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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Richard F Gillum
For over four decades the National Medical Association (NMA) and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC) have sought to bring to national attention the disparate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among African Americans. However, systematic inquiry has been inadequate into the burden of CVD in the poor countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the African diaspora in the Americas outside the USA. However, recently, the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) has offered new tools for such inquiry. Several initial efforts in that direction using 2010 data have been published...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Lindsay Zibrik, Alan Huang, Vivian Wong, Helen Novak Lauscher, Queenie Choo, Eric M Yoshida, Kendall Ho
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) is prevalent among Asian immigrants in Canada with high morbidity and mortality rates. While some studies have identified barriers to health care and information access, few have studied the impact of culturally relevant information and addressed challenges with recommendations for effective public education and outreach programs. METHODS: Culturally tailored HBV education workshops were delivered over a 12-month period to Chinese, Filipino, Korean and Punjabi immigrants in Lower Mainland, British Columbia (BC)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Daisy Sanchez, Derek Dubay, Baliga Prabhakar, David J Taber
INTRODUCTION: To improve kidney transplant allocation equitability, a new Kidney Allocation System (KAS) was implemented December 4, 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine if the impact of KAS on peri-operative outcomes differed by recipient race/ethnicity. METHODS: This was a time series analysis using data aggregated in monthly intervals from October 2012 through September 2015 using the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC). This includes national data aggregated at the center level of all US kidney transplant centers that participate in the UHC (416 centers)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Ephraim Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: In general, church attendance can be associated with improved health behaviors and fewer related chronic diseases, suggesting a potential opportunity to counteract worsening health behaviors among some immigrants and thereby reduce health disparities. There is a paucity of research, however, on the relationship between religious involvement and immigrants' health behaviors and whether it varies by host or home country context. AIM: To examine the relationship between religious involvement, measured by church attendance, with health behaviors among Latino immigrants in the United States (U...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Kelley Newlin Lew, Julie Wagner, Omar Braizat
OBJECTIVE: The study's objective is to examine differences in mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics adults with diabetes. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data was conducted. A total of 26 states participated in the 2014 BRFSS core and optional diabetes models (n = 17,923). HRQOL was measured by the number of mentally and physically unhealthy days during the past month, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Luis R Castellanos, Omar Viramontes, Nainjot K Bains, Ignacio A Zepeda
PURPOSE: Despite the well-described benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on long-term health outcomes, CR is a resource that is underutilized by a significant proportion of patients that suffer from cardiovascular diseases. The main purpose of this study was to examine disparities in CR referral and participation rates among individuals from rural communities and racial and ethnic minority groups with coronary heart disease (CHD) when compared to the general population. METHODS: A systematic search of standard databases including MedlLine, PubMed, and Cochrane databases was conducted using keywords that included cardiac rehabilitation, women, race and ethnicity, disparities, and rural populations...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Courtney Rogers, Joy Johnson, Brianne Nueslein, David Edmunds, Rupa S Valdez
As chronic conditions are on the rise in the USA, management initiatives outside of the inpatient setting should be explored to reduce associated cost and access disparities. Chronic conditions disproportionately affect African American public housing residents due to the effects of historical marginalization on the manifestation of economic and social problems exacerbating health disparities and outcomes. Informed by participatory research action tenets, this study focused on identifying the challenges to management of chronic conditions and developing community-envisioned initiatives to address these challenges in a predominantly African American public housing community...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
David Eitle, Tamela McNulty Eitle
OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence that American Indian adolescents are at a heightened risk of obesity/overweightness and experiencing depression, relative to other groups, there exists a dearth of studies that have examined the association between objective and perceptual measures of obesity and overweightness and depression with this understudied group. Our study represents one of the first studies to examine this association among American Indian youth. METHODS: Using a subsample of American Indian youth from waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (a survey of schools and students in the USA, with wave I collected in 1994 and wave II collected in 1995), we explore this association...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Tiffany B Kindratt, Florence J Dallo, Juliette Roddy
Using 15 years (2000-2014) of restricted cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey data (n = 276,914), we estimated and compared the age-adjusted and sex-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking between US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans and examined associations between ethnicity and current smoking. Arab Americans were categorized as non-Hispanic Whites born in 15 countries located in the Middle East. Current smoking, average cigarettes per day, and quit attempts were compared. Collectively, we found that current smoking was highest among males compared to females...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
L Holmes, P Chavan, T Blake, K Dabney
