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Toxicology Reports

Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Neeraj Verma, Nivedita Singh, Somya Asthana, Shailendra K Gupta, Anurag Tripathi, Mukul Das
Consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds has been associated with the hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Recently, we have characterized the toxic anthraquinones (AQs) such as Emodin, Rhein, Aloe-emodin, Chrysophanol and Physcion in CO seeds and detected these moieties in the bio fluids of CO poisoning cases. As AQs were detected in the serum of HME patients, their interaction with key biomolecules including protein, DNA and glutathione (GSH) is imperative. In this regard, we have previously reported the interaction of these AQs with serum albumin protein and their subsequent biological effects...
2018: Toxicology Reports
N Defarge, J Spiroux de Vendômois, G E Séralini
The major pesticides of the world are glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), and their toxicity is highly debated. To understand their mode of action, the comparative herbicidal and toxicological effects of glyphosate (G) alone and 14 of its formulations were studied in this work, as a model for pesticides. GBH are mixtures of water, with commonly 36-48% G claimed as the active principle. As with other pesticides, 10-20% of GBH consist of chemical formulants. We previously identified these by mass spectrometry and found them to be mainly families of petroleum-based oxidized molecules, such as POEA, and other contaminants...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Harun Arslan
Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A and MT1 genes in the common carp exposed to imidacloprid...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Lucie Fojtíková, Anna Šuláková, Martina Blažková, Barbora Holubová, Martin Kuchař, Petra Mikšátková, Oldřich Lapčík, Ladislav Fukal
In recent years, the use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) as drugs of abuse has greatly increased. SCs are associated with a risk of severe poisoning or even death. Therefore, more rapid, cost effective and reliable methods are needed, especially for the screening of drivers after traffic accidents and for detailed toxicological analysis in forensic laboratories. In this study, we developed a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of JWH-200 in oral fluids...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Julia María Alatorre-Cruz, Wendoline Pita-López, Rosa Guadalupe López-Reyes, Roberto Augusto Ferriz-Martínez, Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez, María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo, Paola Jazmín Aranda Vargas, Gabriela López-Herrera, Adriana Jheny Rodríguez-Méndez, Aarón Zamora-Arroyo, Héctor Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Tércia Reis de Souza, Alejandro Blanco-Labra, Teresa García-Gasca
Previous work showed that Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) lectins exhibit differential cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines by apoptosis induction. In vivo studies using a Tepary bean lectin fraction (TBLF, 50 mg/kg of body weight) after colon cancer induction in rats showed that TBLF inhibited early precancerous lesions without systemic toxicity however, loss of body weight gain and activation of immune cells were observed. In order to know more about the possible adverse effects, we evaluated the administration of TBLF on digestive and immune organs...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Heba N Gad El-Hak, Abdel Raouf A Moustafa, Samira R Mansour
Moringa is multipurpose promising tree particularly for medicinal use. With its high nutritive and pharmaceutical values, every part of the tree is suitable for human consumptions. The use of vegetate parts, seeds or extracts requires toxicological evaluations to prove and verify safety uses before being added to pharmaceutical medicine, or any other products related to human diet. In this study, Moringa peregrina seeds, grown in high elevation mountain in Saint Catherin area, were investigated and evaluated for their toxicity with respect to its topological potential through histological and biochemical studies in Albino rats...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Barsha Dassarma, Dilip K Nandi, Somnath Gangopadhyay, Saptadip Samanta
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a hepatotoxic agent is widely used to study the toxic mechanisms in experimental animals. This study was carried out to establish the hepatoprotective measures of food preservative antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytolune (BHA, BHT) when mixed with food towards carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication (230 mg/ kg b wt/rat/day) in rat. Biochemical markers like serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (AST), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin content, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the end product of lipid peroxidanion were measured...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Nader Nciri, Namjun Cho
The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction; the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety on the brush border disaccharidase activities in the jejunal mucosa of Wistar rats. Twenty young adult male rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 10 rats each: Control, rats were gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS); Experimental, rats were orogastrically fed a dose of 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Yangho Kim
The objective of the present study was to evaluate sex, menopause, pregnancy, and age-specific differences of blood manganese (Mn) levels in relation to iron status, and to assess the toxicological implications of these relationships. Females of childbearing age have higher concentrations of blood Mn than males because women have lower concentrations of ferritin. Previous studies indicated significant increases in blood Mn levels throughout pregnancy, and that the geometric mean of blood Mn was significantly higher in premenopausal women than postmenopausal women...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Mathan Ramesh, Selvaraj Anitha, Rama Krishnan Poopal, Chellappan Shobana
In this study the toxicity of antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) on certain enzymological (GOT, GPT and LDH) and histopathological alterations (Gill, liver and kidney) of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio was studied after acute (96 h) and sublethal (35 days) exposure. The median lethal concentration (96 h) of CQ was 31.62 mg/ml. During acute treatment (CQ at 31.62 mg/ml) the treated fish groups showed a significant increase in GOT and GPT activities in blood plasma; whereas LDH activity was decreased when compare to control groups...
