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Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal

E Mark Williams, Ricardo Colasanti, Kasope Wolffs, Paul Thomas, Ben Hope-Gill
In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) breathing pattern changes with disease progress. This study aims to determine if unsupervised hierarchal cluster analysis (HCA) can be used to define airflow profile differences in people with and without IPF. This was tested using 31 patients with IPF and 17 matched healthy controls, all of whom had their lung function assessed using spirometry and carbon monoxide CO transfer. A resting tidal breathing (RTB) trace of two minutes duration was collected at the same time...
September 12, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
James Camp, Jennifer L Cane, Mona Bafadhel
In an era of precision medicine, it seems regressive that we do not use stratified approaches to direct treatment of oral corticosteroids during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is despite evidence suggesting that 40% of COPD patients have eosinophilic inflammation and this is an indicator of corticosteroid response. Treatments with oral corticosteroids are not always effective and not without harm, with significant and increased risk of hyperglycemia, sepsis, and fractures...
September 11, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Myriam Aburto, Inmaculada Herráez, David Iturbe, Ana Jiménez-Romero
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and fibrotic interstitial lung disease of unknown origin with a characteristic imaging and histologic pattern called usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The diagnosis of IPF is a complex procedure that requires the support of various specialists, who must integrate clinical, radiological, and histological data. The multidisciplinary team (MDT) has become the new gold standard to diagnose and manage the disease, increasing the accuracy and agreement of the diagnosis between different centers...
September 4, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Innessa Donskoy, Darius Loghmanee
Adolescent insomnia is a common condition that negatively impacts a developing young adult's mental and physical health. While the treatment of adult insomnia has been standardized, the treatment of pediatric insomnia is very practitioner-dependent and few large-scale studies are available to determine a standard recommended practice. There is great hope that as the adolescent medicine and sleep medicine fields flourish, larger cohort analyses will be performed to determine the prevalence and precipitating factors of adolescent insomnia, allowing for standardized treatment recommendations and systematic efforts to make these recommendations available to all adolescents...
September 1, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Esteban Cano-Jiménez, Fernanda Hernández González, Guadalupe Bermudo Peloche
Though idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by single-organ involvement, many comorbid conditions occur within other organ systems. Patients with IPF may present during evolution different complications and comorbidities that influence the prognosis and modify the natural course of their disease. In this chapter, we highlight common comorbid conditions encountered in IPF, discuss disease-specific diagnostic modalities, and review the current treatment data for several key comorbidities. The diagnosis and treatment of these comorbidities is a challenge for the pulmonologist specialized in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs)...
August 30, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Ajna Bihorac
A search for the "magic bullet", a molecule, the targeting abilities of which could stop the migration of tumor cells, is currently underway, but remains in the early stages. There are still many unknowns regarding the cell migration. The main approach is the employment of mouse models, that are sources of valuable information, but still cannot answer all of the questions. One of the molecules of interest is Transglutaminase 2 (TG2). It is a well-described molecule involved in numerous pathways and elevated in metastatic tumors...
August 30, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Trevor O Kirby, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
Recently, there has been a substantial increase in the number of studies focused upon connecting the gut microbiome with cases of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder of the CNS. Recent experimental and clinical evidence suggests the presence of microbial imbalances in the gut of MS sufferers. The gut microbiome is defined as the summation of all the microbial entities as well as their genes, proteins, and metabolic products in a given space and time...
August 24, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Rosalía Laporta Hernandez, Myriam Aguilar Perez, María Teresa Lázaro Carrasco, Piedad Ussetti Gil
Despite the advances in recent years in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), it continues to be a progressive disease with poor prognosis. In selected patients, lung transplantation may be a treatment option, with optimal results in survival and quality of life. Currently, pulmonary fibrosis is the main cause of lung transplantation. However, mortality on the waiting list of these patients is high, since many patients are referred to the transplant units with advanced disease. There is not a parameter that can predict the survival of a specific patient...
August 23, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Muhammad Sardar, Muhammad Azharuddin, Ananta Subedi, Prateek Ghatage, Doantarang Du, Arpad Szallasi
There is good evidence that 50% or more of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are unnecessary. To curtail inappropriate RBC transfusions at our hospital, real-time clinical decision support was implemented in our electronic medical record (EMR) that alerts clinicians to the patient's most recent pretransfusion hemoglobin value upon order entry and provides Best Practice Advisory. This is a soft pop-up alert which is activated when the hemoglobin exceeds 7 g/dL. The ordering clinician can either honor (by cancelling the order) or override the alert...
August 22, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Jack Dowie, Mette Kjer Kaltoft
Cultural changes are needed in medicine if the benefits of technological advances are to benefit healthcare users. The Digital Health Manifesto of 'medical futurist' doctor Bertalan Meskó and 'e-patient' Dave deBronkart, The Patient Will See You Now by Eric Topol and The Patient as CEO by Robin Farmanfarmaian, are among the proliferating warnings of the approaching paradigm shift in medicine, resulting, above all, from technological advances that gives users independent access to exponentially increasing amounts of information about themselves...
