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Toxicology Reports

D Sureshkumar, Shamshad Begum, N M Johannah, Balu Maliakel, I M Krishnakumar
The present study investigated the safety of a saponin-rich standardized extract of fenugreek seeds (FenuSMART® ; FHE), that has been clinically shown to be effective in ameliorating the postmenopausal discomforts and establishing hormonal balance. The safety was assessed by oral acute (2500 mg/kg b. wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b. wt. for 90 days) toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity studies employing Salmonella typhimurium strains. Administration of FHE did not produce any toxicologically significant changes in clinical/behavioral observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weight, organ weight, feed consumption, urinalysis, hematology and clinical biochemistry parameters when compared to the untreated control group of animals...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Asieh Karimani, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Mohammad Reza Zirak, Ramin Rezaee, Bruno Megarbane, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Gholamreza Karimi
Aluminum phosphide (AlP), an inexpensive solid fumigant, is frequently used for grain conservation despite its alleged high toxicity. Increased utilization of AlP for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes during the last four decades has resulted in increment of AlP-attributed poisoning numbers. Moreover, due to its limitless accessibility in developing countries, AlP has been increasingly used for suicide. Moisture-exposed AlP undergoes a chemical reaction producing phosphine gas, which in turn inhibits cytochrome oxidase and impedes cellular oxygen consumption...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Subrata Ghosh, Anirban Roy, Anup Singhania, Somnath Chatterjee, Snehasikta Swarnakar, Daisuke Fujita, Anirban Bandyopadhyay
PC, PCM, PCS, and PCMS are our designed & synthesized ∼8 nm PAMAM dendrimer (P) -based organic supramolecular systems, for example, PCMS has 32 molecular motors (M), 4 pH sensors (S) and 2 multi-level molecular electronic switches (C). We have reported earlier following a preliminary in-vitro test that the synthesized PCMS can selectively target cancer cell nucleotides if triggered wirelessly by an electromagnetic pulse. Here to further verify its drug potential, we have studied the preliminary efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of P derivatives (PC, PCM, PCMS) in-vivo and in-vitro...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Taynah Vicari, Ana Carolina Dagostim, Tatiane Klingelfus, Gabrieli Limberger Galvan, Patrícia Sampaio Monteiro, Letícia da Silva Pereira, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis, Marta Margarete Cestari
Growing production and utilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NpTiO2 ) invariably lead to their accumulation in oceans, rivers and other water bodies, thus increasing the risk to the welfare of this ecosystem. The progressive launch of these nanoparticles in the environment has been accompanied by concern in understanding the dynamics and the toxic effect of these xenobiotic in different ecosystems, either on their own or in tandem with different contaminants (such as organic compounds and heavy metals), possibly altering their toxicity...
2018: Toxicology Reports
L López-Rios, T Vega, R Chirino, J C Jung, B Davis, R Pérez-Machín, J C Wiebe
Xanthigen® is a nutraceutical combination for weight management capable of increasing energy expenditure via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in white adipose tissue. It consists of brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida extract, rich in the carotenoid fucoxanthin (FX) and pomegranate seed oil (PSO), rich in punicic acid. Xanthigen was screened to determine its genotoxicity and 90-days repeated oral toxicity. Genotoxicity was assessed with the Ames test (TA89, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, WP2), chromosomal aberration assay (Chinese hamster ovary cells) and mammalian micronucleus test (in mice)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
R Manikandan, A Porselvi, G C Keerthana, K Vaishnavi, S Girija, Murali Narasimhan, T M Vijayakumar
Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is the most common cutaneous adverse drug reaction. Cefotaxime, a broad-spectrum third-generation cephalosporin, appeared to be a safe and effective therapy in greater than 90% of infections including cellulitis, abscesses and necrotizing ulcers of the skin and subcutaneous tissues but here we report a rare case of 36 years old female patient developed generalized bullous FDE after intravenous administration of Cefotaxime.
