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Anjana Rajendiran, Saravanan Vijayakumar, Archana Pan
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding, endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. In plants, miRNAs are usually of 18-24 nucleotide in length and play humongous role by aiding in development, growth, defense, biotic and abiotic stress responses etc. Objective: Arachis hypogaea is an economically important oil seed crop and human dietary source cultivated mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, an initiative was taken to uncover miRNAs, targets and their functions in this important plant species...
November 4, 2018: MicroRNA
Aniello Russo, Nicoletta Potenza
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-125a is present in all animals with bilateral symmetry and displays a conserved nucleotide sequence with a section of 11 bases including the seed region that is identical in all considered species. It primarily downregulates the expression of LIN28, thereby promoting cell differentiation and larval phase transitions in nematodes, mammals and insects. OBJECTIVE: In this review we focus on the cellular control of miR-125a expression and its antiproliferative activity...
November 4, 2018: MicroRNA
Emmanuel N Kontomanolis, Zacharias Fasoulakis, Valentinos Papamanolis, Sofia Koliantzaki, Georgios Dimopoulos, Nikolaos J Kambas
OBJECTIVE To review the recent data considering the expression profile and the role of microRNAs in breast tumorigenesis, and their impact on -the vital for breast cancer progression- angiogenesis. METHODS PubMed was searched for studies focused on data that associate microRNA with breast cancer, using the terms ''breast", "mammary gland", "neoplasia'', "angiogenesis" and ''microRNA'' between 1997-2018. RESULTS Aberrant expression of several circulating and tissue miRNAs is observed in human breast neoplasms with the deregulation of several miRNAs having a major participation in breast cancer progression...
October 17, 2018: MicroRNA
Sara Zamani, Amir Sohrabi, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Marjan Rahnamaye-Farzami, Abolfazl Akbari
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis is an important factor to improve survival of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) patients. Molecular biomarkers such as micro RNA (miRNA) can be used in the early detection of ICC. The expression of miR-21 and miR-29a are deregulated in many types of human cancers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in miR-21 and miR-29a expression patterns in Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection and various grades of cervical cancer among Iranian women...
October 17, 2018: MicroRNA
D Andrei, R A Nagy, A P A van Montfoort, U J F Tietge, M Terpstra, K Kok, A van den Berg, A Hoek, J Kluiver, R B Donker
BACKGROUND: mural granulosa cells (MGCs) and cumulus cells (CCs) are two specialized cell types that differentiate from a common progenitor during folliculogenesis. Although these two cell types have specialized functions and gene expression profiles, little is known about their microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns. OBJECTIVE: to describe the miRNA profile of mural and cumulus granulosa cells from human pre-ovulatory follicles Methods: using small RNA sequencing, we definedinvestigated the miRNA expression profiles of human primary MGCs and CCs, isolated from healthy women undergoing ovum pick-up for in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
September 12, 2018: MicroRNA
Majid Tafrihi, Elham Hasheminasab
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are evolutionarily conserved, and endogenous non-coding RNAs, participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes. The biogenesis of miRNAs occurs in the nucleus. Then, in the cytoplasm, they are assembled along with some proteins in a ribonucleoprotein complex called RISC. miRNA component of the RISC complex binds to the complementary sequence of mRNA target depending on the degree of complementarity, and leads to mRNA degradation and/or inhibition of protein synthesis...
August 26, 2018: MicroRNA
Sybille Krauss, Rohit Nalavade, Stephanie Weber, Katlynn Carter, Bernd O Evert
Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), the most common spinocerebellar ataxia, is caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the protein ataxin-3 (ATXN3). Silencing the expression of polyQ-expanded ATXN3 rescues the cellular disease phenotype. Objective: This study investigated the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs targeting gene expression, in lymphoblastoid cells (LCs) from SCA3 patients and the capability of identified deregulated miRNAs to target and alter ATXN3 expression...
