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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765956/transcriptomic-profiling-of-zebrafish-hair-cells-using-ribotag
#1
Maggie S Matern, Alisha Beirl, Yoko Ogawa, Yang Song, Nikhil Paladugu, Katie S Kindt, Ronna Hertzano
The zebrafish inner ear organs and lateral line neuromasts are comprised of a variety of cell types, including mechanosensitive hair cells. Zebrafish hair cells are evolutionarily homologous to mammalian hair cells, and have been particularly useful for studying normal hair cell development and function. However, the relative scarcity of hair cells within these complex organs, as well as the difficulty of fine dissection at early developmental time points, makes hair cell-specific gene expression profiling technically challenging...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761100/moving-the-cellular-peptidome-by-transporters
#2
REVIEW
Rupert Abele, Robert Tampé
Living matter is defined by metastability, implying a tightly balanced synthesis and turnover of cellular components. The first step of eukaryotic protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) leads to peptides, which are subsequently degraded to single amino acids by an armada of proteases. A small fraction of peptides, however, escapes further cytosolic destruction and is transported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. The ER-resident heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a crucial component in adaptive immunity for the transport and loading of peptides onto major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755980/importance-of-validating-antibodies-and-small-compound-inhibitors-using-genetic-knockout-studies-t-cell-receptor-induced-cyld-phosphorylation-by-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-tbk1-as-a-case-study
#3
Marie Lork, Marja Kreike, Jens Staal, Rudi Beyaert
CYLD is a deubiquitinating enzyme that plays a crucial role in immunity and inflammation as a negative regulator of NF-κB transcription factor and JNK kinase signaling. Defects in either of these pathways contribute to the progression of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, we set out to unravel molecular mechanisms that control CYLD activity in the context of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. More specifically, we focused on CYLD phosphorylation at Ser418, which can be detected upon immunoblotting of cell extracts with phospho(Ser418)-CYLD specific antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732371/hippocampal-tet1-and-tet2-expression-and-dna-hydroxymethylation-are-affected-by-physical-exercise-in-aged-mice
#4
Peter Jessop, Maria Toledo-Rodriguez
The function of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is poorly understood. 5hmC is an epigenetic modification of DNA, resulting from the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the Fe2+ , and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent, 10-11 translocation methylcytosine dioxygenases (TET1, TET2, and TET3). Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to being an intermediate in active demethylation, 5hmC may also have an epigenetic role. 5hmC is enriched in the adult brain, where it has been implicated in regulating neurogenesis. The rate of adult neurogenesis decreases with age, however physical exercise has been shown to counteract this deficit...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732370/microenvironmental-signals-and-biochemical-information-processing-cooperative-determinants-of-intratumoral-plasticity-and-heterogeneity
#5
REVIEW
Alexander E Davies, John G Albeck
Intra-tumor cellular heterogeneity is a major challenge in cancer therapy. Tumors are composed of multiple phenotypic subpopulations that vary in their ability to initiate metastatic tumors and in their sensitivity to chemotherapy. In many cases, cells can transition between these subpopulations, not by genetic mutation, but instead through reversible changes in signal transduction or gene expression programs. This plasticity begins at the level of the microenvironment where local autocrine and paracrine signals, exosomes, tumor-stroma interactions, and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition create a signaling landscape that varies over space and time...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732369/single-cell-multi-omics-technology-methodology-and-application
#6
REVIEW
Youjin Hu, Qin An, Katherine Sheu, Brandon Trejo, Shuxin Fan, Ying Guo
In the era of precision medicine, multi-omics approaches enable the integration of data from diverse omics platforms, providing multi-faceted insight into the interrelation of these omics layers on disease processes. Single cell sequencing technology can dissect the genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of bulk tissue and promises to deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing both health and disease. Through modification and combination of single cell assays available for transcriptome, genome, epigenome, and proteome profiling, single cell multi-omics approaches have been developed to simultaneously and comprehensively study not only the unique genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of single cells, but also the combined regulatory mechanisms evident only at single cell resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719832/microenvironment-induced-non-sporadic-expression-of-the-axl-and-ckit-receptors-are-related-to-epithelial-plasticity-and-drug-resistance
