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Larisa Rudenko, Irina Kiseleva, Elena Krutikova, Ekaterina Stepanova, Irina Isakova-Sivak, Svetlana Donina, Andrey Rekstin, Maria Pisareva, Ekaterina Bazhenova, Tatiana Kotomina, Anastasia Katelnikova, Arman Muzhikyan, Valery Makarov, Erin Grace Sparrow, Guido Torelli
Influenza H7N9 virus is a potentially pandemic subtype to which most people are immunologically naïve. To be better prepared for the potential occurrence of an H7N9 pandemic, in 2017 the World Health Organization recommended developing candidate vaccine viruses from two new H7N9 viruses, A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 (A/GD) and A/Hong Kong/125/2017 (A/HK). This report describes the development of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidates against A/GD and A/HK viruses and study of their safety and immunogenicity in the ferret model in order to choose the most promising one for a phase I clinical trial...
November 1, 2018: Vaccines
Guangyu Li, Cody Teleki, Tian Wang
Flaviviruses include many medically important viruses, such as Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV), and Zika viruses (ZIKV). Currently, there are licensed human vaccines for DENV, JEV, TBEV and YFV, but not for WNV or ZIKV. Memory T cells play a central role in adaptive immunity and are important for host protection during flavivirus infection. In this review, we discuss recent findings from animal models and clinical trials and provide new insights into the role of memory T cells in host protective immunity upon vaccination with the licensed flavivirus vaccines...
October 18, 2018: Vaccines
Abdulmalik M Alqarni, Valerie A Ferro, John A Parkinson, Mark J Dufton, David G Watson
Melittin, the major active peptide of honeybee venom (BV), has potential for use in adjuvant immunotherapy. The immune system response to different stimuli depends on the secretion of different metabolites from macrophages. One potent stimulus is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component isolated from gram-negative bacteria, which induces the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophage cell cultures. This secretion is amplified when LPS is combined with melittin. In the present study, pure melittin was isolated from whole BV by flash chromatography to obtain pure melittin...
October 13, 2018: Vaccines
Mohamed Dilai, Mohammed Piro, Mehdi El Harrak, Stéphanie Fougerolle, Mohammed Dehhaoui, Asmaa Dikrallah, Loïc Legrand, Romain Paillot, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri
To evaluate the humoral immune response to mixed Equine Influenza vaccination, a common practice in the field, an experimental study was carried out on 42 unvaccinated thoroughbred weanling foals divided into six groups of seven. Three groups were vaccinated using a non-mixed protocol (Equilis® Prequenza-Te, Proteqflu-Te® or Calvenza-03® ) and three other groups were vaccinated using a mix of the three vaccines mentioned previously. Each weanling underwent a primary EI vaccination schedule composed of two primary immunisations (V1 and V2) four weeks apart followed by a third boost immunisation (V3) six months later...
October 4, 2018: Vaccines
Christine C Roberts, Joel N Maslow
From the perspective of vaccine development, it is imperative to accurately diagnose target infections in order to exclude subjects with prior exposure from evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, to track incident infection during the course of a clinical trial and to differentiate immune reactions due to natural infections from responses that are vaccine related. When vaccine development is accelerated to a rapid pace in response to emerging infectious disease threats, the challenges to develop such diagnostic tools is even greater...
October 2, 2018: Vaccines
Kishore Kumar Jella, Tahseen H Nasti, Zhentian Li, Sudarshan R Malla, Zachary S Buchwald, Mohammad K Khan
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles ranging from 30 to 150 nm in diameter that contain molecular constituents of their host cells. They are released from different types of cells ranging from immune to tumor cells and play an important role in intercellular communication. Exosomes can be manipulated by altering their host cells and can be loaded with products of interest such as specific drugs, proteins, DNA and RNA species. Due to their small size and the unique composition of their lipid bilayer, exosomes are capable of reaching different cell types where they alter the pathophysiological conditions of the recipient cells...
September 26, 2018: Vaccines
Ali H Ellebedy
The first human influenza virus was isolated more than 85 years ago, and several vaccine candidates were developed and tested soon after. Yet, controlling infections mediated by this respiratory pathogen continues to present a formidable challenge. Development of an effective influenza vaccine has been undermined by the dynamic nature of influenza viruses: these viruses have the unique capacity to escape pre-existing immunity. In this perspective, I highlight pre-existing immunity as a different, but related, hurdle that may actually lessen the effectiveness of influenza vaccine-induced immune responses...
