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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326932/editorial-determinants-of-cell-size
#1
EDITORIAL
Mikael Björklund, Samuel Marguerat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326931/editorial-molecular-organization-of-membranes-where-biology-meets-biophysics
#2
EDITORIAL
Marek Cebecauer, David Holowka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326930/runx1-mutations-in-inherited-and-sporadic-leukemia
#3
REVIEW
Dana C Bellissimo, Nancy A Speck
RUNX1 is a recurrently mutated gene in sporadic myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia. Inherited mutations in RUNX1 cause familial platelet disorder with predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD/AML). In sporadic AML, mutations in RUNX1 are usually secondary events, whereas in FPD/AML they are initiating events. Here we will describe mutations in RUNX1 in sporadic AML and in FPD/AML, discuss the mechanisms by which inherited mutations in RUNX1 could elevate the risk of AML in FPD/AML individuals, and speculate on why mutations in RUNX1 are rarely, if ever, the first event in sporadic AML...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322045/multiple-duties-for-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-kinases-in-meiosis
#4
REVIEW
Adele L Marston, Katja Wassmann
Cell division in mitosis and meiosis is governed by evolutionary highly conserved protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling the timely execution of key events such as nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly, chromosome attachment to the spindle and chromosome segregation, and cell cycle exit. In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) controls the proper attachment to and alignment of chromosomes on the spindle. The SAC detects errors and induces a cell cycle arrest in metaphase, preventing chromatid separation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312939/a-modified-chinese-herbal-decoction-kai-xin-san-promotes-ngf-induced-neuronal-differentiation-in-pc12-cells-via-up-regulating-trk-a-signaling
#5
Lu Yan, Min Wei, Amy G Gong, Pingping Song, Jianshu Lou, Cathy W Bi, Sherry L Xu, Aizhen Xiong, Tina T Dong, Karl W Tsim
Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction, has been applied to medical care of depression for thousands of years. It is composed of two functional paired-herbs: Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The compatibility of the paired-herbs has been frequently changed to meet the criteria of syndrome differentiation and treatment variation. Currently, a modified KXS (namely KXS2012) was prepared by optimizing the combinations of GR-PR and ATR-PO: the new herbal formula was shown to be very effective in animal studies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312938/the-importance-of-non-neuronal-cell-types-in-hipsc-based-disease-modeling-and-drug-screening
#6
REVIEW
David M Gonzalez, Jill Gregory, Kristen J Brennand
Current applications of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technologies in patient-specific models of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders tend to focus on neuronal phenotypes. Here, we review recent efforts toward advancing hiPSCs toward non-neuronal cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) and highlight their potential use for the development of more complex in vitro models of neurodevelopment and disease. We present evidence from previous works in both rodents and humans of the importance of these cell types (oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes) in neurological disease and highlight new hiPSC-based models that have sought to explore these relationships in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312937/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-lysosomal-protease-cathepsins-in-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Pasquale Cocchiaro, Valeria De Pasquale, Rossella Della Morte, Simona Tafuri, Luigi Avallone, Anne Pizard, Anna Moles, Luigi Michele Pavone
Kidney disease is worldwide the 12th leading cause of death affecting 8-16% of the entire population. Kidney disease encompasses acute (short-lasting episode) and chronic (developing over years) pathologies both leading to renal failure. Since specific treatments for acute or chronic kidney disease are limited, more than 2 million people a year require dialysis or kidney transplantation. Several recent evidences identified lysosomal proteases cathepsins as key players in kidney pathophysiology. Cathepsins, originally found in the lysosomes, exert important functions also in the cytosol and nucleus of cells as well as in the extracellular space, thus participating in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312936/the-ins-and-outs-of-aurora-b-inner-centromere-localization
#8
REVIEW
Sanne Hindriksen, Susanne M A Lens, Michael A Hadders
