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Toxicology Reports

Yoshinori Ikenaka, Kazutoshi Fujioka, Tomonori Kawakami, Takahiro Ichise, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Kumiko Taira, Keisuke Takahashi, Keisuke Kato, Koji Arizono, Mayumi Ishizuka
Tea is one of the world's most popular beverages due to health promoting effects. Despite these, there have been concerns about the adverse effects of tea contamination by neonicotinoid insecticides. Only a handful of studies on neonicotinoid insecticides in tea have been carried out and this study was therefore performed to determine the concentrations of seven neonicotinoid insecticides and 20 metabolites in Japanese green tea leaves, and black tea leaves from Sri Lanka; and assess the Maximum Daily Intake (MDI) of neonicotinoid insecticides...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Mai O Kadry, Rehab M Abdel-Megeed, Emad El-Meliegy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Nanotechnology is a promising era of medicine for developing targeted drug delivery system. Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) have attracted increasing attention for their wide applications as anticancer drugs. This article is concerned with the therapeutic index of chitosan nanoparticles against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC was induced in rats via repeated DEN administration in a dose of 200 mg/kg BW IP, 2 weeks later rats received (2 ml/kg BW) CCl4 orally for 2 months followed by daily treatment with chitosan nanoparticles in an oral dose of 12 mg/kg for 1 month...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Oscar Peña-Rodas, Roxana Martinez-Lopez, Roberto Hernandez-Rauda
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a metabolite of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and is excreted through cow´s milk. AFM1 contamination of milk is extended geographically and there might be seasons-related variations for both prevalence and contents, with higher than average values in regions with long periods of drought like El Salvador. Therefore, this project quantified AFM1 levels in raw cow milk and AFs in cattle feedstuffs, during the transitional dry-rainy seasons of two consecutive years and it determined the variation of occurrence and contents associated to drought...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Jung-Ho Noh, Ji-Seong Jeong, Sang-Jin Park, Eun-Young Yun, Jae Sam Hwang, Ji-Young Kim, Kyung-Jin Jung, Hee Jin Park, Hwa-Young Son, Kyoung-Sik Moon
White-spotted flower chafer ( Protaetia brevitarsis ) is an edible insect and its larva was used as a traditional Asian medicine. It's a promising material as a novel food source because of its nutritional components. In this study, as part of the preclinical toxicity program, we evaluated the toxicity of freeze-dried P. brevitarsis larva powder to develop a novel food material. In a single-dose oral toxicity study in rats, there were no changes in mortality, clinical observations, and body weight in rats administered 5000 mg/kg P...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Atif Abdulwahab A Oyouni, Shalini Saggu, Ehab Tousson, Hasibur Rehman
Tacrolimus (TAC) is used sporadically as an immunosuppressive agent for organ transplantation, but its clinical used is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) (OB) had been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and nephroprotective activity, and effective at improving renal inflammation and glomerular. In our study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of the OB against TAC-induced mitochondrial nephrotoxicity in CD1 mice. Mice were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 (control group); administered orally with normal saline (1 mL/kg) for two weeks; Group 2 (OB extract treated-group) (500 mg/kg b...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Eduard Kolesar, Eva Tvrda, Marek Halenar, Monika Schneidgenova, Lubica Chrastinova, Lubomir Ondruska, Rastislav Jurcik, Anton Kovacik, Eva Kovacikova, Peter Massanyi, Adriana Kolesarova
This study evaluates rabbit spermatozoa motility parameters after in vivo administration of amygdalin and apricot seeds during a 28-day period. Apricot seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present therein. The rabbits were randomly divided into the five groups (Ctrl-Control, P1, P2, P3, P4) with 4 males in each group. Control group received no amygdalin/apricot seeds while the experimental groups P1 and P2 received a daily intramuscular injection of amygdalin at a dose 0...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Silvia Marín, Olga Pardo, Alfredo Sánchez, Yovana Sanchis, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Guillermina Font, Vicent Yusà
Concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, tin, copper and chromium were measured in a study carried out in 2010-2011. A total of 8100 food samples were collected and composite samples for 12 food groups were analysed for metal concentration levels. Metal levels were, in general, below the maximum levels set by the current European legislation. The fish group presented the highest Cd, Hg and As levels, whereas sweeteners and condiments group was the most contaminated food group by Pb, Cr and Sn and the meat group had the highest concentrations of Cu...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Mohammad Nasiruddin Rana, Jitbanjong Tangpong, Md Masudur Rahman
