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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124684/racial-ethnic-disparities-a-longitudinal-study-of-growth-trajectories-among-us-kindergarten-children
#1
Inyang A Isong, Tracy Richmond, Mauricio Avendaño, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: While previous studies have documented racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity, less is known about when disparities emerge, how they evolve, and the most appropriate early childhood period for targeted interventions. We examined racial/ethnic differences in growth trajectories among US kindergarten-aged children followed from birth and identified sensitive periods at which disparities emerge. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a longitudinal study design using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort data...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124683/the-21st-century-cures-act-implications-for-the-reduction-of-racial-health-disparities-in-the-us-criminal-justice-system-a-public-health-approach
#2
Donna M Cole, Dawna Marie Thomas, Kelsi Field, Amelia Wool, Taryn Lipiner, Natalie Massenberg, Barbara J Guthrie
Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101688/racial-disparities-and-factors-affecting-michigan-colorectal-cancer-screening
#3
Vincent Grzywacz, Nasir Hussain, Neli Ragina
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the various factors that influence colorectal cancer screening in Michigan using 6091 participants in the Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System representing adults ≥ 50 years old. METHODS: Screening for colorectal cancer was assessed as fecal occult blood testing or colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy. Full models simultaneously adjusted for alcohol use, angina/coronary heart disease, stroke, heart attack, gender, income, marital status, race, age, diabetes, disability, exercise, health care coverage, health care access, smoking, and mental health...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101687/community-perspectives-on-emergency-department-use-and-care-for-american-indian-children
#4
Wyatt J Pickner, Katherine M Ziegler, Jessica D Hanson, Nathaniel R Payne, Heather G Zook, Anupam B Kharbanda, Tess L Weber, Jaymi N Russo, Susan E Puumala
Emergency department (ED) utilization by American Indian (AI) children is among the highest in the nation. Numerous health disparities have been well documented in AI children, but limited information is available on parental experiences of care for AI children in the ED. Our objective was to understand parental attitudes towards ED care for AI children. Focus groups were held with AI parents/caregivers at five sites in the Upper Midwest. Traditional content analysis was used to identify themes. A total of 70 parents participated in ten focus groups...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098599/factors-contributing-to-disparities-in-baseline-neurocognitive-performance-and-concussion-symptom-scores-between-black-and-white-collegiate-athletes
#5
Jessica Wallace, Tracey Covassin, Ryan Moran, Jamie McAllister Deitrick
BACKGROUND: National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) concussion guidelines state that all NCAA athletes must have a concussion baseline test prior to commencing their competitive season. To date, little research has examined potential racial differences on baseline neurocognitive performance among NCAA athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between Black and White collegiate athletes on baseline neurocognitive performance and self-reported symptoms. METHODS: A total of 597 collegiate athletes (400 White, 197 Black) participated in this study...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098598/anxiety-stress-and-trauma-symptoms-in-african-americans-negative-affectivity-does-not-explain-the-relationship-between-microaggressions-and-psychopathology
#6
Monnica T Williams, Jonathan W Kanter, Terence H W Ching
Prior research has demonstrated a clear relationship between experiences of racial microaggressions and various indicators of psychological unwellness. One concern with these findings is that the role of negative affectivity, considered a marker of neuroticism, has not been considered. Negative affectivity has previously been correlated to experiences of racial discrimination and psychological unwellness and has been suggested as a cause of the observed relationship between microaggressions and psychopathology...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076062/correction-to-effectiveness-of-nutrition-intervention-in-a-selected-group-of-overweight-and-obese-african-american-preschoolers
#7
Yulyu Yeh, Kathryn Brogan Hartlieb, Cynthia Danford, K-L Catherine Jen
Part of our original analyses was performed with overweight and obese preschoolers only. This procedure may have created a subgroup of individuals with extreme values at baseline and this may likely be inappropriate.
October 26, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071590/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-morbidity-and-mortality-for-preterm-neonates-admitted-to-a-tertiary-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#8
Courtney Townsel, Rebecca Keller, Chia-Ling Kuo, Winston A Campbell, Naveed Hussain
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess whether in-hospital morbidity or mortality differed by race/ethnicity for preterm neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study, preterm infants, < 37 weeks, were admitted to the NICU from 1994 to 2009. Exclusions included structural anomalies and aneuploidy. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality (IHM). Secondary outcomes were respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), interventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067651/interventions-to-improve-management-of-chronic-conditions-among-racial-and-ethnic-minorities
#9
Riddhi Doshi, Robert H Aseltine, Alyse B Sabina, Garth N Graham
Digital and mhealth interventions can be effective in improving health outcomes among minority patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, and chronic respiratory diseases. A number of electronic and digital approaches to individual and population-level interventions involving telephones, internet and web-based resources, and mobile platforms have been deployed to improve chronic disease outcomes. This paper summarizes the evidence supporting the efficacy of various behavioral and digital interventions targeting intermediate outcomes and hospitalizations with particular emphasis on studies examining the effects of these interventions on racial and ethnic minority population...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052176/factors-associated-with-american-indian-mental-health-service-use-in-comparison-with-white-older-adults
#10
Heehyul Moon, Yeon-Shim Lee, Soonhee Roh, Catherine E Burnette
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify the factors that impact mental health service use among American Indian (AI) older adults living in South Dakota compared to their White counterparts. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design with 735 participants (n = 502 Whites, n = 233 AIs), we used ordinal regressions to analyze the extent to which predisposing, need, and enabling/hindering factors predicted the level of mental health service utilization...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052175/african-americans-with-cirrhosis-are-less-likely-to-receive-endoscopic-variceal-screening-within-one-year-of-cirrhosis-diagnosis
#11
Ann Robinson, Hesam Tavakoli, Benny Liu, Taft Bhuket, Ramsey Cheung, Robert J Wong