2018: Toxicology Reports
Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Babalwa Jack, Amsha Viraragavan, Carmen Pheiffer, Rabia Johnson, Johan Louw, Christo J F Muller
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an effective solvent and cytoprotectant agent that can induce diverse actions in experimental settings, ranging from metabolic stress to cytotoxic effects depending on the concentration used. Therefore, for the quality of experiments and reproducibility of results it is essential to establish a precise and non-toxic dose of DMSO within a specific cell system. 3T3-L1 adipocytes, represent a well-established in vitro cell model used to assess the anti-obesity potential of extracts and compounds...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Shinjini Ganguly, Ayan Chandra, Indu B Chatterjee
Urothelial cancer of the renal pelvis (CRP) is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking. However, the molecular pathogenesis of initiation and progression of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced CRP is unknown. Majority of CRP is high grade and high stage at presentation and has a high recurrence rate even after surgery. Earlier we reported that prolonged treatment (24 weeks) of a guinea pig model with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), a product of CS in vivo, produced carcinoma in situ in the renal pelvis, a noninvasive cancer...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Abolanle Saheed Adekunle, John Adekunle Oyedele Oyekunle, Ibitomilola Janet Ola, Olaoluwa Ruth Obisesan, Nobanathi Wendy Maxakato
The study was carried out to determine the presence and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some personal care products in Nigeria. Commonly used consumer care products grouped into four classes, namely: plastics, cosmetics, disinfectants and washing products, were purchased from some supermarkets in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The solid samples were pulverized and the PAHs and OCPs were extracted with n-hexane and dichloromethane, respectively using Soxhlet extraction method, while the liquid samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Rituparna Ghosh, Koushik Mana, Sumana Sarkhel
Objectives: The primary symptoms associated with snake envenomation are both systemic and local. The local symptoms are characterized by pain, swelling, haemorrhage and myonecrosis at the site of bite. The present study investigates the ameliorating effect of the aqueous bark extract of A lstonia scholaris bark on viper venom induced histopathological and biochemical changes in liver and kidney of swiss albino mice models. Methods & materials: Swiss albino mice (20 ± 2)g were treated with sublethal doses(0...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Kalaiyarasu Thangaraj, Karthi Natesan, Mariyappan Palani, Manju Vaiyapuri
Orientin, a c- glycosyl flavonoid found copiously in roobios tea and various medicinal plants is well known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. The present study aims to investigate the anti-cancer efficacy of orientin on 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and cell proliferation in Wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups and fed with high fat diet. Group 1 left as untreated control. Group 2 administered with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) for initial 4 weeks and left untreated...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Nasima Khan, Farhana Afroz, Mst Nadira Begum, Satyajit Roy Rony, Suriya Sharmin, Fatema Moni, Choudhury Mahmood Hasan, Koushik Shaha, Md Hossain Sohrab
This study reports the chemical investigation and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Fusarium solani isolated from Cassia alata Linn. growing in Bangladesh. This plant was collected from conservation forest in Bangladesh and belongs to the Caesalpiniaceae family. The endophytic fungus Fusarium solani was isolated from the tissue of root of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Julie A Brickel, Ray A Matulka, Amy E Steffek
Consumers are demanding plant-based alternative protein sources to complement traditional animal-based protein sources to fulfill their dietary protein requirements. KALGAE™, a dried algal biomass derived from Klebsormidium flaccidum var. ZIVO, is a potential source of plant-based protein that has been evaluated for safety to support its use as a food ingredient. There were no treatment-related adverse effects observed in the 14-day palatability/toxicity or 90-day dietary toxicity study in CRL Sprague-Dawley CD® IGS rats...
2018: Toxicology Reports
M Z Rizk, D M Abo-El-Matty, H F Aly, H I Abd-Alla, S M Saleh, E A Younis, A M Elnahrawy, A A Haroun
The current research aims to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of sour orange albedo extract (SOAE) and two flavanones loaded-tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) using sol-gel technique, in adose100 mg/kg body weight taken orally or45 days against acrylamide (ACR)toxicity in rats. This was achieved through measuring the activities of specific biochemical parameters related to liver functions in tissue of ACR intoxicated rats as compared to normal one. Liver functions included alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers; superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde, MDA)...
