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Kristopher Jl Irizarry, Adam Chan, Derek Kettle, Steven Kezian, Dominic Ma, Louis Palacios, Qingshun Li, Calvin L Keeler, Yvonne Drechsler
The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular and cellular roles of various gene targets regulated by 8 miRNAs in differentiating macrophages. Among a number of miRNAs that are found to be expressed in avian macrophages, we focused on eight specific miRNAs (miR-1618, miR-1586, miR-1633, miR-1627, miR-1646, miR-1649, miR-1610, miR-1647) associated with macrophage activation through Wnt signaling, ubiquitination, PPAR mediated macrophage function, vesicle mediated cytokine trafficking, and WD40 domain proteins in macrophage differentiation...
November 29, 2016: MicroRNA
Nitai Pada Bhattacharyya, Eashita Das, Sudha Bucha, Srijit Das, Ananyo Choudhury
BACKGROUND: Cell cycle is a complex process and regulated at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Large numbers of genes are implicated in the process. Abnormality in any stage of cell cycle may lead to diseases including cancer. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To gain global view of genes associated with cell cycle, their regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs, we collected genes related to cell cycle from different databases...
November 17, 2016: MicroRNA
Jingmei Lin, Xinjun Zhang, Zijin Zhao, Noah Welker, Yong Li, Yunlong Liu, Mary Bronner
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn disease (CD) can be challenging given the overlapping features. Knowledge of microRNAs in IBD has expanded recently and supports that microRNAs play an important role. This study aimed to identify novel microRNA biomarkers through comprehensive genome-wide sequencing to distinguish UC from CD. DESIGN: Illumina next generation sequencing was performed on nondysplastic fresh-frozen colonic mucosa of the distal-most colectomy from 19 patients (10 UC and 9 CD) and 18 patients with diverticular disease serving as controls...
November 17, 2016: MicroRNA
Stefan R Mazurek, Tyler Calway, Cynthia Harmon, Priyanka Farrell, Gene H Kim
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that play a critical role in regulating physiological and disease processes. Recent studies have now recognized microRNAs as an important player in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Molecular insight into arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) has primarily focused on mutations in desmosome proteins. To our knowledge, models of AC due to microRNA dysregulation have not been reported. Previously, we reported on miR-130a mediated down-regulation of Connexin43...
November 9, 2016: MicroRNA
Michael S Parker, Edwards A Park, Floyd R Sallee, Steven L Parker
BACKGROUND: Canonical hydrogen-bonding multi-nucleotide matches of microRNAs (miRs) with mRNAs are considered as important in mRNA regulation. MiR "seed" positions 2-8 are frequently viewed as mRNA partners, but there is ample evidence for use of other (and even non-contiguous) miR parts. No detailed information is available about canonical matching, and the GC content of the matches is rarely considered, although it should have a major regulatory potential. METHODS: Sequences of 2586 human miRs and of 5'utr, cds and 3'utr in 18810 human mRNAs were examined for number and GC content of contiguous Watson-Crick antisense matches of six or more nucleotides (nt) in successive windows shifted by 1 nt...
November 9, 2016: MicroRNA
Geneviève Pépin, Michael Paul Gantier
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 19-25 nucleotide RNA molecules that impact on most biological processes by regulating the efficiency of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. To date, most research activity has been focused on the control of miRNA expression and its functional consequences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about the mechanisms affecting the level of specific miRNAs in the cell, a critical feature impacting on their regulatory activity. This review focuses on the factors that regulate the abundance of miRNAs, including synthesis, post-transcriptional modifications, nucleases, target binding, and secretion...
October 27, 2016: MicroRNA
Shreyas Shah, Kiran Jadhav, Vandana Shah, Nidhi Gupta, Kapil Dagrus
: The vast majority of cancer epigenetic research is now focused on micro RNA (miRNA). Though thousands of miRNA have been identified, the validation of their role is a continuous process. AIM: the aim of this paper is to comprehensively review the role of miRNA 21 in Oral cancer as a marker for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic target. METHOD: The data was collected from major search engines like PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane library and Google Patents with the key words miRNA 21, miRNA and Oral Cancer, miRNA 21 prognostic role, miRNA therapeutic target etc...
