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MicroRNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294076/microrna-biogenesis-in-hypoxia
#1
Veronika Bandara, Michael Zenon Michael, Jonathan Mark Gleadle
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 17-22 nucleotide, non-coding, single stranded RNA molecules that play a key role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Hypoxia is a reduction in the normal level of tissue oxygen (O2) tension, and is a feature of chronic vascular disease, pulmonary disease and many cancers. Tissue hypoxia can have widespread effects on cellular functions, as O2 availability is critical for many cellular processes. Cells respond to changes in O2 tension through multiple molecular and cellular mechanisms, including changes in gene expression through transcriptional and translational mechanisms...
March 13, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215140/position-based-nucleotide-analysis-of-mir168-family-in-higher-plants-and-its-targets-in-mammalian-transcripts
#2
Mohammed Javed, Manish Solanki, Anshika Sinha, Lata Israni Shukla
The conserved miR168 family is evaluated for position based nucleotide preference in higher plants. The mature miRNA sequences include miR168-5p and miR168-3p, were obtained from miRBase (v21, June 2014) for 15 families (28 plants) containing a-c subfamilies. The preferred position based nucleotide sequences were obtained for miR168-5p and miR168-3p using Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution (DAMBE). miR168-5p shows same nucleotides at positions 1-6, 8-9, 11-12, 15-17 and 19. Also, miR168-3p is present in 3 families (10 plants) shows the same nucleotide at position 1-11, 13-15 and 17-21...
February 15, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124611/immunemir-a-database-of-prioritized-immune-mirna-disease-associations-and-its-interactome
#3
Archana Prabahar, Jeyakumar Natarajan
MicroRNAs are the key regulators of gene expression and their abnormal expression in the immune system may be associated with several human diseases such as inflammation, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Elucidation of microRNA (miRNA) disease association through the interactome will deepen the understanding of its disease mechanisms. In this present study, miRNAs specific to immune related diseases were retrieved from curated databases and literature based on MeSH classification of immune system diseases. In total 245 immune miRNAs associated with 92 OMIM disease categories were identified and they are prioritized to specific immune diseases using random walk ranking algorithm...
January 17, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103776/small-and-hungry-micrornas-in-micronutrient-homeostasis-of-plants
#4
Prashanti Patel, Karuna Yadav, Thumballi Ramabhatta Ganapathi
MicroRNAs are emerging players in plant development and response to stresses, both biotic and abiotic such as micronutrient deficiency. These small RNAs regulate cognate downstream targets either by transcript cleavage or translational inhibition. Micronutrient deficiencies lead to poor quality and yield of crops and impaired human health. Over the years several microRNAs have been identified which regulate expression of genes controlling uptake, mobilization and homeostasis of macronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur to ensure sufficiency without toxicity...
January 17, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088915/evaluation-of-microrna-stability-in-plasma-and-serum-from-healthy-dogs
#5
Lars Enelund, Lise Nikolic Nielsen, Susanna Cirera
BACKGROUND: Early and specific detection of cancer is of great importance for successful treatment of the disease. New biomarkers, like microRNAs, could improve treatment efficiency and survival ratio. In human medicine, deregulation of microRNA profiles in circulation has shown great potential as a new type of biomarker for cancer diagnostics. There are, however, few studies of circulating microRNAs in dogs. Extracellular circulating microRNAs have shown a high level of stability in human blood and other body fluids...
January 13, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056747/micrornas-based-predictor-factor-in-patients-with-migraine-ischemic-stroke
#6
Luca Gallelli, Antonio Siniscalchi, Marco Carotenuto, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Erika Cione, Vincenzo Guidetti
Among the clinical spectrum of neurological diseases, migraine is often associated with cerebro-vasculopathy. Impairment of neuroimmune mediators in the central nervous system has been recognized in the pathophysiology of migraine-related stroke. Although genetic correlation was found in patients with migraine-related stroke, the epidemiology of this disease indicate a need in biomarker searching discovery and validation. In this view, small molecule, called microRNAs (miRNAs), able to regulate immune and neuronal processes has been reported in patients with migraine and ischemic stroke and unambiguous miRNAs related to these diseases could be established as new molecular indicator of precocity for clinical and/or pharmacological intervention...
January 4, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928946/exploring-mechanisms-of-microrna-downregulation-in-cancer
#7
Marissa Williams, Yuen Yee Cheng, Cherie Blenkiron, Glen Reid
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Each miRNA controls the expression of multiple messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their dysregulation has been implicated in multiple cancer phenotypes. While some miRNAs are upregulated, global downregulation of miRNA expression is often the rule in cancer. A multitude of potential mechanisms drive aberrant miRNA expression in cancer; miRNA coding regions can harbour genomic defects including mutations, amplifications or deletions, and some miRNAs are broadly repressed by transcription factors such as Myc or have epigenetic modifications to their promoter regions such as hypermethylation of CpG islands...
