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Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal

Majda Dzidic, Alba Boix-Amorós, Marta Selma-Royo, Alex Mira, Maria Carmen Collado
Gut microbiota colonization is a complex, dynamic, and step-wise process that is in constant development during the first years of life. This microbial settlement occurs in parallel with the maturation of the immune system, and alterations during this period, due to environmental and host factors, are considered to be potential determinants of health-outcomes later in life. Given that host⁻microbe interactions are mediated by the immune system response, it is important to understand the close relationship between immunity and the microbiota during birth, lactation, and early infancy...
July 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Roshan Kumar Mahat, Neelima Singh, Vedika Rathore, Akshara Gupta, Rakesh Kumar Shah
Prediabetes is the precursor stage of diabetes mellitus and is also considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Atherogenic indices have been used for assessment of risk for cardiovascular disease development. To date, there is no data on evaluating the relationship between atherogenic indices (cardiac risk ratio (CRR), atherogenic coefficient (AC), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP)) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in prediabetes. Hence, we aimed to determine atherogenic indices (CRR, AC, and AIP) and CIMT in prediabetic subjects and then sought to evaluate the relationship between them...
July 5, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Sandra Georgina Solano-Gálvez, Jack Abadi-Chiriti, Luis Gutiérrez-Velez, Eduardo Rodríguez-Puente, Enrique Konstat-Korzenny, Diego-Abelardo Álvarez-Hernández, Giorgio Franyuti-Kelly, Laila Gutiérrez-Kobeh, Rosalino Vázquez-López
There are many types of cell death, each involving multiple and complex molecular events. Cell death can occur accidentally when exposed to extreme physical, chemical, or mechanical conditions, or it can also be regulated, which involves a genetically coded complex machinery to carry out the process. Apoptosis is an example of the latter. Apoptotic cell death can be triggered through different intracellular signalling pathways that lead to morphological changes and eventually cell death. This is a normal and biological process carried out during maturation, remodelling, growth, and development in tissues...
July 4, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Charles Antwi-Boasiako, Emmanuel Frimpong, Ben Gyan, Eric Kyei-Baafour, Fredericka Sey, Bartholomew Dzudzor, Mubarak Abdul-Rahman, Gifty B Dankwah, Kate H Otu, Tom A Ndanu, Andrew D Campbell, Ivy Ekem, Eric S Donkor
: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that can result in vasculopathy and end organ damage. Angiogenesis has been implicated as a key contributing factor to vascular mediated tissue injury in SCD. The relative plasma levels of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) greatly influence angiogenesis. Dysregulation of these growth factors, leading to a pro-angiogenic state in SCD patients, has been documented in the developed world but there is very little data in Africa...
June 27, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Jan Homolak, Monika Mudrovčić, Barbara Vukić, Karlo Toljan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a growing epidemiological importance characterized by significant disease burden. Sleep-related pathological symptomatology often accompanies AD. The etiology and pathogenesis of disrupted circadian rhythm and AD share common factors, which also opens the perspective of viewing them as a mutually dependent process. This article focuses on the bi-directional relationship between these processes, discussing the pathophysiological links and clinical aspects...
June 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Estrella Fernández Fabrellas, Ricardo Peris Sánchez, Cristina Sabater Abad, Gustavo Juan Samper
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) with no known cause, is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. With a median survival of 3⁻5 years following diagnosis, IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life in most patients. Prognostic factors recognized classically that influence mortality include functional, clinical and radiological parameters. However, in recent years, there has also been progress in the knowledge of genetic factors and biomarkers that may be useful in the prognostic evaluation of these patients...
June 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Maria Montes de Oca, Maria Eugenia Laucho-Contreras
Acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are associated with increased mortality, rate of hospitalization, use of healthcare resources, and have a negative impact on disease progression, quality of life and lung function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is an imperative need to homogenize the definition of AECOPD because the incidence of exacerbations has a significant influence or implication on treatment decision making, particularly in pharmacotherapy and could impact the outcome or change the statistical significance of a therapeutic intervention in clinical trials...
June 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Pedro J Marcos, José Luis López-Campos
The employment of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve airway limitation, decrease treatment failure and risk of relapse, and may improve symptoms in addition to decreasing the length of hospital stay. Nowadays, all clinical guidelines recommend systemic corticosteroids to treat moderate or severe COPD exacerbations. However, their use is associated with potential side effects, mainly hyperglycemia. In the era of precision medicine, the possibility of employing blood eosinophil count has emerged as a potential way of optimizing therapy...
June 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Laura Abaandou, Joseph Shiloach
Creating efficient cell lines is a priority for the biopharmaceutical industry, which produces biologicals for various uses. A recent approach to achieving this goal is the use of non-coding RNAs, microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), to identify key genes that can potentially improve production or growth. The ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 ( OAZ1 ) gene, a negative regulator of polyamine biosynthesis, was identified in a genome-wide siRNA screen as a potential engineering target, because its knock down by siRNA increased recombinant protein expression from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells by two-fold...
June 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Praveen Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Gail A M Cresci
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease, with prevalence increasing in parallel with the rising incidence in obesity. Believed to be a "multiple-hit" disease, several factors contribute to NAFLD initiation and progression. Of these, the gut microbiome is gaining interest as a significant factor in NAFLD prevalence. In this paper, we provide an in-depth review of the progression of NAFLD, discussing the mechanistic modes of hepatocyte injury and the potential role for manipulation of the gut microbiome as a therapeutic strategy in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD...
