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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430110/high-expression-of-glycolytic-genes-in-cirrhosis-correlates-with-the-risk-of-developing-liver-cancer
#1
Nathan C W Lee, Maria Annunziata Carella, Salvatore Papa, Concetta Bubici
A marked increase in the rate of glycolysis is a key event in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the main type of primary liver cancer. Liver cirrhosis is considered to be a key player in HCC pathogenesis as it precedes HCC in up to 90% of patients. Intriguingly, the biochemical events that underlie the progression of cirrhosis to HCC are not well understood. In this study, we examined the expression profile of metabolic gene transcripts in liver samples from patients with HCC and patients with cirrhosis...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425987/adhesive-interactions-delineate-the-topography-of-the-immune-synapse
#2
REVIEW
Noa Beatriz Martín-Cófreces, Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
T cells form adhesive contacts with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as part of the normal surveillance process that occurs in lymph nodes and other tissues. Most of these adhesive interactions are formed by integrins that interact with ligands expressed on the surface of the APC. The interactive strength of integrins depends on their degree of membrane proximity as well as intracellular signals that dictate the conformation of the integrin. Integrins appear in different conformations that endow them with different affinities for their ligand(s)...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425986/constitutive-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-causes-loss-of-quiescence-and-deregulated-transcription-factor-networks
#3
Masahiro Marshall Nakagawa, Huanwen Chen, Chozha Vendan Rathinam
Identifying physiological roles of specific signaling pathways that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions may lead to new treatment strategies and therapeutic interventions for hematologic disorders. Here, we provide genetic evidence that constitutive activation of NF-κB in HSCs results in reduced pool size, repopulation capacities, and quiescence of HSCs. Global transcriptional profiling and bioinformatics studies identified loss of 'stemness' and 'quiescence' signatures in HSCs with deregulated NF-κB activation...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416997/the-structure-and-biological-function-of-creg
#4
REVIEW
Gaby Ghobrial, Luiz Araujo, Felecia Jinwala, Shaohua Li, Leonard Y Lee
The cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) is a 220 amino acid glycoprotein structurally similar to oxidoreductases. However, CREG does not have enzymatic activities because it cannot bind to the cofactor flavin mononucleotide. Although CREG can be secreted, it is mainly an intracellular protein localized in the endocytic-lysosomal compartment. It undergoes proteolytic maturation mediated by lysosomal cysteine proteases. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that CREG interacts with mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) and exocyst Sec8...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410881/analyzing-neuronal-mitochondria-in-vivo-using-fluorescent-reporters-in-zebrafish
#5
Amrita Mandal, Katherine Pinter, Catherine M Drerup
Despite their importance for cellular viability, the actual life history and properties of mitochondria in neurons are still unclear. These organelles are distributed throughout the entirety of the neuron and serve many functions, including: energy production (ATP), iron homeostasis and processing, calcium buffering, and metabolite production, as well as many other lesser known activities. Given their importance, understanding how these organelles are positioned and how their health and function is maintained is critical for many aspects of cell biology...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410880/epigenetic-control-of-endocrine-pancreas-differentiation-in-vitro-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Veronica Astro, Antonio Adamo
The raising worldwide prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) solicits the derivation of in vitro methods yielding mature and fully functional β-cells to be used in regenerative medicine. Several protocols to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into human pancreatic β-like cells have recently been developed. These methods, coupled with a bioengineering approach using biocompatible encapsulating devices, have recently led to experimental clinical trials showing great promises to ultimately end the battle of diabetic patients for managing hyperglycemia...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406104/initial-steps-in-mammalian-autophagosome-biogenesis
#7
Daniel Grasso, Felipe Javier Renna, Maria Ines Vaccaro
During the last decade, autophagy has been pointed out as a central process in cellular homeostasis with the consequent implication in most cellular settings and human diseases pathology. At present, there is significant data available about molecular mechanisms that regulate autophagy. Nevertheless, autophagy pathway itself and its importance in different cellular aspects are still not completely clear. In this article, we are focused in four main aspects: (a) Induction of Autophagy : Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism induced by nutrient starvation or lack of growth factors...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406103/setting-eyes-on-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#8
REVIEW
Tania Moreno-Marmol, Florencia Cavodeassi, Paola Bovolenta
The neural component of the zebrafish eye derives from a small group of cells known as the eye/retinal field. These cells, positioned in the anterior neural plate, rearrange extensively and generate the optic vesicles (OVs). Each vesicle subsequently folds over itself to form the double-layered optic cup, from which the mature eye derives. During this transition, cells of the OV are progressively specified toward three different fates: the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the neural retina, and the optic stalk...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406102/editorial-cell-adhesion-and-migration-in-the-development-of-multicellular-organisms
#9
EDITORIAL
Takaaki Matsui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406101/dnmt3b-functions-novel-insights-from-human-disease
#10
REVIEW
Miriam Gagliardi, Maria Strazzullo, Maria R Matarazzo
