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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772781/the-potential-role-of-fc-receptor-functions-in-the-development-of-a-universal-influenza-vaccine
#1
Sinthujan Jegaskanda
Despite global vaccination efforts, influenza virus continues to cause yearly epidemics and periodic pandemics throughout most of the world. Many of us consider the generation of broader, potent and long-lasting immunity against influenza viruses as critical in curtailing the global health and economic impact that influenza currently plays. To date, classical vaccinology has relied on the generation of neutralizing antibodies as the benchmark to measure vaccine effectiveness. However, recent developments in numerous related fields of biomedical research including, HIV, HSV and DENV have emphasized the importance of Fc-mediate effector functions in pathogenesis and immunity...
May 17, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762542/correction-vitetta-l-et-al-adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes-vaccines-2017-5-50
#2
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper due to a typesetting error in the conclusion of this article which was recently published in Vaccines.
May 15, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724023/should-uk-pneumococcal-vaccine-eligibility-criteria-include-alcohol-dependency-in-areas-with-high-alcohol-related-mortality
#3
John D Mooney, Michael Imarhiagbe, Jonathan Ling
A recently reported steep increase in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adults in the North East of England was primarily associated with pneumococcal sero-types found in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). This region also has one of the highest rates of alcohol-related premature mortality and morbidity in the UK. Given that alcohol dependence is long acknowledged as one of the strongest risk factors for IPD mortality, we feel there is an increasingly compelling case to look again at the divergence of UK vaccine guidance from that of the World Health Organisation and the Centre for Disease Control in the USA, in the non-inclusion of alcoholism as an indicator condition that would potentially benefit from receiving PPSV23 vaccine...
May 2, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702547/development-and-regulation-of-novel-influenza-virus-vaccines-a-united-states-young-scientist-perspective
#4
Surender Khurana
Vaccination against influenza is the most effective approach for reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. However, influenza vaccines are unique among all licensed vaccines as they are updated and administered annually to antigenically match the vaccine strains and currently circulating influenza strains. Vaccine efficacy of each selected influenza virus vaccine varies depending on the antigenic match between circulating strains and vaccine strains, as well as the age and health status of the vaccine recipient...
April 27, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649134/-gnothi-seauton-leveraging-the-host-response-to-improve-influenza-virus-vaccine-efficacy
#5
REVIEW
Hannah D Stacey, Neda Barjesteh, Jonathan P Mapletoft, Matthew S Miller
Vaccination against the seasonal influenza virus is the best way to prevent infection. Nevertheless, vaccine efficacy remains far from optimal especially in high-risk populations such as the elderly. Recent technological advancements have facilitated rapid and precise identification of the B and T cell epitopes that are targets for protective responses. While these discoveries have undoubtedly brought the field closer to "universal" influenza virus vaccines, choosing the correct antigen is only one piece of the equation...
April 12, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642596/predictors-and-barriers-to-full-vaccination-among-children-in-ethiopia
#6
Yemesrach A Tefera, Abram L Wagner, Eyoel B Mekonen, Bradley F Carlson, Matthew L Boulton
Predictors of immunization status outside of large cities in Ethiopia are not well known, and Muslims have lower vaccination coverage. The aim of this study is to assess factors associated with full immunization among children 12-23 months in Worabe, Ethiopia, a Muslim-majority community. A cross-sectional study is conducted in summer 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the significance of predictors of full immunization. Among 484 children, 61% are fully vaccinated. Children whose mothers had fewer antenatal care (ANC) visits have decreased odds of full vaccination (zero visits: odds ratio (OR) = 0...
April 10, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621153/linkage-of-infection-to-adverse-systemic-complications-periodontal-disease-toll-like-receptors-and-other-pattern-recognition-systems
#7
REVIEW
Shannon M Wallet, Vishwajeet Puri, Frank C Gibson
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that provide innate immune sensing of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to engage early immune recognition of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Furthermore, TLRs provide a conduit for initiation of non-infectious inflammation following the sensing of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated as a consequence of cellular injury. Due to their essential role as DAMP and PAMP sensors, TLR signaling also contributes importantly to several systemic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and others...
