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Current Environmental Health Reports

Alan S Kolok, Jonathan M Ali, Eleanor G Rogan, Shannon L Bartelt-Hunt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growth-enhancing chemicals used by the beef and dairy industries may be bioavailable to humans via milk, meat, and other environmental matrices. This review evaluates the potential for environmental transport and bioavailability of the active chemical to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Bovine somatostatin is detectable in milk; however, there is no evidence that the protein persists in the environment nor that it is active in humans. In contrast, steroids are transported through milk and meat to humans where they may exert biological activity...
May 12, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
K A Hamilton, A J Prussin, W Ahmed, C N Haas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global importance of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) has grown in recent years. While sporadic cases of LD and PF do not always provide contextual information for evaluating causes and drivers of Legionella risks, analysis of outbreaks provides an opportunity to assess these factors. RECENT FINDINGS: A review was performed and provides a summary of LD and PF outbreaks between 2006 and 2017. Of the 136 outbreaks, 115 were LD outbreaks, 4 were PF outbreaks, and 17 were mixed outbreaks of LD and PF...
May 9, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Brianna N VanNoy, Juleen Lam, Ami R Zota
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals widely detected in human serum, and at low levels in breast milk. We conducted a rapid systematic review on breastfeeding practices and serum concentrations of PFASs-specifically PFOS and PFOA-among reproductive-aged women and young children using the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology. RECENT FINDINGS: We included 14 studies examining associations between breastfeeding and PFASs in infants/toddlers or pregnant/postnatal women...
May 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Sharon P Nappier, Jeffrey A Soller, Sorina E Eftim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing interest in recycling water for potable reuse purposes, it is important to understand the microbial risks associated with potable reuse. This review focuses on potable reuse systems that use high-level treatment and de facto reuse scenarios that include a quantifiable wastewater effluent component. RECENT FINDINGS: In this article, we summarize the published human health studies related to potable reuse, including both epidemiology studies and quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA)...
May 2, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Karen Levy, Shanon M Smith, Elizabeth J Carlton
PURPOSE: Climate change threatens progress achieved in global reductions of infectious disease rates over recent decades. This review summarizes literature on potential impacts of climate change on waterborne diseases, organized around a framework of questions that can be addressed depending on available data. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of evidence suggests that climate change may alter the incidence of waterborne diseases, and diarrheal diseases in particular...
May 2, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Aisha S Dickerson, Janice S Lee, Channa Keshava, Andrew Hotchkiss, Amanda S Persad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urea has been utilized as a reductant in diesel fuels to lower emission of nitrogen oxides, igniting interest in probable human health hazards associated with exposure to exogenous urea. Here, we summarize and update key findings on potential health effects of exogenous urea, including carcinogenicity. RECENT FINDINGS: No definitive target organs for oral exposure were identified; however, results in animal studies suggest that the liver and kidney could be potential target organs of urea toxicity...
May 1, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Natalie G Exum, Elin Betanzo, Kellogg J Schwab, Thomas Y J Chen, Seth Guikema, David P E Harvey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the effectiveness of drinking water regulations to inform public health during extreme precipitation events. This paper estimates the vulnerability of specific populations to flooding in their public water system, reviews the literature linking precipitation to waterborne outbreaks, examines the role that Safe Drinking Water Act and Public Notification (PN) Rule have in public health emergencies, and reviews the effectiveness of the PN Rule during the 2017 Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico...
April 23, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Andrew F Brouwer, Nina B Masters, Joseph N S Eisenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Waterborne enteric pathogens remain a global health threat. Increasingly, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and infectious disease transmission modeling (IDTM) are used to assess waterborne pathogen risks and evaluate mitigation. These modeling efforts, however, have largely been conducted independently for different purposes and in different settings. In this review, we examine the settings where each modeling strategy is employed. RECENT FINDINGS: QMRA research has focused on food contamination and recreational water in high-income countries (HICs) and drinking water and wastewater in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
April 20, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Tiffany R Sanchez, Martha Powers, Matthew Perzanowski, Christine M George, Joseph H Graziano, Ana Navas-Acien
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic via contaminated water. The goal of this study was to identify whether arsenic-associated lung function deficits resemble obstructive- or restrictive-like lung disease, in order to help illuminate a mechanistic pathway and identify at-risk populations. RECENT FINDINGS: We recently published a qualitative systematic review outlining the body of research on arsenic and non-malignant respiratory outcomes...