December 8, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897122/bioinformatics-analysis-of-chicken-mirnas-associated-with-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation-and-subsequent-ifng-stimulated-activation
#8
Kristopher Jl Irizarry, Adam Chan, Derek Kettle, Steven Kezian, Dominic Ma, Louis Palacios, Qingshun Li, Calvin L Keeler, Yvonne Drechsler
The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular and cellular roles of various gene targets regulated by 8 miRNAs in differentiating macrophages. Among a number of miRNAs that are found to be expressed in avian macrophages, we focused on eight specific miRNAs (miR-1618, miR-1586, miR-1633, miR-1627, miR-1646, miR-1649, miR-1610, miR-1647) associated with macrophage activation through Wnt signaling, ubiquitination, PPAR mediated macrophage function, vesicle mediated cytokine trafficking, and WD40 domain proteins in macrophage differentiation...
November 29, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855605/regulation-of-cell-cycle-associated-genes-by-transcription-factor-and-microrna
#9
Nitai Pada Bhattacharyya, Eashita Das, Sudha Bucha, Srijit Das, Ananyo Choudhury
BACKGROUND: Cell cycle is a complex process and regulated at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Large numbers of genes are implicated in the process. Abnormality in any stage of cell cycle may lead to diseases including cancer. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To gain global view of genes associated with cell cycle, their regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs, we collected genes related to cell cycle from different databases...
November 17, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855604/novel-microrna-signature-to-differentiate-ulcerative-colitis-from-crohn-disease-a-genome-wide-study-using-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Jingmei Lin, Xinjun Zhang, Zijin Zhao, Noah Welker, Yong Li, Yunlong Liu, Mary Bronner
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn disease (CD) can be challenging given the overlapping features. Knowledge of microRNAs in IBD has expanded recently and supports that microRNAs play an important role. This study aimed to identify novel microRNA biomarkers through comprehensive genome-wide sequencing to distinguish UC from CD. DESIGN: Illumina next generation sequencing was performed on nondysplastic fresh-frozen colonic mucosa of the distal-most colectomy from 19 patients (10 UC and 9 CD) and 18 patients with diverticular disease serving as controls...
November 17, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834139/microrna-130a-regulation-of-desmocollin-2-in-a-novel-model-of-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#11
Stefan R Mazurek, Tyler Calway, Cynthia Harmon, Priyanka Farrell, Gene H Kim
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that play a critical role in regulating physiological and disease processes. Recent studies have now recognized microRNAs as an important player in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Molecular insight into arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) has primarily focused on mutations in desmosome proteins. To our knowledge, models of AC due to microRNA dysregulation have not been reported. Previously, we reported on miR-130a mediated down-regulation of Connexin43...
November 9, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834138/canonical-matches-of-human-micrornas-with-mrnas-a-broad-matrix-of-position-and-size
#12
Michael S Parker, Edwards A Park, Floyd R Sallee, Steven L Parker
BACKGROUND: Canonical hydrogen-bonding multi-nucleotide matches of microRNAs (miRs) with mRNAs are considered as important in mRNA regulation. MiR "seed" positions 2-8 are frequently viewed as mRNA partners, but there is ample evidence for use of other (and even non-contiguous) miR parts. No detailed information is available about canonical matching, and the GC content of the matches is rarely considered, although it should have a major regulatory potential. METHODS: Sequences of 2586 human miRs and of 5'utr, cds and 3'utr in 18810 human mRNAs were examined for number and GC content of contiguous Watson-Crick antisense matches of six or more nucleotides (nt) in successive windows shifted by 1 nt...
November 9, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804865/microrna-decay-refining-microrna-regulatory-activity
#13
Geneviève Pépin, Michael Paul Gantier
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 19-25 nucleotide RNA molecules that impact on most biological processes by regulating the efficiency of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. To date, most research activity has been focused on the control of miRNA expression and its functional consequences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about the mechanisms affecting the level of specific miRNAs in the cell, a critical feature impacting on their regulatory activity. This review focuses on the factors that regulate the abundance of miRNAs, including synthesis, post-transcriptional modifications, nucleases, target binding, and secretion...
October 27, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739364/mirna-21-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-marker-for-oral-cancer
#14
Shreyas Shah, Kiran Jadhav, Vandana Shah, Nidhi Gupta, Kapil Dagrus
The vast majority of cancer epigenetic research is now focused on micro RNA (miRNA). Though thousands of miRNA have been identified, the validation of their role is a continuous process. AIM: the aim of this paper is to comprehensively review the role of miRNA 21 in Oral cancer as a marker for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic target. METHOD: The data was collected from major search engines like PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane library and Google Patents with the key words miRNA 21, miRNA and Oral Cancer, miRNA 21 prognostic role, miRNA therapeutic target etc...
