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Current Environmental Health Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879432/opportunistic-environmental-sensing-with-smartphones-a-critical-review-of-current-literature-and-applications
#1
REVIEW
Ebrahim Nemati, Christina Batteate, Michael Jerrett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review sought to summarize recent literature and applications of passive, or opportunistic, mobile sensing in the fields of exposure science in built environment settings; highlight innovative opportunistic sensing systems; and analyze their functionality, significant features, and limitations. RECENT FINDINGS: Fifty-two papers related to opportunistic environmental sensing from 2009 or later were related to this review, of which 27 were included...
September 6, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812286/occupational-exposures-and-health-outcomes-among-immigrants-in-the-usa
#2
REVIEW
Sally C Moyce, Marc Schenker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immigrants experience higher rates of occupational injury and fatality than their native-born counterparts. This review summarizes the current data related to occupational/environmental exposures and explores potential reasons for the disparities. RECENT FINDINGS: Immigrant workers are employed in sectors that expose them to dangerous working conditions. They experience increased risk for exposure to heat, pesticides, hazardous chemicals, and cleaning agents, as well as physical hazards such as falls...
August 15, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803393/challenges-and-opportunities-for-occupational-epidemiology-in-the-twenty-first-century
#3
REVIEW
L T Stayner, J J Collins, Y L Guo, D Heederik, M Kogevinas, K Steenland, C Wesseling, P A Demers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are many opportunities and challenges for conducting occupational epidemiologic studies today. In this paper, we summarize the discussion of a symposium held at the Epidemiology in Occupational Health (EPICOH) conference, Chicago 2014, on challenges for occupational epidemiology in the twenty-first century. RECENT FINDINGS: The increasing number of publications and attendance at our conferences suggests that worldwide interest in occupational epidemiology has been growing...
August 12, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780629/public-and-stakeholder-engagement-and-the-built-environment-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Kevin M Leyden, Amanda Slevin, Thomas Grey, Mike Hynes, Fanney Frisbaek, Richard Silke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review 50 articles from 2015 and 2016 that focus upon public and stakeholder engagement as it pertains to the built environment. Our purpose is to understand the current state of the literature and approaches being used to better enable public and stakeholder engagement. As part of this review, we consider whether recent digital and mobile technologies have enabled advances for stakeholder and public participation. RECENT FINDINGS: The literature suggests some positive and some challenging developments...
August 5, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770538/night-shift-work-and-risk-of-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Johnni Hansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Night work is increasingly common and a necessity in certain sectors of the modern 24-h society. The embedded exposure to light-at-night, which suppresses the nocturnal hormone melatonin with oncostatic properties and circadian disruption, i.e., misalignment between internal and external night and between cells and organs, are suggested as main mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans based on limited evidence from eight epidemiologic studies on breast cancer, in addition to sufficient evidence from animal experiments...
August 2, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741248/lessons-learned-from-arsenic-mitigation-among-private-well-households
#6
REVIEW
Yan Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many thousands of research papers have been published on the occurrence, health effects, and mitigation of arsenic in drinking water sourced from groundwater around the world. Here, an attempt is made to summarize this large body of knowledge into a small number of lessons. RECENT FINDINGS: This is an opinion paper reflecting on why we are far from the goal of eliminating this silent and widespread poison to protect the health of many millions...
July 24, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733964/the-global-burden-of-occupational-disease
#7
REVIEW
Lesley Rushton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Burden of occupational disease estimation contributes to understanding of both magnitude and relative importance of different occupational hazards and provides essential information for targeting risk reduction. This review summarises recent key findings and discusses their impact on occupational regulation and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: New methods have been developed to estimate burden of occupational disease that take account of the latency of many chronic diseases and allow for exposure trends and workforce turnover...
July 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712046/the-healthy-worker-survivor-effect-target-parameters-and-target-populations
#8
REVIEW
Daniel M Brown, Sally Picciotto, Sadie Costello, Andreas M Neophytou, Monika A Izano, Jacqueline M Ferguson, Ellen A Eisen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We offer an in-depth discussion of the time-varying confounding and selection bias mechanisms that give rise to the healthy worker survivor effect (HWSE). RECENT FINDINGS: In this update of an earlier review, we distinguish between the mechanisms collectively known as the HWSE and the statistical bias that can result. This discussion highlights the importance of identifying both the target parameter and the target population for any research question in occupational epidemiology...
July 15, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707281/towards-a-comprehensive-conceptual-framework-of-active-travel-behavior-a-review-and-synthesis-of-published-frameworks
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Götschi, Audrey de Nazelle, Christian Brand, Regine Gerike
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the use of conceptual frameworks in research on active travel, such as walking and cycling. Generic framework features and a wide range of contents are identified and synthesized into a comprehensive framework of active travel behavior, as part of the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches project (PASTA). PASTA is a European multinational, interdisciplinary research project on active travel and health. RECENT FINDINGS: Along with an exponential growth in active travel research, a growing number of conceptual frameworks has been published since the early 2000s...
