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Victor S Tapia, Mauricio Herrera-Rojas, Juan Larrain
Xenopus laevis tadpoles can regenerate the spinal cord after injury but this capability is lost during metamorphosis. Comparative studies between pre-metamorphic and metamorphic Xenopus stages can aid towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration. Analysis of a previous transcriptome-wide study suggests that, in response to injury, the JAK-STAT pathway is differentially activated in regenerative and non-regenerative stages. We characterized the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway and found that regenerative tadpoles have an early and transient activation...
February 2017: Regeneration
Kenneth D Birnbaum, François Roudier
Plants have a high intrinsic capacity to regenerate from adult tissues, with the ability to reprogram adult cell fates. In contrast, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. The question is whether epigenetic memory creates a barrier to reprogramming that needs to be erased or circumvented in plant regeneration. Early evidence suggests that, while chromatin dynamics impact gene expression in the meristem, a lasting constraint on cell fate is not established until late stages of plant cell differentiation...
February 2017: Regeneration
Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plants together through a process known as grafting. The severed tissues adhere, the cells divide and the vasculature differentiates through a remarkable process of regeneration between two genetically distinct organisms as they become one. Grafting is becoming increasingly important in horticulture where it provides an efficient means for asexual propagation. Grafting also combines desirable roots and shoots to generate chimeras that are more vigorous, more pathogen resistant and more abiotic stress resistant...
February 2017: Regeneration
Michelle E Deochand, Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
While tissue regeneration is typically studied using standard injury models, in nature injuries vary greatly in the amount and location of tissues lost. Planarians have the unique ability to regenerate from many different injuries (including from tiny fragments with no brain), allowing us to study the effects of different injuries on regeneration timelines. We followed the timing of regeneration for one organ, the eye, after multiple injury types that involved tissue loss (single- and double-eye ablation, and decapitation) in Schmidtea mediterranea...
August 2016: Regeneration
Jingjing Li, Siwei Zhang, Enrique Amaya
Survival of any living organism critically depends on its ability to repair and regenerate damaged tissues and/or organs during its lifetime following injury, disease, or aging. Various animal models from invertebrates to vertebrates have been used to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of wound healing and tissue regeneration. It is hoped that such studies will form the framework for identifying novel clinical treatments that will improve the healing and regenerative capacity of humans. Amongst these models, Xenopus stands out as a particularly versatile and powerful system...
August 2016: Regeneration
Abdul Kareem, Dhanya Radhakrishnan, Yash Sondhi, Mohammed Aiyaz, Merin V Roy, Kaoru Sugimoto, Kalika Prasad
While in the movie Deadpool it is possible for a human to recreate an arm from scratch, in reality plants can even surpass that. Not only can they regenerate lost parts, but also the whole plant body can be reborn from a few existing cells. Despite the decades old realization that plant cells possess the ability to regenerate a complete shoot and root system, it is only now that the underlying mechanisms are being unraveled. De novo plant regeneration involves the initiation of regenerative mass, acquisition of the pluripotent state, reconstitution of stem cells and assembly of regulatory interactions...
August 2016: Regeneration
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August 2016: Regeneration
Constanza Vásquez-Doorman, Christian P Petersen
Regeneration involves precise control of cell fate to produce an appropriate complement of tissues formed within a blastema. Several chromatin-modifying complexes have been identified as required for regeneration in planarians, but it is unclear whether this class of molecules uniformly promotes the production of differentiated cells. We identify a function for p66, encoding a DNA-binding protein component of the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex, as well as the chromodomain helicase chd4, in suppressing production of photoreceptor neurons (PRNs) in planarians...
June 2016: Regeneration
Nicolas Kral, Alexandra Hanna Ougolnikova, Giovanni Sena
In plants, shoot and root regeneration can be induced in the distinctive conditions of tissue culture (in vitro) but is also observed in intact individuals (in planta) recovering from tissue damage. Roots, for example, can regenerate their fully excised meristems in planta, even in mutants with impaired apical stem cell niches. Unfortunately, to date a comprehensive understanding of regeneration in plants is still missing. Here, we provide evidence that an imposed electric field can perturb apical root regeneration in Arabidopsis...
June 2016: Regeneration
Suthira Owlarn, Kerstin Bartscherer
The unique ability of some planarian species to regenerate a head de novo, including a functional brain, provides an experimentally accessible system in which to study the mechanisms underlying regeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the key steps of planarian head regeneration (head-versus-tail decision, anterior pole formation and head patterning) and their molecular and cellular basis. Moreover, instructive properties of the anterior pole as a putative organizer and in coordinating anterior midline formation are discussed...
June 2016: Regeneration
Susan V Bryant, David M Gardiner
Successful development depends on the creation of spatial gradients of transcription factors within developing fields, and images of graded distributions of gene products populate the pages of developmental biology journals. Therefore the challenge is to understand how the graded levels of intracellular transcription factors are generated across fields of cells. We propose that transcription factor gradients are generated as a result of an underlying gradient of cell cycle lengths. Very long cell cycles will permit accumulation of a high level of a gene product encoded by a large transcription unit, whereas shorter cell cycles will permit progressively fewer transcripts to be completed due to gating of transcription by the cell cycle...
