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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Granville E Wrensford, Kerry-Ann Stewart, Marja M Hurley
The Department of Health Career Opportunity Programs at UConn Health has developed the Aetna Health Professions Partnership Initiative (Aetna HPPI), a formal education consortium offering a comprehensive program of educational enrichment and support activities for underrepresented and first-generation students. The purpose is to identify and develop a diverse applicant pool of students who will eventually enter a health professions career with a focus on medicine and dental medicine. Activities are conducted for students in middle school through college...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jungyoon Kim, Wael ElRayes, Renaisa S Anthony, Kirk Dombrowski, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway
We reviewed 27 studies on adults with a refugee background resettled from Africa published between 1999 and 2017 to appraise their methodological issues for survey research. Out of 27 studies, eleven used a single sampling method (referral = 1, convenience = 10), and 16 relied on multiple sampling methods, many of which were combinations of referral and convenience. The two most salient recruitment strategies found were building trusted relationships with the community (n = 15), and using recruiters who were culturally and linguistically matched to the refugee communities of interest (n = 14)...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Stacey C Barrett, Stephen Schmaltz, Nancy Kupka, Kenneth A Rasinski
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between resident race and immunization status in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Race was captured at the resident and the facility racial composition level. DESIGN: Thirty-six long-term care facilities varying in racial composition and size were selected for site visits. SETTING: LTCFs were urban and rural, CMS certified, and non-hospital administered. MEASUREMENTS: Chart abstraction was used to determine race, immunization, and refusal status for the 2010-2011 flu season (influenza 1), the 2011-2012 flu season (influenza 2), and the pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine for all residents over 65 years old...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Ganga S Bey, Christine M Ulbricht, Sharina D Person
Sociodemographic group-specific strategies for stress management may contribute to racial and gender disparities in health outcomes in the USA. We aimed to systematically review theoretical and empirical investigations of factors influencing variation in response to and management of identity-related stress among black and white Americans. OvidPsychInfo and PubMed databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Criteria were participant age of ≥ 18 years, conducted in the US sampling black or white participants, and published in English in a peer-reviewed journal...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Melanie Paige Moore, Faye Belgrave
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine gender differences in predictors of past HIV test behavior among young African Americans. METHOD: Data from (n = 190) young adults participating in an evidenced-based safer sex behavioral intervention were analyzed. Participants completed measures of previous HIV testing, HIV test attitudes, HIV knowledge, HIV test behavior, and HIV risk behaviors. A series of t tests and chi-square tests were performed to assess gender differences in these variables...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Gunes Avci, Victoria M Kordovski, Steven P Woods
There is a considerable body of research on health literacy in adult healthcare settings, mostly among at-risk clinical populations. However, much less is known about health literacy among youth transitioning to adulthood, including college students. Despite the protective effects of higher levels of education, some college students might have other risk factors for low health literacy (i.e., minority status). Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore health literacy in an ethnically diverse public urban university...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Tinnikkar Angel Robertson-Jones, Madison M Tissue, Mary Connolly, Sarah Frazier Gallups, Catherine M Bender, Margaret Quinn Rosenzweig
OBJECTIVES: The communication patterns between clinician and patient, described as the patient centeredness of care (PCC), may be a critically important etiology of breast cancer (BC) racial disparity. The purpose of this prospective, comparative pilot study was to qualitatively explore and code for PCC during the clinical visit of women undergoing BC chemotherapy and compare by race. METHODS: Age-matched Black and White women were recruited. Audio recordings of clinical visits conducted prior to any cycle (except first) chemotherapy infusion were obtained and transcribed...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Loretta R Cain, LáShauntá Glover, Bessie Young, Mario Sims
Please note the following correction in the Methods section of this article: The definition for goal-striving stress in the Jackson Heart Study included achievement defined as "where one was in life 10 years ago," using a 10-point scale.
