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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234114/autophagy-in-neutrophils-from-granulopoiesis-to-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#1
REVIEW
Panagiotis Skendros, Ioannis Mitroulis, Konstantinos Ritis
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation system aiming to maintain cell homeostasis in response to cellular stress. At physiological states, basal or constitutive level of autophagy activity is usually low; however, it is markedly up-regulated in response to oxidative stress, nutrient starvation, and various immunological stimuli including pathogens. Many studies over the last years have indicated the implication of autophagy in a plethora of cell populations and functions. In this review, we focus on the role of autophagy in the biology of neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234113/experimental-considerations-for-single-cell-rna-sequencing-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Quy H Nguyen, Nicholas Pervolarakis, Kevin Nee, Kai Kessenbrock
Single-cell transcriptomic technologies have emerged as powerful tools to explore cellular heterogeneity at the resolution of individual cells. Previous scientific knowledge in cell biology is largely limited to data generated by bulk profiling methods, which only provide averaged read-outs that generally mask cellular heterogeneity. This averaged approach is particularly problematic when the biological effect of interest is limited to only a subpopulation of cells such as stem/progenitor cells within a given tissue, or immune cell subsets infiltrating a tumor...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234112/antioxidative-cxxc-peptide-motif-from-mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-antagonizes-programmed-cell-death
#3
Valentina Božok, Li-Ying Yu, Jaan Palgi, Urmas Arumäe
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a potent survival-promoting protein with neurorestorative effect for neurodegenerative diseases. Its mechanism of action, albeit poorly known, depends strongly on the CXXC motif (CKGC). Here we studied the survival-promoting properties of the CKGC tetrapeptide from MANF. In the Jurkat T lymphocytic cell line, CKGC potently inhibits death receptor Fas-induced apoptosis and mildly counteracts mitochondrial apoptosis and necroptosis. The peptide with serines instead of cysteines (SKGS) has no survival-promoting activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234111/myd88-regulates-the-expression-of-smad4-and-the-iron-regulatory-hormone-hepcidin
#4
Macha Samba-Mondonga, Annie Calvé, Frédérick A Mallette, Manuela M Santos
The myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) is an adaptive protein that is essential for the induction of inflammatory cytokines through almost all the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs recognize molecular patterns present in microorganisms called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Therefore, MyD88 plays an important role in innate immunity since its activation triggers the first line of defense against microorganisms. Herein, we describe the first reported role of MyD88 in an interconnection between innate immunity and the iron-sensing pathway (BMP/SMAD4)...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234110/two-tier-hox-collinearity-mediates-vertebrate-axial-patterning
#5
Antony J Durston
A two tier mechanism mediates Hox collinearity. Besides the familiar collinear chromatin modification within each Hox cluster (nanocollinearity), there is also a macrocollinearity tier. Individual Hox clusters and individual cells are coordinated and synchronized to generate multiscale (macro and nano) collinearity in the early vertebrate embryo. Macro-collinearity is mediated by three non-cell autonomous Hox-Hox interactions. These mediate temporal collinearity in early NOM (non-organizer mesoderm), time space translation where temporal collinearity is translated to spatial collinearity along the early embryo's main body axis and neural transformation, where Hox expression is copied monospecifically from NOM mesoderm to overlying neurectoderm in the late gastrula...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234109/the-human-slc1a5-asct2-amino-acid-transporter-from-function-to-structure-and-role-in-cell-biology
#6
REVIEW
Mariafrancesca Scalise, Lorena Pochini, Lara Console, Maria A Losso, Cesare Indiveri
SLC1A5, known as ASCT2, is a neutral amino acid transporter belonging to the SLC1 family and localized in the plasma membrane of several body districts. ASCT2 is an acronym standing for Alanine, Serine, Cysteine Transporter 2 even if the preferred substrate is the conditionally essential amino acid glutamine, with cysteine being a modulator and not a substrate. The studies around amino acid transport in cells and tissues began in the '60s by using radiolabeled compounds and competition assays. After identification of murine and human genes, the function of the coded protein has been studied in cell system and in proteoliposomes revealing that this transporter is a Na+ dependent antiporter of neutral amino acids, some of which are only inwardly transported and others are bi-directionally exchanged...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234108/aberrations-of-dna-repair-pathways-in-prostate-cancer-future-implications-for-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Orazio Caffo, Antonello Veccia, Stefania Kinspergher, Mimma Rizzo, Francesca Maines
