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Michael J Brennan
This article is a Letter to the Editor. The major purpose of this Letter is to highlight the development of a new genetically altered whooping cough vaccine. Recently a baboon model has been used to show that this next generation pertussis vaccine can prevent colonization, as well as disease, and elicit antibodies against major pertussis antigens. Two phase I clinical trials have been performed, showing that this new vaccine is safe in humans, and a phase II trial will be performed in the US in 2018.
November 10, 2017: Vaccines
Elena G. Sánchez, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Yolanda Revilla
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a serious swine disease that is endemic in Africa and Sardinia and presently spreading in Russia and neighboring countries, including Poland and recently, the Czech Republic. This uncontrolled dissemination is a world-wide threat, as no specific protection or vaccine is available. ASFV is a very complex icosahedral, enveloped virus about 200 nm in diameter, which infects several members of pigs. The virus enters host cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis that depends on energy, vacuolar pH and temperature...
November 8, 2017: Vaccines
Eiji Yuba, Naoki Sakaguchi, Yuhei Kanda, Maiko Miyazaki, Kazunori Koiwai
(1) Background: Cytoplasmic delivery of antigens is crucial for the induction of cellular immunity, which is an important immune response for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. To date, fusogenic protein-incorporated liposomes and pH-responsive polymer-modified liposomes have been used to achieve cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane rupture or fusion with endosomes. However, a more versatile cytoplasmic delivery system is desired for practical use. For this study, we developed pH-responsive micelles composed of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and deoxycholic acid and investigated their cytoplasmic delivery performance and immunity-inducing capability...
November 4, 2017: Vaccines
Maxime Pichon, Bruno Lina, Laurence Josset
Viruses are responsible for most of both upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs). The microbiome-the ecological community of microorganisms sharing the body space, which has gained considerable interest over the last decade-is modified in health and disease states. Even if most of these disturbances have been previously described in relation to chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal microbiome, after a short reminder of microbiome characteristics and methods of characterization, this review will describe the impact of the microbiome (mainly respiratory) on host responses to viral ARIs...
November 3, 2017: Vaccines
Felix Wussow, Flavia Chiuppesi, Heidi Contreras, Don J Diamond
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a leading cause of permanent birth defects, highlighting the need to develop an HCMV vaccine candidate. However, HCMV vaccine development is complicated by the varying capacity of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to interfere in vitro with the HCMV entry routes mediating infection of fibroblast (FB) and epithelial cells (EC). While HCMV infection of FB and EC requires glycoprotein complexes composed of gB and gH/gL/gO, EC infection depends additionally on the envelope pentamer complex (PC) composed of gH, gL, UL128, UL130 and UL131A...
October 31, 2017: Vaccines
Felicity C Stark, Risini D Weeratna, Lise Deschatelets, Komal Gurnani, Renu Dudani, Michael J McCluskie, Lakshmi Krishnan
Archaeosomes constitute archaeal lipid vesicle vaccine adjuvants that evoke a strong CD8⁺ T cell response to antigenic cargo. Therapeutic treatment of murine B16-ovalbumin (B16-OVA) melanoma with archaeosome-OVA eliminates small subcutaneous solid tumors; however, they eventually resurge despite an increased frequency of circulating and tumor infiltrating OVA-CD8⁺ T cells. Herein, a number of different approaches were evaluated to improve responses, including dose number, interval, and the combination of vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors...
October 26, 2017: Vaccines
David J Lemler, Hayden N Brochu, Fang Yang, Erin A Harrell, Xinxia Peng
Research over the past decade has clearly shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional. Many lncRNAs can be related to immunity and the host response to viral infection, but their specific functions remain largely elusive. The vast majority of lncRNAs are annotated with extremely limited knowledge and tend to be expressed at low levels, making ad hoc experimentation difficult. Changes to lncRNA expression during infection can be systematically profiled using deep sequencing; however, this often produces an intractable number of candidate lncRNAs, leaving no clear path forward...
October 20, 2017: Vaccines
Khalid H Elawad, Elmoubasher A Farag, Dina A Abuelgasim, Maria K Smatti, Hamad E Al-Romaihi, Mohammed Al Thani, Hanan Al Mujalli, Zienab Shehata, Merin Alex, Asmaa A Al Thani, Hadi M Yassine
The purpose of this study was to improve influenza vaccination, and determine factors influencing vaccine declination among health care workers (HCW) in Qatar. We launched an influenza vaccination campaign to vaccinate around 4700 HCW in 22 Primary Health Care Corporation (PHCC) centers in Qatar between 1st and 15th of November, 2015. Our target was to vaccinate 60% of all HCW. Vaccine was offered free of charge at all centers, and information about the campaign and the importance of influenza vaccination was provided to employees through direct communication, emails, and social media networks...
October 10, 2017: Vaccines
Marisa Arias, Ana de la Torre, Linda Dixon, Carmina Gallardo, Ferran Jori, Alberto Laddomada, Carlos Martins, R Michael Parkhouse, Yolanda Revilla, Fernando And Jose-Manuel Rodriguez
African swine fever (ASF) is a complex disease of swine, caused by a large DNA virus belonging to the family Asfarviridae. The disease shows variable clinical signs, with high case fatality rates, up to 100%, in the acute forms. ASF is currently present in Africa and Europe where it circulates in different scenarios causing a high socio-economic impact. In most affected regions, control has not been effective in part due to lack of a vaccine. The availability of an effective and safe ASFV vaccines would support and enforce control-eradication strategies...
