journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Regeneration

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616247/planarian-regeneration-in-space-persistent-anatomical-behavioral-and-bacteriological-changes-induced-by-space-travel
#1
Junji Morokuma, Fallon Durant, Katherine B Williams, Joshua M Finkelstein, Douglas J Blackiston, Twyman Clements, David W Reed, Michael Roberts, Mahendra Jain, Kris Kimel, Sunia A Trauger, Benjamin E Wolfe, Michael Levin
Regeneration is regulated not only by chemical signals but also by physical processes, such as bioelectric gradients. How these may change in the absence of the normal gravitational and geomagnetic fields is largely unknown. Planarian flatworms were moved to the International Space Station for 5 weeks, immediately after removing their heads and tails. A control group in spring water remained on Earth. No manipulation of the planaria occurred while they were in orbit, and space-exposed worms were returned to our laboratory for analysis...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616246/fibroblast-reticular-cells-engineer-a-blastema-extracellular-network-during-digit-tip-regeneration-in-mice
#2
Luis Marrero, Jennifer Simkin, Mimi Sammarco, Ken Muneoka
The regeneration blastema which forms following amputation of the mouse digit tip is composed of undifferentiated cells bound together by an organized network of fibers. A monoclonal antibody (ER-TR7) that identifies extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers produced by fibroblast reticular cells during lymphoid organogenesis was used to characterize the ECM of the digit, the blastema, and the regenerate. Digit fibroblast reticular cells produce an ER-TR7(+) ECM network associated with different tissues and represent a subset of loose connective tissue fibroblasts...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616245/regulation-of-dorso-ventral-polarity-by-the-nerve-cord-during-annelid-regeneration-a-review-of-experimental-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Bénoni Boilly, Yolande Boilly-Marer, Alexandra E Bely
An important goal for understanding regeneration is determining how polarity is conferred to the regenerate. Here we review findings in two groups of polychaete annelids that implicate the ventral nerve cord in assigning dorso-ventral polarity, and specifically ventral identity, to the regenerate. In nereids, surgical manipulations indicate that parapodia develop where dorsal and ventral body wall territories contact. Without a nerve cord at the wound site, the regenerate differentiates no evident polarity (with no parapodia) and only dorsal identity, while with two nerve cords the regenerate develops a twinned dorso-ventral axis (with four parapodia per segment instead of the normal two)...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616244/macrophages-and-fibroblasts-during-inflammation-and-tissue-repair-in-models-of-organ-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Anthony L Mescher
This review provides a concise summary of the changing phenotypes of macrophages and fibroblastic cells during the local inflammatory response, the onset of tissue repair, and the resolution of inflammation which follow injury to an organ. Both cell populations respond directly to damage and present coordinated sequences of activation states which determine the reparative outcome, ranging from true regeneration of the organ to fibrosis and variable functional deficits. Recent work with mammalian models of organ regeneration, including regeneration of full-thickness skin, hair follicles, ear punch tissues, and digit tips, is summarized and the roles of local immune cells in these systems are discussed...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316792/jak-stat-pathway-activation-in-response-to-spinal-cord-injury-in-regenerative-and-non-regenerative-stages-of-xenopus-laevis
#5
Victor S Tapia, Mauricio Herrera-Rojas, Juan Larrain
Xenopus laevis tadpoles can regenerate the spinal cord after injury but this capability is lost during metamorphosis. Comparative studies between pre-metamorphic and metamorphic Xenopus stages can aid towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration. Analysis of a previous transcriptome-wide study suggests that, in response to injury, the JAK-STAT pathway is differentially activated in regenerative and non-regenerative stages. We characterized the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway and found that regenerative tadpoles have an early and transient activation...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316791/epigenetic-memory-and-cell-fate-reprogramming-in-plants
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth D Birnbaum, François Roudier
Plants have a high intrinsic capacity to regenerate from adult tissues, with the ability to reprogram adult cell fates. In contrast, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. The question is whether epigenetic memory creates a barrier to reprogramming that needs to be erased or circumvented in plant regeneration. Early evidence suggests that, while chromatin dynamics impact gene expression in the meristem, a lasting constraint on cell fate is not established until late stages of plant cell differentiation...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316790/plant-grafting-insights-into-tissue-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plants together through a process known as grafting. The severed tissues adhere, the cells divide and the vasculature differentiates through a remarkable process of regeneration between two genetically distinct organisms as they become one. Grafting is becoming increasingly important in horticulture where it provides an efficient means for asexual propagation. Grafting also combines desirable roots and shoots to generate chimeras that are more vigorous, more pathogen resistant and more abiotic stress resistant...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800171/temporal-regulation-of-planarian-eye-regeneration
#8
Michelle E Deochand, Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
While tissue regeneration is typically studied using standard injury models, in nature injuries vary greatly in the amount and location of tissues lost. Planarians have the unique ability to regenerate from many different injuries (including from tiny fragments with no brain), allowing us to study the effects of different injuries on regeneration timelines. We followed the timing of regeneration for one organ, the eye, after multiple injury types that involved tissue loss (single- and double-eye ablation, and decapitation) in Schmidtea mediterranea...