Patients who are carriers of inherited mutations in essential component of DNA repair pathways have a significantly higher lifetime risk for developing cancer compared to the population of reference. Recent advances in DNA next-generation sequencing technology have allowed screening for carriers of those mutations, allowing development of promising risk-reduction strategies and providing the rationale to personalize the therapeutic approach for these patients. New intriguing scenarios are opening nowadays for the management of prostate cancer in patients with germline or somatic mutations in components of DNA repair pathways (e...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211163/melanoma-lamp-2c-modulates-tumor-growth-and-autophagy
#8
Liliana Pérez, Anthony L Sinn, George E Sandusky, Karen E Pollok, Janice S Blum
Autophagy plays critical but diverse roles in cellular quality control and homeostasis potentially checking tumor development by removing mutated or damaged macromolecules, while conversely fostering tumor survival by supplying essential nutrients during cancer progression. This report documents a novel inhibitory role for a lysosome-associated membrane protein, LAMP-2C in modulating autophagy and melanoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo . Solid tumors such as melanomas encounter a variety of stresses in vivo including inflammatory cytokines produced by infiltrating lymphocytes directed at limiting tumor growth and spread...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211162/editorial-molecular-mechanisms-of-metalloid-transport-toxicity-and-tolerance
#9
EDITORIAL
Gerd Patrick Bienert, Markus J Tamás
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211161/a-paradoxical-correlation-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-with-survival-outcomes-in-b-cell-lymphomas-and-carcinomas
#10
Marcela Haro, Sandra Orsulic
The tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as an active participant in tumor progression. A recent pan-cancer genomic profile analysis has revealed that gene signatures representing components of the tumor microenvironment are robust predictors of survival. A stromal gene signature representing fibroblasts and extracellular matrix components has been associated with good survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Paradoxically, a closely related gene signature has been shown to correlate with poor survival in carcinomas, including breast, ovarian, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211160/cd44-cd44v6-a-reliable-companion-in-cancer-initiating-cell-maintenance-and-tumor-progression
#11
REVIEW
Zhe Wang, Kun Zhao, Thilo Hackert, Margot Zöller
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death, tumor progression proceeding through emigration from the primary tumor, gaining access to the circulation, leaving the circulation, settling in distant organs and growing in the foreign environment. The capacity of a tumor to metastasize relies on a small subpopulation of cells in the primary tumor, so called cancer-initiating cells (CIC). CIC are characterized by sets of markers, mostly membrane anchored adhesion molecules, CD44v6 being the most frequently recovered marker...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211159/extracellular-vesicles-decoding-a-new-language-for-cellular-communication-in-early-embryonic-development
#12
REVIEW
Lilian Cruz, Jenny A A Romero, Rebeca P Iglesia, Marilene H Lopes
The blastocyst inner cell mass (ICM) that gives rise to a whole embryo in vivo can be derived and cultured in vitro as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which retain full developmental potential. ICM cells receive, from diverse sources, complex molecular and spatiotemporal signals that orchestrate the finely-tuned processes associated with embryogenesis. Those instructions come, continuously, from themselves and from surrounding cells, such as those present in the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm (PrE). A key component of the ICM niche are the extracellular vesicles (EVs), produced by distinct cell types, that carry and transfer key molecules that regulate target cells and modulate cell renewal or cell fate...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191151/corrigendum-transcriptomic-profiling-of-zebrafish-hair-cells-using-ribotag
#13
Maggie S Matern, Alisha Beirl, Yoko Ogawa, Yang Song, Nikhil Paladugu, Katie S Kindt, Ronna Hertzano
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2018.00047.].