September 19, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568793/aberrant-expression-of-micrornas-in-b-cell-lymphomas
#15
Carla Sole, Erika Larrea, Lorea Manterola, Ibai Goicoechea, Maria Armesto, Maria Arestin, Maria Caffarel, Angela Araujo, Marta Fernandez, Maria Araiz, Charles Lawrie
B-cell lymphomas represent a heterogeneous collection of more than twenty-five different malignancies. Classification is often challenging as primarily based upon, sometimes subjective, histopathological criteria and misdiagnosis can result in inappropriate treatment decisions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as novel biomarkers (diagnostic, prognostic and predictive) of B-cell lymphoma in addition to being potential therapeutic targets. The most promising of these miRNAs more often than not play key regulatory roles in lymphopoiesis (development of lymphocytes) when under physiological conditions, and in the pathology of lymphoid malignancies when aberrantly expressed...
August 25, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464995/potential-of-taming-microrna-on-driver-seat-to-control-mitochondrial-horses-in-breast-carcinoma
#16
Shruti Purohit, Devashree Jahagirdar, Azad Kumar, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Breast cancer among women is one of the most common carcinoma worldwide. In comparison to developed country, the breast cancer cases reported in India are boosted rapidly that in near future, statistically will surpass USA. At the same time, alarming statistics indicate that ratio of mortality cases over the total incidences is significantly high in comparison to developed world (Global Heath Estimates, WHO 2015). In recent times, several oncogenic signaling pathways have shown convergent effects on various types of cancer cell metabolism including breast cancer leading to tumor development...
July 27, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457069/the-yin-and-yang-of-microrna-assay-methods
#17
Jean-Paul Issartel, Audrey Guttin, Hélène Ipas, Maud Barbado, Catherine Mouret, Emmanuel Garcion
OBJECTIVE: microRNA assessments in biological samples can be performed by different methods that mainly rely on hybridization process, qPCR or RNA sequencing. With the aim to detect and validate microRNA biomarkers in tumor samples, we challenged the consistency of the quantitative results obtained with the different methods. METHODS: We measured microRNA concentrations in several biological samples such as cultured tumor cells or tumor tissues (frozen tissues or FFPE samples) using different microRNA assay methods, in particular hybridization to AffymetrixTM arrays, qPCR and digital droplet qPCR (BioradTM) based on Taqman microRNA assays (Life TechnologiesTM)...
July 25, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280801/enhanced-expression-of-mir-199b-5p-promotes-proliferation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-by-down-regulation-of-mlk3
#18
Rie Kunisada, Nobuyo Yoshida, Shingo Nakamura, Hidefumi Uchiyama, Hirokazu Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: The initiation of β-cell proliferation to recover reduced β-cell mass is considered as one of the attractive therapeutic approaches for type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the involvement of miRNAs in β-cell proliferation. METHODS: Global miRNA array analysis of pancreas tissue was carried out using a 60% partial pancreatectomy (PPx) rodent model, which is a well-characterized model for pancreatic regeneration with accelerated proliferation of β-cells...
June 6, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262505/acute-physical-stress-increases-serum-levels-of-specific-micrornas
#19
Tadashi Hosoya, Masaki Hashiyada, Masato Funayama
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNA (miR) is non-coding small RNA that regulate mRNA at the post-transcriptional level by degradation or inhibition. To find physical stress markers, we developed a rat model involving a simple and complicated stress and measured serum miR levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To demonstrate changes in serum miR levels when physical stress is applied, we constructed three stress modalities using rats: alcohol intake, treadmill running and restraint. After alcohol administration, the rats were made to run on a treadmill and some of rats were further stressed by restraint with a 2 kg water bag immediately after the treadmill run...
June 1, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001184/anti-proliferative-properties-of-mir-20b-and-mir-363-from-the-mir-106a-363-cluster-on-human-carcinoma-cells
#20
Cuong Khuu, Amer Sehic, Lars Eide, Harald Osmundsen
We have previously reported that transfection of human oral carcinoma cells (clone E10) with mimics for unexpressed miR-20b, miR-363-3p or miR-363-5p (encoded by the miR-106a-363 cluster) resulted in 40-50% decrease in cellular proliferation. In the present work we wanted to experimentally confirm the role of the members of this cluster. We questioned whether they have a central role in cellular processes by targeting the genes directly or through other miRNAs. Our results demonstrate that E10 cells transfected with one of these miRNAs exhibited impeded cell cycle causing accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase...
March 22, 2016: MicroRNA
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