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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913335/extracellular-vesicle-flow-cytometry-analysis-and-standardization
#1
REVIEW
Joshua A Welsh, Judith A Holloway, James S Wilkinson, Nicola A Englyst
The term extracellular vesicles (EVs) describes membranous vesicles derived from cells, ranging in diameter from 30 to 1,000 nm with the majority thought to be in the region of 100-150 nm. Due to their small diameter and complex and variable composition, conventional techniques have struggled to accurately count and phenotype EVs. Currently, EV characterization using high-resolution flow cytometry is the most promising method when compared to other currently available techniques, due to it being a high-throughput, single particle, multi-parameter analysis technique capable of analyzing a large range of particle diameters...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913334/editorial-signaling-pathways-in-embryonic-development
#2
EDITORIAL
Juan J Sanz-Ezquerro, Andrea E Münsterberg, Sigmar Stricker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894736/synthetic-gene-expression-circuits-for-designing-precision-tools-in-oncology
#3
REVIEW
Angela Re
Precision medicine in oncology needs to enhance its capabilities to match diagnostic and therapeutic technologies to individual patients. Synthetic biology streamlines the design and construction of functionalized devices through standardization and rational engineering of basic biological elements decoupled from their natural context. Remarkable improvements have opened the prospects for the availability of synthetic devices of enhanced mechanism clarity, robustness, sensitivity, as well as scalability and portability, which might bring new capabilities in precision cancer medicine implementations...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884113/in-vitro-culture-of-na%C3%A3-ve-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-stemness-based-approach
#4
REVIEW
Bidisha Pal, Bikul Das
Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) resides in their niches in close proximity to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These naïve MSCs have tremendous potential in regenerative therapeutics, and may also be exploited by cancer and infectious disease agents. Hence, it is important to study the physiological and pathological roles of naïve MSC. However, our knowledge of naïve MSCs is limited by lack of appropriate isolation and in vitro culture methods. Established culture methods use serum rich media, and serial passaging for retrospective isolation of MSCs...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879181/regulation-of-the-sar1-gtpase-cycle-is-necessary-for-large-cargo-secretion-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#5
REVIEW
Kota Saito, Miharu Maeda, Toshiaki Katada
Proteins synthesized within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are transported to the Golgi via coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles. The formation of COPII-coated vesicles is regulated by the GTPase cycle of Sar1. Activated Sar1 is recruited to ER membranes and forms a pre-budding complex with cargoes and the inner-coat complex. The outer-coat complex then stimulates Sar1 inactivation and completes vesicle formation. The mechanisms of forming transport carriers are well-conserved among species; however, in mammalian cells, several cargo molecules such as collagen, and chylomicrons are too large to be accommodated in conventional COPII-coated vesicles...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879180/gene-expression-patterns-in-brachiopod-larvae-refute-the-brachiopod-fold-hypothesis
#6
Andreas Altenburger, Pedro Martinez, Graham E Budd, Lars E Holmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871282/commentary-how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#7
COMMENT
Igor A Vereninov, Valentina E Yurinskaya, Alexey A Vereninov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871281/live-cell-microscopy-and-fluorescence-based-measurement-of-luminal-ph-in-intracellular-organelles
#8
Li Ma, Qing Ouyang, Gordon C Werthmann, Heather M Thompson, Eric M Morrow
Luminal pH is an important functional feature of intracellular organelles. Acidification of the lumen of organelles such as endosomes, lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus plays a critical role in fundamental cellular processes. As such, measurement of the luminal pH of these organelles has relevance to both basic research and translational research. At the same time, accurate measurement of intraorganellar pH in living cells can be challenging and may be a limiting hurdle for research in some areas. Here, we describe three powerful methods to measure rigorously the luminal pH of different intracellular organelles, focusing on endosomes, lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861413/paying-the-toll-in-nuclear-reprogramming
#9
REVIEW
Chun Liu, Farhan Himmati, Nazish Sayed
The ability to reverse lineage-committed cells toward pluripotent stem cells or to another cell type is one of the ultimate goals in regenerative medicine. We recently discovered that activation of innate immunity, through Toll-like receptor 3, is required during this conversion of cell fate by causing global changes in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers. Here we discuss, in a comprehensive manner, the recent studies on the role of innate immunity in nuclear reprogramming and transdifferentiation, the underlying mechanisms, and its role in regenerative medicine...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824908/inference-of-cell-mechanics-in-heterogeneous-epithelial-tissue-based-on-multivariate-clone-shape-quantification
#10
Alice Tsuboi, Daiki Umetsu, Erina Kuranaga, Koichi Fujimoto
Cell populations in multicellular organisms show genetic and non-genetic heterogeneity, even in undifferentiated tissues of multipotent cells during development and tumorigenesis. The heterogeneity causes difference of mechanical properties, such as, cell bond tension or adhesion, at the cell-cell interface, which determine the shape of clonal population boundaries via cell sorting or mixing. The boundary shape could alter the degree of cell-cell contacts and thus influence the physiological consequences of sorting or mixing at the boundary (e...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770198/arsenic-hyperaccumulation-strategies-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Zahra Souri, Naser Karimi, Luisa M Sandalio
Arsenic (As) pollution, which is on the increase around the world, poses a growing threat to the environment. Phytoremediation, an important green technology, uses different strategies, including As uptake, transport, translocation, and detoxification, to remediate this metalloid. Arsenic hyperaccumulator plants have developed various strategies to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of As. In these plants, the formation of AsIII complexes with GSH and phytochelatins and their transport into root and shoot vacuoles constitute important mechanisms for coping with As stress...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770197/wave-propagation-of-junctional-remodeling-in-collective-cell-movement-of-epithelial-tissue-numerical-simulation-study
