Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Environmental Health Reports

Kylie D Rock, Heather B Patisaul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders on the rise, it is imperative to identify and understand the mechanisms by which environmental contaminants can impact the developing brain and heighten risk. Here, we report on recent findings regarding novel mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and highlight chemicals of concern, beyond traditionally defined neurotoxicants. RECENT FINDINGS: The perinatal window represents a critical and extremely vulnerable period of time during which chemical insult can alter the morphological and functional trajectory of the developing brain...
March 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Nicola Wheeler, Nick Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Climate change poses a significant threat to human health. Understanding how climate science can be translated into public health practice is an essential first step in enabling robust adaptation and improving resiliency to climate change. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research highlights the importance of iterative approaches to public health adaptation to climate change, enabling uncertainties of health impacts and barriers to adaptation to be accounted for...
March 5, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Virissa Lenters, Aleksander Giwercman, Bo A G Jönsson, Gunnar Toft, Karin S Hougaard, Jens Peter E Bonde, Ina Olmer Specht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to systematically review the literature linking di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) exposure with effects on reproductive health in adult males. RECENT FINDINGS: Thirty-three papers were included of which 28 were cross-sectional. Twenty-one papers investigated semen samples, 18 investigated reproductive hormones, and three studies investigated time to pregnancy. Studies revealed some but inconsistent indications that higher urinary DEHP metabolite levels are associated with an increase in the proportion of spermatozoa with damaged DNA and to a decrease in sperm concentration and motility...
February 21, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Kimberly C Paul, Michael Jerrett, Beate Ritz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of studies over the past two decades have suggested that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are at an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several common molecular pathways to cellular and metabolic dysfunction have been implicated in the etiology of both diseases. Here, we review the emerging evidence from observational studies that investigate the relationship between T2DM and AD, and of shared environmental risk factors, specifically air pollution and pesticides, associated with both chronic disorders...
February 20, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Antonio Planchart, Adrian Green, Cathrine Hoyo, Carolyn J Mattingly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic syndrome (MS) describes the co-occurrence of conditions that increase one's risk for heart disease and other disorders such as diabetes and stroke. The worldwide increase in the prevalence of MS cannot be fully explained by lifestyle factors such as sedentary behavior and caloric intake alone. Environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, have been implicated, but results are conflicting and possible mechanisms remain unclear. To assess recent progress in determining a possible role between heavy metal exposure and MS, we reviewed epidemiological and model system data for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) from the last decade...
February 19, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
I R Lake, G C Barker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present a review of the likely consequences of climate change for foodborne pathogens and associated human illness in higher-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The relationships between climate and food are complex and hence the impacts of climate change uncertain. This makes it difficult to know which foodborne pathogens will be most affected, what the specific effects will be, and on what timescales changes might occur. Hence, a focus upon current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne pathogens is essential...
February 14, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Mark D Ihrie, James C Bonner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The explosive growth of the nanotechnology industry has necessitated the examination of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for their toxicity. The unique properties that make ENMs useful also make them a health risk, and individuals with pre-existing diseases such as asthma are likely more susceptible. This review summarizes the current literature on the ability of ENMs to both exacerbate and directly cause asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlight the ability of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to not only exacerbate pre-existing asthma in animal models but also initiate allergic airway disease directly...
February 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Hongtai Huang, Aolin Wang, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Juleen Lam, Marina Sirota, Amy Padula, Tracey J Woodruff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem...
February 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Eric Coker, Silvia Liverani, Jason G Su, John Molitor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The inter-correlated nature of exposure-based risk factors in environmental health studies makes it a challenge to determine their combined effect on health outcomes. As such, there has been much research of late regarding the development and utilization of methods in the field of multi-pollutant modeling. However, much of this work has focused on issues related to variable selection in a regression context, with the goal of identifying which exposures are the "bad actors" most responsible for affecting the health outcome of interest...
