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Shreyas Shah, Kiran Jadhav, Vandana Shah, Nidhi Gupta, Kapil Dagrus
: The vast majority of cancer epigenetic research is now focused on micro RNA (miRNA). Though thousands of miRNA have been identified, the validation of their role is a continuous process. AIM: the aim of this paper is to comprehensively review the role of miRNA 21 in Oral cancer as a marker for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic target. METHOD: The data was collected from major search engines like PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane library and Google Patents with the key words miRNA 21, miRNA and Oral Cancer, miRNA 21 prognostic role, miRNA therapeutic target etc...
September 19, 2016: MicroRNA
Massimo Mallardo, Carmen Caiazza
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs able to suppress gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs for translational repression or, at lesser extent, degradation. miRNAs are widely expressed in tissues and organs and play fundamental roles in controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, cell migration, autophagy and metabolism. Uncontrolled expression of miRNAs has been associated with cancer progression, and miRNA up- or down-regulation has been linked to oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles in cancers such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and glioblastoma...
September 4, 2016: MicroRNA
Sabina Licholai, Wojciech Szczeklik, Marek Sanak
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are usually asymptomatic and mostly diagnosed incidentally. Aortic dilatation progresses along with the wall weakening and eventually leads to a life-threatening rupture. Currently, there are no effective screening biomarkers for AAA. MicroRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, offer great potential as biomarkers because of their stability in the bloodstream and expression characteristic for different diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the circulating miR-29c-3p as a potential biomarker of AAA and to elucidate the biological functions of miR-29c-3p in terms of pathogenesis of aneurysms...
September 1, 2016: MicroRNA
Binlian Sun, Rongge Yang, Massimo Mallardo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules, with sequence length of 19-24 nucleotides, which can induce mRNA degradation and regulate protein translation repression. Recently plenty of reports showed that miRNAs increase or decrease in the serum (circulating miRNAs) and in PBMC of Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infected individuals to affect the replication of HIV-1 through regulating HIV-1 proteins or HIV-1 replication related host factors. Many of miRNAs can suppress HIV-1 replication, but do not affect the integrated viral DNA...
August 29, 2016: MicroRNA
Carla Sole, Erika Larrea, Lorea Manterola, Ibai Goicoechea, Maria Armesto, Maria Arestin, Maria Caffarel, Angela Araujo, Marta Fernandez, Maria Araiz, Charles Lawrie
B-cell lymphomas represent a heterogeneous collection of more than twenty-five different malignancies. Classification is often challenging as primarily based upon, sometimes subjective, histopathological criteria and misdiagnosis can result in inappropriate treatment decisions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as novel biomarkers (diagnostic, prognostic and predictive) of B-cell lymphoma in addition to being potential therapeutic targets. The most promising of these miRNAs more often than not play key regulatory roles in lymphopoiesis (development of lymphocytes) when under physiological conditions, and in the pathology of lymphoid malignancies when aberrantly expressed...
August 25, 2016: MicroRNA
Maria Ciccone, George Adrian Calin
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia among adult population in western country. In the last decade, several findings have substantially revolutionized the old concept that CLL is a disease originating from mature, not-dividing cell with indolent clinical course. Notably, next generation sequencing (NGS) have contributed to deepen the knowledge of the cellular networks that imply the onset and the progression of CLL. Among genetic aberrations that are recurrently observed in B-cells from patients with CLL, microRNA deregulation represented the first epigenetic mechanism that has been identified...
August 25, 2016: MicroRNA
Wen-Juan Ni, Xiao-Min Leng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small and important RNA molecules. They can regulate gene expression at different levels. Although their biogenesis has been well documented, elucidation of miRNA-dependent activation of mRNA translation has just begun. Here, we highlighted different patterns of miRNA-dependent activation of mRNA translation: miRNA can activate mRNA translation through binding different target sites; in different sub-cellular locations; under different cellular circumstances. MiRNA-dependent activation of mRNA translation suggests unexpected functions of miRNA, that could provide new clues in functional studies of other ncRNAs...
