the two...
2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Ruth Ann Luna, Tor C Savidge, Kent C Williams
The brain-gut-microbiome axis refers to the interactions between the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, and microorganisms that live in the gastrointestinal tract. Exploring these interactions provides a rationale for why gastrointestinal disorders commonly occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Signs of altered brain-gut interactions that are closely associated with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) commonly occur in children with ASD. Studies of microbiome in ASD suggest that changes in the gut microbiome may be associated with ASD and with GI disorders in children with ASD...
March 2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Sylvia Roozen, D Black, G-J Y Peters, G Kok, D Townend, J G Nijhuis, G H Koek, L M G Curfs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of affected children continues to be high. Current strategies to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure may be ineffective or counterproductive. However, proven principles of health promotion could be applied to reduce drinking in pregnancy...
2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Ashutosh Kumar, William Trescher, Debra Byler
Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by both motor and phonic tics over a period of at least 1 year with the onset in childhood or adolescence. Apart from the tics, most of the patients with Tourette syndrome have associated neuropsychiatric comorbidities consisting of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, rage attacks, sleep issues, depression, and migraine. Patients may also have physical complications directly from violent motor tics which can rarely include cervical myelopathy, arterial dissection, and stroke...
2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Joseph F McGuire, Emily J Ricketts, John Piacentini, Tanya K Murphy, Eric A Storch, Adam B Lewin
Behavior therapy is an evidenced-based intervention with moderate-to-large treatment effects in reducing tic symptom severity among individuals with Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs) and Tourette's Disorder (TD). This review describes the behavioral treatment model for tics, delineates components of evidence-based behavior therapy for tics, and reviews the empirical support among randomized controlled trials for individuals with PTDs or TD. Additionally, this review discusses several challenges confronting the behavioral management of tics, highlights emerging solutions for these challenges, and outlines new directions for treatment research...
December 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Deanna J Greene, Bradley L Schlaggar, Kevin J Black
Tourette Syndrome (ts) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder of the central nervous system defined by the presence of chronic tics. While investigations of the underlying brain mechanisms have provided valuable information, a complete understanding of the pathophysiology of ts remains elusive. Neuroimaging methods provide remarkable tools for examining the human brain, and have been used to study brain structure and function in ts. In this article, we review ts neuroimaging studies published in 2014-2015...
December 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Leah L Kapa, Elena Plante
This paper provides a review of recent research on executive function abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Across several studies, children with SLI are reported to perform worse than typically developing peers on measures of sustained attention, working memory, inhibition, and attention shifting. However, few studies have considered multiple executive function components simultaneously and even fewer have examined the underlying relationship between executive function deficits and impaired language acquisition...
September 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Eileen M Moore, Edward P Riley
The range of structural abnormalities and functional deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The disabilities associated with FASDs are said to be lifelong, but we know relatively little regarding outcomes beyond childhood and adolescence. Many of physical, brain, and neurobehavioral features that are present in children with FASDs will endure to adulthood. However, some features may diminish or change over time. Furthermore, secondary disabilities, such as school drop outs, trouble with the law, and substance/alcohol abuse problems are common in young adults with FASDs...
September 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Lauren R Doyle, Sarah N Mattson
The effects of prenatal alcohol use have been well documented. In this review, we discuss the inclusion of Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) as a condition for further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We present a review of the evidence for impairment in three domains highlighted in ND-PAE: neurocognitive functioning, self2 regulation, and adaptive functioning. In addition, we provide guidelines for clinical assessment of each domain...
September 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Christie L M Petrenko
Although the scientific community has recognized the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on development for over 40 years, the empirical study of positive behavioral interventions and family support programs for people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has only just emerged over the last 10 to 15 years. In this time, dedicated researchers have developed innovative programs that have generally produced large effects and have been acceptable to children with FASD and their families. This body of work demonstrates that children with FASD can benefit from interventions that are appropriately tailored to their neurodevelopmental disabilities...
September 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Ami C Bax, Carrie D Geurts, Tatiana N Balachova
Early identification of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is important for providing services and preventing secondary disabilities. Recent studies indicate that many FASDs are undiagnosed, partly because there is a need to improve detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The aims of this review are to characterize existing practices for assessing PAE in pediatric care, identify the most efficient, promising methods of detecting PAE, and recognize the knowledge and practice gaps. This review indicates that maternal self-reports remain the most common method utilized in routine clinical practice and highlights promising methods of PAE identification, including a single binge drinking question...
September 1, 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Taeko N Wydell, Tadahisa Kondo
Behavioral studies showed that AS, an English-Japanese bilingual, was a skilled reader in Japanese but was a phonological dyslexic in English. This behavioral dissociation was accounted for by the Hypothesis of Transparency and Granularity postulated by Wydell and Butterworth. However, a neuroimaging study using magnetoencephalography (MEG) revealed that AS has the same functional deficit in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG). This paper therefore offers an answer to this intriguing discrepancy between the behavioral dissociation and the neural unity in AS by reviewing existing behavioral and neuroimaging studies in alphabetic languages such as English, Finnish, French, and Italian, and nonalphabetic languages such as Japanese and Chinese...
2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
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