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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428954/uncovering-the-roles-of-septins-in-cilia
#1
REVIEW
Oliva Palander, Maha El-Zeiry, William S Trimble
Septins are a family of GTP-binding proteins that associate with cellular membranes and the cytoskeleton. Their ability to polymerize into filamentous structures permits them to serve as diffusion barriers for membrane proteins and as multi-molecular scaffolds that recruit components of signaling pathways. At the cellular level, septins contribute to the regulation of numerous processes, including cytokinesis, cell polarity, cell migration, and many others. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence for roles of mammalian septins in the biogenesis and function of flagella and cilia, and how this may impact human diseases such as ciliopathies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428953/tetraspanins-function-as-regulators-of-cellular-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Christina M Termini, Jennifer M Gillette
Tetraspanins are molecular scaffolds that distribute proteins into highly organized microdomains consisting of adhesion, signaling, and adaptor proteins. Many reports have identified interactions between tetraspanins and signaling molecules, finding unique downstream cellular consequences. In this review, we will explore these interactions as well as the specific cellular responses to signal activation, focusing on tetraspanin regulation of adhesion-mediated (integrins/FAK), receptor-mediated (EGFR, TNF-α, c-Met, c-Kit), and intracellular signaling (PKC, PI4K, β-catenin)...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424773/septins-focus-cellular-growth-for-host-infection-by-pathogenic-fungi
#3
REVIEW
Michelle Momany, Nicholas J Talbot
One of the key challenges faced by microbial pathogens is invasion of host tissue. Fungal pathogens adopt a number of distinct strategies to overcome host cell defenses, including the development of specialized infection structures, the secretion of proteins that manipulate host responses or cellular organization, and the ability to facilitate their own uptake by phagocytic mechanisms. Key to many of these adaptations is the considerable morphogenetic plasticity displayed by pathogenic species. Fungal pathogens can, for example, shift their growth habit between non-polarized spores, or yeast-like cells, and highly polarized hyphal filaments...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424772/putting-cells-into-context
#4
Sigmar Stricker, Petra Knaus, Hans-Georg Simon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424771/ptk7-faces-the-wnt-in-development-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Hanna Berger, Andreas Wodarz, Annette Borchers
PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase 7) is an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane receptor regulating various processes in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. On a cellular level PTK7 affects the establishment of cell polarity, the regulation of cell movement and migration as well as cell invasion. The PTK7 receptor has been shown to interact with ligands, co-receptors, and intracellular transducers of Wnt signaling pathways, pointing to a function in the fine-tuning of the Wnt signaling network. Here we will review recent findings implicating PTK7 at the crossroads of Wnt signaling pathways in development and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421183/organ-to-organ-communication-a-drosophila-gastrointestinal-tract-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
The long-term maintenance of an organism's homeostasis and health relies on the accurate regulation of organ-organ communication. Recently, there has been growing interest in using the Drosophila gastrointestinal tract to elucidate the regulatory programs that underlie the complex interactions between organs. Data obtained in this field have dramatically improved our understanding of how organ-organ communication contributes to the regulation of various aspects of the intestine, including its metabolic and physiological status...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421182/tgf-%C3%AE-1-pretreatment-improves-the-function-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-wound-bed
#7
Deepraj Ghosh, Daniel J McGrail, Michelle R Dawson
The wound healing process initiates after injury to a tissue and involves a series of orchestrated events to minimize the invasion of foreign matters such as bacteria and efficiently regenerate the damaged tissue. A variety of cells must be recruited to the tissue during wound healing. However, this process is severely disrupted in patients suffering from chronic illness, including diabetes, leading to impaired healing or non-healing wounds. Current avenues of treatment include negative-pressure therapy, wound debridement, growth factor replacement, and cell-based therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421181/mct1-in-invasive-ductal-carcinoma-monocarboxylate-metabolism-and-aggressive-breast-cancer
#8
Jennifer M Johnson, Paolo Cotzia, Roberto Fratamico, Lekha Mikkilineni, Jason Chen, Daniele Colombo, Mehri Mollaee, Diana Whitaker-Menezes, Marina Domingo-Vidal, Zhao Lin, Tingting Zhan, Madalina Tuluc, Juan Palazzo, Ruth C Birbe, Ubaldo E Martinez-Outschoorn