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186835/multiplexed-crispr-cas9-targeting-of-genes-implicated-in-retinal-regeneration-and-degeneration
#14
Arife Unal Eroglu, Timothy S Mulligan, Liyun Zhang, David T White, Sumitra Sengupta, Cathy Nie, Noela Y Lu, Jiang Qian, Lisha Xu, Wuhong Pei, Shawn M Burgess, Meera T Saxena, Jeff S Mumm
Thousands of genes have been implicated in retinal regeneration, but only a few have been shown to impact the regenerative capacity of Müller glia-an adult retinal stem cell with untapped therapeutic potential. Similarly, among nearly 300 genetic loci associated with human retinal disease, the majority remain untested in animal models. To address the large-scale nature of these problems, we are applying CRISPR/Cas9-based genome modification strategies in zebrafish to target over 300 genes implicated in retinal regeneration or degeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177968/zebrafish-as-a-model-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Liqing Zang, Lisette A Maddison, Wenbiao Chen
Obesity and diabetes now considered global epidemics. The prevalence rates of diabetes are increasing in parallel with the rates of obesity and the strong connection between these two diseases has been coined as "diabesity." The health risks of overweight or obesity include Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary heart disease and cancer of numerous organs. Both obesity and diabetes are complex diseases that involve the interaction of genetics and environmental factors. The underlying pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes are not well understood and further research is needed for pharmacological and surgical management...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175098/fueling-the-cycle-cdks-in-carbon-and-energy-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Maria Solaki, Jennifer C Ewald
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the central regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and are conserved across eukaryotes. Their main and well-studied function lies in the regulation and the time-keeping of cell cycle entry and progression. Additionally, more and more non canonical functions of CDKs are being uncovered. One fairly recently discovered role of CDKs is the coordination of carbon and energy metabolism with proliferation. Evidence from different model organisms is accumulating that CDKs can directly and indirectly control fluxes through metabolism, for example by phosphorylating metabolic enzymes...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175097/what-we-learned-from-big-data-for-autophagy-research
#17
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Jacomin, Lejla Gul, Padhmanand Sudhakar, Tamas Korcsmaros, Ioannis P Nezis
Autophagy is the process by which cytoplasmic components are engulfed in double-membraned vesicles before being delivered to the lysosome to be degraded. Defective autophagy has been linked to a vast array of human pathologies. The molecular mechanism of the autophagic machinery is well-described and has been extensively investigated. However, understanding the global organization of the autophagy system and its integration with other cellular processes remains a challenge. To this end, various bioinformatics and network biology approaches have been developed by researchers in the last few years...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175096/using-zebrafish-to-study-collective-cell-migration-in-development-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Hannah M Olson, Alex V Nechiporuk
Cellular migration is necessary for proper embryonic development as well as maintenance of adult health. Cells can migrate individually or in groups in a process known as collective cell migration. Collectively migrating cohorts maintain cell-cell contacts, group polarization, and exhibit coordinated behavior. This mode of migration is important during numerous developmental processes including tracheal branching, blood vessel sprouting, neural crest cell migration and others. In the adult, collective cell migration is important for proper wound healing and is often misappropriated during cancer cell invasion...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159313/beyond-the-warburg-effect-how-do-cancer-cells-regulate-one-carbon-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Adam Rosenzweig, John Blenis, Ana P Gomes
Altered metabolism in cancer cells is critical for tumor growth. One of the most notable aspects of this metabolic reprogramming lies in one-carbon metabolism. Cells require one-carbon units for nucleotide synthesis, methylation reactions, and for the generation of reducing cofactors. Therefore, the ability to rewire and fine-tune one-carbon metabolism is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In this review, we describe how the major nutrient, energy, and redox sensors of the cell play a significant role in the regulation of flux through one-carbon metabolism to enable cell fate decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159312/enac-in-cholinergic-brush-cells
#20
Chrissy Kandel, Patricia Schmidt, Alexander Perniss, Maryam Keshavarz, Paul Scholz, Sabrina Osterloh, Mike Althaus, Wolfgang Kummer, Klaus Deckmann
Cholinergic polymodal chemosensory cells in the mammalian urethra (urethral brush cells = UBC) functionally express the canonical bitter and umami taste transduction signaling cascade. Here, we aimed to determine whether UBC are functionally equipped for the perception of salt through ENaC (epithelial sodium channel). Cholinergic UBC were isolated from ChAT-eGFP reporter mice (ChAT = choline acetyltransferase). RT-PCR showed mRNA expression of ENaC subunits Scnn1a, Scnn1b , and Scnn1g in urethral epithelium and isolated UBC...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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