June 5, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Suman K R Baddam, Craig A Canapari, Stefon J R van Noordt, Michael J Crowley
Sleep disturbances are often observed in child and adolescent mental health disorders. Although previous research has identified consistent subjective reports of sleep disturbances, specific objective sleep markers have not yet been identified. We evaluated the current research on subjective and objective sleep markers in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety and depressive disorders. Subjective sleep markers are more consistent than objective markers of actigraphy, polysomnography, and circadian measures...
June 4, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Vladimir Volloch, Sophia Rits
The present review analyzes the results of recent clinical trials of β secretase inhibition in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD), considers the striking dichotomy between successes in tests of β-site Amyloid Precursor Protein-Cleaving Enzyme (BACE) inhibitors in healthy subjects and familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) models versus persistent failures of clinical trials and interprets it as a confirmation of key predictions for a mechanism of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-independent, β secretase inhibition-resistant production of β amyloid in SAD, previously proposed by us...
June 2, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
John R Hurst
20% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients admitted to hospital because of an 'exacerbation' will have consolidation visible on a chest X-ray. The presence of consolidation is associated with higher mortality. Imperfect definitions of COPD exacerbation and pneumonia, and incomplete and imperfect diagnostic tests, have resulted in a debate about whether these episodes are best thought of as 'exacerbation with consolidation' or 'pneumonia in a person with COPD'. With the current views that exacerbations are not all identical, and that they can be 'phenotyped' to identify episodes with different prognosis and treatment response, perhaps these episodes are best-considered a phenotype of exacerbation...
June 1, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Vrushali Abhyankar, Paul Bland, Gabriela Fernandes
The immune system is an integral aspect of the human defense system and is primarily responsible for and involved in the communication between the immune cells. It also plays an important role in the protection of the organism from foreign invaders. Recent studies in the literature have described its role in the process of hematopoiesis, lymphocyte recruitment, T cell subset differentiation and inflammation. However, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain elusive, impeding the elaborate manipulation of cytokine sequential delivery in tissue repair...
May 30, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Gianmarco Di Mauro, Ambra Dondi, Giovanni Giangreco, Alexander Hogrebe, Elja Louer, Elisa Magistrati, Meeli Mullari, Gemma Turon, Wouter Verdurmen, Helena Xicoy Cortada, Sanja Zivanovic
The EUROPEAN ACADEMY FOR BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE (ENABLE) is an initiative funded by the European Union Horizon 2020 program involving four renowned European Research Institutes (Institute for Research in Biomedicine-IRB Barcelona, Spain; Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences-RIMLS, the Netherlands; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research-NNF CPR, Denmark; European School of Molecular Medicine-SEMM, Italy) and an innovative science communication agency (Scienseed). With the aim of promoting biomedical science of excellence in Europe, ENABLE organizes an annual three-day international event...
May 28, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Andrea T Flynn, Michael D Hogarty
Deregulated protein synthesis is a common feature of cancer cells, with many oncogenic signaling pathways directly augmenting protein translation to support the biomass needs of proliferating tissues. MYC's ability to drive oncogenesis is a consequence of its essential role as a governor linking cell cycle entry with the requisite increase in protein synthetic capacity, among other biomass needs. To date, direct pharmacologic inhibition of MYC has proven difficult, but targeting oncogenic signaling modules downstream of MYC, such as the protein synthetic machinery, may provide a viable therapeutic strategy...
May 25, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Tamas Tiszai-Szucs, Claire Mac Sweeney, Joseph Keaveny, Fernando A Bozza, Zieta O Hagan, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Antimicrobial resistance is escalating and triggers clinical decision-making challenges when treating infections in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) may help combat this problem, but it can be difficult to implement in critical care settings. The implementation of multidisciplinary AMS in ICUs could be more challenging than what is currently suggested in the literature. Our main goal was to analyze the reduction in duration of treatment (DOT) for the most commonly used antibacterial and antifungal agents during the first six months of 2014, and during the same period two years later (2016)...
May 25, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Olumide Ajibola, Bashar Haruna Gulumbe, Anthonius Anayochukwu Eze, Emmanuel Obishakin
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting over 200 million people, with the highest burden of morbidity and mortality in African countries. Despite its huge impact on the health and socio-economic burden of the society, it remains a neglected tropical disease, with limited attention from governments and stakeholders in healthcare. One of the critical areas that is hugely under-developed is the development of accurate diagnostics for both intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis is important for the detection and treatment of disease in endemic and non-endemic settings...
May 23, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Adel M A Assiri, Hala F M Kamel, Abeer A ALrefai
The interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptors promote vascular complications of diabetes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The soluble form of the receptor for the advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) has been studied as a vascular biomarker in various diseases with controversial results. Our aim was to evaluate the association of the serum levels of the AGEs and their receptor sRAGE with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the cardiovascular risk factors among HD patients. There were 130 HD patients and 80 age and gender matched control subjects were involved; 31...
May 22, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Olulope Ajayi, Mabel Charles-Davies, John Anetor, Adeyinka Ademola
Breast cancer is broadly sub-divided into hormone responsive and non-hormone responsive subtypes. Estradiol has been associated with hormone responsive breast cancers. There is, however, a paucity of information on the role of sex hormones, gonadotropins, and thyroid hormone in non-hormone responsive breast cancer. This study aimed to determine differences in the serum levels of sex hormones, gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, and endocrine disruptors (lead, cadmium, and arsenic) in Nigerian women with hormone responsive and non-hormone responsive breast cancers...
May 18, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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