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Toxicology Reports

Yair Binyamin, Amit Frenkel, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Ori Shliom, Moti Klein
Hydrazine is a hazardous material that is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in rocket and jet fuels, including the emergency power unit of F-16 model jets. We present four ground crew technicians who were exposed to hydrazine for less than one minute, due to a voltage fall in an F-16 jet. Physical examinations were normal and none of the technicians were symptomatic for toxicity. One of the technicians had abnormal blood chemistry levels for liver and muscle enzymes: serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT)-321U/L, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT)-123U/L, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) 3300U/L...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Elif Ebru Alkan, Ismail Celik
There is an increasing interest against to fight of diabetes by using hypoglycemic plants in the world. The public thinks that Heracleum persicum (HP) has antidiabetic effect local consumer in Turkey. As far as our literature survey, no studies have been reported so far on antidiabetic effects and toxic risk potential of the HP lyophilized extract supplementation used in this study. The aim of this study, for the first time, was to investigate the therapeutic effects of diabetic complications, antioxidant properties and toxic risk potential of HP against experimentaly streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats, which were evaluated by measuring the level of serum biomarker releated diabetes complications changes such glucose, insülin, c-peptide, lipid profile (LP), hepatic and renal damage biomarkers (HRDB), glucosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), antioxidant defense system constituents (ADSCs), malondialdehyde (MDA) content measured in erythrocyte, brain, kidney and liver tissues, and α-glucosidase activitiy of small intestine...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Azharuddin Daphedar, Tarikere C Taranath
Noble metal nanoparticles afford a tool for investigation and its application in biological systems has had the greatest impact in biology and biomedicine. The present work reports an ecofriendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous leaf extract of Getonia floribunda. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by using following instruments viz. UV-vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD AFM and HR-TEM. The UV-vis spectrum showed a characteristic absorption peak at 404 nm...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Ola I Muhammad, Usama M Mahmoud, Francesco Fazio, Alaa El-Din H Sayed
Although many studies on the hematological and biochemical parameters in fishes have been done, still there are some shortage in the estimation and evaluation of the baseline's values of marine and freshwater fishes. Recently, the use of hematology and biochemistry of fishes in toxicology, aquaculture, environmental pollution, feeding, and antioxidants studies has been increased. In this study we introduced the importance of those parameters and their importance as biomarkers in fish toxicology from previous literature and as new findings...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Rama Narsimha Reddy Anreddy
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Copper Oxide (CuO) Nanoparticles (NP) on liver following oral exposure in rats. A total of 18 male wister rats were used in the experiments including a control group (6 rats). NP were given to the rats with a doses (5, 50 mg/kg b.w./day) via oral gavage and a control group (received only 200 μl PBS). The treatment was continued for 14 days. The supernatants of rat Liver tissue homogenates were used to analyze for glutathione levels (GSH), Catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), the extent of lipid peroxidation products (Malondialdehyde, MDA)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Md Tawhid Hossain, Ummehani Hassi, S M Imamul Huq
This study aimed to assess the concentrations of heavy metal ('lead (Pb)''cadmium (Cd)', and 'chromium (Cr)') in various brands of four types of tobacco products (zarda, gul, cigarettes, and bidi) as well as calculate toxicological risk as a lifetime cancer risk for Pb, Cd, and Cr. In smokeless tobacco products, the metal concentration ranged from 0.99 to 10.02 μg/g for Pb, 1.05-3.53 μg/g for Cd, and 1.23-7.29 μg/g for Cr, respectively. Metal concentrations in the smoke-based tobacco products ranged from 0...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz, Hilzeth de Luna Freire Pessôa, Camila Bomfim de Sá, Andressa Brito Lira, Luciana da Silva Nunes Ramalho, Kardilandia Mendes de Oliveira, Gabriela Tafaela Dias, Cinthia Rodrigues Melo, Josué do Amaral Ramalho, Caliandra Maria Bezerra Luna Lima
Cissus sicyoides (Cs) has been traditionally used to treat diabetes and belongs to the family Vitaceae , and is known as "vegetable insulin". This study aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic non-clinical toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (EHA-Cs) . The acute test was performed in Wistar rats, administering a single dose of 40.5 mg/kg. Behavioral parameters for pharmacological screening were observed to detect signs of Central Nervous System activity; consumption of daily food and water, and weight evaluation...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Xavier Valentini, Pauline Deneufbourg, Paula Paci, Pascaline Rugira, Sophie Laurent, Annica Frau, Dimitri Stanicki, Laurence Ris, Denis Nonclercq
Nowadays, nanoparticles (NPs) of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) are abundantly produced. TiO2 NPs are present in various food products, in paints, cosmetics, sunscreens and toothpastes. However, the toxicity of TiO2 NPs on the central nervous system has been poorly investigated until now. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of TiO2 NPs on the central nervous system in vitro and in vivo . In cell cultures derived from embryonic cortical brain of rats, a significant decrease in neuroblasts was observed after 24 to 96 h of incubation with TiO2 NPs (5 to 20 μg/ml)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Zeinab I Sadek, Mohamed A Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed S Azab, Osama M Darwesh, Mahmoud S Hassan
A 205 samples representing eight different infant foods with various based materials were collected and analyzed for their microbiological properties. The contamination rate by aerobic spore formers was achieved 100% in milk based infant food with fruit, vegetables, honey, rice and infant milk powder. While, it was detected in 95, 60 and 65% of the infant food with wheat milk based, ready to use (infant food with fruit) and ready to use (infant food with vegetables), respectively. Biochemical Identification and API 50 CHB used to identify the obtained isolates and revealed that B...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Shigeaki Ito, Kanae Ishimori, Shinkichi Ishikawa
Cigarette smoke is a known risk factor for inflammatory diseases in the respiratory tract, and inflammatory exacerbation is considered pivotal to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Here, we performed two repeated exposure studies in which we exposed human bronchial epithelial tissues in an organotypic culture model to cigarette smoke extract (CSE); the first study was conducted over a four-day period to determine the suitable dose range for the extended exposure period, and the second was a one-month exposure study to elucidate the exposure-by-exposure effects in bronchial tissues...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Eissa I Fawzy, Aida I El Makawy, M Mahmoud El-Bamby, H Osama Elhamalawy
The present study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) against potential adverse effects of bisphenol-A (BPA) in male mice. BPA was administered to the mice orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight once a day for 28 successive days. While, PSO was administered to the mice orally at 1 mL/kg b w either before, with or after treatment of BPA, once a day for 28 successive days. The studied parameters were DNA damage evaluation using comet assay in liver and testes cells and micronucleus test in bone marrow; and histopathological examination of liver and testes tissues...
