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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Romik Srivastava, Kinfe G Bishu, Rebekah J Walker, Joni Strom Williams, Leonard E Egede
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the relationship between immigration status and quality of care for patients with diabetes. METHODS: We used the Medical Expenditure Panel (MEPS) dataset between 2002 and 2011 to examine the association between quality of care and immigration status. Quality of care was measured by report of dilated eye exam, foot exam, A1C test, an annual doctor's visit, and having blood pressure checked. Immigration status was defined as US born, non-US born but living in the USA for less than 15 years, and non-US born but living in the USA for more than 15 years...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Rachel M Nygaard, Ashley P Marek
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine the US trauma population before and after the Affordable Care Act (ACA), specifically examining racial disparities in insurance status as well as access to post-hospitalization care in the trauma population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank was queried for all non-burn patients age 18 to 64. The patient data was grouped into pre-ACA (2012-2013) and post-ACA (2014-2015). Regression analysis was controlled for age, sex, race (when applicable), type of injury (blunt vs penetrating), ISS, shock, head injury, and mechanical ventilation and clustered by hospital...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Louise Mercer, Lauren Jayne Evans, Robert Turton, Alison Beck
OBJECTIVE: To explore the differences in access to, and outcomes of, psychological therapy for different ethnic groups across a South London Mental Health Trust. METHOD: This study used Trust data to explore the proportions of ethnic groups accessing psychological therapy as a proportion of all patients supported by the Trust, as well as their outcomes within broad diagnostic clusters. RESULTS: Compared to proportions in the local population, there were significantly more White/White British patients and significantly fewer patients from 'other ethnic groups' in the Trust (p < ...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Thomas W Wojciechowski
PURPOSE: Investigate differences in community mental health service utilization by race among a sample of juvenile offenders in the time surrounding adjudication for a serious offense. It was predicted that racial minority youth would demonstrate lower utilization of these services. METHODS: The Pathways to Desistance data were used in analyses. This consisted of the responses of 1354 juvenile offenders. Wave 1 of the data was used in analyses. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relevance of racial identification and control covariates for predicting odds of receiving community mental health services during the prior 6 months...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Dorothy McLeod Loren, Amy Bohnert, Catherine DeCarlo Santiago
BACKGROUND: Risk for obesity increases for Mexican-origin immigrants and their children upon arrival in the USA. Acculturative factors have been shown to play a role, but the significance and directionality of this relation may differ based on the method used to measure acculturation. METHOD: This study examines the cross-sectional relations between several measures of acculturation and child zBMI, as well as the 12-month longitudinal relations between these measures and child BMI (adjusted for age and gender), in a sample of 102 6- to 11-year-old, Mexican-origin youth...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Gina Cotter, Katherine DuHamel, Elizabeth Schofield, Lina Jandorf
This study assessed the role of the processes of change (POC), a construct of the transtheoretical model, in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Latinos. Latinos participate in CRC screening less often and are diagnosed with CRC at a later stage than whites. POC items were administered to 344 English- and Spanish-speaking Latinos at average risk for CRC who had not had a colonoscopy in the past 5 years and received a colonoscopy referral. POC were measured at three timepoints: following informed consent (T1) at time of referral, 2 weeks prior to scheduled colonoscopy (T2), and 1 month after scheduled colonoscopy (T3)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Molly M Fuentes, Megan Moore, Qian Qiu, Alex Quistberg, Matthew Frank, Monica S Vavilala
OBJECTIVE: This study compares characteristics of American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) hospitalized for traumatic injury and examines the effect of race on hospital disposition. METHODS: Using 2007-2014 National Trauma Data Bank data, we described differences in demographic and injury characteristics between AI/AN (n = 39,656) and NHWs (n = 3,309,484) hospitalized with traumatic injuries. Multivariable regressions, adjusted for demographic and injury characteristics, compared in-hospital mortality and the risk of discharge to different dispositions (inpatient rehabilitation/long-term care facility, skilled nursing facility, home with home health services) rather than home between AI/AN and NHW patients...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Andrea L Stone, Shauna Elbers Carlisle
This study examines associations and potential interactions between race/ethnicity, workplace racial discrimination, depression, and negative emotional symptoms experienced due to treatment based on race. Data for this study come from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annual telephone survey of US residents, aged 18 and older. Respondents from MN and NM (n = 13,655) completed a module titled Reactions to Race, which contained items assessing workplace racial discrimination and negative emotions experienced based on treatment due to race, as well as standard BRFSS items assessing a diagnosis of depression...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Hind A Beydoun, May A Beydoun, Alan B Zonderman, Shaker M Eid
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine how health outcomes varied by treatment selection and race/ethnicity among hospitalized US patients with ruptured or unruptured IAs. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 62,224 hospital discharges from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Logistic regression models evaluated treatment selection as predictor of in-hospital survival (IHS: "yes," "no") and length of stay (LOS ≤ 7 days, > 7 days), overall and across racial/ethnic groups, taking hospital- and patient-level confounders into account, while stratifying by IA rupture status...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Apryl Joe, Cora McElwain, Kyla Woodard, Stephen Bell
The American Indian population has the highest rate of child abuse and neglect in the country at 14.2 cases per 1000 children. Yet, there is a paucity of child abuse interventions available and an even deeper need of culturally relevant interventions for American Indian families. This paper explores the literature of the existing interventions that are specifically used with American Indian families affected by child abuse and neglect. This paper is also a call for culturally relevant interventions and a proposal of recommendations for child abuse and neglect interventions for American Indian families...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jennifer M Stewart, Hyejeong Hong, Terrinieka W Powell
