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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626748/the-multiple-roles-of-fgf-signaling-in-the-developing-spinal-cord
#1
REVIEW
Ruth Diez Del Corral, Aixa V Morales
During vertebrate embryonic development, the spinal cord is formed by the neural derivatives of a neuromesodermal population that is specified at early stages of development and which develops in concert with the caudal regression of the primitive streak. Several processes related to spinal cord specification and maturation are coupled to this caudal extension including neurogenesis, ventral patterning and neural crest specification and all of them seem to be crucially regulated by Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling, which is prominently active in the neuromesodermal region and transiently in its derivatives...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611984/editorial-in-search-of-in-vivo-msc
#2
EDITORIAL
Simone Pacini, Mario Petrini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603713/dishevelled-paralogs-in-vertebrate-development-redundant-or-distinct
#3
REVIEW
Marc Gentzel, Alexandra Schambony
Dishevelled (DVL) proteins are highly conserved in the animal kingdom and are important key players in β-Catenin-dependent and -independent Wnt signaling pathways. Vertebrate genomes typically comprise three DVL genes, DVL1, DVL2, and DVL3. Expression patterns and developmental functions of the three vertebrate DVL proteins however, are only partially redundant in any given species. Moreover, expression and function of DVL isoforms have diverged between different vertebrate species. All DVL proteins share basic functionality in Wnt signal transduction...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603712/growth-rate-as-a-direct-regulator-of-the-start-network-to-set-cell-size
#4
REVIEW
Martí Aldea, Kirsten Jenkins, Attila Csikász-Nagy
Cells are able to adjust their growth and size to external inputs to comply with specific fates and developmental programs. Molecular pathways controlling growth also have an enormous impact in cell size, and bacteria, yeast, or epithelial cells modify their size as a function of growth rate. This universal feature suggests that growth (mass) and proliferation (cell number) rates are subject to general coordinating mechanisms. However, the underlying molecular connections are still a matter of debate. Here we review the current ideas on growth and cell size control, and focus on the possible mechanisms that could link the biosynthetic machinery to the Start network in budding yeast...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603711/autophagy-in-the-vertebrate-inner-ear
#5
REVIEW
Marta Magariños, Sara Pulido, María R Aburto, Rocío de Iriarte Rodríguez, Isabel Varela-Nieto
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589121/pancreatic-beta-cell-identity-in-humans-and-the-role-of-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Piero Marchetti, Marco Bugliani, Vincenzo De Tata, Mara Suleiman, Lorella Marselli
Pancreatic beta cells uniquely synthetize, store, and release insulin. Specific molecular, functional as well as ultrastructural traits characterize their insulin secretion properties and survival phentoype. In this review we focus on human islet/beta cells, and describe the changes that occur in type 2 diabetes and could play roles in the disease as well as represent possible targets for therapeutical interventions. These include transcription factors, molecules involved in glucose metabolism and insulin granule handling...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573133/regulation-of-osteoclast-growth-and-fusion-by-mtor-raptor-and-mtor-rictor-akt
#7
Kerstin Tiedemann, Damien Le Nihouannen, Jenna E Fong, Osama Hussein, Jake E Barralet, Svetlana V Komarova
Osteoclasts are giant bone cells formed by fusion from monocytes and uniquely capable of a complete destruction of mineralized tissues. Previously, we have demonstrated that in energy-rich environment not only osteoclast fusion index (the number of nuclei each osteoclast contains), but also cytoplasm volume per single nucleus was increased. The goal of this study was to investigate the regulation of metabolic sensor mTOR during osteoclast differentiation in energy-rich environment simulated by addition of pyruvate...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555185/molecular-determinants-of-cephalopod-muscles-and-their-implication-in-muscle-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Letizia Zullo, Sara M Fossati, Pamela Imperadore, Marie-Therese Nödl
The ability to regenerate whole-body structures has been studied for many decades and is of particular interest for stem cell research due to its therapeutic potential. Several vertebrate and invertebrate species have been used as model systems to study pathways involved in regeneration in the past. Among invertebrates, cephalopods are considered as highly evolved organisms, which exhibit elaborate behavioral characteristics when compared to other mollusks including active predation, extraordinary manipulation, and learning abilities...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553634/neural-stem-cell-plasticity-advantages-in-therapy-for-the-injured-central-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Linda Ottoboni, Arianna Merlini, Gianvito Martino
The physiological and pathological properties of the neural germinal stem cell niche have been well-studied in the past 30 years, mainly in animals and within given limits in humans, and knowledge is available for the cyto-architectonic structure, the cellular components, the timing of development and the energetic maintenance of the niche, as well as for the therapeutic potential and the cross talk between neural and immune cells. In recent years we have gained detailed understanding of the potentiality of neural stem cells (NSCs), although we are only beginning to understand their molecular, metabolic, and epigenetic profile in physiopathology and, further, more can be invested to measure quantitatively the activity of those cells, to model in vitro their therapeutic responses or to predict interactions in silico...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540289/stem-cell-induced-biobridges-as-possible-tools-to-aid-neuroreconstruction-after-cns-injury
#10
REVIEW
Jea Y Lee, Kaya Xu, Hung Nguyen, Vivian A Guedes, Cesar V Borlongan, Sandra A Acosta
Notch-induced mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) mediate a distinct mechanism of repair after brain injury by forming a biobridge that facilitates biodistribution of host cells from a neurogenic niche to the area of injury. We have observed the biobridge in an area between the subventricular zone and the injured cortex using immunohistochemistry and laser capture. Cells in the biobridge express high levels of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-9, which co-localized with a trail of MSCs graft...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540288/recent-insights-into-the-role-of-unfolded-protein-response-in-er-stress-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Dan Lindholm, Laura Korhonen, Ove Eriksson, Sulev Kõks