2018: Toxicology Reports
P S Lager, M E Attema-de Jonge, M P Gorzeman, L E Kerkvliet, E J F Franssen
Objective: Toxicology screening tests for drugs-of-abuse and therapeutic drugs in urine (TST-U) are often used to assess whether a patient's clinical condition can be explained by the use of drugs-of-abuse (DOA) and/or therapeutic drugs. TST-U have clinical value when they support clinical decision making by influencing diagnosis and patient care. We aim to quantify the influence of TST-U results on diagnosis and patient care in an emergency department. Our secondary objective is to identify specific patients for which a TST-U is most warranted or mostly unhelpful...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Elba Díaz, Dustin Pérez, Johanna Delgado Acevedo, Arturo Massol-Deyá
Trace element composition in plant biomass could be used as an indicator of environmental stress, management practices and restoration success. A longitudinal study was conducted to compare Pb, Cd, and Cu content in seagrass Syringodium filiforme collected at a former bombing range in Puerto Rico with those of a Biosphere Reserve under similar geoclimatic conditions. Trace elements were measured by atomic absorption after dry-ashing of samples and extraction with acid. In general, levels of Pb, Cd, and Cu varied during 2001, 2003, 2005-2006, and 2013-2016...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Rituparna Ghosh, Koushik Mana, Kripasindhu Gantait, Sumana Sarkhel
Objective: Snakebite is one of the neglected tropical diseases that World Health Organization (WHO) aimed to eradicate. The objective of the study is to investigate the mortality and morbidity due to snakebite at Midnapore Medical College & Hospital in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. Methods & materials: This is a record-based, retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital(MMCH), Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Lawrence H Lash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Toxicology Reports
K S Rajesh, B R Bharath, C V Rao, K I Bhat, K S Chandrashekhar Bhat, Pritesh Bhat
Coix lacryma-jobi, commonly known as job's tear, is a tall grain-bearing tropical plant of the family Poaceae. The ethanolic root extract (ERE) of the plant was investigated for the first time for anti-venom activity against Indian cobra Naja naja venom. In-vitro studies were conducted to determine neutralization of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of the Naja naja venom by the ERE. ERE showed significant inhibition of PLA2 activity, which was further confirmed from effective neutralization of human red blood cells (HRBC) lysis induced by the venom...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Elisabeth Schraml, Matthias Hackl, Johannes Grillari
With the dawn of personalized medicine, secreted microRNAs (miRNAs) have come into the very focus of biomarker development for various diseases. MiRNAs fulfil key requirements of diagnostic tools such as i) non or minimally invasive accessibility, ii) robust, standardized and non-expensive quantitative analysis, iii) rapid turnaround of the test result and iv) most importantly because they provide a comprehensive snapshot of the ongoing physiologic processes in cells and tissues that package and release miRNAs into cell-free space...
2017: Toxicology Reports
N S Deshmukh, S J Stohs, C C Magar, A Kale, B Sowmya
Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p-Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect to any of the observed parameters of clinical signs, functional observations of sensory reactivity, grip strength and motor activity, ophthalmology, body weights, hematology, food consumption, urinalysis, organ weights, as well as gross and microscopic pathology at termination at any of the doses in either sex...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Jessica L LaRocca, Reza J Rasoulpour, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, David L Eisenbrandt, Lynea A Murphy, Matthew J LeBaron
Nitrapyrin, a nitrification inhibitor, produces liver tumors in mice at high doses. Several experiments were performed to investigate molecular, cellular, and apical endpoints to define the key events leading to the tumor formation. These data support a mode-of-action (MoA) characterized by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) nuclear receptor activation, increased hepatocellular proliferation leading to hepatocellular foci and tumor formation. Specifically, nitrapyrin induced a dose-related increase in the Cyp2b10/CAR-associated transcript and protein...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Uzma Saleem, Sadia Amin, Bashir Ahmad, Haroon Azeem, Fareeha Anwar, Sunita Mary
Background: S. munja roots have been used in ethno medicines for the treatment of different ailments. Despite its beneficial uses no studies on its toxicity potential have been reported. Objective: The study was designed to evaluate acute toxic potential of aqueous ethanolic extract of S. munja roots according to OECD TG No. 425. Material and methods: Female mice were divided into two groups (n = 5). One group served as control while the other as treated group that received 2000 mg/kg b...
2017: Toxicology Reports
A K M Atique Ullah, M A Maksud, S R Khan, L N Lutfa, Shamshad B Quraishi
Concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg) in eight highly consumed cultured fish species (Labeo rohita, Clarias gariepinus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus capio, Puntius sarana, Oreochromis mossambicus, Pangasius pangasius and Anabas testudineus) collected from four wholesale markets of Dhaka city, Bangladesh (Karwan Bazar, Mohammadpur Town Hall, Newmarket and Mirpur-1) were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in order to evaluate the potential human health risks from the consumption of fish...
2017: Toxicology Reports
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