DNA methylation plays important roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin structure. Its proper establishment and maintenance are essential for mammalian development and cellular differentiation. DNMT3B is the major de novo DNA methyltransferase expressed and active during the early stage of embryonic development, including implantation. In addition to its well-known role to methylate centromeric, pericentromeric, and subtelomeric repeats, recent observations suggest that DNMT3B acts as the main enzyme methylating intragenic regions of active genes...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406100/stem-progenitor-cells-and-their-therapeutic-application-in-cardiovascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Yuning Hou, Chunying Li
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world. The stem/progenitor cell-based therapy has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and diabetes. An increasing number of evidence has shown that stem/progenitor cell transplantation could replenish damaged cells, improve cardiac and vascular functions, and repair injured tissues in many pre-clinical studies and clinical trials...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406099/defining-skin-fibroblastic-cell-types-beyond-cd90
#12
Dongsheng Jiang, Yuval Rinkevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374440/bloody-zebrafish-novel-methods-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoiesis
#13
Emma de Pater, Eirini Trompouki
Hematopoiesis is an optimal system for studying stem cell maintenance and lineage differentiation under physiological and pathological conditions. In vertebrate organisms, billions of differentiated hematopoietic cells need to be continuously produced to replenish the blood cell pool. Disruptions in this process have immediate consequences for oxygen transport, responses against pathogens, maintenance of hemostasis and vascular integrity. Zebrafish is a widely used and well-established model for studying the hematopoietic system...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370269/beclin-1-phosphorylation-at-the-center-of-autophagy-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Manoj B Menon, Sonam Dhamija
Autophagy is a tightly regulated catabolic process wherein cells under stress sequester cytosolic constituents like damaged proteins and organelles in double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. The autophagosomes degrade their cargo by lysosomal proteolysis generating raw materials for the biosynthesis of vital macromolecules. One of the initial steps in the assembly of autophagosomes from pre-autophagic structures is the recruitment and activation of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex consisting of Beclin 1 (BECN1), VPS34, VPS15, and ATG14 proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30364270/developmental-epigenetics-phenotype-and-the-flexible-epigenome
#15
EDITORIAL
Rosalind M John, Claire Rougeulle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30364203/reactive-oxygen-species-formation-in-the-brain-at-different-oxygen-levels-the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factors
#16
REVIEW
Ruoli Chen, U Hin Lai, Lingling Zhu, Ayesha Singh, Muhammad Ahmed, Nicholas R Forsyth
Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is the master oxygen sensor within cells and is central to the regulation of cell responses to varying oxygen levels. HIF activation during hypoxia ensures optimum ATP production and cell integrity, and is associated both directly and indirectly with reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HIF activation can either reduce ROS formation by suppressing the function of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), or increase ROS formation via NADPH oxidase (NOX), a target gene of HIF pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30364083/the-3-phosphoinositide-dependent-protein-kinase-1-inhibits-rod-photoreceptor-development
#17
Tiaosi Xing, Daniel T Hass, Samuel S Zhang, Colin J Barnstable
The transition of rod precursor cells to post-mitotic rod photoreceptors can be promoted by extrinsic factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which regulates phosphatidylinositide concentration, and consequently the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK-1). PDPK-1 is a 63 kDa cytoplasmic kinase that controls cell proliferation and differentiation. In the mouse retina, PDPK-1 and its phosphorylated derivative p-PDPK-1 (Ser241), showed peak expression during the first postnatal (PN) day with a substantial decline by PN7 and in the adult retina...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30356656/macrophages-and-fibroblasts-key-players-in-cancer-chemoresistance
#18
REVIEW
Lucy V Ireland, Ainhoa Mielgo
Chemotherapy is routinely used in cancer treatment to eliminate primary and metastatic tumor cells. However, tumors often display or develop resistance to chemotherapy. Mechanisms of chemoresistance can be either tumor cell autonomous or mediated by the tumor surrounding non-malignant cells, also known as stromal cells, which include fibroblasts, immune cells, and cells from the vasculature. Therapies targeting cancer cells have shown limited effectiveness in tumors characterized by a rich tumor stroma. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant non-cancerous cells in the tumor stroma and have emerged as key players in cancer progression, metastasis and resistance to therapies...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333976/this-is-the-end-regulation-of-rab7-nucleotide-binding-in-endolysosomal-trafficking-and-autophagy
#19
REVIEW
Christopher Stroupe
Rab7 - or in yeast, Ypt7p - governs membrane trafficking in the late endocytic and autophagic pathways. Rab7 also regulates mitochondrion-lysosome contacts, the sites of mitochondrial fission. Like all Rab GTPases, Rab7 cycles between an "active" GTP-bound form that binds downstream effectors - e.g., the HOPS and retromer complexes and the dynactin-binding Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) - and an "inactive" GDP-bound form that cannot bind effectors. Accessory proteins regulate the nucleotide binding state of Rab7: guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) stimulate exchange of bound GDP for GTP, resulting in Rab7 activation, whereas GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) boost Rab7's GTP hydrolysis activity, thereby inactivating Rab7...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333975/crosstalk-between-mammalian-autophagy-and-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#20
REVIEW
Nur Mehpare Kocaturk, Devrim Gozuacik
Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are the two major intracellular quality control and recycling mechanisms that are responsible for cellular homeostasis in eukaryotes. Ubiquitylation is utilized as a degradation signal by both systems, yet, different mechanisms are in play. The UPS is responsible for the degradation of short-lived proteins and soluble misfolded proteins whereas autophagy eliminates long-lived proteins, insoluble protein aggregates and even whole organelles (e.g., mitochondria, peroxisomes) and intracellular parasites (e...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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