Introduction: Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is an importer of monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate and a marker of mitochondrial metabolism. MCT1 is highly expressed in a subgroup of cancer cells to allow for catabolite uptake from the tumor microenvironment to support mitochondrial metabolism. We studied the protein expression of MCT1 in a broad group of breast invasive ductal carcinoma specimens to determine its association with breast cancer subtypes and outcomes. Methods: MCT1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue micro-arrays (TMA) obtained through our tumor bank...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409150/mitotic-catastrophe-in-bc3h1-cells-following-yessotoxin-exposure
#9
Mónica Suárez Korsnes, Reinert Korsnes
The marine toxin yessotoxin (YTX) can cause various cytotoxic effects depending on cell type and cell line. It is well known to trigger distinct mechanisms for programmed cell death which may overlap or cross-talk. The present contribution provides the first evidence that YTX can cause genotoxicity and induce mitotic catastrophe which can lead to different types of cell death. This work also demonstrates potential information gain from non-intrusive computer-based tracking of many individual cells during long time...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393067/biophysical-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-energy-dependent-efflux-of-sb-in-laboratory-selected-resistant-strains-of-leishmania-viannia-subgenus
#10
Priscila G Dos Reis, Rubens L do Monte-Neto, Maria N Melo, Frédéric Frézard
The growing resistance of leishmaniasis to first-line drugs like antimonials in some regions limits the control of this parasitic disease. The precise mechanisms involved in Leishmania antimony resistance are still subject to debate. The reduction of intracellular Sb(III) accumulation is a common change observed in both laboratory-selected and field isolated resistant Leishmania strains, but the exact transport pathways involved in antimony resistance have not yet been elucidated. In order to functionally characterize the antimony transport routes responsible for resistance, we performed systematic transport studies of Sb(III) in wild-type and resistant strains of L...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393066/signaling-and-transcription-factors-during-inner-ear-development-the-generation-of-hair-cells-and-otic-neurons
#11
Héctor Gálvez, Gina Abelló, Fernando Giraldez
Integration between cell signals and bHLH transcription factors plays a prominent role during the development of hair cells of the inner ear. Hair cells are the sensory receptors of the inner ear, responsible for the mechano-transduction of sound waves into electrical signals. They derive from multipotent progenitors that reside in the otic placode. Progenitor commitment is the result of cell signaling from the surrounding tissues that result in the restricted expression of SoxB1 transcription factors, Sox2 and Sox3...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386542/mechanical-control-of-myotendinous-junction-formation-and-tendon-differentiation-during-development
#12
REVIEW
Mauricio Valdivia, Franco Vega-Macaya, Patricio Olguín
The development of the musculoskeletal system is a great model to study the interplay between chemical and mechanical inter-tissue signaling in cell adhesion, tissue morphogenesis and differentiation. In both vertebrates and invertebrates (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster) the formation of muscle-tendon interaction generates mechanical forces which are required for myotendinous junction maturation and tissue differentiation. In addition, these forces must be withstood by muscles and tendons in order to prevent detachment from each other, deformation or even losing their integrity...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386541/impact-of-5-amp-activated-protein-kinase-on-male-gonad-and-spermatozoa-functions
#13
REVIEW
Thi Mong Diep Nguyen
As we already know, the male reproductive system requires less energetic investment than the female one. Nevertheless, energy balance is an important feature for spermatozoa production in the testis and for spermatozoa properties after ejaculation. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, is a sensor of cell energy, that regulates many metabolic pathways and that has been recently shown to control spermatozoa quality and functions. It is indeed involved in the regulation of spermatozoa quality through its action on the proliferation of testicular somatic cells (Sertoli and Leydig), on spermatozoa motility and acrosome reaction...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386540/sox9-expression-in-amniotes-species-specific-differences-in-the-formation-of-digits
#14
Juan A Montero, Carlos I Lorda-Diez, Javier Francisco-Morcillo, Jesus Chimal-Monroy, Juan A Garcia-Porrero, Juan M Hurle