August 25, 2016: MicroRNA
Shruti Purohit, Devashree Jahagirdar, Azad Kumar, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Breast cancer among women is one of the most common carcinoma worldwide. In comparison to developed country, the breast cancer cases reported in India are boosted rapidly that in near future, statistically will surpass USA. At the same time, alarming statistics indicate that ratio of mortality cases over the total incidences is significantly high in comparison to developed world (Global Heath Estimates, WHO 2015). In recent times, several oncogenic signaling pathways have shown convergent effects on various types of cancer cell metabolism including breast cancer leading to tumor development...
July 27, 2016: MicroRNA
Jean-Paul Issartel, Audrey Guttin, Hélène Ipas, Maud Barbado, Catherine Mouret, Emmanuel Garcion
OBJECTIVE: microRNA assessments in biological samples can be performed by different methods that mainly rely on hybridization process, qPCR or RNA sequencing. With the aim to detect and validate microRNA biomarkers in tumor samples, we challenged the consistency of the quantitative results obtained with the different methods. METHODS: We measured microRNA concentrations in several biological samples such as cultured tumor cells or tumor tissues (frozen tissues or FFPE samples) using different microRNA assay methods, in particular hybridization to AffymetrixTM arrays, qPCR and digital droplet qPCR (BioradTM) based on Taqman microRNA assays (Life TechnologiesTM)...
July 25, 2016: MicroRNA
Vahid Chaleshi, Raziye Tajali, Sanaz Savabkar, Neda Zali, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Mehrdad Haghazali, Sara Pasha, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA (miRNA) binding sites in the NOD2 and IL12B gene 3'-untranslated regions and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility in an Iranian population. METHODS: We genotyped NOD2 rs3135500 [3' untranslated region (UTR) A/G] and IL12B rs1368439 (3'UTR G /T) in a hospital-based study of 92 colorectal cancer cases and 105 healthy controls...
July 15, 2016: MicroRNA
Ahmad Nejati, Masoud Soleimani, Ehsan Arefian, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Hamideh Tabatabaie, Mohammad Farahmand, Zabihollah Shoja, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Rakhshandeh Nategh, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi
: : Background: Artificial microRNAs (miRNAs) are designed to develop an RNAi-based gene therapy. Recently, it has been suggested that the flanking sequences and terminal loop structure play a critical role in RNAi biogenesis and target recognition, but no extensive study regarding the different miRNA backbone for artificial miRNAs optimization has been conducted. OBJECTIVE: We tested three artificial miRNAs with human hsa-miR30a (common miRNA), hsa-miR150 (T cell specific miRNA), and hsa-miR122 (liver specific miRNA) backbones in HEK-293T and Jurkat cell lines...
July 8, 2016: MicroRNA
Cuong Khuu, Minou Nirvani, Tor Paaske Utheim, Amer Sehic
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that are involved in various biological pathways by regulating gene expression. Teeth develop via reciprocal and sequential interactions between the epithelium and the ectomesenchyme. The specific functions of several genes during tooth development are known, and the involvement of their mutations in the pathogenesis of congenital dental defects has been widely studied. The miRNA pathway is considered to have a significant role in embryogenesis including tooth development...
July 5, 2016: MicroRNA
Durairaj Sekar, Saravanan Subramanian, Thirugnanasambantham Krishnaraj, Hairul Islam
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non- coding RNAs and known to control a broad range of biological functions such as cellular proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. Recent reports also showed that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, plays important roles in cancer initiation and progression. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are random single pass sequence reads, which displays the condition/tissue specific transcripts (coding and non-coding) of an organism. In the present study we have applied bioinformatics approach to identify miRNA from prostate cancer EST resource, the expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and the obtained results were explained in detail...
