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Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840088/mechanisms-of-cognitive-aging-in-the-hiv-positive-adult
#1
Asante Kamkwalala, Paul Newhouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As of the year 2016, an estimated 50% of the United States' HIV-Positive population is aged 50 years or older. Due to a combination of increased rates of infection in older adults, and successful anti-retroviral (ART) regimens allowing HIV-positive adults to survive for decades with the disease, we are now faced with a steadily graying HIV-positive population, with only limited knowledge of how the cognitive and physiological effects of aging intersect with those of chronic HIV-infection...
September 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690972/computational-psychiatry-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#2
Sarah K Fineberg, Dylan Stahl, Philip Corlett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification...
March 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316903/network-guided-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-depression
#3
Marc J Dubin, Conor Liston, Michael A Avissar, Irena Ilieva, Faith M Gunning
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: First, we will identify candidate predictive biomarkers of antidepressant response of TMS based on the neuroimaging literature. Next, we will review the effects of TMS on networks involved in depression. Finally, we will discuss ways in which our current understanding of network engagement by TMS may be used to optimize its antidepressant effect. RECENT FINDINGS: The past few years has seen significant interest in the antidepressant mechanisms of TMS...
March 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201595/microbes-tickling-your-tummy-the-importance-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Paula Perez-Pardo, Mitch Hartog, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld
Purpose of Review: Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are known to experience gastrointestinal dysfunction that might precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. Evidence suggests an important role of the gut-brain axis in PD pathogenesis. These interactions might be essentially influenced by the gut microbiota. Here, we review recent findings supporting that changes in the gut microbiota composition might be a trigger for inflammation contributing to neurodegeneration in PD...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201594/translational-genetic-modelling-of-3d-craniofacial-dysmorphology-elaborating-the-facial-phenotype-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-through-the-prism-of-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
John L Waddington, Stanislav Katina, Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Adrian W Bowman
Purpose of Review: In the context of human developmental conditions, we review the conceptualisation of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, the status of craniofacial dysmorphology as a clinically accessible index of brain dysmorphogenesis, the ability of genetically modified mouse models of craniofacial dysmorphology to inform on the underlying dysmorphogenic process and how geometric morphometric techniques in mutant mice can extend quantitative analysis. Recent Findings: Mutant mice with disruption of neuregulin-1, a gene associated meta-analytically with risk for schizophrenia, constitute proof-of-concept studies of murine facial dysmorphology in a manner analogous to clinical studies in schizophrenia...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331780/what-works-in-the-treatment-of-borderline-personality-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Lois W Choi-Kain, Ellen F Finch, Sara R Masland, James A Jenkins, Brandon T Unruh
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review summarizes advances in treatments for adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence-based advances in the treatment of BPD include a delineation of generalist models of care in contrast to specialist treatments, identification of essential effective elements of dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), and the adaptation of DBT treatment to manage post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and BPD...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534002/purposeful-engagement-healthy-aging-and-the-brain
#7
Carol D Ryff, Aaron S Heller, Stacey M Schaefer, Carien van Reekum, Richard J Davidson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research on psychological well-being in later life has identified strengths and vulnerabilities that occur with aging. We review the conceptual and philosophical foundations of a eudaimonic model of well-being and its empirical translation into six key dimensions of positive functioning. We also consider its implications for health, broadly defined. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous findings from national longitudinal samples of U.S. adults are described...
December 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503402/physical-exercise-for-treatment-of-mood-disorders-a-critical-review
#8
C M Hearing, W C Chang, K L Szuhany, T Deckersbach, A A Nierenberg, L G Sylvia
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to critically assess the evidence for exercise as an adjunct intervention for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, chronic conditions characterized by frequent comorbid conditions as well as interepisodic symptoms with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Individuals with these mood disorders are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death in part because of increased rates of obesity, inactivity, and diabetes mellitus compared to the general population...
December 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191386/using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-investigate-complex-genetic-psychiatric-disorders
#9
Stephanie J Temme, Brady J Maher, Kimberly M Christian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from human patient tissue samples, differentiated into any somatic cell type, and studied under controlled culture conditions. We review how iPSCs are used to investigate genetic factors and biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders, and considerations for synthesizing data across studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Results from patient specific-iPSC studies often reveal cellular phenotypes consistent with postmortem and brain imaging studies...
December 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917364/cognitive-remediation-and-bias-modification-strategies-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#10
Alexandra K Gold, Rebecca E Montana, Louisa G Sylvia, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive impairments and biases, which are prevalent in patients with mood and anxiety disorders, can affect quality of life and functioning. Traditional treatments are only insufficiently addressing these impairments and biases. We review the cognitive impairments and biases present in these disorders as well as treatments targeting these domains. RECENT FINDINGS: Interventions aimed at improving cognitive impairments and biases may help improve cognitive deficits and overall functioning in patients with mood and anxiety disorders...
