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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597246/criminal-justice-contact-stressors-and-obesity-related-health-problems-among-black-adults-in-the-usa
#1
Paul C Archibald, Lauren Parker, Roland Thorpe
Criminal justice contact-defined as lifetime arrest, parole, or incarceration, seems to exacerbate chronic conditions, and those who are most likely to have had contact with the criminal justice system, such as Black adults, often already have pre-existing disproportionately high rates of stress and chronic conditions due to the social determinants of health that affect underrepresented minorities. Findings from this study suggest that there is a mechanism that links the stressors among Black adults manifested by such factors as family, financial, neighborhood, and personal problems with criminal justice contact to obesity-related health status...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593505/correlates-of-social-support-among-latino-immigrants
#2
Mary L Held
Latino immigrants encounter considerable stressors that pose risks to health and well-being during settlement in the USA. Social support serves as a protective factor that can help to buffer the negative effects of stress. Despite the importance of social support, we know little about how Latino immigrants differentially experience this protective factor. The current study analyzed data from 100 Latino immigrants residing in Tennessee. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed to examine variation in self-reported social support by immigrant characteristics and immigration-related factors...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573643/neighborhood-disadvantage-residential-segregation-and-beyond-lessons-for-studying-structural-racism-and-health
#3
Alicia R Riley
A recent surge of interest in identifying the health effects of structural racism has coincided with the ongoing attention to neighborhood effects in both epidemiology and sociology. Mindful of these currents in the literature, it makes sense that we are seeing an emergent tendency in health disparities research to operationalize structural racism as either neighborhood disadvantage or racial residential segregation. This review essay synthesizes findings on the relevance of neighborhood disadvantage and residential segregation to the study of structural racism and health...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567616/chagas-disease-knowledge-and-risk-behaviors-of-the-homeless-population-in-houston-tx
#4
Alexandra Ingber, Melissa N Garcia, Juan Leon, Kristy O Murray
Chagas disease is a parasitic infection, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Sylvatic T. cruzi-infected triatomine vectors are present in rural and urban areas in the southern USA and may transmit T. cruzi infection to at-risk populations, such as homeless individuals. Our study aimed to evaluate Chagas disease knowledge and behaviors potentially associated with transmission risk of Chagas disease among Houston, Texas' homeless population by performing interviews with 212 homeless individuals...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550353/health-policy-responsiveness-lessons-learned-from-maryland-and-prince-george-s-county
#5
Byron Sogie-Thomas, John Sankofa, Crystal Reed, Kweisi Mfume, Lauren Abla Doamekpor
Effective, timely, and intentional policy efforts can significantly impact and improve the public's health and reduce racial and ethnic health disparities across the nation. Creating and implementing responsive policies at the state and county level is essential to supporting community efforts to improve health behaviors and health outcomes, particularly for communities of color who bear the brunt of disease risk and negative health outcomes. Using policy examples from the State of Maryland and Prince George's County, the largest and wealthiest predominately African-American county in the USA, this case study highlights the importance of state and county policy action when presented with opportunities to affect long-lasting, positive change...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534304/an-american-crisis-the-lack-of-black-men-in-medicine
#6
Cato T Laurencin, Marsha Murray
The current state of diversity within the US medical workforce does not reflect representative numbers of the Black male population. Research data continues to reveal continuing trends in the areas of discrimination, incarceration, health disparities, and mortality with respect to Black males. The lack of increase in Black male medical school applications and matriculation contrasted by the continuing trends mentioned above illustrates that there is in fact an American crisis. We present here a call to arms, to address the need of African-American men in medicine...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526974/the-health-equity-scholars-program-innovation-in-the-leaky-pipeline
#7
Carole C Upshur, Diedra M Wrighting, Gonzalo Bacigalupe, Joan Becker, Laura Hayman, Barbara Lewis, Sylvia Mignon, Megan E Rokop, Elizabeth Sweet, Marie Idali Torres, Paul Watanabe, Cedric Woods
