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Current Environmental Health Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194614/the-exposome-research-paradigm-an-opportunity-to-understand-the-environmental-basis-for-human-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Germaine M Buck Louis, Melissa M Smarr, Chirag J Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper presents an overview of the exposome research paradigm with particular application to understanding human reproduction and development and its implications for health across a lifespan. RECENT FINDINGS: The exposome research paradigm has generated considerable discussion about its feasibility and utility for delineating the impact of environmental exposures on human health. Early initiatives are underway, including smaller proof-of-principle studies and larger concerted efforts...
February 13, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188604/-contextualizing-context-reconciling-environmental-exposures-social-networks-and-location-preferences-in-health-research
#2
REVIEW
Yan Kestens, Rania Wasfi, Alexandre Naud, Basile Chaix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in health and place research and discuss concepts useful to explore how context affects health. More specifically, it reviews measures and tools used to account for place; concepts relating to daily mobility and multiple exposure to places, and further points to the intertwining between social and spatial networks to help further our understanding of how context translates into health profiles. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances in environmental or neighborhood effects have been made in the last decades...
February 10, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138941/measurement-error-and-environmental-epidemiology-a-policy-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Jessie K Edwards, Alexander P Keil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Measurement error threatens public health by producing bias in estimates of the population impact of environmental exposures. Quantitative methods to account for measurement bias can improve public health decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: We summarize traditional and emerging methods to improve inference under a standard perspective, in which the investigator estimates an exposure-response function, and a policy perspective, in which the investigator directly estimates population impact of a proposed intervention...
January 30, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130661/natural-disasters-and-cholera-outbreaks-current-understanding-and-future-outlook
#4
REVIEW
Antarpreet Jutla, Rakibul Khan, Rita Colwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diarrheal diseases remain a serious global public health threat, especially for those populations lacking access to safe water and sanitation infrastructure. Although association of several diarrheal diseases, e.g., cholera, shigellosis, etc., with climatic processes has been documented, the global human population remains at heightened risk of outbreak of diseases after natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, or droughts. In this review, cholera was selected as a signature diarrheal disease and the role of natural disasters in triggering and transmitting cholera was analyzed...
January 27, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116555/extracellular-vesicles-how-the-external-and-internal-environment-can-shape-cell-to-cell-communication
#5
REVIEW
Kristof Y Neven, Tim S Nawrot, Valentina Bollati
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize the scientific evidence regarding the effects of environmental exposures on extracellular vesicle (EV) release and their contents. As environmental exposures might influence the aging phenotype in a very strict way, we will also report the role of EVs in the biological aging process. RECENT FINDINGS: EV research is a new and quickly developing field. With many investigations conducted so far, only a limited number of studies have explored the potential role EVs play in the response and adaptation to environmental stimuli...
January 23, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110470/thermal-control-weather-and-aging
#6
REVIEW
Alexandra Schneider, Regina Rückerl, Susanne Breitner, Kathrin Wolf, Annette Peters
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the latest developments in the field of weather and health with a focus on the elderly. The current state of knowledge is summarized and open questions and emerging fields of research are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: It is expected that climate change will lead to higher global average surface temperatures and more extreme climatic conditions. Previous studies have shown that non-optimal temperatures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, specifically in elderly people...
January 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108914/recent-approaches-to-estimate-associations-between-source-specific-air-pollution-and-health
#7
REVIEW
Jenna R Krall, Matthew J Strickland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Estimating health effects associated with source-specific exposure is important for better understanding how pollution impacts health and for developing policies to better protect public health. Although epidemiologic studies of sources can be informative, these studies are challenging to conduct because source-specific exposures (e.g., particulate matter from vehicles) often are not directly observed and must be estimated. We reviewed recent studies that estimated associations between pollution sources and health to identify methodological developments designed to address important challenges...
January 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102525/environmental-chemicals-and-aging
#8
REVIEW
Brandon L Pearson, Dan Ehninger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Innovations in agriculture and medicine as well as industrial and domestic technologies are essential for the growing and aging global population. These advances generally require the use of novel natural or synthetic chemical agents with the potential to affect human health. Here, we attempt to highlight environmental chemicals and select drugs with the potential to exacerbate aging by directly affecting molecular aging cascades focusing particular attention on the brain...
January 19, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101730/concepts-for-studying-urban-environmental-justice
#9
REVIEW
Jason Corburn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper offers research frameworks for understanding and acting to address urban environmental justice. Urban neighborhoods tend to concentrate and colocate vulnerable people and toxic environments. Cities are also where the poor and people of color tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards, such as air pollution, lead in paint and water, and polluting industries. RECENT FINDINGS: Researchers and government agencies are increasingly recognizing the need to document cumulative exposures that the urban poor and people of color experience in addition to environmental hazards...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101729/air-pollution-and-successful-aging-recent-evidence-and-new-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Gali Cohen, Yariv Gerber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide demographic changes occurring in a relatively short period have led to a growing interest in the determinants of aging "successfully" and how to promote a healthier old age. As environmental exposures such as ambient air pollution are believed to play a role in the process of aging, they might represent one of the pathways turning potential successful agers to unsuccessful agers. We aimed to critically review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between chronic exposure to ambient air pollution and several key determinants of unsuccessful aging and to identify specific populations of unsuccessful agers that are potentially more vulnerable to air pollution's health effects...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091981/environmental-pollutants-limitations-in-physical-functioning-and-frailty-in-older-adults
#11
REVIEW
Esther García-Esquinas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Frailty is an age-related syndrome characterized by reductions in strength, endurance, and physiologic function that increase an individual's vulnerability for developing dependence or death. Extensive research is currently being conducted to determine preventable risk factors and mechanistic pathways of frailty. This review summarizes the existing evidence on the potential associations between environmental pollutants, limitations in physical functioning, and frailty among older adults...