August 22, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Rebecca R Weicht, Chad R Schultz, Dirk Geerts, Katie L Uhl, André S Bachmann
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone tumor in children. Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous cations involved in many cell processes including tumor development, invasion and metastasis. In other pediatric cancer models, inhibition of the PA biosynthesis pathway with ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) results in decreased cell proliferation and differentiation. In OS, the PA pathway has not been evaluated. DFMO is an attractive, orally administered drug, is well tolerated, can be given for prolonged periods, and is already used in pediatric patients...
August 16, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Anna Serrano-Mollar
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal disease with no effective or curative treatment options. In recent decades, cell-based therapies using stem cells or lung progenitor cells to regenerate lung tissue have experienced rapid growth in both preclinical animal models and translational clinical studies. In this review, the current knowledge of these cell therapies is summarized. Although further investigations are required, these studies indicate that cell therapies are a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
August 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Elisenda Gómez-Angelats, Carolina Sánchez
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the second leading cause of emergency department (ED) admissions to hospital, and nearly a third of patients with acute exacerbation (AE) of COPD are re-admitted to hospital within 28 days after discharge. It has been suggested that nearly a third of COPD admissions could be avoided through the implementation of evidence-based care interventions. A COPD discharge bundle is a set of evidence-based practices, aimed at improving patient outcomes after discharge from AE COPD; body of evidence supports the usefulness of discharge care bundles after AE of COPD, although there is a lack of consensus of what interventions should be implemented...
August 7, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Syed Manzoor Kadri, Saleem-Ur Rehman, Kausar Rehana, Ailbhe Helen Brady, Vijay Kumar Chattu
Mumps is a public health problem on a global scale caused by mumps virus, a member of family paramyxoviridae. An effective form of vaccination exists and is incorporated into routine immunization schedules in over 100 countries, usually in the form of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine. This is not the case in India, as mumps is not viewed as a significant enough public health problem by the government to warrant such an intervention. This original research paper discusses about outbreaks of mumps in Kashmir, India and aims to add to the body of literature to support the routine immunization with the mumps vaccine...
August 7, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Andrea Avecilla, Mayur Doke, Jeremy Jovellanos, Vincent Avecilla
The devastating growth in the worldwide frequency of neurocognitive disorders and its allied difficulties, such as decline in memory, spatial competency, and ability to focus, poses a significant psychological public health problem. Inhibitor of differentiation (ID) proteins are members of a family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors. ID proteins have been demonstrated to be involved in neurodevelopmental and depressive diseases and, thus, may influence neurocognitive deficiencies due to environmental exposure...
August 3, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Ahmed Olowo-Okere, Yakubu Kokori Enevene Ibrahim, Ali Samuel Sani, Busayo Olalekan Olayinka
Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most frequent complications of surgical interventions. Several factors have been identified as major determinants of occurrence of SSIs. The present study determined the occurrence and possible risk factors associated with SSIs at a tertiary healthcare facility in Abuja, Nigeria. All patients scheduled for operation in the hospital during the study period and who consented to participate willingly in the study were observed prospectively for the occurrence of SSI based on criteria stipulated by the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
July 30, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Paloma Millan-Billi, Candela Serra, Ana Alonso Leon, Diego Castillo
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and fatal disease. The treatment is challenging and nowadays a comprehensive approach based not only in pharmacological strategies is necessary. Identification and control of comorbidities, non-pharmacological treatment, prevention and management of exacerbations as well as other areas of care (social, psychological) are fundamental for a holistic management of IPF. Gastroesophageal reflux, pulmonary hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, combined with emphysema, lung cancer and cardiovascular involvement are the main comorbidities associated with IPF...
July 24, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Cecilia López-Ramírez, Lionel Suarez Valdivia, Jose Antonio Rodríguez Portal
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and most lethal type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. It is a chronic, aging-associated lung disease characterized by fibrotic foci and inflammatory infiltrates, with no cure and very limited therapeutic options. Although its etiology is unknown, several pathogenic pathways have been described that could explain this process, involving aging, environmental factors, genomic instability, loss of proteostasis, telomere attrition, epigenetic changes, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell senescence, and altered intercellular communication...
July 24, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Urjindelger Tserensambuu, Ariunbold Chuluun-Erdene, Munkhtsetseg Janlav, Erkhembaatar Tudevdorj
Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. In Mongolia, preeclampsia and eclampsia have occurred among pregnancy complications at a rate of 25% in recent years. Recent studies in the literature have screened for preeclampsia by combining maternal factors with biomarkers. This study was conducted using prospective cohort research including 393 singleton pregnancies at 11⁻13+6 weeks. Maternal plasmas pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured using Perkin Elmer time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA) kits, and the measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) was performed by automated devices and the uterine artery pulsatility index was measured by Doppler ultrasound...
July 20, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Majda Dzidic, Alba Boix-Amorós, Marta Selma-Royo, Alex Mira, Maria Carmen Collado
Gut microbiota colonization is a complex, dynamic, and step-wise process that is in constant development during the first years of life. This microbial settlement occurs in parallel with the maturation of the immune system, and alterations during this period, due to environmental and host factors, are considered to be potential determinants of health-outcomes later in life. Given that host⁻microbe interactions are mediated by the immune system response, it is important to understand the close relationship between immunity and the microbiota during birth, lactation, and early infancy...
July 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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