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Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal

Gioulia Romanidou, Theocharis G Konstantinidis, Odysseas Koutsogiannis, Anastasia Grapsa, Konstantina Kantartzi, Stylianos Panagoutsos, Maria Panopoulou, Christina Tsigalou
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multifactorial, autoantibody-mediated disease. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) directed against negatively charged phospholipids or various combinations of phospholipid-binding proteins seem to be an independent pathogenic factor that plays a critical role in APS. Unfortunately, their role in hypertension is not fully elucidated. The aim of our study was to determine aPL titers in hypertension patients and investigate the association of aPL with renal impairment parameters...
November 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Gabriel Yusti, Mariano Fielli, Alejandra Gonzalez, Graciela Torales, Alejandra Zapata, Adrian Ceccato
The utility of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) assay in the diagnosis of patients with pleural tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is controversial. Forty-eight HIV positive patients with pleural effusion were evaluated; ADA assay was obtained in forty-three of them. Twenty-five patients presented diagnosis of TB. Patients with diagnosis of TB showed a median value of ADA of 70 IU/L (interquartile range (IQR) 41⁻89) and the non-TB group a median of 27.5 IU/L (IQR 13.5⁻52). Patients with diagnosis of TB had a median cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count of 174 (IQR 86⁻274) and the non-TB group had a median of 134 (IQR 71⁻371)...
November 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Yihai Liu, Xixi Wang, Mubashir Hussain, Mu Lv, Xiaohan Dong, Tianying Wang, Xueqin Xu, Bin Liu
With the advancement in the mechanism of immune surveillance and immune evasion in cancer cells, cancer immunotherapy shows promising results for treating cancer with established efficacy and less toxicity. As a result of the off-target effect, the approach for delivering vaccines, adjuvants, or antibodies directly to tumor sites is gaining widespread attention. An effective alternative is to utilize nanoengineered particles, functioning as drug-delivery systems or as antigens themselves. This article reviews the practical implementation of nanotechnology in cancer immunotherapy...
November 9, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Maria P Kwesiga, Emily Cook, Jennifer Hannon, Sarah Wayward, Caroline Gwaltney, Smitha Rao, Megan C Frost
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a major health problem associated with diabetes mellitus. Impaired nitric oxide (NO) production has been shown to be a major contributor to the dysregulation of healing in DFU. The level of impairment is not known primarily due to challenges with measuring NO. Herein, we report the actual level of NO produced by human dermal fibroblasts cultured under normal and high glucose conditions. Fibroblasts produce the extracellular matrix, which facilitate the migration of keratinocytes to close wounds...
November 9, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Fatemeh Karami, Maliheh Askari, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi
Thrombophilia gene variants have been shown to be associated with higher risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Due to the role of human platelets antigen 1 ( HPA-1 ) and fibrinogen β chain (FGB) as critical players in the coagulation process, their most important variants including rs5918 T > C and rs1800790 G > A were selected to be studied in women affected by RPL. Three milliliters of peripheral blood were drawn from 110 women with history of at least two consecutive spontaneous abortion and 110 healthy women controls...
October 31, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Tarik Becic, Christian Studenik, Georg Hoffmann
It is speculated that lifestyle interventions known to improve diabetic metabolic state may exert their effects via adipokines. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the chronic effects of physical exercise on adiponectin and leptin levels in adult prediabetic and diabetic individuals. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Library,, and WHO Clinical Trials Registry were searched for randomized controlled trials. Pooled effects of interventions were assessed as mean difference (MD) with random effects model...
October 30, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
John D Widdrington, Ingrid Emmerson, Milo Cullinan, Manjusha Narayanan, Eleanor Klejnow, Alistair Watson, Edmund L C Ong, Matthias L Schmid, D Ashley Price, Ulrich Schwab, Christopher J A Duncan
We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcomes of pyogenic spondylodiscitis and to identify factors associated with an unfavourable clinical outcome (defined as death, permanent disability, spinal instability or persistent pain). In our tertiary centre, 91 cases were identified prospectively and a retrospective descriptive analysis of clinical records was performed prior to binary regression analysis of factors associated with an unfavourable outcome. A median 26 days elapsed from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis and 51% of patients had neurological impairment at presentation...
October 30, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Sachin Relia, Vijayabharathi Ekambaram
Autism is a developmental disability that can cause significant emotional, social and behavioral dysfunction. Sleep disorders co-occur in approximately half of the patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sleep problems in individuals with ASD have also been associated with poor social interaction, increased stereotypy, problems in communication, and overall autistic behavior. Behavioral interventions are considered a primary modality of treatment. There is limited evidence for psychopharmacological treatments in autism; however, these are frequently prescribed...
October 25, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Yuko Otake
Recently, discussions have considered how mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) can build upon local resilience in war-affected settings. To contribute to the knowledge in this field, the paper explored the gap between MHPSS and local communities in terms of perceived mental health problems and healing processes, and how the gap could be filled. Qualitative research was conducted in northern Rwanda with 43 participants between 2015 and 2016. Findings revealed how three particular gaps can isolate MHPSS recipients in their local community...
October 24, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Rikinkumar S Patel, Kuang-Yi Wen, Rashi Aggarwal
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of depression in the four most common cancers in the US and evaluate differences in demographics and hospital outcomes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2010⁻2014). We selected patients who had received ICD-9 codes of breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers and major depressive disorder (MDD). Pearson's chi-square test and independent sample t -test were used for categorical and continuous data, respectively...
