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Language, Cognition and Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164141/phonological-and-syntactic-competition-effects-in-spoken-word-recognition-evidence-from-corpus-based-statistics
#1
Jie Zhuang, Barry J Devereux
As spoken language unfolds over time the speech input transiently activates multiple candidates at different levels of the system - phonological, lexical, and syntactic - which in turn leads to short-lived between-candidate competition. In an fMRI study, we investigated how different kinds of linguistic competition may be modulated by the presence or absence of a prior context (Tyler 1984; Tyler et al. 2008). We found significant effects of lexico-phonological competition for isolated words, but not for words in short phrases, with high competition yielding greater activation in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal regions...
February 7, 2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626776/aging-and-the-resting-state-is-cognition-obsolete
#2
Karen L Campbell, Daniel L Schacter
Recent years have seen the rise in popularity of the resting state approach to neurocognitive aging, with many studies examining age differences in functional connectivity at rest and relating these differences to cognitive performance outside the scanner. There are many advantages to the resting state that likely contribute to its popularity and indeed, many insights have been gained from this work. However, there are also several limitations of the resting state approach that restrict its ability to contribute to the study of neurocognitive aging...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603744/aging-and-the-resting-state-cognition-is-not-obsolete
#3
Karen L Campbell, Daniel L Schacter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868079/semantic-prediction-in-language-comprehension-evidence-from-brain-potentials
#4
Dominik Freunberger, Dietmar Roehm
Do people predict specific word-forms during language comprehension? In an Event-Related Potential (ERP) study participants read German sentences with predictable (The goalkeeper claims that the slick ball was easy to CATCH.) and unpredictable (The kids boasted that the young horse was easy to SADDLE.) verbs. Verbs were either consistent with the expected word-form (catch/saddle) or inconsistent and therefore led to ungrammaticality (*catches/*saddles). ERPs within the N400 time-window were modulated by predictability but not by the surface-form of the verbs, suggesting that no exact word-forms were predicted...
October 20, 2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366758/no-place-for-h-an-erp-investigation-of-english-fricative-place-features
#5
Kevin Schluter, Stephen Politzer-Ahles, Diogo Almeida
The representational format of speech units in long-term memory is a topic of debate. We present novel event-related brain potential evidence from the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm that is compatible with abstract, non-redundant feature-based models like the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon (FUL). First, we show that the fricatives /s/ and /f/ display an asymmetric pattern of MMN responses, which is predicted if /f/ has a fully specified place of articulation ([Labial]) but /s/ does not ([Coronal], which is lexically underspecified)...
July 2, 2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226970/can-you-handle-this-the-impact-of-object-affordances-on-how-co-speech-gestures-are-produced
#6
Ingrid Masson-Carro, Martijn Goudbeek, Emiel Krahmer
Hand gestures are tightly coupled with speech and with action. Hence, recent accounts have emphasised the idea that simulations of spatio-motoric imagery underlie the production of co-speech gestures. In this study, we suggest that action simulations directly influence the iconic strategies used by speakers to translate aspects of their mental representations into gesture. Using a classic referential paradigm, we investigate how speakers respond gesturally to the affordances of objects, by comparing the effects of describing objects that afford action performance (such as tools) and those that do not, on gesture production...
March 15, 2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740960/prediction-bayesian-inference-and-feedback-in-speech-recognition
#7
Dennis Norris, James M McQueen, Anne Cutler
Speech perception involves prediction, but how is that prediction implemented? In cognitive models prediction has often been taken to imply that there is feedback of activation from lexical to pre-lexical processes as implemented in interactive-activation models (IAMs). We show that simple activation feedback does not actually improve speech recognition. However, other forms of feedback can be beneficial. In particular, feedback can enable the listener to adapt to changing input, and can potentially help the listener to recognise unusual input, or recognise speech in the presence of competing sounds...
