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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Lee M Pachter, Cleopatra H Caldwell, James S Jackson, Bruce A Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Racism and discrimination are psychosocial stressors that affect the health of minority populations. While discrimination has been associated with poor mental health, little is known about the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes in youth nationally. Furthermore, mental and behavioral health consequences of discrimination may differ in different minority groups. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to determine (1) how common perceptions of discrimination are in a nationally representative sample of African-American (AA) and Afro-Caribbean (AC) teens, (2) the relationship between discrimination and mental health conditions, and (3) whether discrimination has different associations with mental health in AA and AC youth...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jill Fleuriet, Thankam Sunil
The purpose of this project was to quantitatively test differences in subjective social status scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women to determine the role of subjective social status in birth weight variation between Mexico-born and US-born Mexican-American women. Six hundred low-income pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in south Texas were surveyed for subjective social status, depression, perceived social stress, parity, and pregnancy intendedness. Psychosocial health variables, parity, and pregnancy intendedness were included due to their significant associations with low birth weight...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shervin Assari
AIM: This study aimed to explore cross-ethnic variation in the pattern of the associations between psychiatric disorders and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in the USA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003, a national household probability sample. The study enrolled 18,237 individuals who were either Non-Hispanic White (n = 7587), African American (n = 4746), Mexican (n = 1442), Cuban (n = 577), Puerto Rican (n = 495), Other Hispanic (n = 1106), Vietnamese (n = 520), Filipino (n = 508), Chinese (n = 600) or Other Asian (n = 656)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Aliza D Richman
Disadvantaged social statuses, such as being female, poor, or a minority, are associated with increased psychosocial stress and elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of chronic inflammation and indicator of cardiovascular health. Individuals' experience of embodying psychosocial stress revolves around the multiplicative effects of concurrent gender, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic identities. This study expands on prior research by examining chronic inflammation at the intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age group to understand which demographic subgroups in society are most vulnerable to the cumulative effects of social disadvantage...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jennifer K Peterson, Kirsti G Catton, Shaun P Setty
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors on congenital heart surgery outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included 234 congenital heart surgery patients from 2011 through 2015, in a racially/ethnically diverse metropolitan children's hospital. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS), age at first echocardiogram, length of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of complications...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
O N Okoro, C A Rutherford, S F Witherspoon
BACKGROUND: Incidence rate of prostate cancer among African American (AA) men is 1.6 times that in White men. Prevention efforts in this population have typically been through faith-based organizations and barber shops, with a few including significant others. Culturally, women are known to have a strong influence in the AA family. The current study assessed prostate cancer knowledge and explored perceptions on the roles of women in prostate cancer prevention. METHODS: To assess prostate cancer knowledge, a 25-item questionnaire was administered to convenience samples of AA women (n = 297) and men (n = 199)...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra H Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-established literature on the protective effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on physical and mental health, there are a few reports on poor mental health of blacks with high SES. Using a national sample, this study investigated the association between household income and risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in black youth based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection. METHODS: One thousand one hundred seventeen black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean blacks) were included in the current study...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, Marc A Zimmerman
AIM: This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent changes in obesity in a sample of urban Black youth in the USA. METHODS: The current study followed 681 Black youth (335 male and 346 female) for up to 18 years from 1994 to 2012. All youth were selected from an economically disadvantaged urban area in MI, USA. The main independent variable was baseline depressive symptoms measured in 1994...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Paul M Lantos, Kate Hoffman, Sallie R Permar, Pearce Jackson, Brenna L Hughes, Amy Kind, Geeta Swamy
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of fetal malformations and childhood hearing loss. CMV is more common among socially disadvantaged groups, and geographically clusters in poor communities. The Area Deprivation Index (ADI) is a neighborhood-level index derived from census data that reflects material disadvantage. METHODS: We performed a geospatial analysis to determine if ADI predicts the local odds of CMV seropositivity. We analyzed a dataset of 3527 women who had been tested for CMV antibodies during pregnancy...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Ana P Martinez-Donate, Xiao Zhang, M Gudelia Rangel, Melbourne F Hovell, J Eduardo Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Sylvia Guendelman
OBJECTIVE: Migration is a structural factor that increases HIV vulnerability. Acculturative stress represents a possible mechanism through which migration may negatively impact HIV risk. This study investigated socio-ecological factors associated with acculturative stress levels and examined the association between acculturative stress and HIV-related behavior among Mexican im/migrants. METHODOLOGY: We used data from a probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N = 1383) conducted in Tijuana, Mexico, in 2009-2010...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Amin Sanei-Moghaddam, Chaeryon Kang, Robert P Edwards, Paula J Lounder, Naveed Ismail, Sharon L Goughnour, Suketu M Mansuria, John T Comerci, Faina Linkov