August 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800170/the-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-tissue-repair-and-regeneration-as-revealed-by-studies-in-xenopus
#9
Jingjing Li, Siwei Zhang, Enrique Amaya
Survival of any living organism critically depends on its ability to repair and regenerate damaged tissues and/or organs during its lifetime following injury, disease, or aging. Various animal models from invertebrates to vertebrates have been used to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of wound healing and tissue regeneration. It is hoped that such studies will form the framework for identifying novel clinical treatments that will improve the healing and regenerative capacity of humans. Amongst these models, Xenopus stands out as a particularly versatile and powerful system...
August 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800169/de-novo-assembly-of-plant-body-plan-a-step-ahead-of-deadpool
#10
REVIEW
Abdul Kareem, Dhanya Radhakrishnan, Yash Sondhi, Mohammed Aiyaz, Merin V Roy, Kaoru Sugimoto, Kalika Prasad
While in the movie Deadpool it is possible for a human to recreate an arm from scratch, in reality plants can even surpass that. Not only can they regenerate lost parts, but also the whole plant body can be reborn from a few existing cells. Despite the decades old realization that plant cells possess the ability to regenerate a complete shoot and root system, it is only now that the underlying mechanisms are being unraveled. De novo plant regeneration involves the initiation of regenerative mass, acquisition of the pluripotent state, reconstitution of stem cells and assembly of regulatory interactions...
August 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800168/major-development-in-regeneration
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606067/the-nurd-complex-component-p66-suppresses-photoreceptor-neuron-regeneration-in-planarians
#12
Constanza Vásquez-Doorman, Christian P Petersen
Regeneration involves precise control of cell fate to produce an appropriate complement of tissues formed within a blastema. Several chromatin-modifying complexes have been identified as required for regeneration in planarians, but it is unclear whether this class of molecules uniformly promotes the production of differentiated cells. We identify a function for p66, encoding a DNA-binding protein component of the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex, as well as the chromodomain helicase chd4, in suppressing production of photoreceptor neurons (PRNs) in planarians...
June 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606066/externally-imposed-electric-field-enhances-plant-root-tip-regeneration
#13
Nicolas Kral, Alexandra Hanna Ougolnikova, Giovanni Sena
In plants, shoot and root regeneration can be induced in the distinctive conditions of tissue culture (in vitro) but is also observed in intact individuals (in planta) recovering from tissue damage. Roots, for example, can regenerate their fully excised meristems in planta, even in mutants with impaired apical stem cell niches. Unfortunately, to date a comprehensive understanding of regeneration in plants is still missing. Here, we provide evidence that an imposed electric field can perturb apical root regeneration in Arabidopsis...
June 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606065/go-ahead-grow-a-head-a-planarian-s-guide-to-anterior-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Suthira Owlarn, Kerstin Bartscherer
The unique ability of some planarian species to regenerate a head de novo, including a functional brain, provides an experimentally accessible system in which to study the mechanisms underlying regeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the key steps of planarian head regeneration (head-versus-tail decision, anterior pole formation and head patterning) and their molecular and cellular basis. Moreover, instructive properties of the anterior pole as a putative organizer and in coordinating anterior midline formation are discussed...
