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Vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805672/challenges-in-estimating-vaccine-coverage-in-refugee-and-displaced-populations-results-from-household-surveys-in-jordan-and-lebanon
#1
Timothy Roberton, William Weiss, Shannon Doocy
Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country's vaccine schedule. We analyzed the results with a critical eye to data limitations and implications for similar studies...
August 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792466/distinctive-responses-in-an-in-vitro-human-dendritic-cell-based-system-upon-stimulation-with-different-influenza-vaccine-formulations
#2
Gabriela Tapia-Calle, Maaike Stoel, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Anke Huckriede
Vaccine development relies on testing vaccine candidates in animal models. However, results from animals cannot always be translated to humans. Alternative ways to screen vaccine candidates before clinical trials are therefore desirable. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the main orchestrators of the immune system and the link between innate and adaptive responses. Their activation by vaccines is an essential step in vaccine-induced immune responses. We have systematically evaluated the suitability of two different human DC-based systems, namely the DC-cell line MUTZ-3 and primary monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) to screen immunopotentiating properties of vaccine candidates...
August 9, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763018/maternal-immunization-new-perspectives-on-its-application-against-non-infectious-related-diseases-in-newborns
#3
REVIEW
Federica Riccardo, Aline Réal, Claudia Voena, Roberto Chiarle, Federica Cavallo, Giuseppina Barutello
The continuous evolution in preventive medicine has anointed vaccination a versatile, human-health improving tool, which has led to a steady decline in deaths in the developing world. Maternal immunization represents an incisive step forward for the field of vaccination as it provides protection against various life-threatening diseases in pregnant women and their children. A number of studies to improve prevention rates and expand protection against the largest possible number of infections are still in progress...
August 1, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749414/adjuvantation-of-pulmonary-administered-influenza-vaccine-with-gpi-0100-primarily-stimulates-antibody-production-and-memory-b-cell-proliferation
#4
Harshad P Patil, José Herrera Rodriguez, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Tjarko Meijerhof, Henderik W Frijlink, Wouter L J Hinrichs, Anke Huckriede
Adjuvants are key components in vaccines, they help in reducing the required antigen dose but also modulate the phenotype of the induced immune response. We previously showed that GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant, enhances antigen-specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses to influenza subunit and whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine administered via the pulmonary route. However, the impact of the GPI-0100 dose on immune stimulation and the immune mechanisms stimulated by GPI-0100 along with antigen are poorly understood...
July 27, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718786/egg-independent-influenza-vaccines-and-vaccine-candidates
#5
REVIEW
Ilaria Manini, Claudia Maria Trombetta, Giacomo Lazzeri, Teresa Pozzi, Stefania Rossi, Emanuele Montomoli
Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain...
July 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714923/heterologous-humoral-response-against-h5n1-h7n3-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-after-seasonal-vaccination-in-a-european-elderly-population
#6
Ivan Sanz, Silvia Rojo, Sonia Tamames, José María Eiros, Raúl Ortiz de Lejarazu
Avian influenza viruses are currently one of the main threats to human health in the world. Although there are some screening reports of antibodies against these viruses in humans from Western countries, most of these types of studies are conducted in poultry and market workers of Asian populations. The presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses was evaluated in an elderly European population. An experimental study was conducted, including pre- and post-vaccine serum samples obtained from 174 elderly people vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines of 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 Northern Hemisphere vaccine campaigns...
July 17, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671606/the-central-conserved-region-ccr-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-g-protein-modulates-host-mirna-expression-and-alters-the-cellular-response-to-infection
#7
Abhijeet A Bakre, Jennifer L Harcourt, Lia M Haynes, Larry J Anderson, Ralph A Tripp
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infects respiratory epithelial cells and deregulates host gene expression by many mechanisms including expression of RSV G protein (RSV G). RSV G protein encodes a central conserved region (CCR) containing a CX3C motif that functions as a fractalkine mimic. Disruption of the CX3C motif (a.a. 182-186) located in the CCR of the G protein has been shown to affect G protein function in vitro and the severity of RSV disease pathogenesis in vivo. We show that infection of polarized Calu3 respiratory cells with recombinant RSV having point mutations in Cys173 and 176 (C173/176S) (rA2-GC12), or Cys186 (C186S) (rA2-GC4) is associated with a decline in the integrity of polarized Calu-3 cultures and decreased virus production...
