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Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751685/inhibition-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-and-insulin-degradation-by-uv-killed-lactobacillus-acidophilus
#1
Nadia Neyazi, Elahe Motevaseli, Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh, Taiebeh Mohammadi Farsani, Zahra Nouri, Ensieh Nasli Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani
Probiotics have beneficial effects on management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The major hallmarks of T2D are insulin deficiency and insulin resistance which emphasize insulin therapy in onset of disease. Lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus acidophilus ( L. acidophilus ) have well known properties on prevention of T2D and insulin resistance but not on insulin degradation. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) degrades insulin in the human body. We studied the effects of cell-free supernatant (CFS) and ultraviolet (UV)-killed L...
May 11, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710871/characteristics-and-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-era-of-global-aging
#2
REVIEW
Catia Cillóniz, Diana Rodríguez-Hurtado, Antoni Torres
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can occur at any time of life, but its incidence and risk of death are linked to increasing age. CAP in the elderly is a major health problem associated with high rates of readmission, morbidity, and mortality. Since the clinical presentation of pneumonia in the elderly may be atypical, clinicians should suspect pneumonia in older patients presenting symptoms such as falls and altered mental status, fatigue, lethargy, delirium, anorexia, in order to avoid the complications associated with delayed diagnosis and therapy...
April 30, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695079/the-role-of-adipokines-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#3
REVIEW
Anirudh Sharma
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is an important cause of low back pain. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to abnormal and excessive mechanical loading, inflammation may be a key driver for both IDD and low back pain. Obesity, a known mechanical risk factor of IDD, is now increasingly being recognized as a systemic inflammatory state with adipokines being postulated as likely inflammatory mediators. The aim of this review was to summarize the current literature regarding the inflammatory role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of IDD...
April 24, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669993/myeloperoxidase-as-an-active-disease-biomarker-recent-biochemical-and-pathological-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Amjad A Khan, Mohammed A Alsahli, Arshad H Rahmani
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) belongs to the family of heme-containing peroxidases, produced mostly from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The active enzyme (150 kDa) is the product of the MPO gene located on long arm of chromosome 17. The primary gene product undergoes several modifications, such as the removal of introns and signal peptides, and leads to the formation of enzymatically inactive glycosylated apoproMPO which complexes with chaperons, producing inactive proMPO by the insertion of a heme moiety. The active enzyme is a homodimer of heavy and light chain protomers...
April 18, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652830/colorectal-cancer-genetic-abnormalities-tumor-progression-tumor-heterogeneity-clonal-evolution-and-tumor-initiating-cells
#6
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Elvira Pelosi, Germana Castelli
Colon cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Most colorectal cancer occurrences are sporadic, not related to genetic predisposition or family history; however, 20-30% of patients with colorectal cancer have a family history of colorectal cancer and 5% of these tumors arise in the setting of a Mendelian inheritance syndrome. In many patients, the development of a colorectal cancer is preceded by a benign neoplastic lesion: either an adenomatous polyp or a serrated polyp. Studies carried out in the last years have characterized the main molecular alterations occurring in colorectal cancers, showing that the tumor of each patient displays from two to eight driver mutations...
April 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642499/cimetidine-a-safe-treatment-option-for-cutaneous-warts-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients
#7
Bibhuti B Das, Kristin Anton, Nelia Soares, Susan Riojas, Jodi Mcdermott, Leah Knox, Susan Daneman, Bao N Puente
Abstract : Background and Objectives : Immunosuppressed individuals are at particularly increased risk for human papilloma virus-related infections. The primary objective of our study is to determine if there are any adverse effects associated with high-dose cimetidine treatment. A secondary objective is to report our experience with cimetidine in the treatment of cutaneous warts in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Methods and Results : This was a retrospective observational study. A total of 8 pediatric heart transplant recipients diagnosed with multiple recalcitrant warts were the subject of the study...