September 19, 2016: MicroRNA
Massimo Mallardo, Carmen Caiazza
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs able to suppress gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs for translational repression or, at lesser extent, degradation. miRNAs are widely expressed in tissues and organs and play fundamental roles in controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, cell migration, autophagy and metabolism. Uncontrolled expression of miRNAs has been associated with cancer progression, and miRNA up- or down-regulation has been linked to oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles in cancers such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and glioblastoma...
September 4, 2016: MicroRNA
Sabina Licholai, Wojciech Szczeklik, Marek Sanak
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are usually asymptomatic and mostly diagnosed incidentally. Aortic dilatation progresses along with the wall weakening and eventually leads to a life-threatening rupture. Currently, there are no effective screening biomarkers for AAA. MicroRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, offer great potential as biomarkers because of their stability in the bloodstream and expression characteristic for different diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the circulating miR-29c-3p as a potential biomarker of AAA and to elucidate the biological functions of miR-29c-3p in terms of pathogenesis of aneurysms...
September 1, 2016: MicroRNA
Binlian Sun, Rongge Yang, Massimo Mallardo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules, with sequence length of 19-24 nucleotides, which can induce mRNA degradation and regulate protein translation repression. Recently plenty of reports showed that miRNAs increase or decrease in the serum (circulating miRNAs) and in PBMC of Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infected individuals to affect the replication of HIV-1 through regulating HIV-1 proteins or HIV-1 replication related host factors. Many of miRNAs can suppress HIV-1 replication, but do not affect the integrated viral DNA...
August 29, 2016: MicroRNA
Carla Sole, Erika Larrea, Lorea Manterola, Ibai Goicoechea, Maria Armesto, Maria Arestin, Maria Caffarel, Angela Araujo, Marta Fernandez, Maria Araiz, Charles Lawrie
B-cell lymphomas represent a heterogeneous collection of more than twenty-five different malignancies. Classification is often challenging as primarily based upon, sometimes subjective, histopathological criteria and misdiagnosis can result in inappropriate treatment decisions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as novel biomarkers (diagnostic, prognostic and predictive) of B-cell lymphoma in addition to being potential therapeutic targets. The most promising of these miRNAs more often than not play key regulatory roles in lymphopoiesis (development of lymphocytes) when under physiological conditions, and in the pathology of lymphoid malignancies when aberrantly expressed...
August 25, 2016: MicroRNA
Maria Ciccone, George Adrian Calin
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia among adult population in western country. In the last decade, several findings have substantially revolutionized the old concept that CLL is a disease originating from mature, not-dividing cell with indolent clinical course. Notably, next generation sequencing (NGS) have contributed to deepen the knowledge of the cellular networks that imply the onset and the progression of CLL. Among genetic aberrations that are recurrently observed in B-cells from patients with CLL, microRNA deregulation represented the first epigenetic mechanism that has been identified...
August 25, 2016: MicroRNA
Wen-Juan Ni, Xiao-Min Leng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small and important RNA molecules. They can regulate gene expression at different levels. Although their biogenesis has been well documented, elucidation of miRNA-dependent activation of mRNA translation has just begun. Here, we highlighted different patterns of miRNA-dependent activation of mRNA translation: miRNA can activate mRNA translation through binding different target sites; in different sub-cellular locations; under different cellular circumstances. MiRNA-dependent activation of mRNA translation suggests unexpected functions of miRNA, that could provide new clues in functional studies of other ncRNAs...
August 25, 2016: MicroRNA
Shruti Purohit, Devashree Jahagirdar, Azad Kumar, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Breast cancer among women is one of the most common carcinoma worldwide. In comparison to developed country, the breast cancer cases reported in India are boosted rapidly that in near future, statistically will surpass USA. At the same time, alarming statistics indicate that ratio of mortality cases over the total incidences is significantly high in comparison to developed world (Global Heath Estimates, WHO 2015). In recent times, several oncogenic signaling pathways have shown convergent effects on various types of cancer cell metabolism including breast cancer leading to tumor development...