June 29, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Chi Nguyen, David R Lairson, Michael D Swartz, Xianglin L Du
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study aims to examine the receipt, timing to initiation, and duration of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with prostate cancer by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. METHODS: The study population are patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database, who were 66 years or older and newly diagnosed with stage III and IV prostate cancer in 1992-2009 and underwent radiation therapy, where ADT was proven to be highly beneficial and its use was considered as most appropriate (n = 12,170)...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Sherrill L Sellers, Brooke A Cunningham, Vence L Bonham
BACKGROUND: Race in the USA has an enduring connection to health and well-being. It is often used as a proxy for ancestry and genetic variation, although self-identified race does not establish genetic risk of disease for an individual patient. How physicians reconcile these seemingly paradoxical facts as they make clinical decisions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine physicians' genetic knowledge and beliefs about race with their use of race in clinical decision-making DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a national sample of clinically active general internists RESULTS: Seven hundred eighty-seven physicians completed the survey...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Martin Roche, Tsun Yee Law, Assem A Sultan, Erica Umpierrez, Anton Khlopas, Sam Rosas, Jennifer Kurowicki, Kevin Wang, Michael A Mont
INTRODUCTION: There is a relative paucity of studies that characterized racial disparities in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, this study was specifically conducted to evaluate the following: (1) incidence; (2) annual burden; (3) causes; and (4) age group distribution of revision TKA among different racial groups in the US sample population. METHODS: The PearlDiver database was utilized to identify patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent primary then subsequent revision TKA from January 2007 to December 2014...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
David T Mage, E Maria Donner, Laurens Holmes
PURPOSE: Black/African American (AA) infants have been persistently observed with survival disadvantage compared to White infants in the USA, implying excess mortality. While reliable epidemiologic data continue to illustrate these disparities, data are yet to provide a substantial explanation to the observed rates and risk differences over the past six decades. We aimed in this study to examine the infant mortality risk differences by temporal trends and to provide an ecologic and non-concurrent explanation for the persisted variability...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Gabriel Macasiray Garcia, Travis Hedwig, Bridget L Hanson, Marny Rivera, Curtis A Smith
This study assessed whether high school youth with mixed race/ethnicity are at greater risk for poor mental health conditions compared to their single race/ethnic counterparts and whether this mental health risk can be mitigated by youth developmental assets regardless of one's race/ethnicity. Methods involved secondary data analysis of the 2009-2013 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey-Anchorage, Alaska subsample. Difference in rates of mental health conditions and mean number of developmental assets (protective factors) were assessed among three racial/ethnic groups...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Diane Orr Chlebowy, Catherine Batscha, Nancy Kubiak, Timothy Crawford
This study examines the relationships of depression, anxiety, and stress with adherence to self-management behaviors and diabetes measures in 42 African American adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic located in an urban area of a midsized city in the southeastern USA. The mean age of the sample was 54.9 years (SD = 9.9) and the majority of the participants were female (73.2%), high school graduates (55.3%), unemployed (70.7%), and publicly insured (77...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Wudeneh Mulugeta, Hong Xue, Myron Glick, Jungwon Min, Michael F Noe, Youfa Wang
INTRODUCTION: Limited is known about mental illness and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors among refugees. These were studied using data collected from a refugee population in Buffalo, NY. METHODS: Longitudinal data collected on 1055 adults (> 18 years) at a large refugee health center in Buffalo, NY, during 2004-2014 were used. Main outcomes were hypertension, diabetes, tobacco use, obesity, overweight/obesity, and mental illness. Risk factors were assessed using multivariate regression models...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Loretta R Cain, LáShauntá Glover, Bessie Young, Mario Sims
OBJECTIVE: Research that assesses the relationship between psychosocial factors and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among African Americans (AAs) is limited. Using the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) cohort data, we investigated the association of goal-striving stress (GSS)-the stress experienced from not reaching goals-with prevalent CKD among AAs. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional analysis of JHS exam 1 data that assessed the relationship between GSS and CKD. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilized a sample from the JHS (n = 4967), an AA sample of women and men, 35-84 years old from the Jackson, MS metro area...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Kelley Newlin Lew, Julie Wagner, Omar Braizat
The following corrections to this article as originally published should be noted:In the first sentence of the abstract, "non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics adults with diabetes" should read "non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic adults with diabetes".
May 18, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Phillip Mauller, Lauren A Doamekpor, Crystal Reed, Kweisi Mfume
On average, Washington D.C. residents experience low levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) behavioral risk factors compared to the rest of the country. Despite presenting as a city of low risk, CVD mortality is higher than the national average. Driving this inconsistency are vast racial disparities as Black D.C. residents die from CVD at a much higher rate than their White counterparts. A closer examination of the data also reveals significant disparities between White and Black populations with regard to behavioral risk factors...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Lloy Wylie, Stephanie McConkey
Discrimination in the health care system has a direct negative impact on health and wellbeing. Experiences of discrimination are considered a root cause for the health inequalities that exist among Indigenous peoples. Experiences of discrimination are commonplace, with patients noting abusive treatment, stereotyping, and a lack of quality in the care provided, which discourage Indigenous people from accessing care. This research project examined the perspectives of health care providers and decision-makers to identify what challenges they see facing Indigenous patients and families when accessing health services in a large city in southern Ontario...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Srinadh Annangi, Snigdha Nutalapati, Marilyn G Foreman, Rathi Pillai, Eric L Flenaugh
RATIONALE: The current age threshold for lung cancer screening targets individuals beginning at age 55. These guidelines were developed based on results from the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial where only 4.4% of the enrollees were African American, when they represent 12.3% of US population. African Americans were also found to have higher incidence and younger onset of lung cancer. We hypothesized that implementation of screening at age 55 would not detect a substantial fraction of early onset lung cancer cases in African American population...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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