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Current Environmental Health Reports

Jennifer Runkle, Erik R Svendsen, Mark Hamann, Richard K Kwok, John Pearce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent changes in our planetary climate have and will continue to challenge historical knowledge and risk assumptions for weather-related disasters. While the public health community is rapidly working to develop epidemiological approaches and tools to mitigate and adapt to these weather-related disasters, recent high-profile events have exposed gaps in knowledge and response efforts. Limited work has been done to assess the climate readiness of the local public health and healthcare community as it pertains to local response planning and adaptation measures in the event of a weather-related disaster...
November 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Wael K Al-Delaimy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Rossella Alfano, Zdenko Herceg, Tim S Nawrot, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Akram Ghantous, Michelle Plusquin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review evaluated existing evidence linking air pollution exposure in humans to major epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and chromatin regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Eighty-two manuscripts were eligible, most of which were observational (85%), conducted in adults (66%) and based on DNA methylation (79%). Most observational studies, except panel, demonstrated modest effects of air pollution on the methylome...
October 25, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Rajiv Raghavan, Megan E Romano, Margaret R Karagas, Frank J Penna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) potentially have a role in causing hypospadias malformation through modifiable in-utero exposure. Considering the emerging literature on the role of potential endocrine disrupting substances on the occurrence of hypospadias and the potential to inform public health efforts to prevent the occurrence of these malformations, we have summarized the current literature, identified areas of consensus, and highlighted areas that warrant further investigation...
December 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Cory W Morin, Jan C Semenza, Juli M Trtanj, Gregory E Glass, Christopher Boyer, Kristie L Ebi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weather and climate influence multiple aspects of infectious disease ecology. Creating and applying early warning systems based on temperature, precipitation, and other environmental data can identify where and when outbreaks of climate-sensitive infectious diseases could occur and can be used by decision makers to allocate resources. Whether an outbreak actually occurs depends heavily on other social, political, and institutional factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Improving the timing and confidence of seasonal climate forecasting, coupled with knowledge of exposure-response relationships, can identify prior conditions conducive to disease outbreaks weeks to months in advance of outbreaks...
December 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Marco Vinceti, Tommaso Filippini, Lauren A Wise
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Selenium, a trace element, is ubiquitous in the environment. The main source of human exposure is diet. Despite its nutritional benefits, it is one of the most toxic naturally occurring elements. Selenium deficiency and overexposure have been associated with adverse health effects. Its level of toxicity may depend on its chemical form, as inorganic and organic species have distinct biological properties. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonexperimental and experimental studies have generated insufficient evidence for a role of selenium deficiency in human disease, with the exception of Keshan disease, a cardiomyopathy...
December 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Jouni J K Jaakkola, Suvi Juntunen, Klemetti Näkkäläjärvi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: (1) To develop a framework for understanding the holistic effects of climate change on the Saami people; (2) to summarize the scientific evidence about the primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of climate change on Saami culture and Sápmi region; and (3) to identify gaps in the knowledge of the effects of climate change on health and well-being of the Saami. RECENT FINDINGS: The Saami health is on average similar, or slightly better compared to the health of other populations in the same area...
October 22, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Emily C Moody, Steven G Coca, Alison P Sanders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are ubiquitous toxicants with evidence of adverse kidney impacts at high exposure levels. There is less evidence whether environmental exposure to As, Cd, or Pb plays a role in development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a systematic review to summarize the recent epidemiologic literature examining the relationship between As, Cd, or Pb with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: We included peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2013 and April 2018 for As and Cd, and all dates prior to April 2018 for Pb...
October 18, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Colin D Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To combine evolutionary principles of competition and co-operation with limits to growth models, generating six principles for a new sub-discipline, called "planetary epidemiology." Suggestions are made for how to quantify four principles. RECENT FINDINGS: Climate change is one of a suite of threats increasingly being re-discovered by health workers as a major threat to civilization. Although "planetary health" is now in vogue, neither it nor its allied sub-disciplines have, as yet, had significant impact on epidemiology...
October 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Nour Assad, Akshay Sood, Matthew J Campen, Katherine E Zychowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis is increasing worldwide and may, in part, be due to occupational and environmental exposures. Secondary fibrotic interstitial lung diseases may be mistaken for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with important implications for both disease management and prognosis. The purposes of this review are to shed light on possible underlying causes of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and to encourage dialogue on the importance of acquiring a thorough patient history of occupational and environmental exposures...
