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Toxicology Reports

Alexander I Terry, Sandra Benitez-Kruidenier, Gregory K DeKrey
Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide comprised of two isomers: endosulfan-α and endosulfan-β. Endosulfan exposure has been shown to elevate some inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in animals or cultures of animal cells. Because the two endosulfan isomers can vary in their biological activities, the goal of this study was to determine if individual endosulfan isomers differentially impact production of NO or TNF by the mouse macrophage cell RAW 264.7 at non-cytotoxic levels...
2018: Toxicology Reports
L Segal, M G Penman, Y Piriou
The potential systemic toxicity of Oligopin®, a French Maritime Pine Bark extract (FMPBE) rich in procyanidolic oligomers, was evaluated in an acute oral limit test and a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with Sprague Dawley rats. The potential mutagenicity was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Oligopin® was nongenotoxic in both bacterial and human cell assays, was not acutely toxic via oral administration at up to 2000 mg/kg and was well tolerated following 90 days of oral administration to SD rats, with a no observed adverse effect level of 1000 mg/kg/day...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Mita Munshi, Khairun Nafiz Tumu, Md Nazmul Hasan, Md Ziaul Amin
This study assesses the biochemical effects of commercially available fish feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch ( Anabas testudineus ). Subsequently, its impact on experimental animal, Swiss albino mice, is also examined. In order to access the impact of commercial fish feed and feed consumption fish on the experimental animal, the proximate, biochemical and histopathological analyses were done using standard methods. The proximate composition as well as the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Mn, As, Zn, and Cd in the fish feed, different parts of the A...
2018: Toxicology Reports
S M Plummer, J Wright, R A Currie
An increased incidence of liver tumours in the long term rodent bioassay is not an uncommon finding, invariably as a result of a non-genotoxic mode of action. Non-genotoxic liver carcinogenesis has been found to involve activation of certain nuclear hormone receptors (NHR) including the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and more recently the induction of specific microRNAs (miRs), has also been demonstrated following CAR activation in studies up to 90 days (Koufaris et al...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Shashikant Sharma, Gowri K Uggini, Venus Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Pesticide exposure to the non target groups especially during embryonic development has quite often resulted in congenital malformations. A commercially available combination insecticide (Ci, 50% chlorpyrifos and 5% cypermethrin) is known to induce ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) wherein abdominal viscera protrude out of the ventral body wall. Herein, an attempt was made to understand the mechanistic insight into Ci induced VBWDs. For this, before incubation, the chick embryos were dosed with the test chemical and then at different developmental stages of incubation, they were monitored for the changes in the expression of certain genes, which are indispensable for the ventral body wall closure since they regulate the cell fate, proliferation and survival...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Sivakumar Rajeshkumar, Xiaoyu Li
In the present study, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb) content were determined in freshwater edible fishes Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus and Pelteobagrus fluvidraco, which were caught from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of China. The results showed that the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb content in the edible parts of the two fish species were much lower than Chinese Food Health Criterion (1994). However, the results showed marked differences in the four analyzed metal content between the two species and different tissues as well as significant variations...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Moumita Dash, Moulima Maity, Arindam Dey, Hasina Perveen, Shamima Khatun, Lipirani Jana, Sandip Chattopadhyay
Arsenic consumption through drinking water is a worldwide major health problem. Management of arsenic intoxication with invasive, painful therapy using metal chelators is usually used as a conventional treatment strategy in human. In this present study, we examined the efficacy of oral administration of N-acetyl l-cysteine (NAC) in limiting arsenic-mediated female reproductive disorders and oxidative stress in female Wistar rats. The treatment was continued for 8 days (2 estrus cycles) on rats with sodium arsenite (10 mg/Kg body weight) orally...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Rupal Purena, Rohit Seth, Renu Bhatt
Nephrotoxicity is a major limiting factor in cisplatin treatment. In the present study hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Emblica officinalis was investigated for its protective role in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The experiment was designed for 14 days and male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups (n = 5). Group 1 served as control (with no treatment), group 2 served as a vehicle control and received 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally (i.p.) on 11th day of the treatment, group 3 received a single dose of cisplatin on 11th day (12 mg/kg body weight, i...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Ahmed S Gouda, Nagla A El-Nabarawy, Samah F Ibrahim
Background: Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) has many antioxidant and protective properties. Objective: to investigate the antioxidant activities of Lam in counteracting the high oxidative stress caused by acute sub-lethal aluminium phosphide (AlP) intoxication in rat heart. These activities will be detected by histopathological examination and some oxidative stress biomarkers. Methods: a single sub-lethal dose of Alp (2 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, and Lam was given orally at a dose (100 mg/kg body weight) one hour after receiving AlP to rats...