February 9, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Shannon Delaney, Mady Hornig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Julia Hathaway, Edward W Maibach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Through a systematic search of English language peer-reviewed studies, we assess how health professionals and the public, worldwide, perceive the health implications of climate change. RECENT FINDINGS: Among health professionals, perception that climate change is harming health appears to be high, although self-assessed knowledge is low, and perceived need to learn more is high. Among the public, few North Americans can list any health impacts of climate change, or who is at risk, but appear to view climate change as harmful to health...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Patrick L Kinney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: I review literature on the impacts of climate change on air quality and human health, with a focus on articles published from 2013 on ozone and airborne particles. Selected previous literature is discussed where relevant in tracing the origins of our current knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: Climate and weather have strong influences on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution concentrations. Emissions of ozone and PM2.5 precursors increase at higher ambient temperatures...
February 7, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Karilyn E Sant, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental toxicity assessments often focus on structural outcomes and overlook subtle metabolic differences which occur during the early embryonic period. Deviant embryonic nutrition can result in later-life disease, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to placenta-mediated nutrient exchange, the human embryo requires maternally supplied nutritional substrates for growth, called yolk. Here, we compare the biology of the human and zebrafish yolk and review examples of toxicant-mediated perturbation of yolk defects, composition, and utilization...
February 7, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Lisa Smeester, Rebecca C Fry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) via drinking water represents a significant global public health threat with chronic exposure associated with cancer, skin lesions, neurological impairment, and cardiovascular diseases. Particularly susceptible populations include the developing fetus and young children. This review summarizes some of the critical studies of the long-term health effects and underlying biological mechanisms related to developmental exposure to arsenic...
February 6, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
E Malmqvist, A Oudin, M Pascal, S Medina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to identify the key contextual and methodological differences in health impact assessments (HIA) of ambient air pollution performed for Europe. We limited our review to multi-country reviews. An additional aim is to quantify some of these differences by applying them in a HIA template in three European cities. RECENT FINDINGS: Several HIAs of ambient air pollution have been performed for Europe, and their key results have been largely disseminated...
February 5, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Kelvin C Fong, Jaime E Hart, Peter James
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many studies suggest that exposure to natural vegetation, or greenness, may be beneficial for a variety of health outcomes. We summarize the recent research in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: We observed consistent and strong evidence of associations for higher greenness with improvements in birth weights and physical activity, as well as lower mortality rates. Recent studies also suggested that exposure to greenness may lower levels of depression and depressive symptoms...
February 1, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Joachim Heinrich, Tamara Schikowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide with no known cure and an increasing number of triggers that exacerbate symptoms and speed up progression. This review aims to summarize the evidence for COPD patients being more vulnerable to air pollution exposure assessed as acute effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent systematic reviews show consistently increased risks for COPD mortality and COPD hospital admission, ranging between 2 and 3% with increasing PM2...
January 31, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
H Orru, K L Ebi, B Forsberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Air pollution significantly affects health, causing up to 7 million premature deaths annually with an even larger number of hospitalizations and days of sick leave. Climate change could alter the dispersion of primary pollutants, particularly particulate matter, and intensify the formation of secondary pollutants, such as near-surface ozone. The purpose of the review is to evaluate the recent evidence on the impacts of climate change on air pollution and air pollution-related health impacts and identify knowledge gaps for future research...
December 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
Gerard Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological studies of health effects of long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution rely on different exposure assessment methods. This review discusses widely used methods with a special focus on new developments. RECENT FINDINGS: New data and study designs have been applied, including satellite measurements of fine particles and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). The methods to apply satellite data for epidemiological studies are improving rapidly and have already contributed significantly to national-, continental- and global-scale models...
December 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
Nicole Comfort, Diane B Re
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the sex-specific effects of exposure to various organophosphate (OP) pesticides throughout the life course and potential reasons for the differential vulnerabilities observed across sexes. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex is a crucial factor in the response to toxicants, yet the sex-specific effects of OP exposure, particularly in juveniles and adults, remain unresolved. This is largely due to study design and inconsistencies in exposure and outcome assessments...
December 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"