August 21, 2018: MicroRNA
Shili Jiang, Wei Jiang, Ying Xu, Xiaoning Wang, Yongping Mu, Ping Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Accurately evaluating the severity of liver cirrhosis is essential for clinical decision making and disease management. This study aimed to evaluate the value of circulating levels of microRNA (miR)-26a and miR-21 as novel noninvasive biomarkers in detecting severity of cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: Thirty patients with clinically diagnosed chronic hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and 30 healthy individuals were selected...
August 21, 2018: MicroRNA
G Skalis, V Katsi, A Miliou, G Georgiopoulos, R Papazachou, G Vamvakou, P Nihoyannopoulos, D Tousoulis, T Makris
Preeclampsia (PE) continues to represent a worldwide problem and a challenge for both clinicians and laboratory-based doctors. Despite the many efforts done till now, the knowledge acquired regarding its pathogenesis and pathophysiology does not allow us to treat it efficiently. It is not possible to arrest its progressive nature, and the available therapies are limited to symptomatic treatment. Furthermore, both the diagnosis and prognosis are frequently uncertain, whilst the ability to predict its occurrence is very limited...
August 13, 2018: MicroRNA
Jeyalakshmi Kandhavelu, Kumar Subramanian, Amber Khan, Aadilah Omar, Paul Ruff, Clement Penny
BACKGROUND: Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in women and the fourth most common cancer in men. Dysregulation of small non-coding miRNAs have been correlated with colon cancer progression. Since there are increasing reports of candidate miRNAs as potential biomarkers for CRC, this makes it important to explore common miRNA biomarkers for colon cancer. As computational prediction of miRNA targets is a critical initial step in identifying miRNA:mRNA target interactions for validation, we aim here to construct a potential miRNA network and its gene targets for colon cancer from previously reported candidate miRNAs, inclusive of 10 up- and 9 down-regulated miRNAs from tissues; and 10 circulatory miRNAs...
August 2, 2018: MicroRNA
Partha Mukhopadhyay, Irina Smolenkova, Dennis Warner, M Michele Pisano, Robert M Greene
Development of the mammalian palate is dependent on precise, spatio-temporal expression of a panoply of genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the largest family of noncoding RNAs, function as crucial modulators of cell and tissue differentiation, regulating expression of key downstream genes. Our laboratory has previously identified several developmentally regulated miRNAs, including miR-206, during critical stages of palatal morphogenesis. The current study reports spatiotemporal distribution of miR-206 during development of the murine secondary palate (gestational days 12...
July 31, 2018: MicroRNA
Neetu Dahiya, Chintamani D Atreya
BACKGROUND: A small GTPase protein, the Ras-related protein 1 (RAP1), abundant in platelets is known to be activated following agonist induced platelet activation, suggesting that RAP1 downregulation could in turn reduce platelet activation in storage. Our objective of this study is to identify RAP1 regulating miRNAs and their role in platelet activation during storage. METHODS: We applied MS2-TRAP (tagged RNA affinity purification) methodology to enrich miRNAs that target the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of RAP1 mRNA in two mammalian cell lines followed by miRNA identification by microarray of total RNA samples enriched for miRNAs...
May 20, 2018: MicroRNA
Hiromichi Shiotsu, Kazuhiro Okada, Tatsuki Shibuta, Yuki Kobayashi, Saki Shirahama, Chieri Kuroki, Saori Ueda, Masanori Ohkuma, Katsuyoshi Ikeda, Yukio Ando, Hirotaka Matsui, Yuzo Kayamori, Tsukuru Umemura
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are expected as useful biomarkers for various diseases. We studied the pre-analytical factors causing variation in the analysis of miRNA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 25 healthy subjects. Plasma and serum were obtained from the same samples. The levels of miR-451, -16, -126, and -223 were analyzed using RT-qPCR. Cel-miR-39 was added as a spiked-in control in each sample. RESULTS: With the exception of miR-451, the levels of the miRNAs in plasma were higher than in serum...
