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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909692/origin-of-cancer-an-information-energy-and-matter-disease
#1
Rainer G Hanselmann, Cornelius Welter
Cells are open, highly ordered systems that are far away from equilibrium. For this reason, the first function of any cell is to prevent the permanent threat of disintegration that is described by thermodynamic laws and to preserve highly ordered cell characteristics such as structures, the cell cycle, or metabolism. In this context, three basic categories play a central role: energy, information, and matter. Each of these three categories is equally important to the cell and they are reciprocally dependent...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900319/spleen-dependent-immune-protection-elicited-by-cpg-adjuvanted-reticulocyte-derived-exosomes-from-malaria-infection-is-associated-with-changes-in-t-cell-subsets-distribution
#2
Lorena Martín-Jaular, Armando de Menezes-Neto, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Míriam Díaz-Varela, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Francesc E Borras, Maria Montoya, Hernando A Del Portillo
Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex) are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy), had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891502/diacylglycerol-kinases-in-t-cell-tolerance-and-effector-function
#3
REVIEW
Shelley S Chen, Zhiming Hu, Xiao-Ping Zhong
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes that regulate the relative levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in cells by phosphorylating DAG to produce PA. Both DAG and PA are important second messengers cascading T cell receptor (TCR) signal by recruiting multiple effector molecules, such as RasGRP1, PKCθ, and mTOR. Studies have revealed important physiological functions of DGKs in the regulation of receptor signaling and the development and activation of immune cells. In this review, we will focus on recent progresses in our understanding of two DGK isoforms, α and ζ, in CD8 T effector and memory cell differentiation, regulatory T cell development and function, and invariant NKT cell development and effector lineage differentiation...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891501/septins-and-bacterial-infection
#4
REVIEW
Vincenzo Torraca, Serge Mostowy
Septins, a unique cytoskeletal component associated with cellular membranes, are increasingly recognized as having important roles in host defense against bacterial infection. A role for septins during invasion of Listeria monocytogenes into host cells was first proposed in 2002. Since then, work has shown that septins assemble in response to a wide variety of invasive bacterial pathogens, and septin assemblies can have different roles during the bacterial infection process. Here we review the interplay between septins and bacterial pathogens, highlighting septins as a structural determinant of host defense...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891500/interspecies-communication-between-pathogens-and-immune-cells-via-bacterial-membrane-vesicles
#5
Katerina S Jurkoshek, Ying Wang, Jaffre J Athman, Marian R Barton, Pamela A Wearsch
The production of extracellular vesicles is a universal mechanism for intercellular communication that is conserved across kingdoms. Prokaryotes secrete 50-250 nm membrane vesicles (MVs) in a manner that is regulated by environmental stress and is thought to promote survival. Since many types of host-derived stress are encountered during infection, this implies an important role for MV secretion in bacterial pathogenesis. Accordingly, MVs produced by gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens contain toxins, virulence factors, and other molecules that promote survival in the host...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882316/a-lncrna-perspective-into-re-building-the-heart
#6
REVIEW
Stefan Frank, Aitor Aguirre, Juergen Hescheler, Leo Kurian
Our conception of the human genome, long focused on the 2% that codes for proteins, has profoundly changed since its first draft assembly in 2001. Since then, an unanticipatedly expansive functionality and convolution has been attributed to the majority of the genome that is transcribed in a cell-type/context-specific manner into transcripts with no apparent protein coding ability. While the majority of these transcripts, currently annotated as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are functionally uncharacterized, their prominent role in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, especially in the context of the heart, is emerging...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882315/septin-mutations-in-human-cancers
#7
REVIEW
Dimitrios Angelis, Elias T Spiliotis
Septins are GTP-binding proteins that are evolutionarily and structurally related to the RAS oncogenes. Septin expression levels are altered in many cancers and new advances point to how abnormal septin expression may contribute to the progression of cancer. In contrast to the RAS GTPases, which are frequently mutated and actively promote tumorigenesis, little is known about the occurrence and role of septin mutations in human cancers. Here, we review septin missense mutations that are currently in the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878118/cancer-related-functions-and-subcellular-localizations-of-septins