October 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Yvonne Vallès, M Pilar Francino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review how an altered microbiome in early life impacts on immune, metabolic, and neurological development, focusing on some of the most widespread diseases related to each of these processes, namely atopic disease, obesity, and autism. RECENT FINDINGS: The early development of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body is currently challenged by factors that range from reduced exposure to microbes, antibiotic use, and poor dietary choices to widespread environmental pollution...
September 29, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Corina Lesseur, Jia Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herein, we summarize existent epidemiological studies relating adverse maternal metabolic environments of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes and placental DNA methylation. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies have evaluated associations between intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes and/or maternal glucose levels and DNA methylation at candidate metabolic genes as well as in epigenome-wide studies. Some of the genomic regions more consistently associated include lipid-related genes (LPL and PPARGC1A), the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and imprinted genes...
September 28, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Cécile Chevrier, Rémi Béranger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of pesticides is predominant in agriculture, inducing environmental contamination, and has been extended to the domestic sphere. In France, > 500 pesticides were authorized for use in 2009; given their various toxicological properties, there are legitimate concerns about the possible consequences for child health. This review summarizes the recent French studies of good quality dealing with pesticides and child health. RECENT FINDINGS: Three cohorts (mother-child, retrospective) and two case-control studies have been conducted in the last decade...
September 28, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Madeleine Smith, David C Love, Chelsea M Rochman, Roni A Neff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe evidence regarding human exposure to microplastics via seafood and discuss potential health effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Shellfish and other animals consumed whole pose particular concern for human exposure. If there is toxicity, it is likely dependent on dose, polymer type, size, surface chemistry, and hydrophobicity. Human activity has led to microplastic contamination throughout the marine environment. As a result of widespread contamination, microplastics are ingested by many species of wildlife including fish and shellfish...
September 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Todd M Everson, Carmen J Marsit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present the study design and methodological suggestions for population-based studies that integrate molecular -omics data and highlight recent studies that have used such data to examine the potential impacts of prenatal environmental exposures on fetal health. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic studies have observed numerous relationships between prenatal exposures (smoking, toxic metals, endocrine disruptors) and fetal and early-life molecular profiles, though such investigations have so far been dominated by epigenomic association studies...
September 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Fariba Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Angel M Dzhambov
The first author's name should should be "Fariba Zare Sakhvidi".
September 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Radhika Dhingra, Jamaji C Nwanaji-Enwerem, Madeline Samet, Cavin K Ward-Caviness
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DNA methylation-based aging biomarkers are valuable tools for evaluating the aging process from a molecular perspective. These epigenetic aging biomarkers can be evaluated across the lifespan and are tissue specific. This review examines the literature relating environmental exposures to DNA methylation-based aging biomarkers and also the literature evaluating these biomarkers as predictors of health outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies evaluated the association between air pollution and DNA methylation age and consistently observed that higher exposures are associated with elevated DNA methylation age...
September 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Alison B Singer, M Daniele Fallin, Igor Burstyn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inference in epidemiologic studies is plagued by exposure misclassification. Several methods exist to correct for misclassification error. One approach is to use point estimates for the sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of the tool used for exposure assessment. Unfortunately, we typically do not know the Sn and Sp with certainty. Bayesian methods for exposure misclassification correction allow us to model this uncertainty via distributions for Sn and Sp. These methods have been applied in epidemiologic literature, but are not considered a mainstream approach, especially in occupational epidemiology...
September 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Fariba Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Angel M Dzhambov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We systematically summarized and evaluated evidence on association between traffic noise exposure and indicators of neurodevelopmental and mental health problems. RECENT FINDINGS: Twelve studies on 10 unique populations were reviewed. Different outcomes, mostly measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and its subscales, were reported. Overall bias in each study was acceptable, but the quality of evidence for specific outcomes was "low" to "very low," according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system...
September 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Paula de Prado Bert, Elisabet Mae Henderson Mercader, Jesus Pujol, Jordi Sunyer, Marion Mortamais
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An emerging body of evidence has raised concern regarding the potentially harmful effects of inhaled pollutants on the central nervous system during the last decade. In the general population, traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure has been associated with adverse effects on cognitive, behavior, and psychomotor development in children, and with cognitive decline and higher risk of dementia in the elderly. Recently, studies have interfaced environmental epidemiology with magnetic resonance imaging to investigate in vivo the effects of TRAP on the human brain...
July 14, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
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