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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Cheng K Fred Wen, Stephanie Hsieh, Jimi Huh, Lauren Cook Martinez, Jamie N Davis, Marc Weigensberg, Donna Spruijt-Metz
BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber and sugar intake have been shown to affect metabolic health in overweight Hispanic youth. Evidence on the influence of culture on fiber and sugar intake in Hispanic youth is limited. METHODS: The associations among score for levels of assimilation, neighborhood ethnic characteristics, and daily total and added dietary sugar and dietary fiber intake were assessed using regression analyses. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-four Hispanic youth (age = 13...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Charles Gaber, Rafael Meza, Julie J Ruterbusch, Michele L Cote
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore incidence and incidence-based mortality trends for endometrial cancer in the USA and project future incident cases, accounting for differences by race and histological subtype. METHODS: Data on age-adjusted and age-specific incidence and mortality rates of endometrial cancer were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries. Trends in rates were analyzed using Joinpoint regression, and average annual percent change (AAPC) in recent years (2006-2011) was computed for histological subtypes by race...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shervin Assari, Amirmasoud Nikahd, Mohammad Reza Malekahmadi, Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Hadi Zamanian
BACKGROUND: Despite the existing literature on the central role of socioeconomic status (SES; education and income) for maintaining health, less is known about group differences in this effect. Built on the intersectionality approach, this study compared race by gender groups for the effects of baseline education and income on sustained health problems in five domains: depressive symptoms, insomnia, physical inactivity, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health (SRH). METHODS: Data came from waves 7, 8, and 10 of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which were collected in 2004, 2006, and 2010, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Rachelle Jones, Timothy A Brusseau, Pamela H Kulinna, Hans van der Mars
BACKGROUND: Understanding the physical activity patterns of youth is important for the implementation and evaluation of programming and interventions designed to change behavior. To date, little is known about the objectively measured physical activity patterns of Native American youth. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the step counts of Navajo youth during weekdays, weekend days, and physical education classes. METHODS: Participants included 63 high school students (mean age = 15...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shervin Assari
PURPOSE: General self-efficacy has been historically assumed to have universal health implications. However, less is known about population differences in long-term health effects of general self-efficacy across diverse populations. This study compared black and white American adults for (1) the association between psychosocial and health factors and general self-efficacy at baseline, and (2) the association between baseline self-efficacy and long-term risk of all-cause mortality over 25 years...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Bridgette L Jones, Carrie A Vyhlidal, Andrea Bradley-Ewing, Ashley Sherman, Kathy Goggin
BACKGROUND: African Americans are under-represented in research, and there are perceptions of unwillingness among African Americans to participate in research. We explored barriers to African American research participation. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to explore knowledge and beliefs regarding medical and genetic research among adults (n = 169) at urban community events. Descriptive data were summarized by frequencies for survey responses. RESULTS: Only 13 % of respondents had ever been approached for research; 93 % of those who had been approached for research had participated...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Helen Cole, Dustin T Duncan, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Samantha Bennett, Joseph Ravenell
OBJECTIVE: Neighborhood-level poverty and racial composition may contribute to racial disparities in hypertension outcomes. Little is known about how the effects of neighborhood social environments may differ by nativity status among diverse urban Black adults. We aimed to characterize the influence of neighborhood-level socio-demographic factors on hypertension outcomes among US- and foreign-born Black men with uncontrolled blood pressure. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two large community-based trials of hypertensive Black men aged 50 and over linked with census tract data from the 2012 American Community Survey 5-year estimates...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Karan Arul, Addisu Mesfin
Health care disparities research is an exponentially growing and multi-faceted field. Our objective was to identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in health care disparities. The authors searched the Thomas Reuters Web of Science for citations of all research papers (articles) relevant to health care disparities. After analyzing search results, the number of citations, authorship, year, journal, country of publication, institution of publication, and relevant topic were recorded for each article. The most cited article was Martin's 2002 work identifying the demography of incidence and occurrence of sepsis with specific analysis of race, sex, and disposition of US patients...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Patrick S Calhoun, Sarah M Wilson, Terrell A Hicks, Shaun P Thomas, Eric A Dedert, Lauren P Hair, Lori A Bastian, Jean C Beckham
INTRODUCTION: Access to the internet at home may be an important barrier to electronic health (eHealth) smoking cessation interventions. The current study explored possible sociodemographic disparities in access to the internet at home among veteran smokers. METHODS: Data from participants proactively recruited and enrolled in a randomized smoking cessation effectiveness trial (N = 408) that compared a web-based smoking cessation intervention to Veterans Affairs (VA) usual care were used to examine the demographic attributes of smokers with and without internet access at home...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
M Magaña López, M Bevans, L Wehrlen, L Yang, G R Wallen
