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Current Environmental Health Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488132/arsenic-and-immune-response-to-infection-during-pregnancy-and-early-life
#1
REVIEW
Sarah E Attreed, Ana Navas-Acien, Christopher D Heaney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity-including the specific mechanisms in humans-is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life...
May 9, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447316/mining-and-environmental-health-disparities-in-native-american-communities
#2
REVIEW
Johnnye Lewis, Joseph Hoover, Debra MacKenzie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste...
April 26, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444645/outdoor-ambient-air-pollution-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-neuroinflammation-hypothesis
#3
REVIEW
Richard L Jayaraj, Eric A Rodriguez, Yi Wang, Michelle L Block
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating research indicates that ambient outdoor air pollution impacts the brain and may affect neurodegenerative diseases, yet the potential underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: The neuroinflammation hypothesis holds that elevation of cytokines and reactive oxygen species in the brain mediates the deleterious effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Studies in human and animal research document that neuroinflammation occurs in response to several inhaled pollutants...
April 25, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435996/cognitive-effects-of-air-pollution-exposures-and-potential-mechanistic-underpinnings
#4
REVIEW
J L Allen, C Klocke, K Morris-Schaffer, K Conrad, M Sobolewski, D A Cory-Slechta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review sought to address the potential for air pollutants to impair cognition and mechanisms by which that might occur. RECENT FINDINGS: Air pollution has been associated with deficits in cognitive functions across a wide range of epidemiological studies, both with developmental and adult exposures. Studies in animal models are significantly more limited in number, with somewhat inconsistent findings to date for measures of learning, but show more consistent impairments for short-term memory...
April 24, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432638/community-gardens-as-environmental-health-interventions-benefits-versus-potential-risks
#5
REVIEW
W K Al-Delaimy, M Webb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. RECENT FINDINGS: Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle...
April 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432637/polluted-pathways-mechanisms-of-metabolic-disruption-by-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#6
REVIEW
Mizuho S Mimoto, Angel Nadal, Robert M Sargis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental toxicants are increasingly implicated in the global decline in metabolic health. Focusing on diabetes, herein, the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) impair energy homeostasis are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data implicate MDC perturbations in a variety of pathways as contributors to metabolic disease pathogenesis, with effects in diverse tissues regulating fuel utilization...
April 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429302/ethics-guidelines-in-environmental-epidemiology-their-development-and-challenges-we-face
#7
REVIEW
Shira Kramer, Colin L Soskolne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review integrates historical developments and key events in bringing ethics into epidemiology in general and into environmental epidemiology in particular. The goal is to provide context for and discern among the various approaches and motivations that drive the need for ethical conduct in support of the public interest. RECENT FINDINGS: The need for ethics guidelines in epidemiology is different from developments in other biomedical-related fields by virtue of its focus on populations rather than on individuals...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429301/ethical-issues-related-to-the-promotion-of-a-100-msv-threshold-assumption-in-japan-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-in-2011-background-and-consequences
#8
REVIEW
Toshihide Tsuda, Lena Lindahl, Akiko Tokinobu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the debates in Japan regarding the 100 mSv threshold assumption and ethical issues related to it, and explores the background to distorted risk information and absence of risk communication in Japan. Then we seek proper risk communication based on scientific evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: On March 11, 2011 an accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Since then a number of misunderstandings have become common in Japan as a result of public statements by the Japanese and local governments that have no basis in medical science or are contradictory to medical science...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429300/agroecology-and-health-lessons-from-indigenous-populations
#9
REVIEW
José Suárez-Torres, José Ricardo Suárez-López, Dolores López-Paredes, Hilario Morocho, Luis Enrique Cachiguango-Cachiguango, William Dellai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article aims to systematize and disseminate the main contributions of indigenous ancestral wisdom in the agroecological production of food, especially in Latin America. For this purpose, it is necessary to ask whether such knowledge can be accepted by academia research groups and international forums as a valid alternative that could contribute to overcome the world's nutritional problems. RECENT FINDINGS: Although no new findings are being made, the validity of ancestral knowledge and agroecology is recognized by scientific research, and by international forums organized by agencies of the United Nations...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417442/mechanisms-of-gene-environment-interactions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Sheila M Fleming
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study was to discuss the main mechanisms associated with environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). RECENT FINDINGS: Novel genetic contributors to PD are being identified at a rapid pace in addition to novel environmental factors. The discovery of mutations in alpha-synuclein and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 causing inherited forms of PD along with epidemiological, in vitro, and in vivo studies identifying herbicides, pesticides, and metals as risk factors have dramatically improved our understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of PD...
April 17, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417441/relationships-between-essential-manganese-biology-and-manganese-toxicity-in-neurological-disease
#11
REVIEW
Anna C Pfalzer, Aaron B Bowman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Manganese (Mn) is critical for neurodevelopment but also has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases. We discuss how Mn requirements intersect with Mn biology and toxicity, and how these requirements may be altered in neurological disease. Furthermore, we discuss the emerging evidence that the level of Mn associated with optimal overall efficiency for Mn biology does not necessarily coincide with optimal cognitive outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have linked Mn exposures with urea cycle metabolism and autophagy, with evidence that exposures typically neurotoxic may be able to correct deficiencies in these processes at least short term...