#7
Tiina A Jokela, Agnete S T Engelsen, Agata Rybicka, Fanny A Pelissier Vatter, James C Garbe, Masaru Miyano, Crina Tiron, Dan Ferariu, Lars A Akslen, Martha R Stampfer, James B Lorens, Mark A LaBarge
The existence of rare cancer cells that sporadically acquire drug-tolerance through epigenetic mechanisms is proposed as one mechanism that drives cancer therapy failure. Here we provide evidence that specific microenvironments impose non-sporadic expression of proteins related to epithelial plasticity and drug resistance. Microarrays of robotically printed combinatorial microenvironments of known composition were used to make cell-based functional associations between microenvironments, which were design-inspired by normal and tumor-burdened breast tissues, and cell phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696143/single-cell-in-situ-rna-analysis-with-switchable-fluorescent-oligonucleotides
#8
Lu Xiao, Jia Guo
Comprehensive RNA analyses in individual cells in their native spatial contexts promise to transform our understanding of normal physiology and disease pathogenesis. Here we report a single-cell in situ RNA analysis approach using switchable fluorescent oligonucleotides (SFO). In this method, transcripts are first hybridized by pre-decoding oligonucleotides. These oligonucleotides subsequently recruit SFO to stain their corresponding RNA targets. After fluorescence imaging, all the SFO in the whole specimen are simultaneously removed by DNA strand displacement reactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696142/isolation-and-characterization-of-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells-from-adult-ovine-palatal-tissue
#9
Marie-Theres Zeuner, Nikolai N Didenko, David Humphries, Sokratis Stergiadis, Taryn M Morash, Ketan Patel, Wolf-Dieter Grimm, Darius Widera
Adult mammalian craniofacial tissues contain limited numbers of post-migratory neural crest-derived stem cells. Similar to their embryonic counterparts, these adult multipotent stem cells can undergo multi-lineage differentiation and are capable of contributing to regeneration of mesodermal and ectodermal cells and tissues in vivo . In the present study, we describe for the first time the presence of Nestin-positive neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) within the ovine hard palate. We show that these cells can be isolated from the palatal tissue and are able to form neurospheres...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696141/enhancing-understanding-of-the-visual-cycle-by-applying-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-in-zebrafish
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca Ward, Husvinee Sundaramurthi, Valeria Di Giacomo, Breandán N Kennedy
During the vertebrate visual cycle, all- trans -retinal is exported from photoreceptors to the adjacent RPE or Müller glia wherein 11- cis -retinal is regenerated. The 11- cis chromophore is returned to photoreceptors, forming light-sensitive visual pigments with opsin GPCRs. Dysfunction of this process perturbs phototransduction because functional visual pigment cannot be generated. Mutations in visual cycle genes can result in monogenic inherited forms of blindness. Though key enzymatic processes are well characterized, questions remain as to the physiological role of visual cycle proteins in different retinal cell types, functional domains of these proteins in retinoid biochemistry and in vivo pathogenesis of disease mutations...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682502/frontiers-of-complex-disease-mechanisms-membrane-surface-tension-may-link-genotype-to-phenotype-in-glaucoma
#11
Howard R Petty
Although many monogenic diseases are understood based upon structural changes of gene products, less progress has been made concerning polygenic disease mechanisms. This article presents a new interdisciplinary approach to understand complex diseases, especially their genetic polymorphisms. I focus upon primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Although elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and oxidative stress are glaucoma hallmarks, the linkages between these factors and cell death are obscure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the formation of oxidatively truncated phosphoglycerides (OTP), free fatty acids, lysophosphoglycerides, oxysterols, and other chemical species that promote membrane disruption and decrease membrane surface tension...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670880/targeting-tumor-associated-macrophages-as-a-potential-strategy-to-enhance-the-response-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#12
REVIEW
Luca Cassetta, Takanori Kitamura
Inhibition of immune checkpoint pathways in CD8+ T cell is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of solid tumors that has shown significant anti-tumor effects and is now approved by the FDA to treat patients with melanoma and lung cancer. However the response to this therapy is limited to a certain fraction of patients and tumor types, for reasons still unknown. To ensure success of this treatment, CD8+ T cells, the main target of the checkpoint inhibitors, should exert full cytotoxicity against tumor cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670879/human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-handling-protocols-lipid-droplets-and-proteins-double-staining