January 2, 2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626775/referential-choice-in-a-second-language-evidence-for-a-listener-oriented-approach
#8
Carla Contemori, Paola E Dussias
One central question in research on spoken language communication concerns how speakers decide how explicit to make a referential expression. In the present paper, we address the debate between a discourse-based approach and a listener-based approach to the choice of referring expressions by testing second language (L2) learners of English on the production of English referential expressions, and comparing their performance to a group of monolingual speakers of English. In two experiments, we found that when native speakers of English use full noun phrases, the L2 speakers tend to choose a pronoun, even when the use of a pronoun leads to ambiguity...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580364/modelling-lexical-access-in-speech-production-as-a-ballistic-process
#9
Bradford Z Mahon, Eduardo Navarrete
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529960/eye-tracking-and-corpus-based-analyses-of-syntax-semantics-interactions-in-complement-coercion
#10
Matthew W Lowder, Peter C Gordon
Previous work has shown that the difficulty associated with processing complex semantic expressions is reduced when the critical constituents appear in separate clauses as opposed to when they appear together in the same clause. We investigated this effect further, focusing in particular on complement coercion, in which an event-selecting verb (e.g., began) combines with a complement that represents an entity (e.g., began the memo). Experiment 1 compared reading times for coercion versus control expressions when the critical verb and complement appeared together in a subject-extracted relative clause (SRC) (e...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133620/cognitive-control-during-selection-and-repair-in-word-production
#11
Nazbanou Nozari, Michael Freund, Bonnie Breining, Brenda Rapp, Barry Gordon
Production of an intended word entails selection processes, in which first the lexical item and then its segments are selected among competitors, as well as processes that covertly or overtly repair dispreferred words. In two experiments, we studied the locus of the control processes involved in selection (selection control) and intercepting errors (post-monitoring control). Selection control was studied by manipulating the overlap (contextual similarity) in either semantics or in segments between two objects that participants repeatedly named...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094351/nature-nurture-or-interacting-developmental-systems-endophenotypes-for-learning-systems-bridge-genes-language-and-development
#12
Bob McMurray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090547/using-effective-connectivity-analyses-to-understand-processing-architecture-response-to-commentaries-by-samuel-spivey-and-mcqueen-eisner-and-norris
#13
David W Gow, Bruna B Olson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595118/sentential-influences-on-acoustic-phonetic-processing-a-granger-causality-analysis-of-multimodal-imaging-data
#14
David W Gow, Bruna B Olson
Sentential context influences the way that listeners identify phonetically ambiguous or perceptual degraded speech sounds. Unfortunately, inherent inferential limitations on the interpretation of behavioral or BOLD imaging results make it unclear whether context influences perceptual processing directly, or acts at a post-perceptual decision stage. In this paper, we use Kalman-filter enabled Granger causation analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to distinguish between these possibilities. Using a retrospective probe verification task, we found that sentential context strongly affected the interpretation of words with ambiguous initial voicing (e...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570786/separate-streams-or-probabilistic-inference-what-the-n400-can-tell-us-about-the-comprehension-of-events
#15
Gina R Kuperberg
Since the early 2000s, several ERP studies have challenged the assumption that we always use syntactic contextual information to influence semantic processing of incoming words, as reflected by the N400 component. One approach for explaining these findings is to posit distinct semantic and syntactic processing mechanisms, each with distinct time courses. While this approach can explain specific datasets, it cannot account for the wider body of findings. I propose an alternative explanation: a dynamic generative framework in which our goal is to infer the underlying event that best explains the set of inputs encountered at any given time...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525290/neural-responses-to-grammatically-and-lexically-degraded-speech
#16
Alexa Bautista, Stephen M Wilson
Linguistic stimuli that are degraded in various ways have been used in neuroimaging studies to uncover distinct roles for different brain regions involved in processing language. In order to identify brain regions differentially involved in grammatical and lexical processing, we spectrally rotated specific morphemes and manipulated morpheme order to create speech stimuli that were degraded either grammatically or lexically, yet were matched in intelligibility. Twelve healthy participants were scanned with functional MRI as they listened to the grammatically and lexically degraded stimuli, interspersed with clear stimuli in the context of a familiar narrative...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493979/dimensions-of-similarity-in-the-mental-lexicon
#17
Melinda Fricke, Melissa M Baese-Berk, Matthew Goldrick
During language production planning, multiple candidate representations are implicitly activated prior to articulation. Lexical representations that are phonologically related to the target (phonological neighbors) are known to influence phonetic properties of the target word. However, the question of which dimensions of phonological similarity contribute to such lexical-phonetic effects remains unanswered. In the present study, we reanalyze phonetic data from a previous study, examining the contrasting predictions of different definitions of phonological similarity...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453896/neural-systems-involved-in-processing-novel-linguistic-constructions-and-their-visual-referents
#18
Matthew A Johnson, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Adele E Goldberg
In language, abstract phrasal patterns provide an important source of meaning, but little is known about whether or how such constructions are used to predict upcoming visual scenes. Findings from two fMRI studies indicate that initial exposure to a novel construction allows its semantics to be used for such predictions. Specifically, greater activity in the ventral striatum, a region sensitive to prediction errors, was linked to worse overall comprehension of a novel construction. Moreover, activity in occipital cortex was attenuated when a visual event could be inferred from a learned construction, which may reflect predictive coding of the event...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376094/the-in-dependence-of-articulation-and-lexical-planning-during-isolated-word-production
#19
Esteban Buz, T Florian Jaeger
The number of phonological neighbors to a word (PND) can affect its lexical planning and pronunciation. Similar parallel effects on planning and articulation have been observed for other lexical variables, such as a word's contextual predictability. Such parallelism is frequently taken to indicate that effects on articulation are mediated by effects on the time course of lexical planning. We test this mediation assumption for PND and find it unsupported. In a picture naming experiment, we measure speech onset latencies (planning), word durations, and vowel dispersion (articulation)...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182530/can-you-hear-me-yet-an-intracranial-investigation-of-speech-and-non-speech-audiovisual-interactions-in-human-cortex
#20
Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Hiroyuki Oya, Hiroto Kawasaki, Matthew A Howard, Bob McMurray
In everyday conversation, viewing a talker's face can provide information about the timing and content of an upcoming speech signal, resulting in improved intelligibility. Using electrocorticography, we tested whether human auditory cortex in Heschl's gyrus (HG) and on superior temporal gyrus (STG) and motor cortex on precentral gyrus (PreC) were responsive to visual/gestural information prior to the onset of sound and whether early stages of auditory processing were sensitive to the visual content (speech syllable versus non-speech motion)...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
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