April 2016: Regeneration
Fallon Durant, Daniel Lobo, Jennifer Hammelman, Michael Levin
Planaria are complex metazoans that repair damage to their bodies and cease remodeling when a correct anatomy has been achieved. This model system offers a unique opportunity to understand how large-scale anatomical homeostasis emerges from the activities of individual cells. Much progress has been made on the molecular genetics of stem cell activity in planaria. However, recent data also indicate that the global pattern is regulated by physiological circuits composed of ionic and neurotransmitter signaling...
April 2016: Regeneration
Danielle Hagstrom, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Eva-Maria S Collins
Freshwater planarians, famous for their regenerative prowess, have long been recognized as a valuable in vivo animal model to study the effects of chemical exposure. In this review, we summarize the current techniques and tools used in the literature to assess toxicity in the planarian system. We focus on the planarian's particular amenability for neurotoxicology and neuroregeneration studies, owing to the planarian's unique ability to regenerate a centralized nervous system. Zooming in from the organismal to the molecular level, we show that planarians offer a repertoire of morphological and behavioral readouts while also being amenable to mechanistic studies of compound toxicity...
April 2016: Regeneration
Tanuja Harshani Peiris, Marcos E García-Ojeda, Néstor J Oviedo
Planarians possess remarkable stem cell populations that continuously support cellular turnover and are instrumental in the regeneration of tissues upon injury. Cellular turnover and tissue regeneration in planarians rely on the proper integration of local and systemic signals that regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Thus, understanding the signals controlling cellular proliferation and cell death in planarians could provide valuable insights for maintenance of adult body homeostasis and the biology of regeneration...
April 2016: Regeneration
Dino Matias Santos, Ana Martins Rita, Ignasi Casanellas, Adélia Brito Ova, Inês Maria Araújo, Deborah Power, Gustavo Tiscornia
While regeneration occurs in a number of taxonomic groups across the Metazoa, there are very few reports of regeneration in mammals, which generally respond to wounding with fibrotic scarring rather than regeneration. A recent report described skin shedding, skin regeneration and extensive ear punch closure in two rodent species, Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali. We examined these striking results by testing the capacity for regeneration of a third species, Acomys cahirinus, and found a remarkable capacity to repair full thickness circular punches in the ear pinna...
February 2016: Regeneration
Lindsay A Dawson, Jennifer Simkin, Michelle Sauque, Maegan Pela, Teresa Palkowski, Ken Muneoka
Regeneration of amputated structures is severely limited in humans and mice, with complete regeneration restricted to the distal portion of the terminal phalanx (P3). Here, we investigate the dynamic tissue repair response of the second phalangeal element (P2) post amputation in the adult mouse, and show that the repair response of the amputated bone is similar to the proximal P2 bone fragment in fracture healing. The regeneration-incompetent P2 amputation response is characterized by periosteal endochondral ossification resulting in the deposition of new trabecular bone, corresponding to a significant increase in bone volume; however, this response is not associated with bone lengthening...
February 2016: Regeneration
Rio Tsutsumi, Shigehito Yamada, Kiyokazu Agata
A functional joint requires integration of multiple tissues: the apposing skeletal elements should form an interlocking structure, and muscles should insert into skeletal tissues via tendons across the joint. Whereas newts can regenerate functional joints after amputation, Xenopus laevis regenerates a cartilaginous rod without joints, a "spike." Previously we reported that the reintegration mechanism between the remaining and regenerated tissues has a significant effect on regenerating joint morphogenesis during elbow joint regeneration in newt...
February 2016: Regeneration
Vaibhav P Pai, Christopher J Martyniuk, Karen Echeverri, Sarah Sundelacruz, David L Kaplan, Michael Levin
Endogenous bioelectric signaling via changes in cellular resting potential (V mem) is a key regulator of patterning during regeneration and embryogenesis in numerous model systems. Depolarization of V mem has been functionally implicated in dedifferentiation, tumorigenesis, anatomical re-specification, and appendage regeneration. However, no unbiased analyses have been performed to understand genome-wide transcriptional responses to V mem change in vivo. Moreover, it is unknown which genes or gene networks represent conserved targets of bioelectrical signaling across different patterning contexts and species...
February 2016: Regeneration
Shinichirou Miura, Yumiko Takahashi, Akira Satoh, Tetsuya Endo
To clarify the mechanism of limb regeneration that differs between mammals (non-regenerative) and amphibians (regenerative), responses to limb amputation and the accessory limb inducible surgery (accessory limb model, ALM) were compared between mice and Xenopus, focusing on the events leading to blastema formation. In both animals, cartilaginous calluses were formed around the cut edge of bones after limb amputation. They not only are morphologically similar but show other similarities, such as growth driven by undifferentiated cell proliferation and macrophage-dependent and nerve-independent induction...
August 2015: Regeneration
Anne Q Phan, Jangwoo Lee, Michelle Oei, Craig Flath, Caitlyn Hwe, Rachele Mariano, Tiffany Vu, Cynthia Shu, Andrew Dinh, Jennifer Simkin, Ken Muneoka, Susan V Bryant, David M Gardiner
Urodele amphibians are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate complex body structures after traumatic injury. In salamander regeneration, the cells maintain a memory of their original position and use this positional information to recreate the missing pattern. We used an in vivo gain-of-function assay to determine whether components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have positional information required to induce formation of new limb pattern during regeneration. We discovered that salamander limb ECM has a position-specific ability to either inhibit regeneration or induce de novo limb structure, and that this difference is dependent on heparan sulfates that are associated with differential expression of heparan sulfate sulfotransferases...
August 2015: Regeneration
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