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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013971/serum-antibodies-against-simian-virus-40-large-t-antigen-the-viral-oncoprotein-in-osteosarcoma-patients
#1
Elisa Mazzoni, Ilaria Bononi, Maria S Benassi, Piero Picci, Elena Torreggiani, Marika Rossini, Andrea Simioli, Maria V Casali, Paola Rizzo, Mauro Tognon, Fernanda Martini
Human osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare human cancer, mostly occurring in children and adolescents. Simian virus 40 (SV40 = Macaca mulatta polyomavirus 1) sequences have been detected in different human cancers, including osteosarcoma. SV40 is an oncogenic virus in vivo , whereas it transforms different kinds of mammalian cells, as well as distinct human cell types. SV40 injected in rodents induces tumors of different histotypes, such as bone and brain tumors. Herein, the association between OS and SV40 large T antigen (Tag) was studied by employing indirect ELISAs using synthetic peptides that mimic different epitopes of the SV40 Tag, the viral oncoprotein...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003082/roles-of-plods-in-collagen-synthesis-and-cancer-progression
#2
REVIEW
Yifei Qi, Ren Xu
Collagen is the major component of extracellular matrix. Collagen cross-link and deposition depend on lysyl hydroxylation, which is catalyzed by procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase (PLOD). Aberrant lysyl hydroxylation and collagen cross-link contributes to the progression of many collagen-related diseases, such as fibrosis and cancer. Three lysyl hydroxylases (LH1, LH2, and LH3) are identified, encoded by PLOD1, PLOD2 , and PLOD3 genes. Expression of PLODs is regulated by multiple cytokines, transcription factors and microRNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003081/apoptosis-is-a-demanding-selective-tool-during-the-development-of-fetal-male-germ-cells
#3
REVIEW
Ignacio Bejarano, Ana B Rodríguez, José A Pariente
Apoptosis is widely known to play a major role on diseases related to male infertility. Diseases of the male genital tract as defective spermatogenesis, decreased sperm motility, sperm DNA fragmentation, testicular torsion, varicocele and immunological infertility are strongly related to apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis must not be considered only as a fail on germ cell physiology or a secondary effect of certain pathologies and exogenous hazardous agents. Apoptosis orchestrates correct function and development of the male germ cell from the early embryonic stages of gonadal differentiation to the fertilization...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998105/ion-channel-function-during-oocyte-maturation-and-fertilization
#4
REVIEW
Ingrid Carvacho, Matthias Piesche, Thorsten J Maier, Khaled Machaca
The proper maturation of both male and female gametes is essential for supporting fertilization and the early embryonic divisions. In the ovary, immature fully-grown oocytes that are arrested in prophase I of meiosis I are not able to support fertilization. Acquiring fertilization competence requires resumption of meiosis which encompasses the remodeling of multiple signaling pathways and the reorganization of cellular organelles. Collectively, this differentiation endows the egg with the ability to activate at fertilization and to promote the egg-to-embryo transition...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974052/cycling-to-meet-fate-connecting-pluripotency-to-the-cell-cycle
#5
REVIEW
Lamuk Zaveri, Jyotsna Dhawan
Pluripotent stem cells are characterized by their high proliferative rates, their ability to self-renew and their potential to differentiate to all the three germ layers. This rapid proliferation is brought about by a highly modified cell cycle that allows the cells to quickly shuttle from DNA synthesis to cell division, by reducing the time spent in the intervening gap phases. Many key regulators that define the somatic cell cycle are either absent or exhibit altered behavior, allowing the pluripotent cell to bypass cell cycle checkpoints typical of somatic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971233/kinase-and-phosphatase-cross-talk-at-the-kinetochore
#6
REVIEW
Adrian T Saurin
Multiple kinases and phosphatases act on the kinetochore to control chromosome segregation: Aurora B, Mps1, Bub1, Plk1, Cdk1, PP1, and PP2A-B56, have all been shown to regulate both kinetochore-microtubule attachments and the spindle assembly checkpoint. Given that so many kinases and phosphatases converge onto two key mitotic processes, it is perhaps not surprising to learn that they are, quite literally, entangled in cross-talk. Inhibition of any one of these enzymes produces secondary effects on all the others, which results in a complicated picture that is very difficult to interpret...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946544/underlying-causes-and-therapeutic-targeting-of-the-inflammatory-tumor-microenvironment
#7
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Comen, Robert L Bowman, Maria Kleppe
Historically, the link between chronic inflammation and cancer has long been speculated. Only more recently, pre-clinical and epidemiologic data as well as clinical evidence all point to the role of the tumor microenvironment as inextricably connected to the neoplastic process. The tumor microenvironment (TME), a complex mix of vasculature, inflammatory cells, and stromal cells is the essential "soil" helping to modulate tumor potential. Increasingly, evidence suggests that chronic inflammation modifies the tumor microenvironment, via a host of mechanisms, including the production of cytokines, pro-inflammatory mediators, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942801/changes-in-protein-o-glcnacylation-during-mouse-epididymal-sperm-maturation