July 3, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574449/reemergence-of-measles-in-the-americas-the-genotype-b3-2011-2012-outbreak-in-ecuador
#8
Nicole K Le, Rahul Mhaskar, Ismael Hoare, Mauricio Espinel, María Fernanda Rivadeneira, Sharad Malavade, Ricardo Izurieta
This study characterizes a measles outbreak which occurred in Ecuador in 2011-2012, analyzing data from 3700 suspected cases of measles reported to Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. The study population had a large age range and included 333 confirmed cases of measles. The greatest number of cases were found in the <1 year (32.43%, n = 108) and 1-4 year (30.03%, n = 100) age-groups. Compared to Mestizos, indigenous people had the highest number of cases (68.2%, n = 227), as well as a higher risk of infection (OR 7...
June 2, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556800/disease-prevention-an-opportunity-to-expand-edible-plant-based-vaccines
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Concha, Raúl Cañas, Johan Macuer, María José Torres, Andrés A Herrada, Fabiola Jamett, Cristian Ibáñez
The lethality of infectious diseases has decreased due to the implementation of crucial sanitary procedures such as vaccination. However, the resurgence of pathogenic diseases in different parts of the world has revealed the importance of identifying novel, rapid, and concrete solutions for control and prevention. Edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the constraints of traditional vaccines. The term "edible vaccine" refers to the use of edible parts of a plant that has been genetically modified to produce specific components of a particular pathogen to generate protection against a disease...
May 30, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538691/the-potential-cost-effectiveness-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-combined-with-hiv-vaccines-in-the-united-states
#10
Blythe J S Adamson, Josh J Carlson, James G Kublin, Louis P Garrison
This economic evaluation aims to support policy-making on the combined use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with HIV vaccines in development by evaluating the potential cost-effectiveness of implementation that would support the design of clinical trials for the assessment of combined product safety and efficacy. The target study population is a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Policy strategies considered include standard HIV prevention, daily oral PrEP, HIV vaccine, and their combination...
May 24, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524109/unexpected-infection-spikes-in-a-model-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccination
#11
Robert J Smith, Alexandra B Hogan, Geoffry N Mercer
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an acute respiratory infection that infects millions of children and infants worldwide. Recent research has shown promise for the development of a vaccine, with a range of vaccine types now in clinical trials or preclinical development. We extend an existing mathematical model with seasonal transmission to include vaccination. We model vaccination both as a continuous process, applying the vaccine during pregnancy, and as a discrete one, using impulsive differential equations, applying pulse vaccination...
May 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513561/the-effect-of-physicochemical-modification-on-the-function-of-antibodies-induced-by-anti-nicotine-vaccine-in-mice
#12
Jennifer M Thorn, Keshab Bhattacharya, Renata Crutcher, Justin Sperry, Colleen Isele, Barbara Kelly, Libbey Yates, James Zobel, Ningli Zhang, Heather L Davis, Michael J McCluskie
Smoking remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One approach to assisting smoking cessation is via anti-nicotine vaccines, composed of nicotine-like haptens conjugated to a carrier protein plus adjuvant(s). We have previously shown that the carrier, hapten, linker, hapten load, degree of conjugate aggregation, and presence of adducts can each influence the function (nicotine-binding capacity) of the antibody (Ab) induced. Herein, we extend those findings and show that tertiary structure is also critical to the induction of functional immune responses and that this can be influenced by conjugation conditions...
May 17, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468322/virus-like-particle-vlp-plus-microcrystalline-tyrosine-mct-adjuvants-enhance-vaccine-efficacy-improving-t-and-b-cell-immunogenicity-and-protection-against-plasmodium-berghei-vivax
#13
Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Matthew D Heath, Mona O Mohsen, Ariane C Gomes, Paul Engeroff, Amy Flaxman, Fabiana M S Leoratti, Aadil El-Turabi, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval, Murray A Skinner, Matthias F Kramer, Martin F Bachmann
Vaccination is the most effective prophylactic tool against infectious diseases. Despite continued efforts to control malaria, the disease still generally represents a significant unmet medical need. Microcrystalline tyrosine (MCT) is a well described depot used in licensed allergy immunotherapy products and in clinical development. However, its proof of concept in prophylactic vaccines has only recently been explored. MCT has never been used in combination with virus-like particles (VLPs), which are considered to be one of the most potent inducers of cellular and humoral immune responses in mice and humans...