BACKGROUND: Data collection on race and ethnicity is critical in the assessment of racial disparities related to health. Studies comparing clinical and administrative data show discrepancies in race documentation and attribution. METHODS: Self-reported data from two studies were compared to demographics in the electronic health record (EHR) extracted from the Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS) repository. McNemar and Bhapkar analyses were conducted to quantify the agreement of ethnicity and race between self-reported and EHR data...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
James R Rodrigue, Matthew J Paek, Jesse D Schold, Martha Pavlakis, Didier A Mandelbrot
Our aim was to identify predictors and moderators of the effects of a house calls (HC) educational intervention, relative to a group-based (GB) intervention and to individual counseling (IC), in a randomized controlled trial to increase the likelihood of having living donor (LD) evaluations initiated and live donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Black adults wait listed for kidney transplantation (N = 152) were randomized into one of the three educational conditions. We examined demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and socio-contextual baseline characteristics as predictors and moderators of having a potential LD initiate evaluation...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Anita Kurt, Lauren Semler, Jeanne L Jacoby, Melanie B Johnson, Beth A Careyva, Brian Stello, Timothy Friel, Mark C Knouse, Hope Kincaid, John C Smulian
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether racial differences exist among various factors associated with patients' decision to participate in clinical research trials. METHODS: A self-administered, IRB-approved survey was utilized with inclusion criteria requiring subjects to be 18 years of age or older, having active patient status and ability to complete the survey without assistance. Subjects were asked to rate potential influential motivators, barriers, and facilitators on a "no influence" (0) to "most influence" (4) scale for participation in research that tests a new drug or device...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Carol A Parise, Vincent Caggiano
PURPOSE: Disparities in breast cancer mortality due to race/ethnicity, area socioeconomic status (SES), and urbanization have been documented. This study examined if disparities in the risk of breast cancer specific mortality due to race/ethnicity, SES, and urbanization varied within diverse regions of California. METHODS: We identified 163,569 cases of first primary female invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry diagnosed between January, 2000 and December, 2013...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Katrina L Pariera, Sheila T Murphy, Jingbo Meng, Margaret L McLaughlin
African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans are disproportionately affected by cancer, yet underrepresented in cancer clinical trials. Because of this, it is important to understand how attitudes and beliefs about clinical trials vary by ethnicity. A national, random sample of 860 adults was given an online survey about attitudes toward clinical trials. We examined willingness to participate in clinical trials, attitudes toward clinical trials, trust in doctors, attitudes toward alternative and complementary medicine, and preferred information channels...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jean Marie S Place, McKenna Bireley
Despite a racial/ethnic disparity, little research has examined minority group perceptions of infertility. After developing a 15-question English-language focus group guide, 13 Latino college students (ages 19-22) at a Midwestern university were recruited to participate in a focus group to discuss their perceptions of infertility in the context of their family and culture. The focus group was audio recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed according to the constructed Grounded Theory approach. Three major themes were identified: 1) infertility is not considered when looking towards the future; 2) infertility is not discussed due to shame; and 3) infertility does not require a medical resolution...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Melody S Goodman, Keon L Gilbert, Darrell Hudson, Laurel Milam, Graham A Colditz
IMPORTANCE: There are more than 500 articles in the 2014 race-based healthcare disparities literature across a broad array of diseases and outcomes. However, unlike many other forms of research (e.g., clinical trials and systematic reviews), there are no required reporting guidelines when submitting results of disparities studies to journals. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the race-based healthcare disparities measurement literature in terms of study design, journal characteristics, generation of health disparities research, type of disparity measure used, and adherence to disparities measurement guidelines...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Muyibat A Adelani, Mary I O'Connor
OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare, including orthopedics, have been extensively documented. However, the level of knowledge among orthopedic surgeons regarding racial/ethnic disparities is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the views of orthopedic surgeons on (1) the extent of racial/ethnic disparities in orthopedic care, (2) patient and system factors that may contribute, and (3) the potential role of orthopedic surgeons in the reduction of disparities...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shervin Assari
BACKGROUND: Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. METHODS: With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Tracy E Madsen, Anthony M Napoli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate potential racial disparities in time to antibiotics among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with severe sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of adults >18 years with severe sepsis or septic shock presenting to a large, urban, academic ED and admitted to the ICU from 10/2005 to 2/2012. Time to antibiotic data was abstracted by ICU research staff; other data were abstracted by blinded trained research assistants using standardized abstraction forms...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Alan Cook, Kristina Chapple, Neil Motzkin, Jeanette Ward, Forrest Moore
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic disparities in trauma care have been reported. The American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population faces a twofold to fourfold increase of risk for traumatic injury. We hypothesized that surgical intervention and time to surgery were associated with race/ethnicity, specifically AI/AN compared to other race/ethnicity groups with open pelvic and lower extremity fractures (OPLEFx). METHODS: Non-AI/AN racial/ethnic groups were compared to AI/ANs among adults aged 15 years and older using the National Trauma Data Bank for 2008-2012...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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