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to explore disparities associated with the route of hysterectomy in the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) health system and to evaluate whether the hysterectomy clinical pathway implementation impacted disparities in the utilization of minimally invasive hysterectomy (MIH). METHODS: We performed a retrospective medical record review of all the patients who have undergone hysterectomy for benign indications at UPMC-affiliated hospitals between fiscal years (FY) 2012 and 2014...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Bongki Woo
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether the health disadvantages consequent of racial discrimination experienced by four racial/ethnic minority groups are equivalent with that of the dominant racial group. METHOD: Data was derived from the 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression and heterogeneous choice models were used to test the moderating role of race/ethnicity in regards to the associations between racial discrimination and ten DSM-V diagnoses...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Meng-Han Tsai, Sudha Xirasagar, Piet C de Groen
With 23 and 47% higher colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, respectively, among African Americans vs. Whites, CRC screening studies are important. Screening guidelines recommend 5-yearly colonoscopy screening of persons with a family history of CRC (first-degree relatives, FDRs), beginning at 40 years of age. For this elevated-risk group, colonoscopy screening is preferred because of the risk of more aggressive cancer that may elude early detection by other methods. African Americans with a family history of CRC are at the intersection of two elevated risk demographics, race and FDR status...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Celia C Lo, Tyrone C Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Our study measured minority individuals' social status factors and frequency of discrimination experiences, in order to delineate social mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to mental status (specifically, to current mood/anxiety disorder and self-rated mental health). METHODS: In this nationally representative secondary research, our data analyses drew on the cross-sectional "Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys," dating 2001-2003. The sample for the final model numbered 9368 respondents (2016 Asians, 2676 Latinos, 4676 blacks)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Maichou Lor
Although disparities in the burden of disease and illness experienced across major racial and ethnic groups in the USA is well known, little is known about subgroups, including the Hmong population. This review sought to determine the current state of health disparities related to health promotion and disease prevention among Hmong adults from 1975 to 2015. Seventy-one descriptive (qualitative, mixed methods, and quantitative) studies were reviewed. Most focused on two areas: (1) health status (mainly breast and cervical cancers) and (2) health-related behaviors...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Liana Gefter, Judy Spahr, John Gruber, Sandra Ross, Laurie Watson, Barry Mann
Pipeline programs address health disparities by promoting academic achievement and entry of low-income ethnic and racial minority youth into healthcare fields. The Health Career Academy (HCA) is a 3-year pipeline program for high school students from low-income, ethnic, and racial minority communities. Health professional students serve as program mentors. The HCA has been implemented in nine US sites, with partnerships between 17 health professional schools and 17 high schools. A total of 386 10th grade students and 95 11th grade students enrolled as participants in the 2015-2016 HCA program...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Linda Park, R J Schwei, P Xiong, E A Jacobs
We explored how addressing culture may improve patient-provider relationships and reduce health disparities for racial and ethnic individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). We analyzed qualitative data collected to explore health disparities in preventive cancer screenings for Hmong and Spanish-speaking LEP patients in a large Midwest healthcare system. We interviewed 20 participants (10 from each group) and the audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim, then back translated focusing on meaning...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
David C Lee, Stella S Yi, Jessica K Athens, Andrew J Vinson, Stephen P Wall, Joseph E Ravenell
Traditional methods of health surveillance often under-represent racial and ethnic minorities. Our objective was to use geospatial analysis and emergency claims data to estimate local chronic disease prevalence separately for specific racial and ethnic groups. We also performed a regression analysis to identify associations between median household income and local disease prevalence among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White adults in New York City. The study population included individuals who visited an emergency department at least once from 2009 to 2013...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani, John D Piette, James E Aikens
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have shown a link between self-rated health (SRH) and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (DM), other studies have failed to support this association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these equivocal findings can be explained by specific interactions between gender, race, and SRH, as suggested by the intersectionality literature. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 287 patients with DM (85 Black men, 78 Black women, 64 White men, and 60 White women)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Sophia B Kim
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the top three cancers experienced among Asian American (AA) men and women. One effective way to decrease incidence and mortality from CRC is the adherence of regular CRC screening; however, AA continue to receive the lowest screening rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups. When disaggregating this heterogeneous population, further disparities exist between subgroups. Examination of facilitators and barriers to cancer screening among AA subgroups is fairly recent and the synthesis of this information is limited...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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