#8
Darya A Tourzani, Bidur Paudel, Patricia V Miranda, Pablo E Visconti, María G Gervasi
After leaving the testis, sperm undergo two sequential maturational processes before acquiring fertilizing capacity: sperm maturation in the male epididymis, and sperm capacitation in the female reproductive tract. During their transit through the epididymis, sperm experience several maturational changes; the acquisition of motility is one of them. The molecular basis of the regulation of this process is still not fully understood. Sperm are both transcriptionally and translationally silent, therefore post-translational modifications are essential to regulate their function...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930939/sleeping-beauty-and-the-microenvironment-enchantment-microenvironmental-regulation-of-the-proliferation-quiescence-decision-in-normal-tissues-and-in-cancer-development
#9
REVIEW
Ana Paula Zen Petisco Fiore, Pedro de Freitas Ribeiro, Alexandre Bruni-Cardoso
Cells from prokaryota to the more complex metazoans cease proliferating at some point in their lives and enter a reversible, proliferative-dormant state termed quiescence. The appearance of quiescence in the course of evolution was essential to the acquisition of multicellular specialization and compartmentalization and is also a central aspect of tissue function and homeostasis. But what makes a cell cease proliferating even in the presence of nutrients, growth factors, and mitogens? And what makes some cells "wake up" when they should not, as is the case in cancer? Here, we summarize and discuss evidence showing how microenvironmental cues such as those originating from metabolism, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and arrangement, neighboring cells and tissue architecture control the cellular proliferation-quiescence decision, and how this complex regulation is corrupted in cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922649/post-transcriptional-modulation-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-by-mir-19a-affects-cardiovascular-development-in-zebrafish
#10
Elena Guzzolino, Elena Chiavacci, Neha Ahuja, Laura Mariani, Monica Evangelista, Chiara Ippolito, Milena Rizzo, Deborah Garrity, Federico Cremisi, Letizia Pitto
Sphingosine-1-phosphate is a bioactive lipid and a signaling molecule integrated into many physiological systems such as differentiation, proliferation and migration. In mammals S1P acts through binding to a family of five trans-membrane, G-protein coupled receptors (S1PRs) whose complex role has not been completely elucidated. In this study we use zebrafish, in which seven s1prs have been identified, to investigate the role of s1pr1 . In mammals S1PR1 is the most highly expressed S1P receptor in the developing heart and regulates vascular development, but in zebrafish the data concerning its role are contradictory...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896473/aging-in-a-relativistic-biological-space-time
#11
Davide Maestrini, Daniel Abler, Vikram Adhikarla, Saro Armenian, Sergio Branciamore, Nadia Carlesso, Ya-Huei Kuo, Guido Marcucci, Prativa Sahoo, Russell C Rockne
Here we present a theoretical and mathematical perspective on the process of aging. We extend the concepts of physical space and time to an abstract, mathematically-defined space, which we associate with a concept of "biological space-time" in which biological dynamics may be represented. We hypothesize that biological dynamics, represented as trajectories in biological space-time, may be used to model and study different rates of biological aging. As a consequence of this hypothesis, we show how dilation or contraction of time analogous to relativistic corrections of physical time resulting from accelerated or decelerated biological dynamics may be used to study precipitous or protracted aging...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892598/progression-of-pulmonary-emphysema-and-continued-increase-in-ectodomain-shedding-of-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-after-cessation-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-in-mice
#12
Aritoshi Ri, Man Hagiyama, Takao Inoue, Azusa Yoneshige, Ryuichiro Kimura, Yoshinori Murakami, Akihiko Ito
Pulmonary emphysema usually arises in cigarette smokers, and often progresses after smoking cessation and even in ex-smokers. Lung-epithelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member, is extracellularly shed to produce a proapoptotic C-terminal fragment (CTF) within the cell and contribute to the development of emphysema. Here, we made an ex-smoker model using C57BL/6 mice; mice (6-week-old; 5 mice per group) were exposed to passive smoke of eight cigarettes twice a day 5 days a week until 18 weeks of age, and were then left untreated until 30 weeks of age...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876348/translation-of-crispr-genome-surgery-to-the-bedside-for-retinal-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Christine L Xu, Galaxy Y Cho, Jesse D Sengillo, Karen S Park, Vinit B Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang
In recent years, there has been accelerated growth of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genome surgery techniques. Genome surgery holds promise for diseases for which a cure currently does not exist. In the field of ophthalmology, CRISPR offers possibilities for treating inherited retinal dystrophies. The retina has little regenerative potential, which makes treatment particularly difficult. For such conditions, CRISPR genome surgery methods have shown great potential for therapeutic applications in animal models of retinal dystrophies...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868584/a-modified-monomeric-red-fluorescent-protein-reporter-for-assessing-crispr-activity