In tetrapods the digit pattern has evolved to adapt to distinct locomotive strategies. The number of digits varies between species or even between hindlimb and forelimb within the same species. These facts illustrate the plasticity of embryonic limb autopods. Sox9 is a precocious marker of skeletal differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells. Its pattern of expression in the developing limb has been widely studied and reflects the activity of signaling cascades responsible for skeletogenesis. In this assay we stress previously overlooked differences in the pattern of expression of Sox9 in limbs of avian, mouse and turtle embryos which may reflect signaling differences associated with distinct limb skeletal morphologies observed in these species...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386539/non-myogenic-contribution-to-muscle-development-and-homeostasis-the-role-of-connective-tissues
#15
REVIEW
Sonya Nassari, Delphine Duprez, Claire Fournier-Thibault
Skeletal muscles belong to the musculoskeletal system, which is composed of bone, tendon, ligament and irregular connective tissue, and closely associated with motor nerves and blood vessels. The intrinsic molecular signals regulating myogenesis have been extensively investigated. However, muscle development, homeostasis and regeneration require interactions with surrounding tissues and the cellular and molecular aspects of this dialogue have not been completely elucidated. During development and adult life, myogenic cells are closely associated with the different types of connective tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361052/camkii-signaling-stimulates-mef2c-activity-in-vitro-but-only-minimally-affects-murine-long-bone-development-in-vivo
#16
Chandra S Amara, Christine Fabritius, Astrid Houben, Lena I Wolff, Christine Hartmann
The long bones of vertebrate limbs form by endochondral ossification, whereby mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrogenic progenitors, which then differentiate into chondrocytes. Chondrocytes undergo further differentiation from proliferating to prehypertrophic, and finally to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Several signaling pathways and transcription factors regulate this process. Previously, we and others have shown in chicken that overexpression of an activated form of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) results in ectopic chondrocyte maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337437/bioengineering-approaches-to-mature-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#17
REVIEW
Xuetao Sun, Sara S Nunes
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CM) represent a potential unlimited cell supply for cardiac tissue engineering and possibly regenerative medicine applications. However, hPSC-CMs produced by current protocols are not representative of native adult human cardiomyocytes as they display immature gene expression profile, structure and function. In order to improve hPSC-CM maturity and function, various approaches have been developed, including genetic manipulations to induce gene expression, delivery of biochemical factors, such as triiodothyronine and alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, induction of cell alignment in 3D tissues, mechanical stress as a mimic of cardiac load and electrical stimulation/pacing or a combination of these...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326306/cd44-a-multifunctional-cell-surface-adhesion-receptor-is-a-regulator-of-progression-and-metastasis-of-cancer-cells
#18
REVIEW
Linda T Senbanjo, Meenakshi A Chellaiah
CD44 is a cell surface adhesion receptor that is highly expressed in many cancers and regulates metastasis via recruitment of CD44 to the cell surface. Its interaction with appropriate extracellular matrix ligands promotes the migration and invasion processes involved in metastases. It was originally identified as a receptor for hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid and later to several other ligands including, osteopontin (OPN), collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases. CD44 has also been identified as a marker for stem cells of several types...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326305/implications-for-a-stem-cell-regenerative-medicine-based-approach-to-human-intervertebral-disk-degeneration
#19
REVIEW
Petra Kraus, Thomas Lufkin
The human body develops from a single cell, the zygote, the product of the maternal oocyte and the paternal spermatozoon. That 1-cell zygote embryo will divide and eventually grow into an adult human which is comprised of ~3.7 × 10(13) cells. The tens of trillions of cells in the adult human can be classified into approximately 200 different highly specialized cell types that make up all of the different tissues and organs of the human body. Regenerative medicine aims to replace or restore dysfunctional cells, tissues and organs with fully functional ones...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316970/dgk-%C3%AE-a-checkpoint-in-cancer-mediated-immuno-inhibition-and-target-for-immunotherapy
#20
Elfriede Noessner
Immunotherapy is moving to the forefront of cancer treatments owing to impressive durable responses achieved with checkpoint blockade antibodies and adoptive T-cell therapy. Still, improvements are necessary since, overall, only a small percentage of patients benefit from current therapies. Here, I summarize evidence that DGK-α may represent an immunological checkpoint suppressing the activity of cytotoxic immunocytes in the tumor microenvironment. DGK-inhibitors can restore the antitumor function of tumor-suppressed adaptive and innate cytotoxic immunocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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