April 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617356/clostridium-bacteria-and-autism-spectrum-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-hypothetical-contribution-of-environmental-glyphosate-levels
#8
REVIEW
Isadora Argou-Cardozo, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá
Nowadays, there seems to be a consensus about the multifactorial nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature provides hypotheses dealing with numerous environmental factors and genes accounting for the apparently higher prevalence of this condition. Researchers have shown evidence regarding the impact of gut bacteria on neurological outcomes, altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of psychiatric disorders. Pesticides and agrotoxics are also included among this long list of ASD-related environmental stressors...
April 4, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587411/relationship-between-response-to-pde5-inhibitors-and-penile-duplex-doppler-ultrasound-in-erectile-dysfunction
#9
Ercan Ogreden, Ural Oğuz, Erhan Demirelli, Alptekin Tosun, Orhan Yalçın
The relationship between the results of penile duplex Doppler ultrasound (PDDU) and response to vardenafil was investigated in patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction (ED). Data from 148 patients with ED were analyzed retrospectively. Patients who did not respond to therapy were classified in to Group I ( n = 32), those who responded partially were classified into Group II ( n = 40), and complete responders were classified into Group III ( n = 76). Age, comorbidities, and vascular and penile pathologies were compared among the three groups...
March 26, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570602/live-bacterial-vectors-a-promising-dna-vaccine-delivery-system
#10
REVIEW
Valentina Yurina
Vaccination is one of the most successful immunology applications that has considerably improved human health. The DNA vaccine is a new vaccine being developed since the early 1990s. Although the DNA vaccine is promising, no human DNA vaccine has been approved to date. The main problem facing DNA vaccine efficacy is the lack of a DNA vaccine delivery system. Several studies explored this limitation. One of the best DNA vaccine delivery systems uses a live bacterial vector as the carrier. The live bacterial vector induces a robust immune response due to its natural characteristics that are recognized by the immune system...
March 23, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561814/socio-economic-predictors-and-distribution-of-tuberculosis-incidence-in-beijing-china-a-study-using-a-combination-of-spatial-statistics-and-gis-technology
#11
Gehendra Mahara, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo
Evidence shows that multiple factors, such as socio-economic status and access to health care facilities, affect tuberculosis (TB) incidence. However, there is limited literature available with respect to the correlation between socio-economic/health facility factors and tuberculosis incidence. This study aimed to explore the relationship between TB incidence and socio-economic/health service predictors in the study settings. A retrospective spatial regression analysis was carried out based on new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases in Beijing districts...
March 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534025/the-association-between-body-mass-index-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-treatment-seeking-arab-adults-with-obesity
#12
Leila Itani, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Dima Kreidieh, Germine El Kassas, Dana El Masri, Hana Tannir, Aya Harfoush, Marwan El Ghoch
Few studies have thus far been carried out on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and obesity in Arab-speaking countries, an issue that we therefore set out to investigate in this study. HRQoL was assessed by the validated Arabic version of the ORWELL 97 questionnaire in 129 treatment-seeking individuals with obesity referred to the Nutritional and Weight Management Outpatient Clinic at the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics of Beirut Arab University (BAU) in Lebanon, and 129 normal-weight participants of similar age and gender...
March 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533973/cellular-and-animal-model-studies-on-the-growth-inhibitory-effects-of-polyamine-analogues-on-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
T J Thomas, Thresia Thomas
Polyamine levels are elevated in breast tumors compared to those of adjacent normal tissues. The female sex hormone, estrogen is implicated in the origin and progression of breast cancer. Estrogens stimulate and antiestrogens suppress the expression of polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylate (ODC). Using several bis(ethyl)spermine analogues, we found that these analogues inhibited the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells in culture. There was structure-activity relationship in the efficacy of these compounds in suppressing cell growth...
March 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518019/network-based-identification-of-altered-stem-cell-pluripotency-and-calcium-signaling-pathways-in-metastatic-melanoma
#14
Ben-Hur Neves de Oliveira, Carla Dalmaz, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá
Malignancy of cancer has been linked to distinct subsets of stem-like cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which persist during treatment and seem to lead to drug-resistant recurrence. Metastatic spread of cancer cells is one of the hallmarks of malignancy and contributes to most human melanoma-related deaths. Recently, overlapping groups of proteins and pathways were shown to regulate stem cell migration and cancer metastasis, raising the question of whether genes/proteins involved in stem cell pluripotency may have important implications when applied to the biology of cancer metastasis...