2018: MicroRNA
Ilaria Grossi, Alessandro Salvi, Gianluca Baiocchi, Nazario Portolani, Giuseppina De Petro
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of short non coding RNAs that have crucial biological roles by acting mainly as negative regulators of gene expression. The alteration of miRNAs expression has been frequently demonstrated in cancer. Furthermore, miRNAs expression data clearly revealed their possible use as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. In this review, we focus on the biological role of human miR-23b-3p in cancer. Several data demonstrated that miR-23b-3p targeted different genes involved in cancer aggressive properties such as proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis...
2018: MicroRNA
Maitreyi Chattopadhyay, Neetu Dahiya, Chintamani Atreya
BACKGROUND: Septins have been identified to play important roles in platelets, but their regulation in platelets is unknown. Human platelet being an enucleated and terminally differentiated cell, mRNA downregulation by miRs is one of the posttranscriptional mechanisms operative in platelets. OBJECTIVE: Since platelets are known to have miR-223 in abundance, the objective of this study is to test whether a) platelet septins have miR-223 interacting target sites in their mRNA 3'UTRs, b) septin mRNAs and miR-223 form complexes with Argonaute 2 (AGO2) protein in platelets, which is the catalytic component of an RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), c) a reporter gene with septin mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR) is subjected to downregulation by miR-223 and d) anti-miR-223 can suppress miR-223 activity and enhance septin-2 expression in platelets...
2018: MicroRNA
Kanisa Jampoka, Puth Muangpaisarn, Kritsada Khongnomnan, Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Sunchai Payungporn
BACKGROUND: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is an over accumulation of triglyceride in the liver without alcohol consumption. Its major cause is insulin resistance. Patients with NAFLD can develop liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene silencing. Previous research reported that miR-29 family (a, b and c) and miR-122 have an important role in regulating insulin resistance related to NAFLD...
2018: MicroRNA
Andrea Conte, Giovanna Maria Pierantoni
The Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinases (HIPKs) HIPK1, HIPK2 and HIPK3 are Ser/Thr kinases which interact with homeobox proteins and other transcription factors, acting as transcriptional coactivators or corepressors. HIPKs contribute to regulate several biological processes, such as signal transduction, apoptosis, embryonic development, DNA-damage response, and cellular proliferation, in response to various extracellular stimuli. Recently it has emerged that, in addition to their role in cancer, fibrosis and diabetes, HIPKs may also be involved in other human diseases, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Rett syndrome, cerebellar diseases, and retinal vascular dysfunction...
2018: MicroRNA
Angeliki Chorti, Petros Bangeas, Theodossis S Papavramidis, Georgios Tsoulfas
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in both genders and liver metastasis appear in more than 50% of patients with colorectal cancer, worsening its morbidity and mortality rates. The existing methods for the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer seem to be insufficient to predict its aggressiveness, leading to poor outcomes for the patient. OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which interact with mRNAs in a posttranscriptional stage, and have been found to be involved in pathogenesis of cancer and its metastases...
2018: MicroRNA
Kritsada Khongnomnan, Witthaya Poomipak, Kesmanee Praianantathavorn, Suthat Saengchoowong, Trairak Pisitkun, Yong Poovorawan, Sunchai Payungporn
BACKGROUND: Influenza B virus causes influenza-like illness in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs have evolved to regulate many cellular processes including the viral infection response. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the miRNA profiles of human cells infected with influenza B virus. METHODS: A549 cells were infected with influenza B viruses (MOI = 0...
2018: MicroRNA
Kelsie R O Leary, Claire L Glynn
BACKGROUND: The discovery of forensic DNA typing evolved molecular biology far beyond what could have been expected in terms of its forensic application, and now there exists other developments in molecular biology which are ready for application to forensic challenges. One such challenge is the identification of the body fluid source of stains recovered from evidence items and crime scenes. Currently, there are significant efforts in the research field to develop novel methods for the molecular identification of body fluids, with microRNAs (miRNAs) revealing great potential...
2018: MicroRNA
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