2018: Toxicology Reports
M Tholkappian, R Ravisankar, A Chandrasekaran, J Prince Prakash Jebakumar, K V Kanagasabapathy, M V R Prasad, K K Satapathy
The concentration of some heavy metals: Al, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, Mg, Mn, V, Cr, Zn, Ni and Co in sediments from Pulicat Lake to Vadanemmeli along Chennai Coast, Tamil Nadu has been determined using EDXRF technique. The mean concentrations of Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn were found to be 1918, 25436, 9832, 9859, 2109, 8209, 41.58, 34.14, 160.80, 2.85. 18.79 and 29.12 mg kg-1 respectively. These mean concentrations do not exceed the world crustal average. The level of pollution attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators in order to determine anthropogenically derived contaminations...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Shikha Singh, Rishikesh K Tiwari, Ravi S Pandey
Pesticides are applied to control the pests indoor and outdoor; however, their remarkable amount reaches to the aquatic system through various routes like run-off, leaching, spray-drift, effluent from factories. These are reported to have negative metabolic impact on different non-target aquatic organisms like fishes. Thus, present study is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of two groups of pesticides, organophosphate and pyrethroid, namely triazophos and deltamethrin, respectively. The test was conducted for 96 h period in a freshwater teleost, Channa punctatus ...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Neeraj Verma, Nivedita Singh, Somya Asthana, Shailendra K Gupta, Anurag Tripathi, Mukul Das
Consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds has been associated with the hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Recently, we have characterized the toxic anthraquinones (AQs) such as Emodin, Rhein, Aloe-emodin, Chrysophanol and Physcion in CO seeds and detected these moieties in the bio fluids of CO poisoning cases. As AQs were detected in the serum of HME patients, their interaction with key biomolecules including protein, DNA and glutathione (GSH) is imperative. In this regard, we have previously reported the interaction of these AQs with serum albumin protein and their subsequent biological effects...
2018: Toxicology Reports
N Defarge, J Spiroux de Vendômois, G E Séralini
The major pesticides of the world are glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), and their toxicity is highly debated. To understand their mode of action, the comparative herbicidal and toxicological effects of glyphosate (G) alone and 14 of its formulations were studied in this work, as a model for pesticides. GBH are mixtures of water, with commonly 36-48% G claimed as the active principle. As with other pesticides, 10-20% of GBH consist of chemical formulants. We previously identified these by mass spectrometry and found them to be mainly families of petroleum-based oxidized molecules, such as POEA, and other contaminants...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Harun Arslan
Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A and MT1 genes in the common carp exposed to imidacloprid...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Lucie Fojtíková, Anna Šuláková, Martina Blažková, Barbora Holubová, Martin Kuchař, Petra Mikšátková, Oldřich Lapčík, Ladislav Fukal
In recent years, the use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) as drugs of abuse has greatly increased. SCs are associated with a risk of severe poisoning or even death. Therefore, more rapid, cost effective and reliable methods are needed, especially for the screening of drivers after traffic accidents and for detailed toxicological analysis in forensic laboratories. In this study, we developed a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of JWH-200 in oral fluids...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Julia María Alatorre-Cruz, Wendoline Pita-López, Rosa Guadalupe López-Reyes, Roberto Augusto Ferriz-Martínez, Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez, María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo, Paola Jazmín Aranda Vargas, Gabriela López-Herrera, Adriana Jheny Rodríguez-Méndez, Aarón Zamora-Arroyo, Héctor Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Tércia Reis de Souza, Alejandro Blanco-Labra, Teresa García-Gasca
Previous work showed that Tepary bean ( Phaseolus acutifolius ) lectins exhibit differential cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines by apoptosis induction. In vivo studies using a Tepary bean lectin fraction (TBLF, 50 mg/kg of body weight) after colon cancer induction in rats showed that TBLF inhibited early precancerous lesions without systemic toxicity however, loss of body weight gain and activation of immune cells were observed. In order to know more about the possible adverse effects, we evaluated the administration of TBLF on digestive and immune organs...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Heba N Gad El-Hak, Abdel Raouf A Moustafa, Samira R Mansour
Moringa is multipurpose promising tree particularly for medicinal use. With its high nutritive and pharmaceutical values, every part of the tree is suitable for human consumptions. The use of vegetate parts, seeds or extracts requires toxicological evaluations to prove and verify safety uses before being added to pharmaceutical medicine, or any other products related to human diet. In this study, Moringa peregrina seeds, grown in high elevation mountain in Saint Catherin area, were investigated and evaluated for their toxicity with respect to its topological potential through histological and biochemical studies in Albino rats...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Barsha Dassarma, Dilip K Nandi, Somnath Gangopadhyay, Saptadip Samanta
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ), a hepatotoxic agent is widely used to study the toxic mechanisms in experimental animals. This study was carried out to establish the hepatoprotective measures of food preservative antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytolune (BHA, BHT) when mixed with food towards carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) intoxication (230 mg/ kg b wt/rat/day) in rat. Biochemical markers like serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (AST), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin content, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the end product of lipid peroxidanion were measured...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Nader Nciri, Namjun Cho
The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction; the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety on the brush border disaccharidase activities in the jejunal mucosa of Wistar rats. Twenty young adult male rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 10 rats each: Control, rats were gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS); Experimental, rats were orogastrically fed a dose of 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Yangho Kim
The objective of the present study was to evaluate sex, menopause, pregnancy, and age-specific differences of blood manganese (Mn) levels in relation to iron status, and to assess the toxicological implications of these relationships. Females of childbearing age have higher concentrations of blood Mn than males because women have lower concentrations of ferritin. Previous studies indicated significant increases in blood Mn levels throughout pregnancy, and that the geometric mean of blood Mn was significantly higher in premenopausal women than postmenopausal women...
2018: Toxicology Reports
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