September 22, 2018: Vaccines
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Ruth Mesgna, Sandra Bonin, Geoffrey N Hendy, Marie-Hélène Metz-Boutigue, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by aberrant regulation of tight junctions (TJ), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and interleukin (IL)-8/18, which lead to intestinal barrier defects. Catestatin (CST), an enterochromaffin-derived peptide, regulates immune communication and STAT-3 in the inflamed intestine. Here, we investigated the effects of CST during the development of inflammation using human biopsies from patients with active UC, human colonic epithelial cells (Caco2), and an experimental model of UC (dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]-colitis)...
September 20, 2018: Vaccines
Ki-Hye Kim, Young-Man Kwon, Young-Tae Lee, Min-Chul Kim, Hye Suk Hwang, Eun-Ju Ko, Youri Lee, Hyo-Jick Choi, Sang-Moo Kang
Influenza virus M2 protein has a highly conserved ectodomain (M2e) as a cross-protective antigenic target. We investigated the antigenic and immunogenic properties of tandem repeat M2e (5xM2e) proteins and virus-like particles (5xM2e VLP) to better understand how VLP and protein platform vaccines induce innate and protective adaptive immune responses. Despite the high antigenic properties of 5xM2e proteins, the 5xM2e VLP was superior to 5xM2e proteins in inducing IgG2a isotype antibodies, T cell responses, plasma cells and germinal center B cells as well as in conferring cross protection...
September 20, 2018: Vaccines
Thomas J van Ee, Heleen H Van Acker, Tom G van Oorschot, Viggo F Van Tendeloo, Evelien L Smits, Ghaith Bakdash, Gerty Schreibelt, I Jolanda M de Vries
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines show promising effects in cancer immunotherapy. However, their efficacy is affected by a number of factors, including (1) the quality of the DC vaccine and (2) tumor immune evasion. The recently characterized BDCA1+CD14+ immunosuppressive cells combine both aspects; their presence in DC vaccines may directly hamper vaccine efficacy, whereas, in patients, BDCA1+CD14+ cells may suppress the induced immune response in an antigen-specific manner systemically and at the tumor site. We hypothesize that BDCA1+CD14+ cells are present in a broad spectrum of cancers and demand further investigation to reveal treatment opportunities and/or improvement for DC vaccines...
September 19, 2018: Vaccines
Sun-Young Sunwoo, Michael Schotsaert, Igor Morozov, Anne Sally Davis, Yuhao Li, Jinhwa Lee, Chester McDowell, Philip Meade, Raffael Nachbagauer, Adolfo García-Sastre, Wenjun Ma, Florian Krammer, Juergen A Richt
The antigenically conserved hemagglutinin stalk region is a target for universal influenza virus vaccines since antibodies against it can provide broad protection against influenza viruses of different subtypes. We tested a universal influenza virus vaccination regimen based on sequential immunization with chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) containing viruses in a swine influenza virus pig model with maternal antibodies against pandemic H1N1. Vaccines were administered as live attenuated virus or inactivated influenza virus split vaccine (+/- Emulsigen adjuvant)...
September 14, 2018: Vaccines
Roel M van Harten, Esther van Woudenbergh, Albert van Dijk, Henk P Haagsman
Cathelicidins are host defense peptides with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions. These effector molecules of the innate immune system of many vertebrates are diverse in their amino acid sequence but share physicochemical characteristics like positive charge and amphipathicity. Besides being antimicrobial, cathelicidins have a wide variety in immunomodulatory functions, both boosting and inhibiting inflammation, directing chemotaxis, and effecting cell differentiation, primarily towards type 1 immune responses...
September 14, 2018: Vaccines
Raquel das Neves Almeida, Trina Racine, Kelly G Magalhães, Gary P Kobinger
Zika virus is an arbovirus that has rapidly spread within the Americas since 2014, presenting a variety of clinical manifestations and neurological complications resulting in congenital malformation, microcephaly, and possibly, in male infertility. These significant clinical manifestations have led investigators to develop several candidate vaccines specific to Zika virus. In this review we describe relevant targets for the development of vaccines specific for Zika virus, the development status of various vaccine candidates and their different platforms, as well as their clinical progression...