October 24, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Yurdagül Zopf, Dejan Reljic, Walburga Dieterich
A well-balanced diet is the basis for a healthy life. Both the western diet and special diets can have a relevant impact on the microbiome and promote the development of various diseases. There has been an increase in food-related disorders in recent years, largely associated with dramatic changes in food consumption trends and main nutrients. A major response to food intolerances has been the adoption of new dietary trends involving the reduction or exclusion of specific food ingredients. Especially gluten-containing, but also gluten-free cereals are in the cross-fire...
October 18, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Leonor Ballester, Rafael Martínez, Juan Méndez, Gloria Miró, Manel Solsona, Elisabeth Palomera, Josep Anton Capdevila, Alejandro Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Yébenes
BACKGROUND: Sepsis diagnosis can be incorrectly associated with the presence of hypotension during an infection, so the detection and management of non-hypotensive sepsis can be delayed. We aimed to evaluate how the presence or absence of hypotension, on admission at the emergency department, affects the initial management and outcomes of patients with community-onset severe sepsis. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, process of care, and outcome variables were recorded for all patients, at the emergency department of our university hospital, who presented with community-onset severe sepsis, between 1 March and 31 August in three consecutive years...
October 10, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Amy Calandriello, Joanna C Tylka, Pallavi P Patwari
With growing recognition of pediatric delirium in pediatric critical illness there has also been increased investigation into improving recognition and determining potential risk factors. Disturbed sleep has been assumed to be one of the key risk factors leading to delirium and is commonplace in the pediatric critical care setting as the nature of intensive care requires frequent and invasive monitoring and interventions. However, this relationship between sleep and delirium in pediatric critical illness has not been definitively established and may, instead, reflect significant overlap in risk factors and consequences of underlying neurologic dysfunction...
October 10, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Bruno Ramos-Molina, Ana Lambertos, Rafael Peñafiel
The intracellular levels of polyamines, cationic molecules involved in a myriad of cellular functions ranging from cellular growth, differentiation and apoptosis, is precisely regulated by antizymes and antizyme inhibitors via the modulation of the polyamine biosynthetic and transport systems. Antizymes, which are mainly activated upon high polyamine levels, inhibit ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic route, and exert a negative control of polyamine intake. Antizyme inhibitors (AZINs), which are proteins highly homologous to ODC, selectively interact with antizymes, preventing their action on ODC and the polyamine transport system...
October 9, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Sandra Georgina Solano-Gálvez, Sonia Margarita Tovar-Torres, María Sofía Tron-Gómez, Ariane Estrella Weiser-Smeke, Diego Abelardo Álvarez-Hernández, Giorgio Alberto Franyuti-Kelly, Mijail Tapia-Moreno, Antonio Ibarra, Laila Gutiérrez-Kobeh, Rosalino Vázquez-López
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of cells derived from bone marrow that represent 1% or less of the total hematopoietic cells of any lymphoid organ or of the total cell count of the blood or epithelia. Dendritic cells comprise a heterogeneous population of cells localized in different tissues where they act as sentinels continuously capturing antigens to present them to T cells. Dendritic cells are uniquely capable of attracting and activating naïve CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells to initiate and modulate primary immune responses...
October 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Soo-Youl Kim
Transglutaminase 2 (EC; TG2 or TGase 2) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers, neurodegeneration, and inflammatory disorders. Under normal conditions, however, mice lacking TGase 2 exhibit no obvious abnormal phenotype. TGase 2 expression is induced by chemical, physical, and viral stresses through tissue-protective signaling pathways. After stress dissipates, expression is normalized by feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of TGase 2 expression under pathologic conditions, however, can potentiate pathogenesis and aggravate disease severity...
October 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Armelle Paule, Domenico Frezza, Marvin Edeas
An imbalance of bacterial quantity and quality of gut microbiota has been linked to several pathologies. New strategies of microbiota manipulation have been developed such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); the use of pre/probiotics; an appropriate diet; and phage therapy. The presence of bacteriophages has been largely underestimated and their presence is a relevant component for the microbiome equilibrium. As a promising treatment, phage therapy has been extensively used in Eastern Europe to reduce pathogenic bacteria and has arisen as a new method to modulate microbiota diversity...
October 5, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi
Brain tumors are highly heterogeneous and have been classified by the World Health Organization in various histological and molecular subtypes. Gliomas have been classified as ranging from low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas to high-grade astrocytomas or glioblastomas. These tumors are characterized by a peculiar pattern of genetic alterations. Pediatric high-grade gliomas are histologically indistinguishable from adult glioblastomas, but they are considered distinct from adult glioblastomas because they possess a different spectrum of driver mutations (genes encoding histones H3...
October 2, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Richard E Kast
During glioblastoma treatment, the pharmaceutical monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor A, bevacizumab, has improved the quality of life and delayed progression for several months, but has not (or only marginally) prolonged overall survival. In 2017, several dramatic research papers appeared that are crucial to our understanding of glioblastoma vis-a-vis the mode of action of bevacizumab. As a consequence of these papers, a new, potentially more effective treatment protocol can be built around bevacizumab...
September 29, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Rosa Malo de Molina, Silvia Aguado, Carlos Arellano, Manuel Valle, Piedad Ussetti
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher risk of acute cardiovascular events, and around 30% die from cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest an increased risk of myocardial infarction in the following days of a severe exacerbation of COPD. Disruption in the balance during the exacerbation with tachycardia, increased inflammation and systemic oxidative stress as well as some other factors may confer an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular events. A number of investigations may be useful to an early diagnosis, including electrocardiography, imaging techniques and blood test for biomarkers...
September 25, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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