April 5, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614788/new-kids-on-the-block-rna-based-influenza-virus-vaccines
#8
REVIEW
Francesco Berlanda Scorza, Norbert Pardi
RNA-based immunization strategies have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional vaccine approaches. A substantial body of published work demonstrates that RNA vaccines can elicit potent, protective immune responses against various pathogens. Consonant with its huge impact on public health, influenza virus is one of the best studied targets of RNA vaccine research. Currently licensed influenza vaccines show variable levels of protection against seasonal influenza virus strains but are inadequate against drifted and pandemic viruses...
April 1, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601497/efforts-to-improve-the-seasonal-influenza-vaccine
#9
REVIEW
Alfred T Harding, Nicholas S Heaton
Influenza viruses infect approximately 20% of the global population annually, resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths. While there are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antiviral drugs for combating the disease, vaccination remains the best strategy for preventing infection. Due to the rapid mutation rate of influenza viruses, vaccine formulations need to be updated every year to provide adequate protection. In recent years, a great amount of effort has been focused on the development of a universal vaccine capable of eliciting broadly protective immunity...
March 30, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587436/harnessing-the-power-of-t-cells-the-promising-hope-for-a-universal-influenza-vaccine
#10
REVIEW
E Bridie Clemens, Carolien van de Sandt, Sook San Wong, Linda M Wakim, Sophie A Valkenburg
Next-generation vaccines that utilize T cells could potentially overcome the limitations of current influenza vaccines that rely on antibodies to provide narrow subtype-specific protection and are prone to antigenic mismatch with circulating strains. Evidence from animal models shows that T cells can provide heterosubtypic protection and are crucial for immune control of influenza virus infections. This has provided hope for the design of a universal vaccine able to prime against diverse influenza virus strains and subtypes...
March 26, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587412/epidemiological-studies-to-support-the-development-of-next-generation-influenza-vaccines
#11
REVIEW
Joshua G Petrie, Aubree Gordon
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently published a strategic plan for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This plan focuses on improving understanding of influenza infection, the development of influenza immunity, and rational design of new vaccines. Epidemiological studies such as prospective, longitudinal cohort studies are essential to the completion of these objectives. In this review, we discuss the contributions of epidemiological studies to our current knowledge of vaccines and correlates of immunity, and how they can contribute to the development and evaluation of the next generation of influenza vaccines...
March 26, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562688/immunogenicity-in-african-green-monkeys-of-m-protein-mutant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vectors-and-contribution-of-vector-encoded-flagellin
#12
Marlena M Westcott, Jason Smedberg, Matthew J Jorgensen, Shelby Puckett, Douglas S Lyles
Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a promising platform for vaccine development. M51R VSV, an attenuated, M protein mutant strain, is an effective inducer of Type I interferon and dendritic cell (DC) maturation, which are desirable properties to exploit for vaccine design. We have previously evaluated M51R VSV (M51R) and M51R VSV that produces flagellin (M51R-F) as vaccine vectors using murine models, and found that flagellin enhanced DC activation and VSV-specific antibody production after low-dose vaccination...
March 19, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534503/hepatitis-b-at-birth-dose-vaccine-an-urgent-call-for-implementation-in-ghana
#13
LETTER
Yaw Asante Awuku, Mary Yeboah-Afihene
Globally, approximately two billion people are infected with the Hepatitis B virus with attributable death estimated at about half a million people annually across the globe. Chronic hepatitis B infection is also an important public health problem in Ghana. The main mode of transmission in endemic regions is the perinatal route. Mother-to-child transmission can be reduced by antiviral therapy especially in the last trimester and adherence to the national immunization schedule. The World Health Organization recommends to add the birth dose vaccine to the current expanded program on immunization (EPI) in all countries but especially for endemic regions...