Despite attempts to increase enrollment of under-represented minorities (URMs: primarily Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American students) in health professional programs, limited progress has been made. Compelling reasons to rectify this situation include equity for URMs, better prepared health professionals when programs are diverse, better quality and access to health care for UMR populations, and the need for diverse talent to tackle difficult questions in health science and health care delivery...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488251/ethnic-identity-and-regional-differences-in-mental-health-in-a-national-sample-of-african-american-young-adults
#8
Monnica T Williams, Gerardo Duque, Chad T Wetterneck, L Kevin Chapman, Ryan C T DeLapp
Prior research has found that a strong positive ethnic identity is a protective factor against anxiety and depression in African Americans. In this study, ethnic identity is examined in a geographically representative sample of African American young adults (n = 242), using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) (Phinney in J Adolescent Res 7:156-76, 15). The two-factor structure of the measure (Roberts et al. in J Early Adolescence 19:301-22, 1) was analyzed using a structural equation model and displayed an acceptable fit only when multiple error terms were correlated...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488250/erratum-to-ethnic-differences-in-persistence-with-copd-medications-a-register-based-study
#9
Yusun Hu, Lourdes Cantarero-Arévalo, Anne Frølich, Ramune Jacobsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455687/assessing-child-body-mass-index-perceptions-among-african-american-caregivers-in-a-rural-community
#10
Dayna S Alexander, Moya L Alfonso, Chunhua Cao, Andrew R Hansen
In the USA, African American children residing in rural areas are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. One strategy for preventing childhood obesity is helping caregivers to recognize their child is overweight or obese. The purpose of this study is to assess African American caregivers' perceived level of their child's obesity status and concordance between caregiver's reported height and weight of their children compared to the objective measure of their child's height and weight. Caregivers completed a paper-based survey about perceptions of their child's weight status including body silhouettes (n = 119) and self-reported their child's body mass index status (n = 68)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452008/underrepresentation-of-hispanics-and-other-minorities-in-clinical-trials-recruiters-perspectives
#11
Aurora Occa, Susan E Morgan, JoNell E Potter
Clinical trials and research studies often fail to recruit participants from the minorities, hampering the generalizability of results. In order to mitigate this problem, the present study investigated how race/ethnicity affects the process of recruiting people from racial and ethnic minority groups, by conducting 11 focus groups with professional recruiters. Several themes emerged, such as how to adapt to potential participants' language competency and literacy levels, the importance to engage in culturally appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication, and to establish a sense of homophily between recruiters and patients...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447275/risk-factors-for-shoulder-dystocia-the-impact-of-mother-s-race-and-ethnicity
#12
Jennifer Gaudet Hefele, Palmira Santos, Grant Ritter, Neha Varma, Ann Hendrich
Shoulder dystocia is a rare but severe birth trauma where the neonate's shoulders fail to deliver after delivery of the head. Failure to deliver the shoulders quickly can lead to severe, long-term injury to the infant, including nerve injury, skeletal fractures, and potentially death. This observational study examined shoulder dystocia risk factors by race and ethnicity using a sample of 19,236 pregnant women who presented for labor and delivery from July 1, 2010 until June 30, 2013 at five locations. Multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with shoulder dystocia occurrence in racial/ethnic groups with high incidence rates...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444629/stress-measured-by-allostatic-load-score-varies-by-reason-for-immigration-the-africans-in-america-study
#13
Jean N Utumatwishima, Rafeal L Baker, Brianna A Bingham, Stephanie T Chung, David Berrigan, Anne E Sumner
OBJECTIVE: Reason for immigration as a biological stress has not been studied in Africans. Our goal was to determine in African immigrants, if biological stress measured by allostatic load score (ALS) varies by reason for immigration. METHODS: Using an ALS which had been previously developed with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to assess stress due to racism and nativity, ALS was calculated in 85 African immigrants (67% male, age 42 ± 10 years)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444628/moving-beyond-age-an-exploratory-qualitative-study-on-the-context-of-young-african-american-men-and-women-s-sexual-debut
#14
Yzette Lanier, Jennifer M Stewart, Jean J Schensul, Barbara J Guthrie