A vital piece in implementing and sustaining HIV testing and linkage-to-care within Black churches is the support of the pastors and church leadership. In order to promote church-based HIV testing and linkage-to-care, we explored pastor and church leaders' (1) HIV-related knowledge, (2) their perception of congregant and community engagement in HIV-related risks, and (3) the potential role of the church in HIV testing and linkage-to-care. We conducted focus groups with 57 church leaders and 8 interviews with pastors across 6 churches in Baltimore, MD, USA...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Lee R Mobley, Tzy-Mey Kuo, Mei Zhou, Yamisha Rutherford, Seth Meador, Julia Koschinsky
The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003, implemented in 2006, increased managed care options for seniors. It introduced insurance plans for prescription drug coverage for all Medicare beneficiaries, whether they were enrolled in FFS or managed care (Medicare Advantage) plans. The availability of drug coverage beginning in 2006 served to free up budgets for FFS Medicare enrollees that could be used to make copayments for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy). In 2007, Medicare eliminated the copayments required by seniors for CRC screening by endoscopy...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Megan Saad
Postpartum depression (PPD) refers to a woman's experience with any depressive episode occurring within the first year of the postpartum period (Stewart et al., 2008;53(2):121-4). While PPD is a global phenomenon, the distribution of PPD within populations is not universal. Indeed, evidence from the Canadian literature confirms a significant disparity in PPD outcomes, as the prevalence rate of PPD is markedly increased among immigrant women (Stewart et al., 2008;53(2):121-4), and immigration status emerges as an important risk factor for PPD...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jaesin Sa, Marcia Russell, Miranda Ritterman Weintruab, Dong-Chul Seo, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mohammad Habib
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic variations in both alcohol consumption and obesity prevalence are well established. However, previous research indicates that drinking patterns influence the relation of alcohol intake to body mass index (BMI), and information on racial/ethnic differences in the relation of drinking pattern to BMI is lacking. METHODS: Multi-year cross-sectional data extracted from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults ≥ 20 years (N = 25,816) were used...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Alexis Jemal, Myrtho Gardiner, Katharine Bloeser
Since race is a social construct, the experience of racial discrimination occurs based on perceived race. This study explores the moderating effects of self-identified race and perceived racial identity on the relationship between perceived discrimination in the workplace and mentally unhealthy days using data derived from the four states (Arizona, Minnesota, Mississippi, and New Mexico) that responded to the 2014 Reactions to Race module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The study hypothesized that self-identified White people, also perceived as White (WW), would have less perceived workplace discrimination and less mentally unhealthy days than self-identified non-White people perceived as White (NWW); NWW would have less perceived discrimination associated with mentally unhealthy days than self-identified White perceived as non-White (WNW); and, WNW would have less perceived discrimination associated with mentally unhealthy days than self-identified non-White perceived as non-White (NWNW)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Sonja S Hutchins, Karen Bouye, George Luber, Lisa Briseno, Candis Hunter, Liza Corso
During the past several decades, unprecedented global changes in climate have given rise to an increase in extreme weather and other climate events and their consequences such as heavy rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, heat waves, wildfires, and air pollution. These climate effects have direct impacts on human health such as premature death, injuries, exacerbation of health conditions, disruption of mental well-being, as well as indirect impacts through food- and water-related infections and illnesses. While all populations are at risk for these adverse health outcomes, some populations are at greater risk because of multiple vulnerabilities resulting from increased exposure to risk-prone areas, increased sensitivity due to underlying health conditions, and limited adaptive capacity primarily because of a lack of economic resources to respond adequately...
December 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Andres G Viana, Chad Lemaire, Monica Garza, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Joseph W Ditre, Nubia A Mayorga, Michael J Zvolensky
Latinos, one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, suffer from high rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and its clinical correlates (e.g., disability). Although research suggests the experience of pain is closely related to PTS among trauma-exposed groups, there has been little exploration of the processes that may link pain intensity to greater PTS among trauma-exposed Latinos. The current study explored insomnia, a common problem associated with both pain intensity and PTS, as a mechanism in the association between pain intensity and PTS among trauma-exposed Latinos (N = 208, Mage  = 39...
December 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Stephanie M McClure, Travis M Loux
Lower rates of recreational physical activity (PA) among African American (AA) adolescent girls relative to other US age/race/gender groups are assumed to reflect within-race similarity in PA attitudes and practices. However, variability in PA attitudes and practices among AA adolescent girls is not well studied. To address this, a class-diverse sample of 51 AA adolescent girls' responses to survey items querying weight concern (WC) and PA was examined for sub-groupings using cluster analysis. Three clusters were identified [L/H-low WC, high PA; H/L-high WC, low PA; and L/L-low WC and PA]...
December 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Karen Kim, Michal Quinn, Helen Lam
Chinese Americans are one of the fastest-growing and largest Asian-American subgroups. Approximately 70% of Chinese Americans are immigrants with 46% being of limited English proficiency. Despite colorectal cancer (CRC) being the second leading cause of cancer death in Chinese Americans, Chinese Americans have lower CRC screening rates than other Asian subgroups, and only 40% of CRC cases among Chinese Americans are diagnosed early. Furthermore, CRC is the second most common cancer among Chinese American women...
December 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Xian Sun, Tippawan Liabsuetrakul, Xiaomin Xie, Ping Liu, Yuhong Zhang, Zhizhong Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications has been increasing worldwide with an increasing provision of long-term medications and health services. This study aimed to assess the healthcare costs for T2DM patients for vulnerable ethnic minority. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 13, 2016, to June 19, 2017, in two public hospitals in Ningxia, China. Eligible Hui and Han inpatients were recruited and interviewed...
December 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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