July 13, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695487/the-urban-heat-island-implications-for-health-in-a-changing-environment
#10
REVIEW
Clare Heaviside, Helen Macintyre, Sotiris Vardoulakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a well-studied phenomenon, whereby urban areas are generally warmer than surrounding suburban and rural areas. The most direct effect on health from the UHI is due to heat risk, which is exacerbated in urban areas, particularly during heat waves. However, there may be health benefits from warming during colder months. This review highlights recent attempts to quantitatively estimate the health impacts of the UHI and estimations of the health benefits of UHI mitigation measures...
July 10, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695486/policies-to-promote-active-travel-evidence-from-reviews-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Meghan Winters, Ralph Buehler, Thomas Götschi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While many levels of government recognize that walking and cycling (active travel) are critical to healthy cities, a continued challenge is to identify and prioritize strategies that will increase walking and cycling for transportation. We review evidence on policies that can increase active travel. RECENT FINDINGS: The reviews included here conclude that policies related to active travel may operate at various levels of the socio-ecological framework, including society, cities, routes or individuals...
July 10, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695485/new-opportunities-in-exposure-assessment-of-occupational-epidemiology-use-of-measurements-to-aid-exposure-reconstruction-in-population-based-studies
#12
REVIEW
Pamela J Dopart, Melissa C Friesen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure assessment efforts in population-based studies are increasingly incorporating measurements. The published literature was reviewed to identify the measurement sources and the approaches used to incorporate measurements into these efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: The variety of occupations and industries in these studies made collecting participant-specific measurements impractical. Thus, the starting point was often the compilation of large databases of measurements from inspections, published literature, and other exposure surveys...
July 10, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589515/erratum-to-ethical-issues-related-to-the-promotion-of-a-100-msv-threshold-assumption-in-japan-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-in-2011-background-and-consequences
#13
Toshihide Tsuda, Lena Lindahl, Akiko Tokinobu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488132/arsenic-and-immune-response-to-infection-during-pregnancy-and-early-life
#14
REVIEW
Sarah E Attreed, Ana Navas-Acien, Christopher D Heaney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity-including the specific mechanisms in humans-is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447316/mining-and-environmental-health-disparities-in-native-american-communities
#15
REVIEW
Johnnye Lewis, Joseph Hoover, Debra MacKenzie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435996/cognitive-effects-of-air-pollution-exposures-and-potential-mechanistic-underpinnings
#16
REVIEW
J L Allen, C Klocke, K Morris-Schaffer, K Conrad, M Sobolewski, D A Cory-Slechta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review sought to address the potential for air pollutants to impair cognition and mechanisms by which that might occur. RECENT FINDINGS: Air pollution has been associated with deficits in cognitive functions across a wide range of epidemiological studies, both with developmental and adult exposures. Studies in animal models are significantly more limited in number, with somewhat inconsistent findings to date for measures of learning, but show more consistent impairments for short-term memory...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429301/ethical-issues-related-to-the-promotion-of-a-100-msv-threshold-assumption-in-japan-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-in-2011-background-and-consequences
#17
REVIEW
Toshihide Tsuda, Lena Lindahl, Akiko Tokinobu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the debates in Japan regarding the 100 mSv threshold assumption and ethical issues related to it, and explores the background to distorted risk information and absence of risk communication in Japan. Then we seek proper risk communication based on scientific evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: On March 11, 2011 an accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Since then a number of misunderstandings have become common in Japan as a result of public statements by the Japanese and local governments that have no basis in medical science or are contradictory to medical science...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417441/relationships-between-essential-manganese-biology-and-manganese-toxicity-in-neurological-disease
#18
REVIEW
Anna C Pfalzer, Aaron B Bowman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Manganese (Mn) is critical for neurodevelopment but also has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases. We discuss how Mn requirements intersect with Mn biology and toxicity, and how these requirements may be altered in neurological disease. Furthermore, we discuss the emerging evidence that the level of Mn associated with optimal overall efficiency for Mn biology does not necessarily coincide with optimal cognitive outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have linked Mn exposures with urea cycle metabolism and autophagy, with evidence that exposures typically neurotoxic may be able to correct deficiencies in these processes at least short term...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417440/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-traffic-related-air-pollution-focus-on-autism
#19
REVIEW
Lucio G Costa, Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that air pollution may negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies suggest that young individuals may be particularly susceptible to air pollution-induced neurotoxicity and that perinatal exposure may cause or contribute to developmental disabilities and behavioral abnormalities...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397096/evaluating-a-gene-environment-interaction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-methylmercury-exposure-and-mutated-sod1
#20
REVIEW
Jordan M Bailey, Alexandra Colón-Rodríguez, William D Atchison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gene-environment (GxE) interactions likely contribute to numerous diseases, but are often difficult to model in the laboratory. Such interactions have been widely hypothesized for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); recent controlled laboratory studies are discussed here and hypotheses related to possible mechanisms of action are offered. Using methylmercury exposure and mutated SOD1 to model the impacts of such an interaction, we interpret evidence about their respective mechanisms of toxicity to interrogate the possibility of additive (or synergistic) effects when combined...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
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