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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

Claire K S Meikle, Clare A Kelly, Priyanka Garg, Leah M Wuescher, Ramadan A Ali, Randall G Worth
Platelets are critical to hemostatic and immunological function, and are key players in cancer progression, metastasis, and cancer-related thrombosis. Platelets interact with immune cells to stimulate anti-tumor responses and can be activated by immune cells and tumor cells. Platelet activation can lead to complex interactions between platelets and tumor cells. Platelets facilitate cancer progression and metastasis by: (1) forming aggregates with tumor cells; (2) inducing tumor growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and invasion; (3) shielding circulating tumor cells from immune surveillance and killing; (4) facilitating tethering and arrest of circulating tumor cells; and (5) promoting angiogenesis and tumor cell establishment at distant sites...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Lorena Martín-Jaular, Armando de Menezes-Neto, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Míriam Díaz-Varela, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Francesc E Borras, Maria Montoya, Hernando A Del Portillo
[This corrects the article on p. 131 in vol. 4, PMID: 27900319.].
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Richa Singh, Shams Kursan, Mohamed Y Almiahoub, Mohammed M Almutairi, Tomás Garzón-Muvdi, Francisco J Alvarez-Leefmans, Mauricio Di Fulvio
Na(+)K(+)2Cl(-) co-transporters (NKCCs) effect the electroneutral movement of Na(+)-K(+) and 2Cl(-) ions across the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells. There are two known NKCC isoforms, NKCC1 (Slc12a2) and NKCC2 (Slc12a1). NKCC1 is a ubiquitously expressed transporter involved in cell volume regulation, Cl(-) homeostasis and epithelial salt secretion, whereas NKCC2 is abundantly expressed in kidney epithelial cells of the thick ascending loop of Henle, where it plays key roles in NaCl reabsorption and electrolyte homeostasis...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Yoshiyuki Matsubara, Mikiharu Nakano, Kazuki Kawamura, Masaoki Tsudzuki, Jun-Ichi Funahashi, Kiyokazu Agata, Yoichi Matsuda, Atsushi Kuroiwa, Takayuki Suzuki
Hereditary Multiple Malformation (HMM) is a naturally occurring, autosomal recessive, homozygous lethal mutation found in Japanese quail. Homozygote embryos (hmm(-/-)) show polydactyly similar to talpid(2) and talpid(3) mutants. Here we characterize the molecular profile of the hmm(-/-) limb bud and identify the cellular mechanisms that cause its polydactyly. The hmm(-/-) limb bud shows a severe lack of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, and the autopod has 4 to 11 unidentifiable digits with syn-, poly-, and brachydactyly...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
D Craig Ayre, Sherri L Christian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Lucie Roussel, Shantelle LaFayette, Dao Nguyen, Carolyn J Baglole, Simon Rousseau
Pseudomonas aeruginosa are gram-negative bacteria that frequently infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This bacterium is highly responsive to changes in its environment, resulting in the expression of a diverse array of genes that may contribute to the host inflammatory response. P. aeruginosa is well-known to induce neutrophilic inflammation via the activation of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs). Recently, it was shown that pyocyanin, a phenazine produced by P. aeruginosa, binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), leading to neutrophilic inflammation as part of the host defense response...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Michael Schrader, Markus Islinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Sara Antonini, Marina Montali, Emanuela Jacchetti, Sandro Meucci, Paolo D Parchi, Serena Barachini, Francesca M Panvini, Simone Pacini, Iacopo Petrini, Marco Cecchini
Mesangiogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) are a very peculiar population of cells present in the human adult bone marrow, only recently discovered and characterized. Owing to their differentiation potential, MPCs can be considered progenitors for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and for this reason they potentially represent a promising cell population to apply for skeletal tissue regeneration applications. Here, we evaluate the effects of surface nanotopography on MPCs, considering the possibility that this specific physical stimulus alone can trigger MPC differentiation toward the mesenchymal lineage...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Olga Vagin, David O Beenhouwer
Septins are small GTPases that play a role in several important cellular processes. In this review, we focus on the roles of septins in protein stabilization. Septins may regulate protein stability by: (1) interacting with proteins involved in degradation pathways, (2) regulating the interaction between transmembrane proteins and cytoskeletal proteins, (3) affecting the mobility of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayers, and (4) modulating the interaction of proteins with their adaptor or signaling proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Bipan K Deb, Gaiti Hasan
The mechanism of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) brings extracellular Ca(2+) into cells after depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis by SOCE helps control various intracellular signaling functions in both non-excitable and excitable cells. Whereas essential components of the SOCE pathway are well characterized, molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of this pathway need investigation. A class of proteins recently demonstrated as regulating SOCE is septins. These are filament-forming GTPases that assemble into higher order structures...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Waleed M Elhelaly, Nicholas T Lam, Mohamed Hamza, Shuda Xia, Hesham A Sadek