Environmental pollution has become a concerning matter to human beings. Flint water crisis in the USA pointed out that pollution by heavy metal is getting worse day by day, predominantly by Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic. Despite of not having any biological role in flora and fauna, they exhibit detrimental effect following exposure (acute or chronic). Even at low dose, they affect brain, kidney and heart. Oxidative stress has been termed as cause and effect in heavy metal-induced kidney toxicity. In treatment strategy, different chelating agent, vitamins and minerals are included, though chelating agents has been showed different fatal drawbacks...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Ghulam Khadija, Ayisha Saleem, Zafrin Akhtar, Zahra Naqvi, Maham Gull, Mahnoor Masood, Sana Mukhtar, Momna Batool, Nida Saleem, Tahir Rasheed, Naira Nizam, Ather Ibrahim, Furhan Iqbal
Titanium, Aluminum and Vanadium (Ti 6Al 4V) alloy are frequently used as surgical implant but regarding their compatibility in living systems is limited. Ti 6Al 4V was prepared from high purity constituents and Ti 6Al 4V alloy powder (25 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight) was gavaged to albino mice for 8 days. A saline treated control group was maintained in parallel. A series of behavioral (rota rod, light and dark box, open field and novel object) test performance, complete blood count, selected serum (HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides) parameters, antioxidant metabolites from vital organs (superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation) from vital organs and body weight were determined in both treatments...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Rochelle N Wickramasekara, Seth Morrill, Yasmine Farhat, Sarah J Smith, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke
Cluster of differentiation 44 (Cd44), a hyaluronan receptor, and the secreted hyaluronan-binding protein Inter-α-trypsin Inhibitor Heavy chain 3 (Itih3) play an important role in cancer and oxidative stress. Smoking of tobacco reduces Itih3 in the plasma and activates hyaluronan signaling through Cd44, but the impact of Cd44 on Itih3 expression is unknown. Here, we studied changes induced by the tobacco component nicotine on the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system and Itih3 gene expression in Cd44 knockout mice...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Muhammed Majeed, Sarang Bani, Beena Bhat, Anjali Pandey, Lakshmi Mundkur, Prakriti Neupane
The present study was taken up to evaluate the single dose acute toxicity, 28 days and 90 days repeated dose toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of standardized 40% Garcinol in experimental rodents. The studies were conducted in compliance with OECD principles of good laboratory practice, guidelines for testing of chemicals no.420, 407, 408 and 421 respectively. Single dose acute oral toxicity was conducted on female Wistar rats as sighting study step-I (300 mg/kg) & sighting study step-II (2000 mg/kg) and main study (2000 mg/kg)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Elif Erdem Guzel, Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, Ahmet Tektemur, Durrin Ozlem Dabak, Ibrahim Enver Ozan
This study was carried out to determine the changes in the lungs of the rat pups exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy period and to investigate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid, which is administered during pregnancy, on these changes. Spraque-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups: control, tobacco smoke (TS), tobacco smoke + alpha lipoic acid (TS + ALA) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA). The rats in control group were untreated. Rats were exposed to TS twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Hideki Kakutani, Tomohiro Yuzuriha, Ema Akiyama, Teruyuki Nakao, Souichi Ohta
People are frequently and unintentionally exposed to many chemical compounds, such as environmental pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in food and from the atmosphere. In particular, endocrine-disrupting TBBPA and dioxins are found in human breast milk and in the body. Conventional studies evaluate toxicity by administering a single substance to cells or animals, but evaluation of the toxicity of mixtures of these ingested compounds is essential for "true" toxicological assessment...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Wael M Al-Amoudi
Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a synthetic pyrethroid that is widely used to control insecticide. Ginger is a traditional plant that is widely used as a spice or folk medicine. This study evaluates the antioxidant effect of ginger extract on thyroid toxicity induced by LCT in albino rats. Adult Rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: Group 1: control, Group 2: oral ginger treatment (24 mg/ml, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), Group 3: oral LCT treatment (1/100 LD50 , 3 days/week for 4 weeks), Group 4: oral LCT and ginger mixture treatment...