#8
REVIEW
Christian Poüs, Laurence Klipfel, Anita Baillet
Since the initial discovery of septin family GTPases, the understanding of their molecular organization and cellular roles keeps being refined. Septins have been involved in many physiological processes and the misregulation of specific septin gene expression has been implicated in diverse human pathologies, including neurological disorders and cancer. In this minireview, we focus on the importance of the subunit composition and subcellular localization of septins relevant to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857942/septins-as-modulators-of-endo-lysosomal-membrane-traffic
#9
REVIEW
Kyungyeun Song, Giulia Russo, Michael Krauss
Septins constitute a family of GTP-binding proteins, which assemble into non-polar filaments in a nucleotide-dependent manner. These filaments can be recruited to negatively charged membrane surfaces. When associated with membranes septin filaments can act as diffusion barriers, which confine subdomains of distinct biological functions. In addition, they serve scaffolding roles by recruiting cytosolic proteins and other cytoskeletal elements. Septins have been implicated in a large variety of membrane-dependent processes, including cytokinesis, signaling, cell migration, and membrane traffic, and several family members have been implicated in disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857941/septin-organization-and-functions-in-budding-yeast
#10
REVIEW
Oliver Glomb, Thomas Gronemeyer
The septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins present in all eukaryotic cells except plants. They were originally discovered in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that serves until today as an important model organism for septin research. In yeast, the septins assemble into a highly ordered array of filaments at the mother bud neck. The septins are regulators of spatial compartmentalization in yeast and act as key players in cytokinesis. This minireview summarizes the recent findings about structural features and cell biology of the yeast septins...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857940/protocol-for-biomarker-ratio-imaging-microscopy-with-specific-application-to-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-of-the-breast
#11
Andrea J Clark, Howard R Petty
This protocol describes the methods and steps involved in performing biomarker ratio imaging microscopy (BRIM) using formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of human breast tissue. The technique is based on the acquisition of two fluorescence images of the same microscopic field using two biomarkers and immunohistochemical tools. The biomarkers are selected such that one biomarker correlates with breast cancer aggressiveness while the second biomarker anti-correlates with aggressiveness. When the former image is divided by the latter image, a computed ratio image is formed that reflects the aggressiveness of tumor cells while increasing contrast and eliminating path-length and other artifacts from the image...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853732/inflammation-shapes-stem-cells-and-stemness-during-infection-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Stella Michael, Charis Achilleos, Theofano Panayiotou, Katerina Strati
The outcome of an inflammatory incident can hang in the balance between restoring health and tissue integrity on the one hand, and promoting aberrant tissue homeostasis and adverse outcomes on the other. Both microbial-related and sterile inflammation is a complex response characterized by a range of innate immune cell types, which produce and respond to cytokine mediators and other inflammatory signals. In turn, cells native to the tissue in question can sense these mediators and respond by migrating, proliferating and regenerating the tissue...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847804/septin-associated-protein-kinases-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
REVIEW
Adam M Perez, Gregory C Finnigan, Françoise M Roelants, Jeremy Thorner
Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP-binding proteins that associate into linear rods, which, in turn, polymerize end-on-end into filaments, and further assemble into other, more elaborate super-structures at discrete subcellular locations. Hence, septin-based ensembles are considered elements of the cytoskeleton. One function of these structures that has been well-documented in studies conducted in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to serve as a scaffold that recruits regulatory proteins, which dictate the spatial and temporal control of certain aspects of the cell division cycle...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833910/extracellular-microvesicle-production-by-human-eosinophils-activated-by-inflammatory-stimuli
#14
Praveen Akuthota, Lívia A S Carmo, Kennedy Bonjour, Ryann O Murphy, Thiago P Silva, Juliana P Gamalier, Kelsey L Capron, John Tigges, Vasilis Toxavidis, Virginia Camacho, Ionita Ghiran, Shigeharu Ueki, Peter F Weller, Rossana C N Melo
