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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Lee R Mobley, Tzy-Mey Kuo, Mei Zhou, Yamisha Rutherford, Seth Meador, Julia Koschinsky
The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003, implemented in 2006, increased managed care options for seniors. It introduced insurance plans for prescription drug coverage for all Medicare beneficiaries, whether they were enrolled in FFS or managed care (Medicare Advantage) plans. The availability of drug coverage beginning in 2006 served to free up budgets for FFS Medicare enrollees that could be used to make copayments for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy). In 2007, Medicare eliminated the copayments required by seniors for CRC screening by endoscopy...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Megan Saad
Postpartum depression (PPD) refers to a woman's experience with any depressive episode occurring within the first year of the postpartum period (Stewart et al., 2008;53(2):121-4). While PPD is a global phenomenon, the distribution of PPD within populations is not universal. Indeed, evidence from the Canadian literature confirms a significant disparity in PPD outcomes, as the prevalence rate of PPD is markedly increased among immigrant women (Stewart et al., 2008;53(2):121-4), and immigration status emerges as an important risk factor for PPD...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jaesin Sa, Marcia Russell, Miranda Ritterman Weintruab, Dong-Chul Seo, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mohammad Habib
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic variations in both alcohol consumption and obesity prevalence are well established. However, previous research indicates that drinking patterns influence the relation of alcohol intake to body mass index (BMI), and information on racial/ethnic differences in the relation of drinking pattern to BMI is lacking. METHODS: Multi-year cross-sectional data extracted from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults ≥ 20 years (N = 25,816) were used...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Sonja S Hutchins, Karen Bouye, George Luber, Lisa Briseno, Candis Hunter, Liza Corso
During the past several decades, unprecedented global changes in climate have given rise to an increase in extreme weather and other climate events and their consequences such as heavy rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, heat waves, wildfires, and air pollution. These climate effects have direct impacts on human health such as premature death, injuries, exacerbation of health conditions, disruption of mental well-being, as well as indirect impacts through food- and water-related infections and illnesses. While all populations are at risk for these adverse health outcomes, some populations are at greater risk because of multiple vulnerabilities resulting from increased exposure to risk-prone areas, increased sensitivity due to underlying health conditions, and limited adaptive capacity primarily because of a lack of economic resources to respond adequately...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Alexis Jemal, Myrtho Gardiner, Katharine Bloeser
Since race is a social construct, the experience of racial discrimination occurs based on perceived race. This study explores the moderating effects of self-identified race and perceived racial identity on the relationship between perceived discrimination in the workplace and mentally unhealthy days using data derived from the four states (Arizona, Minnesota, Mississippi, and New Mexico) that responded to the 2014 Reactions to Race module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The study hypothesized that self-identified White people, also perceived as White (WW), would have less perceived workplace discrimination and less mentally unhealthy days than self-identified non-White people perceived as White (NWW); NWW would have less perceived discrimination associated with mentally unhealthy days than self-identified White perceived as non-White (WNW); and, WNW would have less perceived discrimination associated with mentally unhealthy days than self-identified non-White perceived as non-White (NWNW)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Kathryn P Derose, Malcolm V Williams, Cheryl A Branch, Karen R Flórez, Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Michael A Mata, Clyde W Oden, Eunice C Wong
Faith and public health partnerships offer promise to addressing health disparities, but examples that incorporate African-Americans and Latino congregations are lacking. Here we present results from developing a multi-ethnic, multi-denominational faith and public health partnership to address health disparities through community-based participatory research (CBPR), focusing on several key issues: (1) the multi-layered governance structure and activities to establish the partnership and identify initial health priority (obesity), (2) characteristics of the congregations recruited to partnership (n = 66), and (3) the lessons learned from participating congregations' past work on obesity that informed the development of a multi-level, multi-component, church-based intervention...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Maria Espejo, Shirley Magabo, Angel Rivera-Castro, Mohammed Faiz, Leandro Ramirez, Cristabel Robles, Tarek Shabarek, Masood A Shariff, Balavenkatesh Kanna
OBJECTIVE: To study the knowledge, perception, and behaviors among hypertensive African-Americans in South Bronx, New York, to elucidate any gaps that could explain their poor blood pressure control. METHODS: Cross-sectional qualitative study on African-American participants with essential hypertension, on single or combined oral antihypertensive regimen. Three focus groups were presented with open-ended questions on topics including cardiovascular disease knowledge, perception, and behaviors...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Danielle X Morales, Nathalie Prieto, Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of obese/overweight status and race/ethnicity on the risk for being verbally bullied among second grade children, and to investigate if the relationship between weight status and verbal bullying varies based on race/ethnicity. DESIGN: Data on second graders from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (Children = 18,130; Schools = 2419) were analyzed. Hierarchical generalized logistic modeling was used to address the objectives...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Janice C Probst, Saundra Glover, Victor Kirksey
BACKGROUND: While the causes of lynching, a violent expression of racism, have been explored, little research has addressed the long-term consequences of this phenomenon. We examined the associaton between living in a county with a history of lynching and contemporary mortality rates within Southern US states. METHODS: County-level data for lynchings between 1877 and 1950 were available for 1221 counties. Lynching rates were standardized to the 1930 population. Age-adjusted mortality rates were aggregated over 2010-2014 to allow sufficient observations in small counties...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Yhenneko J Taylor, Marion E Davis, Sveta Mohanan, Sandy Robertson, Mark D Robinson