2018: Toxicology Reports
G K Omeiza, J Kabir, J K P Kwaga, C N Kwanashie, M Mwanza, L Ngoma
Nigeria, being a tropical nation, characterized by favorable climatic conditions, may display high chances of feed contaminations due to aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus with the consequences of health risks associated with the consumption of dairy products. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the risks of occurrence and distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus ( A. flavus ) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination levels based on the European Union (EU) and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) set limits...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Montree Tungjai, Singhadeth Sukantamala, Pimchanok Malasaem, Nathupakorn Dechsupa, Suchart Kothan
This study reveals the antioxidant properties of iodinated radiographic contrast media to be used in diagnostic radiology. Di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium (DPPH), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays were used for determining in vitro the antioxidant properties of five iodinated radiographic contrast media such as iobitridol (xenetix), iodixanol (visipaque), iohexol (omnipaque), ioxaglate (hexabrix), and isovue (iopamiro)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Siju V Abraham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Toxicology Reports
Abraham A A Osinubi, Leke Jacob Medubi, Edidiong N Akang, Lawal K Sodiq, Titilola A Samuel, Taiwo Kusemiju, James Osolu, Danladi Madu, Olufemi Fasanmade
Over 18% of pregnant women are affected by diabetes mellitus (DM) and Insulin has been the commonest drug used in its treatment. There are reports of noncompliance to insulin due to trypanophobia, with suggestions for the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs). However, the opposing views about the benefits and risk of oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) warrant a continuous search for an alternative regimen. Therefore, this study is aimed at comparing the antidiabetic effects of d-ribose-l-cysteine (riboceine) with vildagliptin, glibenclamide, metformin, glipizide and insulin in diabetes in pregnancy...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Jianzhong Wang, Feifei Sun, Shusheng Tang, Suxia Zhang, Jing Li, Xingyuan Cao
Vitacoxib is a new drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. In the current study, the mice sperm abnormality, mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus and in vivo chromosome aberration, and teratogenicity in SD rats were evaluated. Vitacoxib did not cause an increase in the frequency of structural chromosome aberrations, nor did it produce an increase in the number of micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at dose of 1250-5000 mg/kg body weight (BW)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Robin Mesnage, Martina Biserni, Eva Wozniak, Theodoros Xenakis, Charles A Mein, Michael N Antoniou
Use and thus exposure to quizalofop-p-ethyl, isoxaflutole, mesotrione and glyphosate, which are declared as active principles in commercial formulations of herbicides, is predicted to rapidly increase in coming years in an effort to overcome the wide-spread appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds, especially in fields where glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified crops are cultivated in the USA. Thus, there is an urgent need for an evaluation of metabolic effects of new pesticide ingredients used to replace glyphosate...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Tiza Ng'uni, Jeremy A Klaasen, Burtram C Fielding
Background: Medicinal plants are used by a large proportion of the global population as complementary and alternative medicines. However, little is known about their toxicity. G. africana has been used to treat wounds, coughs and skin diseases and is used in cosmetic formulations such as lotions and shampoos. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity potential of G. africana was analyzed after a single administration of 300 and 2000 mg/kgbw for acute oral toxicity and 2000 mg/kgbw for acute dermal toxicity...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Iliana E Sweis, Bryan C Cressey
Citric acid naturally exists in fruits and vegetables. However, it is not the naturally occurring citric acid, but the manufactured citric acid (MCA) that is used extensively as a food and beverage additive. Approximately 99% of the world's production of MCA is carried out using the fungus Aspergillus niger since 1919. Aspergilus niger is a known allergen. The FDA placed MCA under the category of GRAS without any research to substantiate this claim. In 2016, 2.3 million tons of MCA were produced, predominantly in China, and approximately 70% is used as a food or beverage additive...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Luis F Pieretti, Yehia Y Hammad
Background: Evaluation of the performance of a whole-body human dust exposure chamber is presented in this report. Methods: The volume of the chamber is 2.13 m3 and it is operated at a flow rate of 1.0 m3 /min. Makeup and exhaust air were filtered. A Wright Dust Feeder was used to generate fly ash, the testing agent. An elutriator was used to maintain particles in the respirable range. A Rupprecht and Patashnick PM-10 TEOM, a direct reading instrument, was used to monitor particle concentration...
2018: Toxicology Reports
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