2018: Toxicology Reports
J K Dunnick, A R Pandiri, B A Merrick, G E Kissling, H Cunny, E Mutlu, S Waidyanatha, R Sills, H L Hong, T V Ton, T Maynor, L Recio, S L Phillips, M J Devito, A Brix
Pentabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been phased out in Europe and in the United States, but these lipid soluble chemicals persist in the environment and are found human and animal tissues. PBDEs have limited genotoxic activity. However, in a 2-year cancer study of a PBDE mixture (DE-71) (0, 3, 15, or 50 mg/kg (rats); 0, 3, 30, or 100 mg/kg (mice)) there were treatment-related liver tumors in male and female Wistar Han rats [Crl:WI(Han) after in utero/postnatal/adult exposure, and in male and female B6C3F1 mice, after adult exposure...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Hilary M Gaudet, Emily Christensen, Brandon Conn, Sara Morrow, Lauren Cressey, Janina Benoit
Context: Metalloestrogens are small ionic metals that activate the estrogen receptor (ER). Studies have shown that when metalloestrogens bind to the ER, there is an increase in transcription and expression of estrogen-regulated genes, which induces proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Methylmercury (MeHg), a metalloestrogen, is present in the environment and is toxic at moderate to high concentrations. However, at lower concentrations MeHg may promote the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancers and protect cells against pro-apoptotic signals...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Hanaa Mahmoud Mohamed, Magdy Sayed Aly
Chemotherapeutic agents for cancer are highly toxic to healthy tissues at therapeutic doses and hence alternative medicine avenues are widely researched. Most of the studies on alternative medicine have suggested that Euphorbia plant possesses considerable antitumor and antibacterial properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo genotoxic effects of Euphorbia triaculeata extract on mice bone marrow cells using chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay. This study also deals with the effect of E...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Hae Jin Lee, Bao Le, Dong-Ryung Lee, Bong-Keun Choi, Seung Hwan Yang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity and the action mechanism of Cissus quadrangularis extracts (CQR-300) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cissus quadrangularis was extracted with hot water, resulting in CQR-300. The anti-obesity activity of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was examined by Oil-red O staining. Possible mechanisms of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with CQR-300 inhibited lipid accumulation without showing cytotoxicity to 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Fusun Erten, Vijaya Juturu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of capsaicinoids (CAPs) on lipid metabolism, inflammation, antioxidant status and the changes in gene products involved in these metabolic functions in exercised rats. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7) (i) No exercise and no CAPs, (ii) No exercise + CAPs (iii) Regular exercise, (iv) Regular exercise + CAPs. Rats were administered as 0.2 mg capsaicinoids from 10 mg/kg BW/day Capsimax® daily for 8 weeks...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Carlos A Chan-Keb, Claudia M Agraz-Hernández, Roman A Perez-Balan, Mónica I Gómez-Solano, Teresita D N J Maldonado-Montiel, Baldemar Ake-Canche, Eduardo J Gutiérrez-Alcántara
The seeds germination, stem and root elongation of water lettuces ( Lactuca sativa L ) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of water and soil of Champotón River, Campeche, Mexico. water and soil sample were collected from two sampling sites. Lettuce seeds were exposed to three different dilutions of water and aqueous extract of soil. Significant differences on germination, root and stem elongation of lettuce were detected. Water showed more phytotoxic effect than aqueous extract of soil and inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 ) for radicle exposed to river water was 52% while stem elongation was 69%...
2018: Toxicology Reports
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