June 9, 2016: MicroRNA
Rie Kunisada, Nobuyo Yoshida, Shingo Nakamura, Hidefumi Uchiyama, Hirokazu Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: The initiation of β-cell proliferation to recover reduced β-cell mass is considered as one of the attractive therapeutic approaches for type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the involvement of miRNAs in β-cell proliferation. METHODS: Global miRNA array analysis of pancreas tissue was carried out using a 60% partial pancreatectomy (PPx) rodent model, which is a well-characterized model for pancreatic regeneration with accelerated proliferation of β-cells...
June 6, 2016: MicroRNA
Tadashi Hosoya, Masaki Hashiyada, Masato Funayama
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNA (miR) is non-coding small RNA that regulate mRNA at the post-transcriptional level by degradation or inhibition. To find physical stress markers, we developed a rat model involving a simple and complicated stress and measured serum miR levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To demonstrate changes in serum miR levels when physical stress is applied, we constructed three stress modalities using rats: alcohol intake, treadmill running and restraint. After alcohol administration, the rats were made to run on a treadmill and some of rats were further stressed by restraint with a 2 kg water bag immediately after the treadmill run...
June 1, 2016: MicroRNA
Cuong Khuu, Amer Sehic, Lars Eide, Harald Osmundsen
We have previously reported that transfection of human oral carcinoma cells (clone E10) with mimics for unexpressed miR-20b, miR-363-3p or miR-363-5p (encoded by the miR-106a-363 cluster) resulted in 40-50% decrease in cellular proliferation. In the present work we wanted to experimentally confirm the role of the members of this cluster. We questioned whether they have a central role in cellular processes by targeting the genes directly or through other miRNAs. Our results demonstrate that E10 cells transfected with one of these miRNAs exhibited impeded cell cycle causing accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase...
March 22, 2016: MicroRNA
Li Jing, Sean Cai, Jenny Peng, Mark K Friedberg, Andrew N Redington
miR-144 has potential benefits in protecting against myocardial ischemia and suppression of tumor growth. We have previously shown that a single intravenous injection of miR-144 provides potent cardioprotection, but its kinetics and distribution are not known. Single stranded mature miR-144 or Cy3-labelled-miR-144 was delivered into C57/B6 mice by tail vein injection. After intravenous injection, the signal of Cy3-labelled-miR-144 in the kidney, brain, heart and liver peaks at 60 minutes, and is predominantly localised to the endothelium at that stage...
March 22, 2016: MicroRNA
Anna Truini, Simona Coco, Carlo Genova, Marco Mora, Maria Giovanna Dal Bello, Irene Vanni, Angela Alama, Erika Rijavec, Giulia Barletta, Federica Biello, Claudia Maggioni, Francesco Grossi
Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease characterized by a dismal prognosis, mainly due to late diagnosis. To date, there are very few treatment options available and the refractoriness to the majority of therapeutic strategies leads to consider MPM a relevant problem in public health. Therefore, the identification of novel prognostic markers and alternative therapeutic strategies remain a top priority. Several efforts have been made in this direction and to date a number of studies have investigated the role of microRNA as biomarkers in MPM, identifying the potential prognostic role of miR-29c* and miR-31...
January 28, 2016: MicroRNA
Cinzia Ciccacci, Cristina Politi, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani
Inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, result from a dysregulated inflammatory response to environmental factors in genetically predisposed individuals. The list of genetic factors involved in the development of these diseases has considerably increased in last years. However, recently, new promising insights on inflammatory bowel diseases have been produced by studies on microRNAs. MicroRNAs are small non coding RNA molecules, that play a pivotal role in gene expression and regulation...
January 11, 2016: MicroRNA
(no author information available yet)
The publishers have decided to retract the manuscript entitled "Generation of Knock Down Tools for Transcription Factor 7-Like-2 (TCF7L2) and Evaluation of its Expression Pattern in Developing Chicken Optic Tectum" published in MicroRNA, volume 4, issue 3, page numbers 209-216, 2015, for the following reasons. • Due to conflict of interests between authors and the Principal Investigator.
2016: MicroRNA
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