Unfolded stress response (UPR) is a conserved cellular pathway involved in protein quality control to maintain homeostasis under different conditions and disease states characterized by cell stress. Although three general schemes of and genes induced by UPR are rather well-established, open questions remain including the precise role of UPR in human diseases and the interactions between different sensor systems during cell stress signaling. Particularly, the issue how the normally adaptive and pro-survival UPR pathway turns into a deleterious process causing sustained endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death requires more studies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#12
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529939/naturally-engineered-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes
#13
REVIEW
Gaetano J Scuderi, Jonathan Butcher
Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529938/senescence-inflammatory-regulation-of-reparative-cellular-reprogramming-in-aging-and-cancer
#14
Javier A Menendez, Tomás Alarcón
The inability of adult tissues to transitorily generate cells with functional stem cell-like properties is a major obstacle to tissue self-repair. Nuclear reprogramming-like phenomena that induce a transient acquisition of epigenetic plasticity and phenotype malleability may constitute a reparative route through which human tissues respond to injury, stress, and disease. However, tissue rejuvenation should involve not only the transient epigenetic reprogramming of differentiated cells, but also the committed re-acquisition of the original or alternative committed cell fate...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523267/a-novel-role-for-the-bmp-antagonist-noggin-in-sensitizing-cells-to-non-canonical-wnt-5a-ror2-disheveled-pathway-activation
#15
Ondrej Bernatik, Tomasz Radaszkiewicz, Martin Behal, Zankruti Dave, Florian Witte, Annika Mahl, Nicole H Cernohorsky, Pavel Krejci, Sigmar Stricker, Vitezslav Bryja
Mammalian limb development is driven by the integrative input from several signaling pathways; a failure to receive or a misinterpretation of these signals results in skeletal defects. The brachydactylies, a group of overlapping inherited human hand malformation syndromes, are mainly caused by mutations in BMP signaling pathway components. Two closely related forms, Brachydactyly type B2 (BDB2) and BDB1 are caused by mutations in the BMP antagonist Noggin (NOG) and the atypical receptor tyrosine kinase ROR2 that acts as a receptor in the non-canonical Wnt pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523266/stimulating-fracture-healing-in-ischemic-environments-does-oxygen-direct-stem-cell-fate-during-fracture-healing
#16
REVIEW
Katherine R Miclau, Sloane A Brazina, Chelsea S Bahney, Kurt D Hankenson, Thomas K Hunt, Ralph S Marcucio, Theodore Miclau
Bone fractures represent an enormous societal and economic burden as one of the most prevalent causes of disability worldwide. Each year, nearly 15 million people are affected by fractures in the United States alone. Data indicate that the blood supply is critical for fracture healing; as data indicate that concomitant bone and vascular injury are major risk factors for non-union. However, the various role(s) that the vasculature plays remains speculative. Fracture stabilization dictates stem cell fate choices during repair...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516085/analysis-of-septin-reorganization-at-cytokinesis-using-polarized-fluorescence-microscopy
#17
Molly McQuilken, Maximilian S Jentzsch, Amitabh Verma, Shalin B Mehta, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S Gladfelter
Septins are conserved filament-forming proteins that act in diverse cellular processes. They closely associate with membranes and, in some systems, components of the cytoskeleton. It is not well understood how filaments assemble into higher-order structures in vivo or how they are remodeled throughout the cell cycle. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, septins are found through most of the cell cycle in an hourglass organization at the mother-bud neck until cytokinesis when the collar splits into two rings that disassemble prior to the next cell cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507987/pitx2-in-embryonic-and-adult-myogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Francisco Hernandez-Torres, Lara Rodríguez-Outeiriño, Diego Franco, Amelia E Aranega
Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue that represents between 30 and 38% of the human body mass and has important functions in the organism, such as maintaining posture, locomotor impulse, or pulmonary ventilation. The genesis of skeletal muscle during embryonic development is a process controlled by an elaborate regulatory network combining the interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that transform myogenic precursor cells into functional muscle fibers through a finely tuned differentiation program...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507986/more-than-just-a-simple-cardiac-envelope-cellular-contributions-of-the-epicardium
#19
REVIEW
Angel Dueñas, Amelia E Aranega, Diego Franco
The adult pumping heart is formed by distinct tissue layers. From inside to outside, the heart is composed by an internal endothelial layer, dubbed the endocardium, a thick myocardial component which supports the pumping capacity of the heart and exteriorly covered by a thin mesothelial layer named the epicardium. Cardiac insults such as coronary artery obstruction lead to ischemia and thus to an irreversible damage of the myocardial layer, provoking in many cases heart failure and death. Thus, searching for new pathways to regenerate the myocardium is an urgent biomedical need...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507985/control-of-neuronal-migration-and-aggregation-by-reelin-signaling-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#20
REVIEW
Yuki Hirota, Kazunori Nakajima
The mammalian cerebral neocortex has a well-organized laminar structure, achieved by the highly coordinated control of neuronal migration. During cortical development, excitatory neurons born near the lateral ventricle migrate radially to reach their final positions to form the cortical plate. During this process, dynamic changes are observed in the morphologies and migration modes, including multipolar migration, locomotion, and terminal translocation, of the newborn neurons. Disruption of these migration processes can result in neuronal disorders such as lissencephaly and periventricular heterotopia...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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