Heart failure is a costly and deadly disease, affecting over 23 million patients worldwide, half of which die within 5 years of diagnosis. The pathophysiological basis of heart failure is the inability of the adult heart to regenerate lost or damaged myocardium. Although limited myocyte turnover does occur in the adult heart, it is insufficient for restoration of contractile function (Nadal-Ginard, 2001; Laflamme et al., 2002; Quaini et al., 2002; Hsieh et al., 2007; Bergmann et al., 2009, 2012). In contrast to lower vertebrates (Poss et al...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Li-Jin Hsu, Ming-Fu Chiang, Chun-I Sze, Wan-Pei Su, Ye Vone Yap, I-Ting Lee, Hsiang-Ling Kuo, Nan-Shan Chang
Hyaluronidase HYAL-2 is a membrane-anchored protein and also localizes, in part, in the lysosome. Recent study from animal models revealed that both HYAL-1 and HYAL-2 are essential for the metabolism of hyaluronan (HA). Hyal-2 deficiency is associated with chronic thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolytic anemia in mice due to over accumulation of high molecular size HA. HYAL-2 is essential for platelet generation. Membrane HYAL-2 degrades HA bound by co-receptor CD44. Also, in a non-canonical signal pathway, HYAL-2 serves as a receptor for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) to signal with downstream tumor suppressors WWOX and SMAD4 to control gene transcription...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Gianluca Baldanzi, Valentina Bettio, Valeria Malacarne, Andrea Graziani
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) terminate diacylglycerol (DAG) signaling and promote phosphatidic acid (PA) production. Isoform specific regulation of DGKs activity and localization allows DGKs to shape the DAG and PA gradients. The capacity of DGKs to constrain the areas of DAG signaling is exemplified by their role in defining the contact interface between T cells and antigen presenting cells: the immune synapse. Upon T cell receptor engagement, both DGK α and ζ metabolize DAG at the immune synapse thus constraining DAG signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Naoko Fujimura
The vertebrate eye is a highly specialized sensory organ, which is derived from the anterior neural plate, head surface ectoderm, and neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The single central eye field, generated from the anterior neural plate, divides to give rise to the optic vesicle, which evaginates toward the head surface ectoderm. Subsequently, the surface ectoderm, in conjunction with the optic vesicle invaginates to form the lens vesicle and double-layered optic cup, respectively. This complex process is controlled by transcription factors and several intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways including WNT/β-catenin signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Arata Nagasaka, Tomoyasu Shinoda, Takumi Kawaue, Makoto Suzuki, Kazuaki Nagayama, Takeo Matsumoto, Naoto Ueno, Ayano Kawaguchi, Takaki Miyata
Cell-producing events in developing tissues are mechanically dynamic throughout the cell cycle. In many epithelial systems, cells are apicobasally tall, with nuclei and somata that adopt different apicobasal positions because nuclei and somata move in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This movement is apical during G2 phase and basal during G1 phase, whereas mitosis occurs at the apical surface. These movements are collectively referred to as interkinetic nuclear migration, and such epithelia are called "pseudostratified...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
John W Fuseler, Mani T Valarmathi
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free-radical gas molecule, which is highly diffusible and can activate a wide range of downstream effectors, with rapid and widespread cellular effects. NO is a versatile signaling mediator with a plethora of cellular functions. For example, NO has been shown to regulate actin, the microfilament, dependent cellular functions, and also acts as a putative stem cell differentiation-inducing agent. In this study, using a wound-healing model of cellular migration, we have explored the effect of exogenous NO on the kinetics of movement and morphological changes in postnatal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Wensi Tao, Robert Moore, Elizabeth R Smith, Xiang-Xi Xu
Disabled-2 (Dab2) is a clathrin and cargo binding endocytic adaptor protein, and cell biology studies revealed that Dab2 plays a role in cellular trafficking of a number of transmembrane receptors and signaling proteins. A PTB/PID domain located in the N-terminus of Dab2 binds the NPXY motif(s) present at the cytoplasmic tails of certain transmembrane proteins/receptors. The membrane receptors reported to bind directly to Dab2 include LDL receptor and its family members LRP1 and LRP2 (megalin), growth factor receptors EGFR and FGFR, and the cell adhesion receptor beta1 integrin...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Valeria Purpura, Elena Bondioli, Davide Melandri, Pier C Parodi, Luca Valenti, Michele Riccio
The graft of autologous fat for the augmentation of soft tissue is a common practice frequently used in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. In addition, the presence of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) in adipose tissue stimulates the regeneration of tissue in which it is applied after the autologous fat grafting improving the final clinical results. Due to these characteristics, there is an increasing interest in the use of ASCs for the treatment of several clinical conditions. As a consequence, the use of clean room environment is required for the production of cell-based therapies...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Clara Di Germanio, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Barbara Barboni
The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Vimal K Singh, Abhishek Saini, Manisha Kalsan, Neeraj Kumar, Ramesh Chandra
Stem cells are defined by their capabilities to self-renew and give rise to various types of differentiated cells depending on their potency. They are classified as pluripotent, multipotent, and unipotent as demonstrated through their potential to generate the variety of cell lineages. While pluripotent stem cells may give rise to all types of cells in an organism, Multipotent and Unipotent stem cells remain restricted to the particular tissue or lineages. The potency of these stem cells can be defined by using a number of functional assays along with the evaluation of various molecular markers...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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