March 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517999/role-of-polyamines-in-immune-cell-functions
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca S Hesterberg, John L Cleveland, Pearlie K Epling-Burnette
The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine...
March 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509716/risk-factors-including-age-stage-and-anatomic-location-that-impact-the-outcomes-of-patients-with-synovial-sarcoma
#16
Minggui Pan, Maqdooda Merchant
Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma that inflicts mostly children and young adults with high mortality rate; however, the risk factors that impact the outcomes remain incompletely understood. We have identified the synovial sarcoma cases from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California cancer registry between 1981 and 2014. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to display disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS); log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of clinical factors on DFS, OS, and disease-specific survival...
March 6, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509711/electrodermal-activity-during-blood-pooling-for-arterial-blood-gases-analysis-in-sedated-adult-intensive-care-unit-patients
#17
Theodoros Aslanidis, Vasilios Grosomanidis, Konstantinos Karakoulas, Athanasios Chatzisotiriou
Electrodermal activity (EDA) is considered a measure of autonomous nervous system activity. This study performed an exploratory analysis of the EDA changes during blood pooling for arterial blood gas analysis in sedated adult critical care patients and correlated the variations to other monitored parameters. EDA, along with other parameters, were monitored during 4 h routine daytime intensive care nursing and treatment in an adult ICU. 4 h measurements were divided into two groups based upon the sedation level...
March 6, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495461/artemisinin-and-its-synthetic-derivatives-as-a-possible-therapy-for-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Enrique Konstat-Korzenny, Jorge Alberto Ascencio-Aragón, Sebastian Niezen-Lugo, Rosalino Vázquez-López
To assess the possibility of using the antimalarial drug artemisinin and its synthetic derivatives as antineoplastic drugs. A Pubmed and Google Scholar (1983-2018) search was performed using the terms artemisinin, cancer, artesunate and Artemisia annua. Case reports and original research articles, review articles, and clinical trials in both humans and animals were evaluated. Both in vitro and in vivo clinical trials and case reports have shown promising activity of the artemisinin drug derivatives in treating certain types of cancer...
February 27, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473880/assessment-and-treatment-of-pediatric-sleep-problems-knowledge-skills-attitudes-and-practices-in-a-group-of-community-child-psychiatrists
#19
Ali Anwar, Michael D Yingling, Alicia Zhang, Ujjwal Ramtekkar, Ginger E Nicol
As part of a university-based quality improvement project, we aimed to evaluate child psychiatrists' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessment and treatment of pediatric sleep problems. We developed a nine-question survey of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessing for and treating sleep complaints in pediatric patients, and administered this survey to child psychiatrists in training and in practice in the state of Missouri. Respondents reported sleep hygiene as the first-line treatment strategy, followed by the use of supplements or over-the-counter remedies...
February 23, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462878/diagnostic-utility-of-high-sensitivity-troponins-for-echocardiographic-markers-of-structural-heart-disease
#20
Tom Kai Ming Wang, Clementina Dugo, Yvonne Gillian, Wynne Yvonne, Semple Heather, Smith Kevin, Cleave Peter, Christiansen Jonathan, To Andrew, Amir Nezar, Tony Scott, Boswell Ross, Gladding Patrick
The conventional use of high-sensitivity troponins (hs-troponins) is for diagnosing myocardial infarction however they also have a role in chronic disease management. This pilot study assessed the relationship of hs-troponins with echocardiographic markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and structural heart disease (SHD). Patients undergoing computer gomography (CT) coronary angiogram for low-intermediate risk chest pain and healthy volunteers were recruited. Hs-troponins Singulex I, Abbott I and Roche T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were evaluated in relation to SHD parameters including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVHEcho ) and left atrial enlargement (LAEEcho ) on echocardiography...
February 15, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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