October 7, 2017: Vaccines
Nikolay N Kuzmich, Konstantin V Sivak, Vladimir N Chubarev, Yuri B Porozov, Tatiana N Savateeva-Lyubimova, Francesco Peri
Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) signal pathway plays an important role in initiating the innate immune response and its activation by bacterial endotoxin is responsible for chronic and acute inflammatory disorders that are becoming more and more frequent in developed countries. Modulation of the TLR4 pathway is a potential strategy to specifically target these pathologies. Among the diseases caused by TLR4 abnormal activation by bacterial endotoxin, sepsis is the most dangerous one because it is a life-threatening acute system inflammatory condition that still lacks specific pharmacological treatment...
October 4, 2017: Vaccines
Gonzalo A Pradenas, Julia N Myers, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen prevalent in cystic fibrosis patients, which is particularly difficult to treat, causing chronic and eventually fatal infections. The lack of effective treatment options makes evident the need to develop alternative therapeutic or prophylactic approaches. Vaccines, and live attenuated vaccines, are an unexplored avenue to treat B. cenocepacia infections. Here we constructed and characterized a B. cenocepacia tonB mutant strain, which was unable to actively transport iron, to test whether this single gene deletion mutant (strain renamed GAP001) protected against an acute respiratory B...
September 28, 2017: Vaccines
Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Matthew D Heath, Ariane C Gomes, Mona O Mohsen, Eduardo Montoya-Diaz, Ahmed M Salman, Erwan Atcheson, Murray A Skinner, Matthias F Kramer, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval, Martin F Bachmann
Microcrystalline Tyrosine (MCT(®)) is a widely used proprietary depot excipient in specific immunotherapy for allergy. In the current study we assessed the potential of MCT to serve as an adjuvant in the development of a vaccine against malaria. To this end, we formulated the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of P. vivax in MCT and compared the induced immune responses to CSP formulated in PBS or Alum. Both MCT and Alum strongly increased immunogenicity of CSP compared to PBS in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Challenge studies in mice using a chimeric P...
September 27, 2017: Vaccines
Sohini Dey, Madhan Mohan Chellappa, Dinesh C Pathak, Satish Gaikwad, Kalpana Yadav, Saravanan Ramakrishnan, Vikram N Vakharia
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain F is a lentogenic vaccine strain used for primary vaccination in day-old chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) in India and Southeast Asian countries. Recombinant NDV-F virus and another recombinant NDV harboring the major capsid protein VP2 gene of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); namely rNDV-F and rNDV-F/VP2, respectively, were generated using the NDV F strain. The rNDV-F/VP2 virus was slightly attenuated, as compared to the rNDV-F virus, as evidenced from the mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index analysis...
September 26, 2017: Vaccines
Emily Speranza, John H Connor
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious illness that causes severe disease in humans and non-human primates (NHPs) and has mortality rates up to 90%. EVD is caused by the Ebolavirus and currently there are no licensed therapeutics or vaccines to treat EVD. Due to its high mortality rates and potential as a bioterrorist weapon, a better understanding of the disease is of high priority. Multiparametric analysis techniques allow for a more complete understanding of a disease and the host response. Analysis of RNA species present in a sample can lead to a greater understanding of activation or suppression of different states of the immune response...
September 20, 2017: Vaccines
Erika S Hue, Eric A Richard, Christine I Fortier, Guillaume D Fortier, Romain Paillot, Rudiger Raue, Stéphane L Pronost
Equine herpesviruses (EHV) infect horses early during life and the persistence of these viruses through establishment of latency represents a real risk. A better understanding of the immune response to EHV infection is necessary to improve our methods of prevention and decrease the risk of transmission. The objectives of this study were to characterise the cytokine gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after in vitro EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-2 infection and to determine the efficacy of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) against these 3 viruses...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
Bonto Faburay, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, D Scott McVey, William C Wilson, Juergen A Richt
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that presents a substantial threat to human and public health. It is caused by Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus and the family Phenuiviridae within the order Bunyavirales. The wide distribution of competent vectors in non-endemic areas coupled with global climate change poses a significant threat of the transboundary spread of RVFV. In the last decade, an improved understanding of the molecular biology of RVFV has facilitated significant progress in the development of novel vaccines, including DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
Peter Mastrangelo, Michael J Norris, Wenming Duan, Edward G Barrett, Theo J Moraes, Richard G Hegele
Nucleolin (NCL) has been reported as a cellular receptor for the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We studied the effects of re-purposing AS1411, an anti-cancer compound that binds cell surface NCL, as a possible novel strategy for RSV therapy in vitro and in vivo. AS1411 was administered to RSV-infected cultures of non-polarized (HEp-2) and polarized (MDCK) epithelial cells and to virus-infected mice and cotton rats. Results of in vitro experiments showed that AS1411, used in micromolar concentrations, was associated with decreases in the number of virus-positive cells...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
Robert H Wauters, Camellia L Hernandez, Maureen M Petersen
Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
Mackenzie Henderson, Amanda Bragg, Germin Fahim, Monica Shah, Evelyn R Hermes-DeSantis
This review aims to evaluate the literature on the safety and efficacy of novel toxoid vaccines for the prophylaxis of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthy adults. Literature searches for clinical trials were performed through MEDLINE,, and Web of Science using the keywords bacterial vaccines, Clostridium difficile, and vaccine. English-language clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and/or safety of Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccines that were completed and had results posted on ClinicalTrials...
September 2, 2017: Vaccines
Ana Maria Ortega-Prieto, Marcus Dorner
Both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are a major global healthcare problem with more than 240 million and 70 million infected, respectively. Both viruses persist within the liver and result in progressive liver disease, resulting in liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Strikingly, this pathogenesis is largely driven by immune responses, unable to clear an established infection, rather than by the viral pathogens themselves. Even though disease progression is very similar in both infections, HBV and HCV have evolved distinct mechanisms, by which they ensure persistence within the host...
September 1, 2017: Vaccines
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