September 13, 2018: Vaccines
Eleanor Black, Robyn Richmond
Cervical cancer is a critical public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where it is the second leading cause of cancer among women and the leading cause of female cancer deaths. Incidence and mortality rates are substantially higher than in high-income countries with population-based screening programs, yet implementing screening programs in SSA has so far proven to be challenging due to financial, logistical, and sociocultural factors. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is an effective approach for primary prevention of cervical cancer and presents an opportunity to reduce the burden from cervical cancer in SSA...
September 8, 2018: Vaccines
Rikhav P Gala, Rokon Uz Zaman, Martin J D'Souza, Susu M Zughaier
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen responsible for more than 100 million new sexually transmitted infections worldwide each year. Due to the global emergence of antibiotic resistance, the Center for Disease control (CDC) recently listed N. gonorrhoeae as an urgent threat to public health. No vaccine is available in spite of the huge disease burden and the possibility of untreatable gonorrhea. The aim of this study is to investigate the immunogenicity of a novel whole-cell-based inactivated gonococcal microparticle vaccine formulation loaded in dissolvable microneedles for transdermal administration...
September 4, 2018: Vaccines
Omotola Olasupo, Hong Xiao, Joshua D Brown
The relative burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in older adults (≥65 years old) compared to other serious diseases is important to prioritize preventive treatment. A retrospective analysis was conducted using the 2014 National Readmission Database to evaluate the length of stay, inpatient mortality, 30-day readmissions, and costs of CAP compared to diabetes mellitus (DM), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. 275,790 hospitalizations were analyzed and represented a national estimate of 616,300 hospitalizations, including 269,961 for CAP, 71,284 for DM, 126,946 for MI, and 148,109 for stroke...
August 31, 2018: Vaccines
Nicole M Bouvier
For centuries, the development of vaccines to prevent infectious disease was an empirical process. From smallpox variolation in Song dynasty China, through the polysaccharide capsule vaccines developed in the 1970s, vaccines were made either from the pathogen itself, treated in some way to render it attenuated or non-infectious, or from a closely related non-pathogenic strain. In recent decades, new scientific knowledge and technologies have enabled rational vaccine design in a way that was unimaginable before...
August 30, 2018: Vaccines
Lisa Kathleen Ryan, Jichuan Wu, Kyell Schwartz, Sunghan Yim, Gill Diamond
β-defensins are predicted to play an important role in innate immunity against bacterial infections in the airway. We previously observed that a type III-secretion product of Bordetella bronchiseptica inhibits the NF-κB-mediated induction of a β-defensin in airway epithelial cells in vitro. To confirm this in vivo and to examine the relative roles of other β-defensins in the airway, we infected wild-type C57BL/6 mice and mice with a deletion of the mBD-1 gene with B. bronchiseptica wild-type strain, RB50 and its mutant strain lacking the type III-secretion system, WD3...
August 28, 2018: Vaccines
Sandra Tuyaerts, Frédéric Amant
Endometrial stromal sarcomas are a subtype of uterine sarcomas that are characterized by recurrent chromosomal translocations, resulting in the expression of tumor-specific fusion proteins that contribute to their tumorigenicity. These characteristics make the translocation breakpoints promising targets for immunotherapeutic approaches. In this review, we first describe the current knowledge about the classification of endometrial stromal sarcomas, and their molecular and genetic characteristics. Next, we summarize the available data on the use of translocation breakpoints as immunotherapeutic targets...
August 25, 2018: Vaccines
Giselle M A Dutcher, Mehmet Asim Bilen
The field of genitourinary malignancies has been a showcase for therapeutic cancer vaccine success since the application of intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer in the 1970s and enjoyed a renaissance in 2010 with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer. Several vaccine strategies have emerged, such as autologous or allogeneic whole-tumor vaccines, DNA vaccines, use of viral vectors, and peptides as immunostimulatory adjuvants. Despite impressive early trials, vaccine monotherapy has achieved limited success in the clinical world; however, combinations of vaccine and immune checkpoint inhibition or vaccine and cytokine stimulation are expected to move the field forward...
August 12, 2018: Vaccines
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