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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Tracy L Finlayson, Hector Lemus, Karen Becerra, Linda M Kaste, Shirley M Beaver, Christian R Salazar, Richard H Singer, Marston E Youngblood
This study investigates how perceived unfair treatment, towards self and observed towards others due to ethnicity, is associated with periodontitis among diverse Hispanic/Latino adults, accounting for sociodemographic, health behavior, and acculturation factors. Baseline (2008-2011) dental and survey data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a multicenter epidemiologic study, were analyzed (N = 12,750). Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and confidence limits were estimated...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
LaTasha B Craig, Elizabeth A Weedin, William D Walker, Amanda E Janitz, Karl R Hansen, Jennifer D Peck
BACKGROUND: No research exists on American Indian pregnancy rates following infertility treatment. Most racial/ethnic fertility research has focused on pregnancy following in vitro fertilization, with only rare studies looking at intrauterine insemination (IUI). The objective of our study was to compare fecundability following IUI by race/ethnicity, with a special focus on American Indians. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of subjects undergoing IUI July 2007-May 2012 at a university-based infertility clinic...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Victoria I Okhomina, LáShauntá Glover, Herman Taylor, Mario Sims
BACKGROUND: Although discrimination among African Americans (AAs) has been linked to various health outcomes, few studies have examined associations of multiple measures of discrimination with prevalent subclinical disease in a large sample of AAs. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of measures of discrimination and coping responses to discrimination with prevalent subclinical disease among AAs in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS); and whether this association is modified by sex...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Kiara L Moore
Limited ability to engage underserved racial-ethnic minority young adults into treatment contributes to mental health disparities among this population. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the evidence for interventions that can improve their engagement with mental health services. A database search and bibliographic review yielded 1264 studies that were assessed according to the following inclusion criteria: sample with a mean age between 13 and 27; sufficient ethnic/racial representation (at least 50%); an explicitly stated objective for the intervention of improving mental health treatment engagement among adolescents and young adults (e...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Keanan McGonigle, Tess Carley, Clarissa Hoff
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed racial disparities in access to healthcare services, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure, and retention in a treatment cascade in two indigent populations in an urban center in the Southern US. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: Opt-in HCV antibody screening was offered at two large homeless centers and three residential substance abuse treatment centers (SATCs) in New Orleans, LA. Five hundred ninety-four participants experiencing homelessness and 342 residents of SATCs were assessed for previous access/perceived barriers to healthcare services and high-risk behaviors associated with HCV exposure...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Anita Kurt, Hope Kincaid, Lauren Semler, Jeanne L Jacoby, Melanie B Johnson, Beth A Careyva, Brian Stello, Timothy Friel, John C Smulian, Mark C Knouse
Our study investigates whether levels of motivation and barriers to participation in clinical trials vary with patients' education and income. A self-administered survey asked outpatients to rank potential influential factors on a "0" to "4" significance scale for their motivation to participate in clinical trials. Principal component analysis (PCA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests analyzed the impact of race, education, and income on their motivation to participate. Analysis included 1841 surveys; most respondents had a high school education or some college, and listed annual income < $30,000...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Andrew D Case, David E Eagle, Jia Yao, Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell
AIM: Sophisticated adjustments for socioeconomic status (SES) in health disparities research may help illuminate the independent role of race in health differences between Blacks and Whites. In this study of people who share the same occupation (United Methodist Church clergy) and state of residence (North Carolina), we employed naturalistic and statistical matching to estimate the association between race-above and beyond present SES and other potential confounds-and health disparities...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jennifer M Kwan, Zahraa Hajjiri, Yi Fan Chen, Ahmed Metwally, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
Renal transplant outcomes have been shown to be impacted by ethnicity. Prior studies have evaluated the disparate transplant outcomes of Black recipients and recipients of Black donors. However, it has remained unclear whether other donor ethnicities independent of medical comorbidities can influence transplant outcomes. Utilizing the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) (with greater than 100,000 patients), we evaluated the effect of each ethnicity, Black, American Indian, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and Asian as compared to White recipients on adverse kidney transplant outcomes, assessing for delayed graft function, positive urine protein, acute rejection, and graft failure...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Sabina O Nduaguba, Kentya H Ford, James P Wilson, Kenneth A Lawson
National studies show that Blacks with HIV have higher mortality rates compared to Whites. This study aimed to identify trends in Black racial disparities among Texas residents living with HIV. Using HIV surveillance data from the Texas Department of State Health Services, a cohort of HIV-diagnosed patients (N = 70,996) were identified and grouped according to year of diagnosis, 1996-1997 (T1), 1998-2006 (T2), 2007-2010 (T3), and 2011-2013 (T4). Survival analysis was used to examine racial differences in death rate (analysis 1) and clinical progression to AIDS (analysis 2) for each subcohort, using Blacks as the reference group...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Gisel Lorena Fattore, Leila D Amorim, Letícia Marques Dos Santos, Darci Neves Dos Santos, Mauricio Lima Barreto
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the association between personal-level and group-level discrimination and common mental disorders (CMDs) among Afro-Brazilian women, aiming to explore the role of skin color on this association. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 1130 women who were participating in the Social Change, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America (SCAALA) study, whose children were recruited from 24 geographical micro-regions representative of the population without sanitation...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Emanuela Offidani, Giada Benasi, Mary E Charlson, Joseph E Ravenell, Carla Boutin-Foster
