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Oncolytic Virotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785448/spotlight-on-talimogene-laherparepvec-for-the-treatment-of-melanoma-lesions-in-the-skin-and-lymph-nodes
#1
REVIEW
Marlana Orloff
On October 27, 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), a first in class intralesional oncolytic virotherapy, was granted the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of melanoma in the skin and lymph nodes. Its approval has added yet another therapeutic option to the growing list of effective therapies for melanoma. Though the Phase III OPTiM trial has demonstrated its efficacy as a single agent, the target patient population remains narrow. With numerous effective and tolerable treatments available for unresectable and metastatic melanoma, intralesional therapies such as T-VEC are still finding their niche...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660749/oncolytic-seneca-valley-virus-past-perspectives-and-future-directions
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Burke
Seneca Valley Virus isolate 001 (SVV-001) is an oncolytic RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is also the first picornavirus discovered of the novel genus Senecavirus. SVV-001 replicates through an RNA intermediate, bypassing a DNA phase, and is unable to integrate into the host genome. SVV-001 was originally discovered as a contaminant in the cell culture of fetal retinoblasts and has since been identified as a potent oncolytic virus against tumors of neuroendocrine origin. SVV-001 has a number of features that make it an attractive oncolytic virus, namely, its ability to target and penetrate solid tumors via intravenous administration, inability for insertional mutagenesis, and being a self-replicating RNA virus with selective tropism for cancer cells...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579298/oncolytic-virotherapy-for-pediatric-malignancies-future-prospects
#3
REVIEW
Alicia M Waters, Gregory K Friedman, Eric K Ring, Elizabeth A Beierle
Pediatric solid tumors remain a major health concern, with nearly 16,000 children diagnosed each year. Of those, ~2,000 succumb to their disease, and survivors often suffer from lifelong disability secondary to toxic effects of current treatments. Countless multimodality treatment regimens are being explored to make advances against this deadly disease. One targeted treatment approach is oncolytic virotherapy. Conditionally replicating viruses can infect tumor cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. Four viruses have been advanced to pediatric clinical trials, including herpes simplex virus-1, Seneca Valley virus, reovirus, and vaccinia virus...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579297/myxoma-virus-therapy-for-human-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-in-a-nude-mouse-model
#4
Veronica G Kinn, Valerie A Hilgenberg, Amy L MacNeill
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a devastating tumor of young people that is difficult to cure. To determine if oncolytic virus therapy can improve outcomes in individuals with RMS, myxoma virus expressing a red fluorescent protein (MYXV-red) was evaluated for antitumoral effects using a murine model of RMS. Fluorescent protein was expressed in four RMS cell lines inoculated with MYXV-red, indicating that these cells were semipermissive to MYXV infection. MYXV-red replication and cytopathic effects were further evaluated using human embryonal RMS (CCL-136) cells...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579296/oncolytic-adenovirus-mediated-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Katrina Sweeney, Gunnel Halldén
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death and morbidity in men in the Western world. Tumor progression is dependent on functioning androgen receptor signaling, and initial administration of antiandrogens and hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) prevent growth and spread. Tumors frequently develop escape mechanisms to androgen-deprivation therapy and progress to castration-resistant late-stage metastatic disease that, in turn, inevitably leads to resistance to all current therapeutics, including chemotherapy...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579295/thyroid-malignant-neoplasm-associated-biomarkers-as-targets-for-oncolytic-virotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Mingxu Guan, Yanping Ma, Sahil Rajesh Shah, Gaetano Romano
Biomarkers associated with thyroid malignant neoplasm (TMN) have been widely applied in clinical diagnosis and in research oncological programs. The identification of novel TMN biomarkers has greatly improved the efficacy of clinical diagnosis. A more accurate diagnosis may lead to better clinical outcomes and effective treatments. However, the major deficiency of conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is lack of specificity. Due to the macrokinetic interactions, adverse side effects will occur, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579294/newcastle-disease-virus-rituximab-and-doxorubicin-combination-as-anti-hematological-malignancy-therapy
#7
Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari, Huda Rameez, Maha F Al-Taee
Hematological malignancies are important diseases that need more powerful therapeutics. Even with current targeting therapies, such as rituximab and other chemotherapeutic agents, there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Combination therapy seems the best option to target the tumor cells by different mechanisms. Virotherapy is a very promising treatment modality, as it is selective, safe, and causes cancer destruction. The Iraqi strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has proved to be effective both in vitro and in vivo...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579293/high-throughput-screening-to-enhance-oncolytic-virus-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