African American youth continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. Early sexual debut has been identified as a major determinant of HIV risk. However, emerging research suggests that the overarching context in which first sex occurs may have greater implications for sexual health than simply age alone. The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to better understand the broader context of African Americans' sexual debut. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 African American men and women aged 18-24 years...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444627/level-of-cigarette-consumption-and-duration-of-smoking-abstinence-during-failed-quit-attempts-among-long-term-daily-smokers-the-role-of-race-ethnicity-and-cessation-aids
#15
Julia N Soulakova, Lisa J Crockett
The goal of this study was to determine whether race/ethnicity and use of smoking cessation aids are associated with the duration of the last serious quit attempt and reductions in cigarette consumption among long-term daily smokers who tried, and failed, to quit smoking during the preceding year. Data came from the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement survey conducted in the USA, and analyses included 6672 reports of long-term daily smokers (i.e., smokers who smoked daily for 1 year or longer) who made at least one serious quit attempt in the past 12 months...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434102/outcomes-following-surgical-management-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-does-race-matter
#16
Amit Jain, Emmanuel Menga, Addisu Mesfin
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a surgical emergency requiring urgent spinal decompression. Our objective is to analyze the association between race and in-hospital outcomes (complications, mortality, length of stay, and discharge disposition) in patients with CES. This is a retrospective cohort study of CES patients identified via the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2010 in inpatient hospitalizations in the USA. The patient sample includes 46,017 patients ≥18 undergoing spine surgery for CES...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411330/a-restorative-yoga-intervention-for-african-american-breast-cancer-survivors-a-pilot-study
#17
Teletia R Taylor, Judith Barrow, Kepher Makambi, Vanessa Sheppard, Sherrie Flynt Wallington, Chloe Martin, Danyella Greene, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi Yeruva, Sara Horton
BACKGROUND: Data show that yoga is effective for improving health-related outcomes in breast cancer survivors. While breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among African-American women (AAW), AAW are less likely to engage in yoga compared to other ethnic groups. The goals of the current study were to assess the feasibility of an 8-week restorative yoga program among African-American breast cancer survivors (AA BCS). Specifically, study aims were to (1) measure changes in study outcomes in a restorative yoga (RY) group compared to a wait list control group, (2) assess adherence to the RY program, and (3) assess program satisfaction among study participants...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411329/racial-and-ethnic-difference-in-falls-among-older-adults-results-from-the-california-health-interview-survey
#18
Simona C Kwon, Benjamin H Han, Julie A Kranick, Laura C Wyatt, Caroline S Blaum, Stella S Yi, Chau Trinh-Shevrin
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that fall risk among older adults varies by racial/ethnic groups; however, few studies have examined fall risk among Hispanics and Asian American older adults. METHODS: Using 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data, this study examines falling ≥2 times in the past year by racial/ethnic groups (Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks) aged ≥65, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, co-morbidities, and functional limitations...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411328/dance-and-hometown-associations-are-promising-strategies-to-improve-physical-activity-participation-among-us-nigerian-transnational-immigrants
#19
Kelechi Ibe-Lamberts, Daudet Ilunga Tshiswaka, Ifeyinwa Onyenekwu, Andiara Schwingel, Juliet Iwelunmor
OBJECTIVE: Lack of physical activity participation has been identified as a determinant for negative health outcomes across various ethnicities worldwide and within the USA. We investigated the perceptions of the prospects of promoting dancing within hometown associations as a form for improving physical activity participation for Nigerian Transnational Immigrants (NTIs) in the USA: a migrant cohort subset of individuals who maintain cross-border ties with their indigenous communities of origin...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411327/racial-differences-in-mental-health-recovery-among-veterans-with-serious-mental-illness
#20
Mana K Ali, Samantha M Hack, Clayton H Brown, Deborah Medoff, Lijuan Fang, Elizabeth A Klingaman, Stephanie G Park, Lisa B Dixon, Julie A Kreyenbuhl
Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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