Error-free chromosome segregation is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity during cell division. Aurora B, the enzymatic subunit of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC), plays a crucial role in this process. In early mitosis Aurora B localizes predominantly to the inner centromere, a specialized region of chromatin that lies at the crossroads between the inter-kinetochore and inter-sister chromatid axes. Two evolutionarily conserved histone kinases, Haspin and Bub1, control the positioning of the CPC at the inner centromere and this location is thought to be crucial for the CPC to function...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312935/crosstalk-between-lysosomes-and-mitochondria-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Nicoletta Plotegher, Michael R Duchen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common motor neurodegenerative disorder. In most cases the cause of the disease is unknown, while in about 10% of subjects, it is associated with mutations in a number of different genes. Several different mutations in 15 genes have been identified as causing familial forms of the disease, while many others have been identified as risk factors. A striking number of these genes are either involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function or of endo-lysosomal pathways. Mutations affecting one of these two pathways are often coupled with defects in the other pathway, suggesting a crosstalk between them...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312934/protein-localization-at-mitochondria-er-contact-sites-in-basal-and-stress-conditions
#10
REVIEW
Nicolò Ilacqua, Miguel Sánchez-Álvarez, Magdalena Bachmann, Veronica Costiniti, Miguel A Del Pozo, Marta Giacomello
Mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contacts (MERCs) are sites at which the outer mitochondria membrane and the Endoplasmic Reticulum surface run in parallel at a constant distance. The juxtaposition between these organelles determines several intracellular processes such as to name a few, Ca2+ and lipid homeostasis or autophagy. These specific tasks can be exploited thanks to the enrichment (or re-localization) of dedicated proteins at these interfaces. Recent proteomic studies highlight the tissue specific composition of MERCs, but the overall mechanisms that control MERCs plasticity remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312933/a-novel-occulta-type-spina-bifida-mediated-by-murine-double-heterozygotes-epha2-and-epha4-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#11
Nor Linda Abdullah, Siti W Mohd-Zin, Azlina Ahmad-Annuar, Noraishah M Abdul-Aziz
Members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase have previously been implicated in cranial neural tube development. Failure of neural tube closure leads to the devastating conditions known as anencephaly and spina bifida. EphA2 and EphA4 are expressed at the tips of the closing spinal neural folds prior and during neural tube closure. We investigated the possible role of murine EphA2 and EphA4 during the last step of primary neural tube closure, which is adhesion and fusion. The individual mouse knockouts of EphA2 and EphA4 per se do not exhibit neural tube defects (NTDs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270406/mitochondria-and-lysosomes-discovering-bonds
#12
REVIEW
Kiran Todkar, Hema S Ilamathi, Marc Germain
In the last decade, the traditional view of lysosomes has been challenged by the recognition that lysosomes are not only degradative organelles, but also metabolic sensors that play a key role in the regulation of metabolism and cell growth. Similarly, mitochondria are now seen as crucial metabolic hubs dictating cell fate decisions, not just ATP-producing machines. Importantly, these functions are generally performed as a coordinate response of distinct organelles that are physically and functionally connected...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270405/therapy-for-cancer-strategy-of-combining-anti-angiogenic-and-target-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Valentina Comunanza, Federico Bussolino
The concept that blood supply is required and necessary for cancer growth and spreading is intuitive and was firstly formalized by Judah Folkman in 1971, when he demonstrated that cancer cells release molecules able to promote the proliferation of endothelial cells and the formation of new vessels. This seminal result has initiated one of the most fascinating story of the medicine, which is offering a window of opportunity for cancer treatment based on the use of molecules inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and in particular vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is the master gene in vasculature formation and is the commonest target of anti-angiogenic regimens...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259971/alk1fc-suppresses-the-human-prostate-cancer-growth-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-preclinical-models
#14