June 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499882/the-relationship-between-growth-and-pattern-formation
#15
REVIEW
Susan V Bryant, David M Gardiner
Successful development depends on the creation of spatial gradients of transcription factors within developing fields, and images of graded distributions of gene products populate the pages of developmental biology journals. Therefore the challenge is to understand how the graded levels of intracellular transcription factors are generated across fields of cells. We propose that transcription factor gradients are generated as a result of an underlying gradient of cell cycle lengths. Very long cell cycles will permit accumulation of a high level of a gene product encoded by a large transcription unit, whereas shorter cell cycles will permit progressively fewer transcripts to be completed due to gating of transcription by the cell cycle...
April 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499881/physiological-controls-of-large-scale-patterning-in-planarian-regeneration-a-molecular-and-computational-perspective-on-growth-and-form
#16
Fallon Durant, Daniel Lobo, Jennifer Hammelman, Michael Levin
Planaria are complex metazoans that repair damage to their bodies and cease remodeling when a correct anatomy has been achieved. This model system offers a unique opportunity to understand how large-scale anatomical homeostasis emerges from the activities of individual cells. Much progress has been made on the molecular genetics of stem cell activity in planaria. However, recent data also indicate that the global pattern is regulated by physiological circuits composed of ionic and neurotransmitter signaling...
April 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499880/planarian-brain-regeneration-as-a-model-system-for-developmental-neurotoxicology
#17
REVIEW
Danielle Hagstrom, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Eva-Maria S Collins
Freshwater planarians, famous for their regenerative prowess, have long been recognized as a valuable in vivo animal model to study the effects of chemical exposure. In this review, we summarize the current techniques and tools used in the literature to assess toxicity in the planarian system. We focus on the planarian's particular amenability for neurotoxicology and neuroregeneration studies, owing to the planarian's unique ability to regenerate a centralized nervous system. Zooming in from the organismal to the molecular level, we show that planarians offer a repertoire of morphological and behavioral readouts while also being amenable to mechanistic studies of compound toxicity...
April 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307993/alternative-flow-cytometry-strategies-to-analyze-stem-cells-and-cell-death-in-planarians
#18
Tanuja Harshani Peiris, Marcos E García-Ojeda, Néstor J Oviedo
Planarians possess remarkable stem cell populations that continuously support cellular turnover and are instrumental in the regeneration of tissues upon injury. Cellular turnover and tissue regeneration in planarians rely on the proper integration of local and systemic signals that regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Thus, understanding the signals controlling cellular proliferation and cell death in planarians could provide valuable insights for maintenance of adult body homeostasis and the biology of regeneration...
April 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499879/ear-wound-regeneration-in-the-african-spiny-mouse-acomys-cahirinus
#19
Dino Matias Santos, Ana Martins Rita, Ignasi Casanellas, Adélia Brito Ova, Inês Maria Araújo, Deborah Power, Gustavo Tiscornia
While regeneration occurs in a number of taxonomic groups across the Metazoa, there are very few reports of regeneration in mammals, which generally respond to wounding with fibrotic scarring rather than regeneration. A recent report described skin shedding, skin regeneration and extensive ear punch closure in two rodent species, Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali. We examined these striking results by testing the capacity for regeneration of a third species, Acomys cahirinus, and found a remarkable capacity to repair full thickness circular punches in the ear pinna...
February 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499878/analogous-cellular-contribution-and-healing-mechanisms-following-digit-amputation-and-phalangeal-fracture-in-mice
#20
Lindsay A Dawson, Jennifer Simkin, Michelle Sauque, Maegan Pela, Teresa Palkowski, Ken Muneoka
Regeneration of amputated structures is severely limited in humans and mice, with complete regeneration restricted to the distal portion of the terminal phalanx (P3). Here, we investigate the dynamic tissue repair response of the second phalangeal element (P2) post amputation in the adult mouse, and show that the repair response of the amputated bone is similar to the proximal P2 bone fragment in fracture healing. The regeneration-incompetent P2 amputation response is characterized by periosteal endochondral ossification resulting in the deposition of new trabecular bone, corresponding to a significant increase in bone volume; however, this response is not associated with bone lengthening...
February 2016: Regeneration
journal
journal
48811
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"