K J Allan, David F Stojdl, S L Swift
High-throughput screens can rapidly scan and capture large amounts of information across multiple biological parameters. Although many screens have been designed to uncover potential new therapeutic targets capable of crippling viruses that cause disease, there have been relatively few directed at improving the efficacy of viruses that are used to treat disease. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are biotherapeutic agents with an inherent specificity for treating malignant disease. Certain OV platforms - including those based on herpes simplex virus, reovirus, and vaccinia virus - have shown success against solid tumors in advanced clinical trials...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579292/cancer-immunotherapy-via-combining-oncolytic-virotherapy-with-chemotherapy-recent-advances
#9
REVIEW
Guy R Simpson, Kate Relph, Kevin Harrington, Alan Melcher, Hardev Pandha
Oncolytic viruses are multifunctional anticancer agents with huge clinical potential, and have recently passed the randomized Phase III clinical trial hurdle. Both wild-type and engineered viruses have been selected for targeting of specific cancers, to elicit cytotoxicity, and also to generate antitumor immunity. Single-agent oncolytic virotherapy treatments have resulted in modest effects in the clinic. There is increasing interest in their combination with cytotoxic agents, radiotherapy and immune-checkpoint inhibitors...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512683/oncolytic-virotherapy-using-herpes-simplex-virus-how-far-have-we-come
#10
REVIEW
Nicolas As Sokolowski, Helen Rizos, Russell J Diefenbach
Oncolytic virotherapy exploits the properties of human viruses to naturally cytolysis of cancer cells. The human pathogen herpes simplex virus (HSV) has proven particularly amenable for use in oncolytic virotherapy. The relative safety of HSV coupled with extensive knowledge on how HSV interacts with the host has provided a platform for manipulating HSV to enhance the targeting and killing of human cancer cells. This has culminated in the approval of talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma. This review focuses on the development of HSV as an oncolytic virus and where the field is likely to head in the future...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512682/ultrasound-mediated-oncolytic-virus-delivery-and-uptake-for-increased-therapeutic-efficacy-state-of-art
#11
REVIEW
Rounak Nande, Candace M Howard, Pier Paolo Claudio
The field of ultrasound (US) has changed significantly from medical imaging and diagnosis to treatment strategies. US contrast agents or microbubbles (MB) are currently being used as potential carriers for chemodrugs, small molecules, nucleic acids, small interfering ribonucleic acid, proteins, adenoviruses, and oncolytic viruses. Oncolytic viruses can selectively replicate within and destroy a cancer cell, thus making them a powerful therapeutic in treating late-stage or metastatic cancer. These viruses have been shown to have robust activity in clinical trials when injected directly into tumor nodules...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512681/combining-hdac-inhibitors-with-oncolytic-virotherapy-for-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Hiroshi Nakashima, Tran Nguyen, Ennio Antonio Chiocca
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes play a critical role in the epigenetic regulation of cellular functions and signaling pathways in many cancers. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been validated for single use or in combination with other drugs in oncologic therapeutics. An even more novel combination therapy with HDACi is to use them with an oncolytic virus. HDACi may lead to an amplification of tumor-specific lytic effects by facilitating increased cycles of viral replication, but there may also be direct anticancer effects of the drug by itself...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512680/targeting-tumor-vasculature-through-oncolytic-virotherapy-recent-advances
#13
REVIEW
Marcela Toro Bejarano, Jaime R Merchan
The oncolytic virotherapy field has made significant advances in the last decade, with a rapidly increasing number of early- and late-stage clinical trials, some of them showing safety and promising therapeutic efficacy. Targeting tumor vasculature by oncolytic viruses (OVs) is an attractive strategy that offers several advantages over nontargeted viruses, including improved tumor viral entry, direct antivascular effects, and enhanced antitumor efficacy. Current understanding of the biological mechanisms of tumor neovascularization, novel vascular targets, and mechanisms of resistance has allowed the development of oncolytic viral vectors designed to target tumor neovessels...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512679/mechanistic-insights-into-the-oncolytic-activity-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Boris Simovic, Scott R Walsh, Yonghong Wan
Immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy have both shown anticancer efficacy in the clinic as monotherapies but the greatest promise lies in therapies that combine these approaches. Vesicular stomatitis virus is a prominent oncolytic virus with several features that promise synergy between oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy. This review will address the cytotoxicity of vesicular stomatitis virus in transformed cells and what this means for antitumor immunity and the virus' immunogenicity, as well as how it facilitates the breaking of tolerance within the tumor, and finally, we will outline how these features can be incorporated into the rational design of new treatment strategies in combination with immunotherapy...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512678/patient-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-delivery-vehicles-for-oncolytic-virotherapy-novel-state-of-the-art-technology
#15
REVIEW
Manuel Ramírez, Javier García-Castro, Gustavo J Melen, África González-Murillo, Lidia Franco-Luzón
Oncolytic virotherapy is gaining interest in the clinic as a new weapon against cancer. In vivo administration of oncolytic viruses showed important limitations that decrease their effectiveness very significantly: the antiviral immune response causes the elimination of the therapeutic effect, and the poor natural ability of oncolytic viruses to infect micrometastatic lesions significantly minimizes the effective dose of virus. This review will focus on updating the technical and scientific foundations of one of the strategies developed to overcome these limitations, ie, using cells as vehicles for oncolytic viruses...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512677/oncolytic-sendai-virus-based-virotherapy-for-cancer-recent-advances
#16
REVIEW
Kotaro Saga, Yasufumi Kaneda
Many drugs have been developed and optimized for the treatment of cancer; however, it is difficult to completely cure cancer with anticancer drugs alone. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic technologies, in addition to new anticancer drugs, is necessary for more effective oncotherapy. Oncolytic viruses are one potential new anticancer strategy. Various oncolytic viruses have been developed for safe and effective oncotherapy. Recently, Sendai virus-based oncotherapy has been reported by several groups, and attention has been drawn to its unique anticancer mechanisms, which are different from those of the conventional oncolytic viruses that kill cancer cells by cancer cell-selective replication...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512676/oncolytic-virotherapy-for-human-malignant-mesothelioma-recent-advances
#17
REVIEW
Nicolas Boisgerault, Carole Achard, Tiphaine Delaunay, Laurent Cellerin, Frédéric Tangy, Marc Grégoire, Jean-François Fonteneau
Cancer virotherapy is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments because it offers a wide range of antitumor effects due to 1) the diversity of the oncolytic viruses that are now available and 2) their multifaceted activities against both tumor cells and tumor vessels, in addition to their ability to induce antitumor immune responses. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data regarding the targeting of malignant mesothelioma (MM) by oncolytic viruses. We also discuss the potential of other oncolytic viruses that have already shown antitumor effects against several malignancies in advanced clinical trials but are yet to be tested against MM cells...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512675/advances-in-the-design-and-development-of-oncolytic-measles-viruses
#18
REVIEW
Brian Hutzen, Corey Raffel, Adam W Studebaker
A successful oncolytic virus is one that selectively propagates and destroys cancerous tissue without causing excessive damage to the normal surrounding tissue. Oncolytic measles virus (MV) is one such virus that exhibits this characteristic and thus has rapidly emerged as a potentially useful anticancer modality. Derivatives of the Edmonston MV vaccine strain possess a remarkable safety record in humans. Promising results in preclinical animal models and evidence of biological activity in early phase trials contribute to the enthusiasm...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512674/on-the-potential-of-oncolytic-virotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-canine-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Amy L MacNeill
Over 6 million dogs are diagnosed with cancer in the USA each year. Treatment options for many of these patients are limited. It is important that the veterinary and scientific communities begin to explore novel treatment protocols for dogs with cancer. Oncolytic viral therapy is a promising treatment option that may prove to be relatively inexpensive and effective against several types of cancer. The efficacy of oncolytic virus therapies has been clearly demonstrated in murine cancer models, but the positive outcomes observed in mice are not always seen in human cancer patients...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512673/oncolytic-virotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer-current-research-and-future-developments
#20
REVIEW
Akshiv Malhotra, Arun Sendilnathan, Matthew O Old, Trisha M Wise-Draper
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Despite recent advancements in surgical, chemotherapy, and radiation treatments, HNC remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Unlike many other cancers, local control rather than systemic control is important for HNC survival. Therefore, novel local therapy in addition to systemic therapy is urgently needed. Oncolytic virotherapy holds promise in this regard as viruses can be injected intratumorally as well as intravenously with excellent safety profiles...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
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