A key function of human eosinophils is to secrete cytokines, chemokines and cationic proteins, trafficking, and releasing these mediators for roles in inflammation and other immune responses. Eosinophil activation leads to secretion of pre-synthesized granule-stored mediators through different mechanisms, but the ability of eosinophils to secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), very small vesicles with preserved membrane topology, is still poorly understood. In the present work, we sought to identify and characterize EVs released from human eosinophils during different conditions: after a culturing period or after isolation and stimulation with inflammatory stimuli, which are known to induce eosinophil activation and secretion: CCL11 (eotaxin-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826548/single-cell-isolation-and-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Ping Hu, Wenhua Zhang, Hongbo Xin, Glenn Deng
Individual cell heterogeneity within a population can be critical to its peculiar function and fate. Subpopulations studies with mixed mutants and wild types may not be as informative regarding which cell responds to which drugs or clinical treatments. Cell to cell differences in RNA transcripts and protein expression can be key to answering questions in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology, and developmental biology. Conventional cell-based assays mainly analyze the average responses from a population of cells, without regarding individual cell phenotypes...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803897/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE%C2%B5-properties-and-biological-roles
#16
REVIEW
Richard M Epand, Vincent So, William Jennings, Bijendra Khadka, Radhey S Gupta, Mathieu Lemaire
In mammals there are at least 10 isoforms of diacylglycerol kinases (DGK). All catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Among DGK isoforms, DGKε has several unique features. It is the only DGK isoform with specificity for a particular species of DAG, i.e., 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl glycerol. The smallest of all known DGK isoforms, DGKε, is also the only DGK devoid of a regulatory domain. DGKε is the only DGK isoform that has a hydrophobic segment that is predicted to form a transmembrane helix...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803896/roles-of-fgf-signals-in-heart-development-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Itoh, Hiroya Ohta, Yoshiaki Nakayama, Morichika Konishi
The heart provides the body with oxygen and nutrients and assists in the removal of metabolic waste through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. It is the first organ to form during embryonic morphogenesis. FGFs with diverse functions in development, health, and disease are signaling proteins, mostly as paracrine growth factors or endocrine hormones. The human/mouse FGF family comprises 22 members. Findings obtained from mouse models and human diseases with FGF signaling disorders have indicated that several FGFs are involved in heart development, health, and disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800478/making-the-switch-alternatives-to-fetal-bovine-serum-for-adipose-derived-stromal-cell-expansion
#18
REVIEW
Carla Dessels, Marnie Potgieter, Michael S Pepper
Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are being used extensively in clinical trials. These trials require that ASCs are prepared using good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and are safe for use in humans. The majority of clinical trials in which ASCs are expanded make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS). While FBS is used traditionally in the research setting for in vitro expansion, it does carry the risk of xenoimmunization and zoonotic transmission when used for expanding cells destined for therapeutic purposes...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800477/growth-factor-content-in-human-sera-affects-the-isolation-of-mesangiogenic-progenitor-cells-mpcs-from-human-bone-marrow
#19
Marina Montali, Serena Barachini, Francesca M Panvini, Vittoria Carnicelli, Franca Fulceri, Iacopo Petrini, Simone Pacini
Mesangiogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs) are human bone marrow-derived multipotent cells, isolated in vitro under selective culture conditions and shown to retain both mesengenic and angiogenic potential. MPCs also co-isolated with multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) when bone marrow primary cultures were set up for clinical applications, using human serum (HS) in place of fetal bovine serum (FBS). MPC culture purity (over 95%) is strictly dependent on HS supplementation with significant batch-to-batch variability...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800476/diacylglycerol-kinases-dgks-novel-targets-for-improving-t-cell-activity-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Matthew J Riese, Edmund K Moon, Bryon D Johnson, Steven M Albelda
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of diacylglycerol (DAG). Two isoforms of DGK, DGKα, and DGKζ, specifically regulate the pool of DAG that is generated as a second messenger after stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR). Deletion of either isoform in mouse models results in T cells bearing a hyperresponsive phenotype and enhanced T cell activity against malignancy. Whereas, DGKζ appears to be the dominant isoform in T cells, rationale exists for targeting both isoforms individually or coordinately...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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