#14
Camilla Højland Knudsen, Emilía S Ásgrímsdóttir, Karim Rahimi, Katherine P Gill, Søs Frandsen, Susanne Hvolbøl Buchholdt, Muwan Chen, Jørgen Kjems, Fabia Febbraro, Mark Denham
Gene editing in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been significantly enhanced by the discovery and development of CRISPR Cas9, a programmable nuclease system that can introduce targeted double-stranded breaks. The system relies on the optimal selection of a sgRNA sequence with low off-targets and high efficiency. We designed an improved monomeric red fluorescent protein reporter, GEmCherry2, for assessing CRISPR Cas9 activity and for optimizing sgRNA. By incorporating an out-of-frame sequence to the N-terminal of the red fluorescent protein mCherry, we created a visual tool for assessing the indel frequency after cutting with CRISPR Cas9...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868583/-in-vivo-applications-of-crispr-based-genome-editing-in-the-retina
#15
REVIEW
Wenhan Yu, Zhijian Wu
The rapidly evolving CRISPR-based genome editing technology is bringing revolutionary changes to the entirety of the life sciences. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent progress of in vivo applications of CRISPR genome editing in retinal studies. Non-viral and viral vector mediated delivery have been developed for temporary or persistent expression of CRISPR components in retinal cells. Although in theory CRISPR-based genome editing can correct a large number of mutant genes responsible for a variety of inherited retinal disorders (IRDs), precise gene modification relies on homology-directed repair (HDR)-the efficiency of which is not currently high enough for meaningful benefit...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868582/mad1-kinetochore-receptors-and-catalytic-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Yibo Luo, Ejaz Ahmad, Song-Tao Liu
The mitotic checkpoint monitors kinetochore-microtubule attachment, delays anaphase onset and prevents aneuploidy when unattached or tensionless kinetochores are present in cells. Mitotic arrest deficiency 1 (MAD1) is one of the evolutionarily conserved core mitotic checkpoint proteins. MAD1 forms a cell cycle independent complex with MAD2 through its MAD2 interaction motif (MIM) in the middle region. Such a complex is enriched at unattached kinetochores and functions as an unusual catalyst to promote conformational change of additional MAD2 molecules, constituting a crucial signal amplifying mechanism for the mitotic checkpoint...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868581/a-decade-of-exploring-the-mammalian-sperm-epigenome-paternal-epigenetic-and-transgenerational-inheritance
#17
REVIEW
Alexandre Champroux, Julie Cocquet, Joëlle Henry-Berger, Joël R Drevet, Ayhan Kocer
The past decade has seen a tremendous increase in interest and progress in the field of sperm epigenetics. Studies have shown that chromatin regulation during male germline development is multiple and complex, and that the spermatozoon possesses a unique epigenome. Its DNA methylation profile, DNA-associated proteins, nucleo-protamine distribution pattern and non-coding RNA set up a unique epigenetic landscape which is delivered, along with its haploid genome, to the oocyte upon fertilization, and therefore can contribute to embryogenesis and to the offspring health...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868580/establishment-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-underhypoxic-condition-for-cell-based-therapy
#18
Piyaporn Rattananinsruang, Chavaboon Dechsukhum, Wilairat Leeanansaksiri
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood stream. In developing a potential therapy for diabetic patients, pancreatic cells transplantation has drawn great attention. However, the hinder of cell transplantation for diabetes treatment is insufficient sources of insulin-producing cells. Therefore, new cell based therapy need to be developed. In this regard, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may serve as good candidates for this based on their capability of differentiation into various cell types...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868579/hyaluronan-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-in-malignant-progression
#19
REVIEW
James B McCarthy, Dorraya El-Ashry, Eva A Turley
This review summarizes the roles of CAFs in forming a "cancerized" fibrotic stroma favorable to tumor initiation and dissemination, in particular highlighting the functions of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) in these processes. The structural complexity of the tumor and its host microenvironment is now well appreciated to be an important contributing factor to malignant progression and resistance-to-therapy. There are multiple components of this complexity, which include an extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and associated biomechanical changes in tumor stroma...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765956/transcriptomic-profiling-of-zebrafish-hair-cells-using-ribotag
#20
Maggie S Matern, Alisha Beirl, Yoko Ogawa, Yang Song, Nikhil Paladugu, Katie S Kindt, Ronna Hertzano
The zebrafish inner ear organs and lateral line neuromasts are comprised of a variety of cell types, including mechanosensitive hair cells. Zebrafish hair cells are evolutionarily homologous to mammalian hair cells, and have been particularly useful for studying normal hair cell development and function. However, the relative scarcity of hair cells within these complex organs, as well as the difficulty of fine dissection at early developmental time points, makes hair cell-specific gene expression profiling technically challenging...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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