December 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093577/epigenetic-research-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-the-tissue-issue
#11
Kelly M Bakulski, Alycia Halladay, Valerie W Hu, Jonathan Mill, M Daniele Fallin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence has linked neuropsychiatric disorders with epigenetic marks as either a biomarker of disease, biomarker of exposure, or mechanism of disease processes. Neuropsychiatric epidemiologic studies using either target brain tissue or surrogate blood tissue each have methodological challenges and distinct advantages. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain tissue studies are challenged by small sample sizes of cases and controls, incomplete phenotyping, post-mortem timing, and cellular heterogeneity, but the use of a primary disease relevant tissue is critical...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042526/cross-disorder-psychiatric-genomics
#12
Anna R Docherty, Arden A Moscati, Ayman H Fanous
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The following review provides some description of the movement in cross-disorder psychiatric genomics toward addressing both comorbidity and polygenicity. RECENT FINDINGS: We attempt to show how dimensional approaches to the phenotype have led to further addressing the problem of comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses. And we also attempt to show how a dimensional approach to the genome, with different statistical methods from traditional genome-wide association analyses, has begun to resolve the problem of massive polygenicity...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980891/a-review-of-anticipatory-pleasure-in-schizophrenia
#13
Katherine H Frost, Gregory P Strauss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anhedonia, traditionally defined as a diminished capacity to experience pleasure, has long been considered a core symptom of schizophrenia. However, recent research calls into question whether individuals with schizophrenia are truly anhedonic, suggesting intact subjective and neurophysiological response to rewarding stimuli in-the-moment. Despite a presumably intact capacity to experience pleasure, people with schizophrenia still engage in fewer reward-seeking behaviors...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766192/aerobic-exercise-in-people-with-schizophrenia-neural-and-neurocognitive-benefits
#14
Julia Vakhrusheva, Brielle Marino, T Scott Stroup, David Kimhy
Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695666/the-neurobiological-basis-for-social-affiliation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#15
Amanda Crider, Anilkumar Pillai
Social interaction and communication are complex behavioral paradigms involving many components. Many different neurotransmitters, hormones, sensory inputs, and brain regions are involved in the act of social engagement and verbal or nonverbal communication. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are two neurodevelopmental disorders that have social and language deficits as hallmark symptoms, but show very different etiologies. The output of social dysfunction is common to both ASD and schizophrenia, but this likely arises from very different pathophysiological means...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574579/current-trends-in-identifying-rapidly-acting-treatments-for-depression
#16
Dawn F Ionescu, George I Papakostas
Traditional antidepressant medications generally take weeks-to-months to achieve effect. However, the breakthrough finding of ketamine's rapidly acting antidepressant properties has inspired a decade-and-a-half of progress towards the identification of treatments that work quickly-within hours-to-days. This paradigm-shift in the discovery of antidepressant therapies has significantly changed the current landscape of antidepressant drug development. Building on this, the current review briefly highlights the recent trends in research towards identifying rapidly-acting antidepressants...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#17
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034915/dimensionality-of-cognitions-in-behavioral-addiction
#18
REVIEW
L S Morris, V Voon
Cognitive constructs provide conceptual frameworks for transpathological characterization and improved phenotyping of apparently disparate psychiatric groups. This dimensional approach can be applied to the examination of individuals with behavioral addictions, for example, towards gambling, video-games, the internet, food, and sex, allowing operationalization of core deficits. We use this approach to review constructs such as impulsivity, compulsivity, and attention regulation, which may be most relevant, applicable, and successful for the understanding and subsequent treatment of the addictions...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034914/the-structural-and-functional-connectome-and-prediction-of-risk-for-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#19
Joey A Contreras, Joaquín Goñi, Shannon L Risacher, Olaf Sporns, Andrew J Saykin
The human connectome refers to a comprehensive description of the brain's structural and functional connections in terms of brain networks. As the field of brain connectomics has developed, data acquisition, subsequent processing and modeling, and ultimately the representation of the connectome have become better defined and integrated with network science approaches. In this way, the human connectome has provided a way to elucidate key features of not only the healthy brain but also diseased brains. The field has quickly evolved, offering insights into network disruptions that are characteristic for specific neurodegenerative disorders...
December 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925366/what-is-normal-cognitive-aging-evidence-from-task-based-functional-neuroimaging
#20
Julie A Dumas
The idea that our cognitive abilities change with age has support from empirical research as well as from anecdotal reports. Cognition has many component processes, some of which are impaired by normal aging like attention and memory as a result of changes in perceptual systems or speed of processing. Other cognitive domains improve in functioning as aging continues such as wisdom and some kinds of decision making. Many years of research in the psychology of cognitive aging has described patterns of age-related changes in cognitive processes with older adults performing worse than younger adults on tests of attention, working memory and episodic memory and better on tests of general knowledge...
December 1, 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
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