March 12, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518013/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-the-new-inactivated-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-vaxigrip-tetra-preliminary-results-in-children-%C3%A2-6-months-and-older-adults
#14
REVIEW
Emanuele Montomoli, Alessandro Torelli, Ilaria Manini, Elena Gianchecchi
Since the mid-1980s, two lineages of influenza B viruses have been distinguished. These can co-circulate, limiting the protection provided by inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs). This has prompted efforts to formulate quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs), to enhance protection against circulating influenza B viruses. This review describes the results obtained from seven phase III clinical trials evaluating the immunogenicity, safety, and lot-to-lot consistency of a new quadrivalent split-virion influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip Tetra® ) formulated by adding a second B strain to the already licensed TIV...
March 8, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495555/the-emerging-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-the-pathogenesis-of-malaria
#15
REVIEW
Parisa Kalantari
Despite a global effort to develop an effective vaccine, malaria is still a significant health problem. Much of the pathology of malaria is immune mediated. This suggests that host immune responses have to be finely regulated. The innate immune system initiates and sets the threshold of the acquired immune response and determines the outcome of the disease. Yet, our knowledge of the regulation of innate immune responses during malaria is limited. Theoretically, inadequate activation of the innate immune system could result in unrestrained parasite growth...
February 28, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495347/meningococcal-vaccines-current-status-and-emerging-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Pumtiwitt C McCarthy, Abeer Sharyan, Laleh Sheikhi Moghaddam
Neisseria meningitidis causes most cases of bacterial meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis is a public health burden to both developed and developing countries throughout the world. There are a number of vaccines (polysaccharide-based, glycoconjugate, protein-based and combined conjugate vaccines) that are approved to target five of the six disease-causing serogroups of the pathogen. Immunization strategies have been effective at helping to decrease the global incidence of meningococcal meningitis. Researchers continue to enhance these efforts through discovery of new antigen targets that may lead to a broadly protective vaccine and development of new methods of homogenous vaccine production...
February 25, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443902/repurposing-plant-virus-nanoparticles
#17
REVIEW
Kathleen L Hefferon
Plants have been explored for many years as inexpensive and versatile platforms for the generation of vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. Plant viruses have also been engineered to either express subunit vaccines or act as epitope presentation systems. Both icosahedral and helical, filamentous-shaped plant viruses have been used for these purposes. More recently, plant viruses have been utilized as nanoparticles to transport drugs and active molecules into cancer cells. The following review describes the use of both icosahedral and helical plant viruses in a variety of new functions against cancer...
February 14, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439476/virus-like-vaccines-against-hiv
#18
REVIEW
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Melanie Schwerdtfeger, Peter J Holst
Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV...
February 11, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385680/radiation-and-anti-cancer-vaccines-a-winning-combination
#19
REVIEW
Alexandra Cadena, Taylor R Cushman, Clark Anderson, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, James W Welsh, Maria Angelica Cortez
The emerging combination of radiation therapy with vaccines is a promising new treatment plan in the fight against cancer. While many cancer vaccines such as MUC1, p53 CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, and SOX2 may be great candidates for antitumor vaccination, there still remain many investigations to be done into possible vaccine combinations. One fruitful partnership that has emerged are anti-tumor vaccines in combination with radiation. Radiation therapy was previously thought to be only a tool for directly or indirectly damaging DNA and therefore causing cancer cell death...
January 30, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382130/challenges-and-achievements-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-smallpox
#20
REVIEW
Sharon Melamed, Tomer Israely, Nir Paran
Declaration of smallpox eradication by the WHO in 1980 led to discontinuation of the worldwide vaccination campaign. The increasing percentage of unvaccinated individuals, the existence of its causative infectious agent variola virus (VARV), and the recent synthetic achievements increase the threat of intentional or accidental release and reemergence of smallpox. Control of smallpox would require an emergency vaccination campaign, as no other protective measure has been approved to achieve eradication and ensure worldwide protection...
January 29, 2018: Vaccines
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