January 16, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097619/lipid-and-creatinine-adjustment-to-evaluate-health-effects-of-environmental-exposures
#12
REVIEW
Katie M O'Brien, Kristen Upson, Jessie P Buckley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urine- and serum-based biomarkers are useful for assessing individuals' exposure to environmental factors. However, variations in urinary creatinine (a measure of dilution) or serum lipid levels, if not adequately corrected for, can directly impact biomarker concentrations and bias exposure-disease association measures. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent methodological literature has considered the complex relationships between creatinine or serum lipid levels, exposure biomarkers, outcomes, and other potentially relevant factors using directed acyclic graphs and simulation studies...
March 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815781/health-effects-and-environmental-justice-concerns-of-exposure-to-uranium-in-drinking-water
#13
REVIEW
Laura Corlin, Tommy Rock, Jamie Cordova, Mark Woodin, John L Durant, David M Gute, Jani Ingram, Doug Brugge
We discuss the recent epidemiologic literature regarding health effects of uranium exposure in drinking water focusing on the chemical characteristics of uranium. While there is strong toxicologic evidence for renal and reproductive effects as well as DNA damage, the epidemiologic evidence for these effects in people exposed to uranium in drinking water is limited. Further, epidemiologic evidence is lacking for cardiovascular and oncogenic effects. One challenge in characterizing health effects of uranium in drinking water is the paucity of long-term cohort studies with individual level exposure assessment...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796965/risk-communication-strategies-lessons-learned-from-previous-disasters-with-a-focus-on-the-fukushima-radiation-accident
#14
REVIEW
Erik R Svendsen, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Toshihide Tsuda, Jean Remy Davee Guimaraes, Martin Tondel
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: It has been difficult to both mitigate the health consequences and effectively provide health risk information to the public affected by the Fukushima radiological disaster. Often, there are contrasting public health ethics within these activities which complicate risk communication. Although no risk communication strategy is perfect in such disasters, the ethical principles of risk communication provide good practical guidance. FINDINGS: These discussions will be made in the context of similar lessons learned after radiation exposures in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987; the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, Ukraine, in 1986; and the attack at the World Trade Center, New York, USA, in 2001...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785768/erratum-to-is-urinary-cadmium-a-biomarker-of-long-term-exposure-in-humans-a-review
#15
Caterina Vacchi-Suzzi, Danielle Kruse, James Harrington, Keith Levine, Jaymie R Meliker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783356/environmental-metals-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-adults-a-systematic-review-beyond-lead-and-cadmium
#16
REVIEW
Anne E Nigra, Adrian Ruiz-Hernandez, Josep Redon, Ana Navas-Acien, Maria Tellez-Plaza
Published systematic reviews concluded that there is moderate to strong evidence to infer a potential role of lead and cadmium, widespread environmental metals, as cardiovascular risk factors. For other non-essential metals, the evidence has not been appraised systematically. Our objective was to systematically review epidemiologic studies on the association between cardiovascular disease in adults and the environmental metals antimony, barium, chromium, nickel, tungsten, uranium, and vanadium. We identified a total of 4 articles on antimony, 1 on barium, 5 on chromium, 1 on nickel, 4 on tungsten, 1 on uranium, and 0 on vanadium...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730509/long-term-green-space-exposure-and-cognition-across-the-life-course-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Carmen de Keijzer, Mireia Gascon, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Payam Dadvand
An accumulating body of evidence is suggestive for health-promoting effects of exposure to natural environments including green spaces. We aimed to systematically review the available observational evidence on the association between long-term exposure to green space and cognition over the life course. PubMed and Scopus were searched using a combination of green space and cognition keywords. Original research articles of observational studies on the association between green space exposure and cognition were collected...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726071/the-relation-between-low-level-lead-exposure-and-oxidative-stress-a-review-of-the-epidemiological-evidence-in-children-and-non-occupationally-exposed-adults
#18
REVIEW
Aditi Roy, Katarzyna Kordas
Experimental studies in animals and observational studies in occupationally exposed adults indicate that higher lead exposure results in higher biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this evidence cannot be extended to the general population who typically experience lower levels of lead exposure. This systematic review evaluates the epidemiological evidence on the association between lead and oxidative stress in non-occupationally exposed general population, with a particular focus on the pediatric population...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722880/the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-through-the-lens-of-human-health-and-the-ecosystem
#19
REVIEW
Maureen Lichtveld, Samendra Sherchan, Kaitlyn B Gam, Richard K Kwok, Christopher Mundorf, Arti Shankar, Lissa Soares
This review examines current research ascertaining the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on human health and ecosystems. Driven by the need to strategically focus research funding, the authors also assess the implications of those findings and promote a transdisciplinary research agenda addressing critical gaps.Epidemiologic studies conducted in workers and vulnerable communities in the spill's aftermath showed that non-chemical stressors affect resilience. Ecosystem-wise salt marsh species showed variability in structural and functional changes, attributed to species-specific tolerance, oil exposure, and belowground plant organs damage...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722879/manganese-exposure-and-cognition-across-the-lifespan-contemporary-review-and-argument-for-biphasic-dose-response-health-effects
#20
REVIEW
Kaitlin Vollet, Erin N Haynes, Kim N Dietrich
Manganese (Mn) is both an essential micronutrient and potential neurotoxicant. This dual role underlies a growing body of literature demonstrating that Mn exhibits a biphasic dose-response relationship with neurocognitive outcomes. We reviewed recent epidemiologic studies from 2007 to 2016 that investigated the relationship between Mn exposure and cognitive outcomes across the lifespan: early life, school-aged children, and adulthood. In total, 27 research articles were included in this review: 12 pediatric and 15 adult studies (10 occupational and five environmental exposures)...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
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