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Language, Cognition and Neuroscience

Benedikt Zoefel, Matthew H Davis
Transcranial electric stimulation (tES), comprising transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), involves applying weak electrical current to the scalp, which can be used to modulate membrane potentials and thereby modify neural activity. Critically, behavioural or perceptual consequences of this modulation provide evidence for a causal role of neural activity in the stimulated brain region for the observed outcome. We present tES as a tool for the investigation of which neural responses are necessary for successful speech perception and comprehension...
August 9, 2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Jie Zhuang, Barry J Devereux
As spoken language unfolds over time the speech input transiently activates multiple candidates at different levels of the system - phonological, lexical, and syntactic - which in turn leads to short-lived between-candidate competition. In an fMRI study, we investigated how different kinds of linguistic competition may be modulated by the presence or absence of a prior context (Tyler 1984; Tyler et al. 2008). We found significant effects of lexico-phonological competition for isolated words, but not for words in short phrases, with high competition yielding greater activation in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal regions...
February 7, 2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Simon W Davis, Matthew L Stanley, Morris Moscovitch, Roberto Cabeza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Antoine J Shahin, Stanley Shen, Jess R Kerlin
We examined the relationship between tolerance for audiovisual onset asynchrony (AVOA) and the spectrotemporal fidelity of the spoken words and the speaker's mouth movements. In two experiments that only varied in the temporal order of sensory modality, visual speech leading (exp1) or lagging (exp2) acoustic speech, participants watched intact and blurred videos of a speaker uttering trisyllabic words and nonwords that were noise vocoded with 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-channels. They judged whether the speaker's mouth movements and the speech sounds were in-sync or out-of-sync...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Joost Rommers, Danielle S Dickson, James J S Norton, Edward W Wlotko, Kara D Federmeier
Despite strong evidence for prediction during language comprehension, the underlying mechanisms, and the extent to which they are specific to language, remain unclear. Re-analyzing an ERP study, we examined responses in the time-frequency domain to expected and unexpected (but plausible) words in strongly and weakly constraining sentences, and found results similar to those reported in nonverbal domains. Relative to expected words, unexpected words elicited an increase in the theta band (4-7 Hz) in strongly constraining contexts, suggesting the involvement of control processes to deal with the consequences of having a prediction disconfirmed...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Karen L Campbell, Daniel L Schacter
Recent years have seen the rise in popularity of the resting state approach to neurocognitive aging, with many studies examining age differences in functional connectivity at rest and relating these differences to cognitive performance outside the scanner. There are many advantages to the resting state that likely contribute to its popularity and indeed, many insights have been gained from this work. However, there are also several limitations of the resting state approach that restrict its ability to contribute to the study of neurocognitive aging...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Karen L Campbell, Daniel L Schacter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Dominik Freunberger, Dietmar Roehm
Do people predict specific word-forms during language comprehension? In an Event-Related Potential (ERP) study participants read German sentences with predictable (The goalkeeper claims that the slick ball was easy to CATCH.) and unpredictable (The kids boasted that the young horse was easy to SADDLE.) verbs. Verbs were either consistent with the expected word-form (catch/saddle) or inconsistent and therefore led to ungrammaticality (*catches/*saddles). ERPs within the N400 time-window were modulated by predictability but not by the surface-form of the verbs, suggesting that no exact word-forms were predicted...
October 20, 2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Kevin Schluter, Stephen Politzer-Ahles, Diogo Almeida
The representational format of speech units in long-term memory is a topic of debate. We present novel event-related brain potential evidence from the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm that is compatible with abstract, non-redundant feature-based models like the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon (FUL). First, we show that the fricatives /s/ and /f/ display an asymmetric pattern of MMN responses, which is predicted if /f/ has a fully specified place of articulation ([Labial]) but /s/ does not ([Coronal], which is lexically underspecified)...
July 2, 2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Ingrid Masson-Carro, Martijn Goudbeek, Emiel Krahmer
Hand gestures are tightly coupled with speech and with action. Hence, recent accounts have emphasised the idea that simulations of spatio-motoric imagery underlie the production of co-speech gestures. In this study, we suggest that action simulations directly influence the iconic strategies used by speakers to translate aspects of their mental representations into gesture. Using a classic referential paradigm, we investigate how speakers respond gesturally to the affordances of objects, by comparing the effects of describing objects that afford action performance (such as tools) and those that do not, on gesture production...
March 15, 2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Dennis Norris, James M McQueen, Anne Cutler
Speech perception involves prediction, but how is that prediction implemented? In cognitive models prediction has often been taken to imply that there is feedback of activation from lexical to pre-lexical processes as implemented in interactive-activation models (IAMs). We show that simple activation feedback does not actually improve speech recognition. However, other forms of feedback can be beneficial. In particular, feedback can enable the listener to adapt to changing input, and can potentially help the listener to recognise unusual input, or recognise speech in the presence of competing sounds...
January 2, 2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Mallory C Stites, Kara D Federmeier, Kiel Christianson
The current study investigates the online processing consequences of encountering compound words with transposed letters (TLs), to determine if TLs that cross morpheme boundaries are more disruptive to reading than those within a single morpheme, as would be predicted by accounts of obligatory morpho-orthopgrahic decomposition. Two measures of online processing, eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs), were collected in separate experiments. Participants read sentences containing correctly spelled compound words (cupcake), or compounds with TLs occurring either across morpheme boundaries (cucpake) or within one morpheme (cupacke)...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Grant M Walker, Gregory Hickok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Carla Contemori, Paola E Dussias
One central question in research on spoken language communication concerns how speakers decide how explicit to make a referential expression. In the present paper, we address the debate between a discourse-based approach and a listener-based approach to the choice of referring expressions by testing second language (L2) learners of English on the production of English referential expressions, and comparing their performance to a group of monolingual speakers of English. In two experiments, we found that when native speakers of English use full noun phrases, the L2 speakers tend to choose a pronoun, even when the use of a pronoun leads to ambiguity...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Bradford Z Mahon, Eduardo Navarrete
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Matthew W Lowder, Peter C Gordon
Previous work has shown that the difficulty associated with processing complex semantic expressions is reduced when the critical constituents appear in separate clauses as opposed to when they appear together in the same clause. We investigated this effect further, focusing in particular on complement coercion, in which an event-selecting verb (e.g., began) combines with a complement that represents an entity (e.g., began the memo). Experiment 1 compared reading times for coercion versus control expressions when the critical verb and complement appeared together in a subject-extracted relative clause (SRC) (e...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Nazbanou Nozari, Michael Freund, Bonnie Breining, Brenda Rapp, Barry Gordon
Production of an intended word entails selection processes, in which first the lexical item and then its segments are selected among competitors, as well as processes that covertly or overtly repair dispreferred words. In two experiments, we studied the locus of the control processes involved in selection (selection control) and intercepting errors (post-monitoring control). Selection control was studied by manipulating the overlap (contextual similarity) in either semantics or in segments between two objects that participants repeatedly named...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Bob McMurray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
David W Gow, Bruna B Olson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
David W Gow, Bruna B Olson
Sentential context influences the way that listeners identify phonetically ambiguous or perceptual degraded speech sounds. Unfortunately, inherent inferential limitations on the interpretation of behavioral or BOLD imaging results make it unclear whether context influences perceptual processing directly, or acts at a post-perceptual decision stage. In this paper, we use Kalman-filter enabled Granger causation analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to distinguish between these possibilities. Using a retrospective probe verification task, we found that sentential context strongly affected the interpretation of words with ambiguous initial voicing (e...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
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