#13
Aldana D Gojanovich, María C Gimenez, Diego Masone, Tania M Rodriguez, Ricardo A Dewey, Laura R Delgui, Diego M Bustos, Marina Uhart
Human Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are of great interest because of their potential for therapeutic approaches. The method described here covers every single step necessary for hASCs isolation from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, multicolor phenotyping by flow cytometry, and quantitative determination of adipogenic differentiation status by means of lipid droplets (LDs) accumulation, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, to simultaneously analyze both LDs accumulation and cellular proteins localization by fluorescence microscopy, we combined Oil Red O (ORO) staining with immunofluorescence detection...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666796/plc%C3%AE-induced-ca-2-oscillations-in-mouse-eggs-involve-a-positive-feedback-cycle-of-ca-2-induced-insp-3-formation-from-cytoplasmic-pip-2
#14
Jessica R Sanders, Bethany Ashley, Anna Moon, Thomas E Woolley, Karl Swann
Egg activation at fertilization in mammalian eggs is caused by a series of transient increases in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, referred to as Ca2+ oscillations. It is widely accepted that these Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by a sperm derived phospholipase C isoform, PLCζ that hydrolyses its substrate PIP2 to produce the Ca2+ releasing messenger InsP3 . However, it is not clear whether PLCζ induced InsP3 formation is periodic or monotonic, and whether the PIP2 source for generating InsP3 from PLCζ is in the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666795/cell-chirality-drives-left-right-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Mikiko Inaki, Takeshi Sasamura, Kenji Matsuno
Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662879/abnormal-elongations-of-hox-gene-clusters-may-cause-cancer
#16
Spyros Papageorgiou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651417/aging-mouse-models-reveal-complex-tumor-microenvironment-interactions-in-cancer-progression
#17
REVIEW
Hidetoshi Mori, Robert D Cardiff, Alexander D Borowsky
Mouse models and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) are essential experimental tools for the understanding molecular mechanisms within complex biological systems. GEMM are especially useful for inferencing phenocopy information to genetic human diseases such as breast cancer. Human breast cancer modeling in mice most commonly employs mammary epithelial-specific promoters to investigate gene function(s) and, in particular, putative oncogenes. Models are specifically useful in the mammary epithelial cell in the context of the complete mammary gland environment...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644217/sensing-the-stress-a-role-for-the-upr-mt-and-upr-am-in-the-quality-control-of-mitochondria
#18
REVIEW
Sylvie Callegari, Sven Dennerlein
Mitochondria exist as compartmentalized units, surrounded by a selectively permeable double membrane. Within is contained the mitochondrial genome and protein synthesis machinery, required for the synthesis of OXPHOS components and ultimately, ATP production. Despite their physical barrier, mitochondria are tightly integrated into the cellular environment. A constant flow of information must be maintained to and from the mitochondria and the nucleus, to ensure mitochondria are amenable to cell metabolic requirements and also to feedback on their functional state...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637072/a-lexicon-of-dna-modifications-their-roles-in-embryo-development-and-the-germline
#19
REVIEW
Qifan Zhu, Reinhard Stöger, Ramiro Alberio
5-methylcytosine (5mC) on CpG dinucleotides has been viewed as the major epigenetic modification in eukaryotes for a long time. Apart from 5mC, additional DNA modifications have been discovered in eukaryotic genomes. Many of these modifications are thought to be solely associated with DNA damage. However, growing evidence indicates that some base modifications, namely 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), and N6-methadenine (6mA), may be of biological relevance, particularly during early stages of embryo development...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632863/activators-and-effectors-of-the-small-g-protein-arf1-in-regulation-of-golgi-dynamics-during-the-cell-division-cycle
#20
REVIEW
Catherine L Jackson
When eukaryotic cells divide, they must faithfully segregate not only the genetic material but also their membrane-bound organelles into each daughter cell. To assure correct partitioning of cellular contents, cells use regulatory mechanisms to verify that each stage of cell division has been correctly accomplished before proceeding to the next step. A great deal is known about mechanisms that regulate chromosome segregation during cell division, but we know much less about the mechanisms by which cellular organelles are partitioned, and how these processes are coordinated...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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