#12
Tetsuya Hiraiwa, Erina Kuranaga, Tatsuo Shibata
During animal development, epithelial cells forming a monolayer sheet move collectively to achieve the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues. One driving mechanism of such collective cell movement is junctional remodeling, which is found in the process of clockwise rotation of Drosophila male terminalia during metamorphosis. However, it still remains unknown how the motions of cells are spatiotemporally organized for collective movement by this mechanism. Since these moving cells undergo elastic deformations, the influence of junctional remodeling may mechanically propagate among them, leading to spatiotemporal pattern formations...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748182/mycobacteria-modify-their-cell-size-control-under-sub-optimal-carbon-sources
#13
Miles Priestman, Philipp Thomas, Brian D Robertson, Vahid Shahrezaei
The decision to divide is the most important one that any cell must make. Recent single cell studies suggest that most bacteria follow an "adder" model of cell size control, incorporating a fixed amount of cell wall material before dividing. Mycobacteria, including the causative agent of tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are known to divide asymmetrically resulting in heterogeneity in growth rate, doubling time, and other growth characteristics in daughter cells. The interplay between asymmetric cell division and adder size control has not been extensively investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680878/at-term-xmo-and-xpo-mouse-placentas-show-differences-in-glucose-metabolism-in-the-trophectoderm-derived-outer-zone
#14
Nannan He, Shujing J Lim, Joana C Moreira de Mello, Injerreau Navarro, Monika Bialecka, Daniela C F Salvatori, Lucette A J van der Westerlaken, Lygia V Pereira, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
Genetic mouse model (39,XO) for human Turner Syndrome (45,XO) harboring either a single maternally inherited (Xm) or paternally inherited (Xp) chromosome show a pronounced difference in survival rate at term. However, a detailed comparison of XmO and XpO placentas to explain this difference is lacking. We aimed to investigate the morphological and molecular differences between XmO and XpO term mouse placentas. We observed that XpO placentas at term contained a significantly larger area of glycogen cells (GCs) in their outer zone, compared to XmO, XX, and XY placentas...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660186/use-of-imaging-techniques-to-illuminate-dynamics-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-their-niches
#15
REVIEW
Takayuki Morikawa, Keiyo Takubo
Continuous generation of blood cells over an organism's lifetime is supported by hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) capable of producing all hematopoietic cell subtypes. Adult mammalian HSPCs are localized to bone marrow and regulated by their neighboring microenvironment, or "niche." Because interactions of HSPCs with their niches are highly dynamic and complex, the recent development of imaging technologies provides a powerful new tool to understand stem cell/niche biology. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of dynamic HSPC/niche interactions during development, homeostasis, disease states or aging with a focus on studies advanced by imaging analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638821/the-tor-signaling-pathway-in-spatial-and-temporal-control-of-cell-size-and-growth
#16
REVIEW
Suam Gonzalez, Charalampos Rallis
Cell size is amenable by genetic and environmental factors. The highly conserved nutrient-responsive Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway regulates cellular metabolic status and growth in response to numerous inputs. Timing and duration of TOR pathway activity is pivotal for both cell mass built up as well as cell cycle progression and is controlled and fine-tuned by the abundance and quality of nutrients, hormonal signals, growth factors, stress, and oxygen. TOR kinases function within two functionally and structurally discrete multiprotein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, that are implicated in temporal and spatial control of cell size and growth respectively; however, recent data indicate that such functional distinctions are much more complex...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626748/the-multiple-roles-of-fgf-signaling-in-the-developing-spinal-cord
#17
REVIEW
Ruth Diez Del Corral, Aixa V Morales
During vertebrate embryonic development, the spinal cord is formed by the neural derivatives of a neuromesodermal population that is specified at early stages of development and which develops in concert with the caudal regression of the primitive streak. Several processes related to spinal cord specification and maturation are coupled to this caudal extension including neurogenesis, ventral patterning and neural crest specification and all of them seem to be crucially regulated by Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling, which is prominently active in the neuromesodermal region and transiently in its derivatives...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611984/editorial-in-search-of-in-vivo-msc
#18
EDITORIAL
Simone Pacini, Mario Petrini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603713/dishevelled-paralogs-in-vertebrate-development-redundant-or-distinct
#19
REVIEW
Marc Gentzel, Alexandra Schambony
Dishevelled (DVL) proteins are highly conserved in the animal kingdom and are important key players in β-Catenin-dependent and -independent Wnt signaling pathways. Vertebrate genomes typically comprise three DVL genes, DVL1, DVL2, and DVL3. Expression patterns and developmental functions of the three vertebrate DVL proteins however, are only partially redundant in any given species. Moreover, expression and function of DVL isoforms have diverged between different vertebrate species. All DVL proteins share basic functionality in Wnt signal transduction...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603712/growth-rate-as-a-direct-regulator-of-the-start-network-to-set-cell-size
#20
REVIEW
Martí Aldea, Kirsten Jenkins, Attila Csikász-Nagy
Cells are able to adjust their growth and size to external inputs to comply with specific fates and developmental programs. Molecular pathways controlling growth also have an enormous impact in cell size, and bacteria, yeast, or epithelial cells modify their size as a function of growth rate. This universal feature suggests that growth (mass) and proliferation (cell number) rates are subject to general coordinating mechanisms. However, the underlying molecular connections are still a matter of debate. Here we review the current ideas on growth and cell size control, and focus on the possible mechanisms that could link the biosynthetic machinery to the Start network in budding yeast...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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