Letizia Astrologo, Eugenio Zoni, Sofia Karkampouna, Peter C Gray, Irena Klima, Joël Grosjean, Marie J Goumans, Lukas J A C Hawinkels, Gabri van der Pluijm, Martin Spahn, George N Thalmann, Peter Ten Dijke, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and lethality is normally associated with the consequences of metastasis rather than the primary tumor. Therefore, targeting the molecular pathways that underlie dissemination of primary tumor cells and the formation of metastases has a great clinical value. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a critical role in tumor progression and this study focuses on the role of BMP9- Activin receptor-Like Kinase 1 and 2 (ALK1 and ALK2) axis in prostate cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259970/potential-use-of-human-periapical-cyst-mesenchymal-stem-cells-hpcy-mscs-as-a-novel-stem-cell-source-for-regenerative-medicine-applications
#15
REVIEW
Marco Tatullo, Bruna Codispoti, Andrea Pacifici, Francesca Palmieri, Massimo Marrelli, Luciano Pacifici, Francesco Paduano
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attracting growing interest by the scientific community due to their huge regenerative potential. Thus, the plasticity of MSCs strongly suggests the utilization of these cells for regenerative medicine applications. The main issue about the clinical use of MSCs is related to the complex way to obtain them from healthy tissues; this topic has encouraged scientists to search for novel and more advantageous sources of these cells in easily accessible tissues. The oral cavity hosts several cell populations expressing mesenchymal stem cell like-features, furthermore, the access to oral and dental tissues is simple and isolation of cells is very efficient...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250521/mitotic-regulation-by-nek-kinase-networks
#16
REVIEW
Andrew M Fry, Richard Bayliss, Joan Roig
Genetic studies in yeast and Drosophila led to identification of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), Polo-like kinases (PLKs) and Aurora kinases as essential regulators of mitosis. These enzymes have since been found in the majority of eukaryotes and their cell cycle-related functions characterized in great detail. However, genetic studies in another fungal species, Aspergillus nidulans, identified a distinct family of protein kinases, the NEKs, that are also widely conserved and have key roles in the cell cycle, but which remain less well studied...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243742/corrigendum-a-comprehensive-infrastructure-for-big-data-in-cancer-research-accelerating-cancer-research-and-precision-medicine
#17
Izumi V Hinkson, Tanja M Davidsen, Juli D Klemm, Ishwar Chandramouliswaran, Anthony R Kerlavage, Warren A Kibbe
[This corrects the article on p. 83 in vol. 5, PMID: 28983483.].
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230391/uterine-histone-secretion-likely-fosters-early-embryo-development-so-efforts-to-mitigate-histone-cytotoxicity-should-be-cautious
#18
Lon J Van Winkle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218308/opportunities-for-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-in-retinal-regeneration-research
#19
REVIEW
Leah J Campbell, David R Hyde
While retinal degeneration and disease results in permanent damage and vision loss in humans, the severely damaged zebrafish retina has a high capacity to regenerate lost neurons and restore visual behaviors. Advancements in understanding the molecular and cellular basis of this regeneration response give hope that strategies and therapeutics may be developed to restore sight to blind and visually-impaired individuals. Our current understanding has been facilitated by the amenability of zebrafish to molecular tools, imaging techniques, and forward and reverse genetic approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218307/calreticulin-challenges-posed-by-the-intrinsically-disordered-nature-of-calreticulin-to-the-study-of-its-function
#20
Lilian Varricchio, Mario Falchi, Massimiliano Dall'Ora, Caterina De Benedittis, Alessandra Ruggeri, Vladimir N Uversky, Anna Rita Migliaccio
Calreticulin is a Ca2+-binding chaperone protein, which resides mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum but also found in other cellular compartments including the plasma membrane. In addition to Ca2+, calreticulin binds and regulates almost all proteins and most of the mRNAs deciding their intracellular fate. The potential functions of calreticulin are so numerous that identification of all of them is becoming a nightmare. Still the recent discovery that patients affected by the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative disorders essential thrombocytemia or primary myelofibrosis not harboring JAK2 mutations carry instead calreticulin mutations disrupting its C-terminal domain has highlighted the clinical need to gain a deeper understanding of the biological activity of this protein...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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