BACKGROUND: Esophageal variceal hemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that carries high mortality, and can be reduced with timely endoscopic variceal screening and treatment. AIM: We aim to evaluate overall rates of and disparities in receipt of endoscopic variceal screening among an ethnically diverse urban safety-net hospital. METHODS: All consecutive adults with cirrhosis (7/1/2014 to 12/31/2015) were retrospectively evaluated to determine the rates of receiving esophageal variceal screening within 6 months and within 1 year after cirrhosis diagnosis...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940177/racial-disparities-in-cleanliness-attitudes-mediate-purchasing-attitudes-toward-cleaning-products-a-serial-mediation-model
#12
Leib Litman, Monnica T Williams, Zohn Rosen, Sarah L Weinberger-Litman, Jonathan Robinson
The present study has three objectives (1) to examine whether there are differences in cleanliness concerns between African Americans and European Americans toward kitchen items that are known to be vectors of disease, (2) to examine whether disparities in cleanliness attitudes have an impact on purchasing attitudes toward kitchen cleaning products, and (3) to explore the mechanisms that may account for these differences utilizing a serial mediation model. Five hundred participants, 50% African American and 50% European American were shown a picture of a sponge cleaning product and filled out multiple survey instruments relating to cleanliness attitudes...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916954/discrimination-and-mental-health-in-a-representative-sample-of-african-american-and-afro-caribbean-youth
#13
Lee M Pachter, Cleopatra H Caldwell, James S Jackson, Bruce A Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Racism and discrimination are psychosocial stressors that affect the health of minority populations. While discrimination has been associated with poor mental health, little is known about the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes in youth nationally. Furthermore, mental and behavioral health consequences of discrimination may differ in different minority groups. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to determine (1) how common perceptions of discrimination are in a nationally representative sample of African-American (AA) and Afro-Caribbean (AC) teens, (2) the relationship between discrimination and mental health conditions, and (3) whether discrimination has different associations with mental health in AA and AC youth...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916949/the-latina-birth-weight-paradox-the-role-of-subjective-social-status
#14
Jill Fleuriet, Thankam Sunil
The purpose of this project was to quantitatively test differences in subjective social status scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women to determine the role of subjective social status in birth weight variation between Mexico-born and US-born Mexican-American women. Six hundred low-income pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in south Texas were surveyed for subjective social status, depression, perceived social stress, parity, and pregnancy intendedness. Psychosocial health variables, parity, and pregnancy intendedness were included due to their significant associations with low birth weight...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913713/ethnic-groups-differ-in-how-poor-self-rated-mental-health-reflects-psychiatric-disorders
#15
Shervin Assari
AIM: This study aimed to explore cross-ethnic variation in the pattern of the associations between psychiatric disorders and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in the USA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003, a national household probability sample. The study enrolled 18,237 individuals who were either Non-Hispanic White (n = 7587), African American (n = 4746), Mexican (n = 1442), Cuban (n = 577), Puerto Rican (n = 495), Other Hispanic (n = 1106), Vietnamese (n = 520), Filipino (n = 508), Chinese (n = 600) or Other Asian (n = 656)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849408/concurrent-social-disadvantages-and-chronic-inflammation-the-intersection-of-race-and-ethnicity-gender-and-socioeconomic-status
#16
Aliza D Richman
Disadvantaged social statuses, such as being female, poor, or a minority, are associated with increased psychosocial stress and elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of chronic inflammation and indicator of cardiovascular health. Individuals' experience of embodying psychosocial stress revolves around the multiplicative effects of concurrent gender, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic identities. This study expands on prior research by examining chronic inflammation at the intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age group to understand which demographic subgroups in society are most vulnerable to the cumulative effects of social disadvantage...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849382/healthcare-disparities-in-outcomes-of-a-metropolitan-congenital-heart-surgery-center-the-effect-of-clinical-and-socioeconomic-factors
#17
Jennifer K Peterson, Kirsti G Catton, Shaun P Setty
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors on congenital heart surgery outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included 234 congenital heart surgery patients from 2011 through 2015, in a racially/ethnically diverse metropolitan children's hospital. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS), age at first echocardiogram, length of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of complications...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842865/leveraging-the-family-influence-of-women-in-prostate-cancer-efforts-targeting-african-american-men
#18
O N Okoro, C A Rutherford, S F Witherspoon
BACKGROUND: Incidence rate of prostate cancer among African American (AA) men is 1.6 times that in White men. Prevention efforts in this population have typically been through faith-based organizations and barber shops, with a few including significant others. Culturally, women are known to have a strong influence in the AA family. The current study assessed prostate cancer knowledge and explored perceptions on the roles of women in prostate cancer prevention. METHODS: To assess prostate cancer knowledge, a 25-item questionnaire was administered to convenience samples of AA women (n = 297) and men (n = 199)...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842841/high-risk-of-depression-in-high-income-african-american-boys
#19
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra H Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-established literature on the protective effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on physical and mental health, there are a few reports on poor mental health of blacks with high SES. Using a national sample, this study investigated the association between household income and risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in black youth based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection. METHODS: One thousand one hundred seventeen black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean blacks) were included in the current study...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840545/depressive-symptoms-during-adolescence-predict-adulthood-obesity-among-black-females
#20
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, Marc A Zimmerman
AIM: This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent changes in obesity in a sample of urban Black youth in the USA. METHODS: The current study followed 681 Black youth (335 male and 346 female) for up to 18 years from 1994 to 2012. All youth were selected from an economically disadvantaged urban area in MI, USA. The main independent variable was baseline depressive symptoms measured in 1994...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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