BACKGROUND: African Americans develop hypertension earlier and have worse cardiovascular outcomes than Caucasians. Accumulating evidence suggests that psychological distress may play a role in the observed racial differences in hypertension. Several studies have investigated the relationship between depression and hypertension while little is still known about the role of demoralization. METHODS: Using data from the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect, and Self-affirmation in African Americans with Hypertension (TRIUMPH), logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in blood pressure control at 12 months among participants with demoralization, depression, and both conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Yvonne Commodore-Mensah, Nadine Matthie, Jessica Wells, Sandra B Dunbar, Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, Lisa A Cooper, Rasheeta D Chandler
In the United States (U.S.), Blacks have higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than other racial groups. The Black racial group includes African Americans (AAs), African immigrants (AIs), and Afro-Caribbeans (ACs); however, little research examines how social determinants differentially influence CVD risk factors in each ethnic subgroup. We analyzed the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized civilians...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Allison B Brenner, Ana V Diez-Roux, Samson Y Gebreab, Amy J Schulz, Mario Sims
Differences in coping within the African American population are not well understood, yet these differences may be critical to reducing stress, improving health, and reducing racial health disparities. Using a descriptive, exploratory analysis of the Jackson Heart Study (N = 5301), we examine correlations between coping responses and associations between coping and demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and neighborhood factors. Overall, coping responses were not strongly correlated and patterns of associations between covariates and coping responses were largely inconsistent...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Erica C Spears, Margaret J Foster, Timethia J Bonner
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes and is preventable in many instances. African-Americans are disproportionately represented in T2DM statistics. The strategies in place to prevent disease development in this population warrant critical examination. METHODS: A scoping review of literature was conducted to provide an overview of the largely inconsistent approach to African-American T2DM prevention research. Specific research questions included: (1) How are African-Americans treated in the existing T2DM literature? (1a) Are African-Americans primarily treated as a homogenous group in the literature? (1b) Has the literature addressed middle-class African-Americans? (2) Is the T2DM prevention literature focused on primary or secondary prevention? The review included articles published from 1985 to 2016, examining the methodology and approach toward African-Americans in each article...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Brittany D Chambers, Jennifer Toller Erausquin, Amanda E Tanner, Tracy R Nichols, Shelly Brown-Jeffy
Despite decreases in infants born premature and at low birth weight in the United States (U.S.), racial disparities between Black and White women continue. In response, the purpose of this analysis was to examine associations between both traditional and novel indicators of county-level structural racism and birth outcomes among Black and White women. We merged individual-level data from the California Birth Statistical Master Files 2009-2013 with county-level data from the United States (U.S.) Census American Community Survey...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
David M Washington, Laura M Curtis, Katherine Waite, Michael S Wolf, Michael K Paasche-Orlow
BACKGROUND: Race and ethnicity-based disparities in childhood asthma are well established. We characterized the longitudinal effects associated with being African-American/Black or Hispanic/Latino on a range of asthma outcomes, and the extent to which sociodemographic factors, caregiver health literacy, education level, and asthma knowledge mediate these associations. METHODS: Children ages 8-15 and their caregivers (n = 544) in the Chicago Initiative to Raise Asthma Health Equity (CHIRAH) cohort completed interviews every 3 months for 1...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Inyang A Isong, Tracy Richmond, Mauricio Avendaño, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: While previous studies have documented racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity, less is known about when disparities emerge, how they evolve, and the most appropriate early childhood period for targeted interventions. We examined racial/ethnic differences in growth trajectories among US kindergarten-aged children followed from birth and identified sensitive periods at which disparities emerge. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a longitudinal study design using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort data...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Donna M Cole, Dawna Marie Thomas, Kelsi Field, Amelia Wool, Taryn Lipiner, Natalie Massenberg, Barbara J Guthrie
Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Vincent Grzywacz, Nasir Hussain, Neli Ragina
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the various factors that influence colorectal cancer screening in Michigan using 6091 participants in the Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System representing adults ≥ 50 years old. METHODS: Screening for colorectal cancer was assessed as fecal occult blood testing or colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy. Full models simultaneously adjusted for alcohol use, angina/coronary heart disease, stroke, heart attack, gender, income, marital status, race, age, diabetes, disability, exercise, health care coverage, health care access, smoking, and mental health...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Wyatt J Pickner, Katherine M Ziegler, Jessica D Hanson, Nathaniel R Payne, Heather G Zook, Anupam B Kharbanda, Tess L Weber, Jaymi N Russo, Susan E Puumala
Emergency department (ED) utilization by American Indian (AI) children is among the highest in the nation. Numerous health disparities have been well documented in AI children, but limited information is available on parental experiences of care for AI children in the ED. Our objective was to understand parental attitudes towards ED care for AI children. Focus groups were held with AI parents/caregivers at five sites in the Upper Midwest. Traditional content analysis was used to identify themes. A total of 70 parents participated in ten focus groups...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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