Many healthcare providers lack the awareness of health disparities among their patients that precedes action to improve outcomes. Limited health disparities training is a probable contributor. We assessed primary care residents' awareness of racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes, their perceived preparedness to discuss health disparities with patients, and their preferences for training and resources to improve their preparedness. Primary care residents (n = 98) affiliated with two teaching hospitals in North Carolina were invited to complete a 20-question health disparities survey...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Cassandra Acheampong, Carenado Davis, David Holder, Paige Averett, Todd Savitt, Kendall Campbell
Black men have reported a number of stressful experiences during medical school training. Guided by Critical Race Theory, the authors examined the survey responses of 16 Black men who matriculated at one medical school to assess perceptions of medical school stress. The researchers identified several themes: (1) perceived academic inequities created tension between Black and non-Black medical students but provided bonding opportunities among Black male medical students, (2) stress negatively impacted academic performance and personal health, and (3) use of social support and spirituality contributed to coping and resiliency...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jennifer C Sanchez-Flack, Cheryl A M Anderson, Elva M Arredondo, George Belch, Maria Elena Martinez, Guadalupe X Ayala
This study examined fruit and vegetable intake by food store type shopped among US Hispanics. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 data, T test and chi-square tests examined differences between Hispanic consumers by food store type. Negative binomial regression analyses estimated associations between fruit and vegetable intake and food store type. Hispanics who only purchased fruits and vegetables from convenience stores were younger and more likely US born. They reported lower intakes of fruit and vegetables than individuals who purchased these foods from supermarket/grocery stores...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Granville E Wrensford, Kerry-Ann Stewart, Marja M Hurley
The Department of Health Career Opportunity Programs at UConn Health has developed the Aetna Health Professions Partnership Initiative (Aetna HPPI), a formal education consortium offering a comprehensive program of educational enrichment and support activities for underrepresented and first-generation students. The purpose is to identify and develop a diverse applicant pool of students who will eventually enter a health professions career with a focus on medicine and dental medicine. Activities are conducted for students in middle school through college...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jungyoon Kim, Wael ElRayes, Renaisa S Anthony, Kirk Dombrowski, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway
We reviewed 27 studies on adults with a refugee background resettled from Africa published between 1999 and 2017 to appraise their methodological issues for survey research. Out of 27 studies, eleven used a single sampling method (referral = 1, convenience = 10), and 16 relied on multiple sampling methods, many of which were combinations of referral and convenience. The two most salient recruitment strategies found were building trusted relationships with the community (n = 15), and using recruiters who were culturally and linguistically matched to the refugee communities of interest (n = 14)...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Stacey C Barrett, Stephen Schmaltz, Nancy Kupka, Kenneth A Rasinski
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between resident race and immunization status in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Race was captured at the resident and the facility racial composition level. DESIGN: Thirty-six long-term care facilities varying in racial composition and size were selected for site visits. SETTING: LTCFs were urban and rural, CMS certified, and non-hospital administered. MEASUREMENTS: Chart abstraction was used to determine race, immunization, and refusal status for the 2010-2011 flu season (influenza 1), the 2011-2012 flu season (influenza 2), and the pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine for all residents over 65 years old...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Ganga S Bey, Christine M Ulbricht, Sharina D Person
Sociodemographic group-specific strategies for stress management may contribute to racial and gender disparities in health outcomes in the USA. We aimed to systematically review theoretical and empirical investigations of factors influencing variation in response to and management of identity-related stress among black and white Americans. OvidPsychInfo and PubMed databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Criteria were participant age of ≥ 18 years, conducted in the US sampling black or white participants, and published in English in a peer-reviewed journal...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Melanie Paige Moore, Faye Belgrave
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine gender differences in predictors of past HIV test behavior among young African Americans. METHOD: Data from (n = 190) young adults participating in an evidenced-based safer sex behavioral intervention were analyzed. Participants completed measures of previous HIV testing, HIV test attitudes, HIV knowledge, HIV test behavior, and HIV risk behaviors. A series of t tests and chi-square tests were performed to assess gender differences in these variables...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Gunes Avci, Victoria M Kordovski, Steven P Woods
There is a considerable body of research on health literacy in adult healthcare settings, mostly among at-risk clinical populations. However, much less is known about health literacy among youth transitioning to adulthood, including college students. Despite the protective effects of higher levels of education, some college students might have other risk factors for low health literacy (i.e., minority status). Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore health literacy in an ethnically diverse public urban university...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Tinnikkar Angel Robertson-Jones, Madison M Tissue, Mary Connolly, Sarah Frazier Gallups, Catherine M Bender, Margaret Quinn Rosenzweig
OBJECTIVES: The communication patterns between clinician and patient, described as the patient centeredness of care (PCC), may be a critically important etiology of breast cancer (BC) racial disparity. The purpose of this prospective, comparative pilot study was to qualitatively explore and code for PCC during the clinical visit of women undergoing BC chemotherapy and compare by race. METHODS: Age-matched Black and White women were recruited. Audio recordings of clinical visits conducted prior to any cycle (except first) chemotherapy infusion were obtained and transcribed...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Loretta R Cain, LáShauntá Glover, Bessie Young, Mario Sims
Please note the following correction in the Methods section of this article: The definition for goal-striving stress in the Jackson Heart Study included achievement defined as "where one was in life 10 years ago," using a 10-point scale.
June 29, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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