May 2, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417936/oncolytic-alphaviruses-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom
Oncolytic viruses show specific targeting and killing of tumor cells and therefore provide attractive assets for cancer immunotherapy. In parallel to oncolytic viral vectors based on adenoviruses and herpes simplex viruses, oncolytic RNA viruses and particularly alphaviruses have been evaluated as delivery vehicles. Immunization studies in experimental rodent models for various cancers including glioblastoma, hematologic, hepatocellular, colon, cervix, and lung cancer as well as melanoma have been conducted with naturally occurring oncolytic alphavirus strains such as M1 and Sindbis AR339...
April 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272310/the-cost-of-cost-sharing-the-impact-of-medicaid-benefit-design-on-influenza-vaccination-uptake
#15
Charles Stoecker, Alexandra M Stewart, Megan C Lindley
Prior research indicates that cost-sharing and lack of insurance coverage reduce preventive services use among low-income persons. State Medicaid policy may affect the uptake of recommended adult vaccinations. We examined the impact of three aspects of Medicaid benefit design (coverage for vaccines, prohibiting cost-sharing, and copayment amounts) on vaccine uptake in the fee-for-service Medicaid population 19-64 years old. We combined previously published reports to obtain state Medicaid policy information from 2003 and 2012...
March 6, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264447/the-escape-of-cancer-from-t-cell-mediated-immune-surveillance-hla-class-i-loss-and-tumor-tissue-architecture
#16
REVIEW
Federico Garrido, Francisco Perea, Mónica Bernal, Abel Sánchez-Palencia, Natalia Aptsiauri, Francisco Ruiz-Cabello
Tumor immune escape is associated with the loss of tumor HLA class I (HLA-I) expression commonly found in malignant cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of immunotherapy depends on the expression levels of HLA class I molecules on tumors cells. It also depends on the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of HLA expression, which could be reversible/"soft" or irreversible/"hard" due to genetic alterations in HLA, β2-microglobulin or IFN genes. Immune selection of HLA-I negative tumor cells harboring structural/irreversible alterations has been demonstrated after immunotherapy in cancer patients and in experimental cancer models...
February 27, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216554/harnessing-nanoparticles-for-immunomodulation-and-vaccines
#17
REVIEW
Ariane C Gomes, Mona Mohsen, Martin F Bachmann
The first successful use of nanoparticles (NPs) for vaccination was reported almost 40 years ago with a virus-like particle-based vaccine against Hepatitis B. Since then, the term NP has been expanded to accommodate a large number of novel nano-sized particles engineered from a range of materials. The great interest in NPs is likely not only a result of the two successful vaccines against hepatitis B and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) that use this technology, but also due to the versatility of those small-sized particles, as indicated by the wide range of applications reported so far, ranging from medicinal and cosmetics to purely technical applications...
February 14, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165397/human-t-cell-memory-a-dynamic-view
#18
REVIEW
Derek C Macallan, José A M Borghans, Becca Asquith
Long-term T cell-mediated protection depends upon the formation of a pool of memory cells to protect against future pathogen challenge. In this review we argue that looking at T cell memory from a dynamic viewpoint can help in understanding how memory populations are maintained following pathogen exposure or vaccination. For example, a dynamic view resolves the apparent paradox between the relatively short lifespans of individual memory cells and very long-lived immunological memory by focussing on the persistence of clonal populations, rather than individual cells...
February 4, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134792/from-immunologically-archaic-to-neoteric-glycovaccines
#19
REVIEW
Marco Cavallari, Gennaro De Libero
Polysaccharides (PS) are present in the outermost surface of bacteria and readily come in contact with immune cells. They interact with specific antibodies, which in turn confer protection from infections. Vaccines with PS from pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Salmonella typhi may be protective, although with the important constraint of failing to generate permanent immunological memory. This limitation has in part been circumvented by conjugating glycovaccines to proteins that stimulate T helper cells and facilitate the establishment of immunological memory...
January 27, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106821/a-protective-vaccine-against-chlamydia-genital-infection-using-vault-nanoparticles-without-an-added-adjuvant
#20
Janina Jiang, Guangchao Liu, Valerie A Kickhoefer, Leonard H Rome, Lin-Xi Li, Stephen J McSorley, Kathleen A Kelly
Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation...
January 19, 2017: Vaccines
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