BACKGROUND: While survival in overall pediatric malignancy has improved during recent decades, brain/central nervous system (CNS) tumors has not demonstrated comparable survival advantage. Incidence and mortality data in this malignancy continue to illustrate race and sex differences; however, there are few data in the pediatric setting. This study sought to characterize brain/CNS tumors by socio-demographic and assess racial and sex variances in both cumulative incidence and mortality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Nynikka R Palmer, Steven E Gregorich, Jennifer Livaudais-Toman, Jane Jih, Celia P Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: We examined prostate cancer patients' perceived engagement in treatment decision-making and associated factors by race/ethnicity in a multiethnic sample. METHOD: We identified patients through the California Cancer Registry. Patients completed a cross-sectional telephone interview in English, Spanish, Cantonese, or Mandarin. Multivariable logistic regression models, stratified by race/ethnicity, estimated the associations of patient demographic and health status characteristics on (1) doctor asked patient to help decide treatment plan and (2) patient and doctor worked out a treatment plan together...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Andrea Hepuapo'okela Hermosura, Stephen N Haynes, Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula
Native Hawaiians, compared to other ethnic groups in Hawai'i, have significantly higher mortality rates and die at a younger average age from cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be partially explained by elevated cardiovascular responses to racial stressors. Our study examined the degree to which blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) reactivity and recovery, and ratings of subjective distress to racial stressors, differ as a function of Native Hawaiian college students' levels of perceived racism. This study had three phases...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Khadijah Breathett, Jacqueline Jones, Hillary D Lum, Dawn Koonkongsatian, Christine D Jones, Urvi Sanghvi, Lilian Hoffecker, Marylyn McEwen, Stacie L Daugherty, Irene V Blair, Elizabeth Calhoun, Esther de Groot, Nancy K Sweitzer, Pamela N Peterson
Clinical decision-making may have a role in racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare but has not been evaluated systematically. The purpose of this study was to synthesize qualitative studies that explore various aspects of how a patient's African-American race or Hispanic ethnicity may factor into physician clinical decision-making. Using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library, we identified 13 manuscripts that met inclusion criteria of usage of qualitative methods; addressed US physician clinical decision-making factors when caring for African-American, Hispanic, or Caucasian patients; and published between 2000 and 2017...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Anne R Wilson, Angela G Brega, Jacob F Thomas, William G Henderson, Kimberly E Lind, Patricia A Braun, Terrence S Batliner, Judith Albino
OBJECTIVES: This aimed to validate measures of constructs included in an extended Health Belief Model (EHBM) addressing oral health beliefs among American Indian (AI) parents. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial (n = 1016) aimed at reducing childhood caries. Participants were AI parents with a preschool-age child enrolled in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Questionnaire items addressed five EHBM constructs: perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, benefits, and parental self-efficacy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
J Jaiswal, S N Singer, M Griffin Tomas, H-M Lekas
BACKGROUND: HIV-related "conspiracy beliefs" include ideas about the genocidal origin of HIV to target minority people, and the notion that a cure for HIV is being deliberately withheld. Previous literature suggests that these beliefs may negatively affect engagement in HIV care and ART adherence, but little is known about how people who are disengaged from care may think about these ideas. METHODS: Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with low-income Black and Latinx people living with HIV in NYC who were currently disengaged from, or recently re-engaged in, HIV care...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jason Seto, James Davis, Deborah Ann Taira
Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are known to be associated with health disparities. This study used data (2010-2014) from the American Community Survey. Respondents over age 30 from Hawaii were included (n = 44,921). Outcome variables were self-reported disability in vision, hearing, ambulatory function, self-care, independent living, or cognitive function. Four measures of socioeconomic status were personal income, average income for the area, income inequality for area, and education. This study used multivariable logistic regression to predict disability by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, controlling for age and gender...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Quentin K Kilpatrick, John Taylor
INTRODUCTION: The systematic deprivation of equal access to valued opportunities has greatly harmed the disadvantaged. Discrimination, whether it is based on gender, race, sexual orientation, or physical health exacts a high toll. This is especially true with respect to the role of race and equality in the USA today. This paper attempts to evaluate the significance of perceived discrimination among a multiethnic sample of physically disabled and non-disabled study participants. METHODS: We employ survey data from a community-based multiethnic sample of study participants to assess whether physical disability increases perceptions of discrimination across racial/ethnic groups...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Michele K Griswold, Sybil L Crawford, Donna J Perry, Sharina D Person, Lynn Rosenberg, Yvette C Cozier, Julie R Palmer
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding rates are lower for black women in the USA compared with other groups. Breastfeeding and lactation are sensitive time points in the life course, centering breastfeeding as a health equity issue. In the USA, experiences of racism have been linked to poor health outcomes but racism relative to breastfeeding has not been extensively investigated. AIMS: This study aims to investigate the association between experiences of racism, neighborhood segregation, and nativity with breastfeeding initiation and duration...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Hans-Joachim Wolfram, Kenisha Linton, Nona McDuff
In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Robert S White, Dahniel L Sastow, Licia K Gaber-Baylis, Virginia Tangel, Andrew D Fisher, Zachary A Turnbull
BACKGROUND: Total hip replacements (THRs) are the sixth most common surgical procedure performed in the USA. Readmission rates are estimated at between 4.0 and 10.9%, and mean costs are between $10,000 and $19,000. Readmissions are influenced by the quality of care received. We sought to examine differences in readmissions by insurance payer, race and ethnicity, and income status. METHODS: We analyzed all THRs from 2007 to 2011 in California, Florida, and New York from the State Inpatient Databases, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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