April 17, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417440/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-traffic-related-air-pollution-focus-on-autism
#12
REVIEW
Lucio G Costa, Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that air pollution may negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies suggest that young individuals may be particularly susceptible to air pollution-induced neurotoxicity and that perinatal exposure may cause or contribute to developmental disabilities and behavioral abnormalities...
April 17, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397096/evaluating-a-gene-environment-interaction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-methylmercury-exposure-and-mutated-sod1
#13
REVIEW
Jordan M Bailey, Alexandra Colón-Rodríguez, William D Atchison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gene-environment (GxE) interactions likely contribute to numerous diseases, but are often difficult to model in the laboratory. Such interactions have been widely hypothesized for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); recent controlled laboratory studies are discussed here and hypotheses related to possible mechanisms of action are offered. Using methylmercury exposure and mutated SOD1 to model the impacts of such an interaction, we interpret evidence about their respective mechanisms of toxicity to interrogate the possibility of additive (or synergistic) effects when combined...
April 10, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397095/evidence-regarding-the-impact-of-conflicts-of-interest-on-environmental-and-occupational-health-research
#14
REVIEW
Ellen M Wells
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes published literature providing evidence for financial conflicts of interest in environmental and occupational health research. Secondary goals were to describe evidence that (a) utilized quantitative methods to evaluate the association of conflicts with study outcomes, and (b) assessed undisclosed as well as disclosed conflicts of interest. RECENT FINDINGS: Forty-three studies were identified which contained descriptions of the impact of financial conflicts of interest on research results; 11 of these conducted quantitative analyses to demonstrate these relationships...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194614/the-exposome-research-paradigm-an-opportunity-to-understand-the-environmental-basis-for-human-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Germaine M Buck Louis, Melissa M Smarr, Chirag J Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper presents an overview of the exposome research paradigm with particular application to understanding human reproduction and development and its implications for health across a lifespan. RECENT FINDINGS: The exposome research paradigm has generated considerable discussion about its feasibility and utility for delineating the impact of environmental exposures on human health. Early initiatives are underway, including smaller proof-of-principle studies and larger concerted efforts...
March 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138941/measurement-error-and-environmental-epidemiology-a-policy-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Jessie K Edwards, Alexander P Keil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Measurement error threatens public health by producing bias in estimates of the population impact of environmental exposures. Quantitative methods to account for measurement bias can improve public health decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: We summarize traditional and emerging methods to improve inference under a standard perspective, in which the investigator estimates an exposure-response function, and a policy perspective, in which the investigator directly estimates population impact of a proposed intervention...
March 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097619/lipid-and-creatinine-adjustment-to-evaluate-health-effects-of-environmental-exposures
#17
REVIEW
Katie M O'Brien, Kristen Upson, Jessie P Buckley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urine- and serum-based biomarkers are useful for assessing individuals' exposure to environmental factors. However, variations in urinary creatinine (a measure of dilution) or serum lipid levels, if not adequately corrected for, can directly impact biomarker concentrations and bias exposure-disease association measures. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent methodological literature has considered the complex relationships between creatinine or serum lipid levels, exposure biomarkers, outcomes, and other potentially relevant factors using directed acyclic graphs and simulation studies...
March 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188604/-contextualizing-context-reconciling-environmental-exposures-social-networks-and-location-preferences-in-health-research
#18
REVIEW
Yan Kestens, Rania Wasfi, Alexandre Naud, Basile Chaix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in health and place research and discuss concepts useful to explore how context affects health. More specifically, it reviews measures and tools used to account for place; concepts relating to daily mobility and multiple exposure to places, and further points to the intertwining between social and spatial networks to help further our understanding of how context translates into health profiles. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances in environmental or neighborhood effects have been made in the last decades...
February 10, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130661/natural-disasters-and-cholera-outbreaks-current-understanding-and-future-outlook
#19
REVIEW
Antarpreet Jutla, Rakibul Khan, Rita Colwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diarrheal diseases remain a serious global public health threat, especially for those populations lacking access to safe water and sanitation infrastructure. Although association of several diarrheal diseases, e.g., cholera, shigellosis, etc., with climatic processes has been documented, the global human population remains at heightened risk of outbreak of diseases after natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, or droughts. In this review, cholera was selected as a signature diarrheal disease and the role of natural disasters in triggering and transmitting cholera was analyzed...
January 27, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116555/extracellular-vesicles-how-the-external-and-internal-environment-can-shape-cell-to-cell-communication
#20
REVIEW
Kristof Y Neven, Tim S Nawrot, Valentina Bollati
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize the scientific evidence regarding the effects of environmental exposures on extracellular vesicle (EV) release and their contents. As environmental exposures might influence the aging phenotype in a very strict way, we will also report the role of EVs in the biological aging process. RECENT FINDINGS: EV research is a new and quickly developing field. With many investigations conducted so far, only a limited number of studies have explored the potential role EVs play in the response and adaptation to environmental stimuli...
January 23, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
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