2018: Toxicology Reports
O Yawson Emmanuel, Kosisochukwu Kingsley Obasi, Ismail Lawal
Telfairia occidentalis (TO), commonly called Pumpkin is a plant with numerous medicinal values. Here we investigated the effects of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous leaves extract on the testis of Adult Male Wistar Rats (Rattus novergicus). Thirty-Five (35) adult male rats were grouped into seven (7) containing five (n = 5) rats in each group. Group A served as control, group B and C received 100 mg/kg body weight of Telfairia occidentalis for two and four weeks respectively, group D and E received 200 mg/kg body weight of Telfairia occidentalis for two and four weeks respectively, while group F and G received 300 mg/kg body weight of Telfairia occidentalis for two and four weeks respectively...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Carmen Limban, Diana C Nuţă, Cornel Chiriţă, Simona Negreș, Andreea L Arsene, Marina Goumenou, Spyros P Karakitsios, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Dimosthenis A Sarigiannis
In order to identify compounds with potential toxicity problems, particular attention is paid to structural alerts, which are high chemical reactivity molecular fragments or fragments that can be transformed via bioactivation by human enzymes into fragments with high chemical reactivity. The concept has been introduced in order to reduce the likelihood that future candidate substances as pharmaceuticals will have undesirable toxic effects. A significant proportion (∼78-86%) of drugs characterized by residual toxicity contain structural alerts; there is also evidence indicating the formation of active metabolites as a causal factor for the toxicity of 62-69% of these molecules...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Yair Binyamin, Amit Frenkel, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Ori Shliom, Moti Klein
Hydrazine is a hazardous material that is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in rocket and jet fuels, including the emergency power unit of F-16 model jets. We present four ground crew technicians who were exposed to hydrazine for less than one minute, due to a voltage fall in an F-16 jet. Physical examinations were normal and none of the technicians were symptomatic for toxicity. One of the technicians had abnormal blood chemistry levels for liver and muscle enzymes: serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT)-321U/L, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT)-123U/L, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) 3300U/L...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Elif Ebru Alkan, Ismail Celik
There is an increasing interest against to fight of diabetes by using hypoglycemic plants in the world. The public thinks that Heracleum persicum (HP) has antidiabetic effect local consumer in Turkey. As far as our literature survey, no studies have been reported so far on antidiabetic effects and toxic risk potential of the HP lyophilized extract supplementation used in this study. The aim of this study, for the first time, was to investigate the therapeutic effects of diabetic complications, antioxidant properties and toxic risk potential of HP against experimentaly streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats, which were evaluated by measuring the level of serum biomarker releated diabetes complications changes such glucose, insülin, c-peptide, lipid profile (LP), hepatic and renal damage biomarkers (HRDB), glucosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), antioxidant defense system constituents (ADSCs), malondialdehyde (MDA) content measured in erythrocyte, brain, kidney and liver tissues, and α-glucosidase activitiy of small intestine...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Azharuddin Daphedar, Tarikere C Taranath
Noble metal nanoparticles afford a tool for investigation and its application in biological systems has had the greatest impact in biology and biomedicine. The present work reports an ecofriendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous leaf extract of Getonia floribunda. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by using following instruments viz. UV-vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD AFM and HR-TEM. The UV-vis spectrum showed a characteristic absorption peak at 404 nm...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Ola I Muhammad, Usama M Mahmoud, Francesco Fazio, Alaa El-Din H Sayed
Although many studies on the hematological and biochemical parameters in fishes have been done, still there are some shortage in the estimation and evaluation of the baseline's values of marine and freshwater fishes. Recently, the use of hematology and biochemistry of fishes in toxicology, aquaculture, environmental pollution, feeding, and antioxidants studies has been increased. In this study we introduced the importance of those parameters and their importance as biomarkers in fish toxicology from previous literature and as new findings...
2018: Toxicology Reports
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