July 27, 2016: MicroRNA
Jean-Paul Issartel, Audrey Guttin, Hélène Ipas, Maud Barbado, Catherine Mouret, Emmanuel Garcion
OBJECTIVE: microRNA assessments in biological samples can be performed by different methods that mainly rely on hybridization process, qPCR or RNA sequencing. With the aim to detect and validate microRNA biomarkers in tumor samples, we challenged the consistency of the quantitative results obtained with the different methods. METHODS: We measured microRNA concentrations in several biological samples such as cultured tumor cells or tumor tissues (frozen tissues or FFPE samples) using different microRNA assay methods, in particular hybridization to AffymetrixTM arrays, qPCR and digital droplet qPCR (BioradTM) based on Taqman microRNA assays (Life TechnologiesTM)...
July 25, 2016: MicroRNA
Vahid Chaleshi, Raziye Tajali, Sanaz Savabkar, Neda Zali, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Mehrdad Haghazali, Sara Pasha, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA (miRNA) binding sites in the NOD2 and IL12B gene 3'-untranslated regions and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility in an Iranian population. METHODS: We genotyped NOD2 rs3135500 [3' untranslated region (UTR) A/G] and IL12B rs1368439 (3'UTR G /T) in a hospital-based study of 92 colorectal cancer cases and 105 healthy controls...
July 15, 2016: MicroRNA
Ahmad Nejati, Masoud Soleimani, Ehsan Arefian, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Hamideh Tabatabaie, Mohammad Farahmand, Zabihollah Shoja, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Rakhshandeh Nategh, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi
: : Background: Artificial microRNAs (miRNAs) are designed to develop an RNAi-based gene therapy. Recently, it has been suggested that the flanking sequences and terminal loop structure play a critical role in RNAi biogenesis and target recognition, but no extensive study regarding the different miRNA backbone for artificial miRNAs optimization has been conducted. OBJECTIVE: We tested three artificial miRNAs with human hsa-miR30a (common miRNA), hsa-miR150 (T cell specific miRNA), and hsa-miR122 (liver specific miRNA) backbones in HEK-293T and Jurkat cell lines...
July 8, 2016: MicroRNA
Cuong Khuu, Minou Nirvani, Tor Paaske Utheim, Amer Sehic
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that are involved in various biological pathways by regulating gene expression. Teeth develop via reciprocal and sequential interactions between the epithelium and the ectomesenchyme. The specific functions of several genes during tooth development are known, and the involvement of their mutations in the pathogenesis of congenital dental defects has been widely studied. The miRNA pathway is considered to have a significant role in embryogenesis including tooth development...
July 5, 2016: MicroRNA
Durairaj Sekar, Saravanan Subramanian, Thirugnanasambantham Krishnaraj, Hairul Islam
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non- coding RNAs and known to control a broad range of biological functions such as cellular proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. Recent reports also showed that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, plays important roles in cancer initiation and progression. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are random single pass sequence reads, which displays the condition/tissue specific transcripts (coding and non-coding) of an organism. In the present study we have applied bioinformatics approach to identify miRNA from prostate cancer EST resource, the expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and the obtained results were explained in detail...
June 9, 2016: MicroRNA
Rie Kunisada, Nobuyo Yoshida, Shingo Nakamura, Hidefumi Uchiyama, Hirokazu Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: The initiation of β-cell proliferation to recover reduced β-cell mass is considered as one of the attractive therapeutic approaches for type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the involvement of miRNAs in β-cell proliferation. METHODS: Global miRNA array analysis of pancreas tissue was carried out using a 60% partial pancreatectomy (PPx) rodent model, which is a well-characterized model for pancreatic regeneration with accelerated proliferation of β-cells...
June 6, 2016: MicroRNA
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