April 10, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Hector A Olvera Alvarez, Allison A Appleton, Christina H Fuller, Annie Belcourt, Laura D Kubzansky
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Environmental and social determinants of health often co-occur, particularly among socially disadvantaged populations, yet because they are usually studied separately, their joint effects on health are likely underestimated. Building on converging bodies of literature, we delineate a conceptual framework to address these issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous models provided a foundation for study in this area, and generated research pointing to additional important issues...
March 24, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Patrick Levallois, Prabjit Barn, Mathieu Valcke, Denis Gauvin, Tom Kosatsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lead can enter drinking water from lead service lines and lead-containing plumbing, particularly in the presence of corrosive water. We review the current evidence on the role of drinking water as a source of lead exposure and its potential impacts on health, with an emphasis on children. Drinking water guidelines and mitigation strategies are also presented. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of lead on neurodevelopmental effects in children even at low levels of exposure is well established...
March 19, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Zeyan Liew, Houman Goudarzi, Youssef Oulhote
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed and summarized the epidemiological evidence for the influence that pre- and postnatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may have on health outcomes in offspring, with a particular focus on birth outcomes and postnatal growth, immunomodulatory effects and neurodevelopment. RECENT FINDINGS: PFASs are persistent organic pollutants that have been widely produced and used in a range of commercial products since the 1950s. Human exposures to PFASs are nearly ubiquitous globally, but studies that addressed potential health effects of PFASs have only begun to accumulate in recent years...
March 19, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Kylie D Rock, Heather B Patisaul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders on the rise, it is imperative to identify and understand the mechanisms by which environmental contaminants can impact the developing brain and heighten risk. Here, we report on recent findings regarding novel mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and highlight chemicals of concern, beyond traditionally defined neurotoxicants. RECENT FINDINGS: The perinatal window represents a critical and extremely vulnerable period of time during which chemical insult can alter the morphological and functional trajectory of the developing brain...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Nicola Wheeler, Nick Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Climate change poses a significant threat to human health. Understanding how climate science can be translated into public health practice is an essential first step in enabling robust adaptation and improving resiliency to climate change. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research highlights the importance of iterative approaches to public health adaptation to climate change, enabling uncertainties of health impacts and barriers to adaptation to be accounted for...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Virissa Lenters, Aleksander Giwercman, Bo A G Jönsson, Gunnar Toft, Karin S Hougaard, Jens Peter E Bonde, Ina Olmer Specht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to systematically review the literature linking di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) exposure with effects on reproductive health in adult males. RECENT FINDINGS: Thirty-three papers were included of which 28 were cross-sectional. Twenty-one papers investigated semen samples, 18 investigated reproductive hormones, and three studies investigated time to pregnancy. Studies revealed some but inconsistent indications that higher urinary DEHP metabolite levels are associated with an increase in the proportion of spermatozoa with damaged DNA and to a decrease in sperm concentration and motility...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Kimberly C Paul, Michael Jerrett, Beate Ritz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of studies over the past two decades have suggested that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are at an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several common molecular pathways to cellular and metabolic dysfunction have been implicated in the etiology of both diseases. Here, we review the emerging evidence from observational studies that investigate the relationship between T2DM and AD, and of shared environmental risk factors, specifically air pollution and pesticides, associated with both chronic disorders...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Antonio Planchart, Adrian Green, Cathrine Hoyo, Carolyn J Mattingly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic syndrome (MS) describes the co-occurrence of conditions that increase one's risk for heart disease and other disorders such as diabetes and stroke. The worldwide increase in the prevalence of MS cannot be fully explained by lifestyle factors such as sedentary behavior and caloric intake alone. Environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, have been implicated, but results are conflicting and possible mechanisms remain unclear. To assess recent progress in determining a possible role between heavy metal exposure and MS, we reviewed epidemiological and model system data for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) from the last decade...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
I R Lake, G C Barker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present a review of the likely consequences of climate change for foodborne pathogens and associated human illness in higher-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The relationships between climate and food are complex and hence the impacts of climate change uncertain. This makes it difficult to know which foodborne pathogens will be most affected, what the specific effects will be, and on what timescales changes might occur. Hence, a focus upon current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne pathogens is essential...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Mark D Ihrie, James C Bonner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The explosive growth of the nanotechnology industry has necessitated the examination of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for their toxicity. The unique properties that make ENMs useful also make them a health risk, and individuals with pre-existing diseases such as asthma are likely more susceptible. This review summarizes the current literature on the ability of ENMs to both exacerbate and directly cause asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlight the ability of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to not only exacerbate pre-existing asthma in animal models but also initiate allergic airway disease directly...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Hongtai Huang, Aolin Wang, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Juleen Lam, Marina Sirota, Amy Padula, Tracey J Woodruff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
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