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Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917364/cognitive-remediation-and-bias-modification-strategies-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#1
Alexandra K Gold, Rebecca E Montana, Louisa G Sylvia, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive impairments and biases, which are prevalent in patients with mood and anxiety disorders, can affect quality of life and functioning. Traditional treatments are only insufficiently addressing these impairments and biases. We review the cognitive impairments and biases present in these disorders as well as treatments targeting these domains. RECENT FINDINGS: Interventions aimed at improving cognitive impairments and biases may help improve cognitive deficits and overall functioning in patients with mood and anxiety disorders...
December 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766192/aerobic-exercise-in-people-with-schizophrenia-neural-and-neurocognitive-benefits
#2
Julia Vakhrusheva, Brielle Marino, T Scott Stroup, David Kimhy
Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695666/the-neurobiological-basis-for-social-affiliation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#3
Amanda Crider, Anilkumar Pillai
Social interaction and communication are complex behavioral paradigms involving many components. Many different neurotransmitters, hormones, sensory inputs, and brain regions are involved in the act of social engagement and verbal or nonverbal communication. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are two neurodevelopmental disorders that have social and language deficits as hallmark symptoms, but show very different etiologies. The output of social dysfunction is common to both ASD and schizophrenia, but this likely arises from very different pathophysiological means...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574579/current-trends-in-identifying-rapidly-acting-treatments-for-depression
#4
Dawn F Ionescu, George I Papakostas
Traditional antidepressant medications generally take weeks-to-months to achieve effect. However, the breakthrough finding of ketamine's rapidly acting antidepressant properties has inspired a decade-and-a-half of progress towards the identification of treatments that work quickly-within hours-to-days. This paradigm-shift in the discovery of antidepressant therapies has significantly changed the current landscape of antidepressant drug development. Building on this, the current review briefly highlights the recent trends in research towards identifying rapidly-acting antidepressants...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#5
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034915/dimensionality-of-cognitions-in-behavioral-addiction
#6
L S Morris, V Voon
Cognitive constructs provide conceptual frameworks for transpathological characterization and improved phenotyping of apparently disparate psychiatric groups. This dimensional approach can be applied to the examination of individuals with behavioral addictions, for example, towards gambling, video-games, the internet, food, and sex, allowing operationalization of core deficits. We use this approach to review constructs such as impulsivity, compulsivity, and attention regulation, which may be most relevant, applicable, and successful for the understanding and subsequent treatment of the addictions...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034914/the-structural-and-functional-connectome-and-prediction-of-risk-for-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#7
Joey A Contreras, Joaquín Goñi, Shannon L Risacher, Olaf Sporns, Andrew J Saykin
The human connectome refers to a comprehensive description of the brain's structural and functional connections in terms of brain networks. As the field of brain connectomics has developed, data acquisition, subsequent processing and modeling, and ultimately the representation of the connectome have become better defined and integrated with network science approaches. In this way, the human connectome has provided a way to elucidate key features of not only the healthy brain but also diseased brains. The field has quickly evolved, offering insights into network disruptions that are characteristic for specific neurodegenerative disorders...
December 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925366/what-is-normal-cognitive-aging-evidence-from-task-based-functional-neuroimaging
#8
Julie A Dumas
The idea that our cognitive abilities change with age has support from empirical research as well as from anecdotal reports. Cognition has many component processes, some of which are impaired by normal aging like attention and memory as a result of changes in perceptual systems or speed of processing. Other cognitive domains improve in functioning as aging continues such as wisdom and some kinds of decision making. Many years of research in the psychology of cognitive aging has described patterns of age-related changes in cognitive processes with older adults performing worse than younger adults on tests of attention, working memory and episodic memory and better on tests of general knowledge...
December 1, 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824031/novel-glutamatergic-treatments-for-severe-mood-disorders
#9
Minkyung Park, Mark J Niciu, Carlos A Zarate
All currently approved antidepressant medications for major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder act primarily on the monoaminergic system and have varying affinities for serotonergic, norepinephrine-ergic, and/or dopaminergic receptors. Unfortunately, these drugs are only effective in approximately two-thirds of patients. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and the glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD. Here, we review the putative involvement of the glutamate receptor subtypes-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA), kainate, and the group I, II, and III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs)-in the development of novel and more effective treatments for MDD as well as preclinical and clinical trials of drugs targeting these receptors...
December 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26783510/current-status-of-ketamine-and-related-therapies-for-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#10
Sara Costi, Nicholas T Van Dam, James W Murrough
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite a plethora of established treatments, less than one-third of individuals with MDD achieve stable remission of symptoms. Given limited efficacy and significant lag time to onset of therapeutic action among conventional antidepressants, interest has shifted to treatments that act outside of the monoamine neurotransmitter systems (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine). Preclinical and clinical research on the glutamate system has been particularly promising in this regard...
December 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26525751/anhedonia-and-the-brain-reward-circuitry-in-depression
#11
Mitra Heshmati, Scott J Russo
Anhedonia, or the loss of pleasure in previously rewarding stimuli, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder that may reflect an underlying dysregulation in reward processing. The mesolimbic dopamine circuit, also known as the brain's reward circuit, is integral to processing the rewarding salience of stimuli to guide actions. Manifestation of anhedonia and associated depression symptoms like feelings of sadness, changes in appetite, and psychomotor effects, may reflect changes in the brain reward circuitry as a common underlying disease process...
September 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26693133/early-detection-of-psychosis-recent-updates-from-clinical-high-risk-research
#12
Ariel Schvarcz, Carrie E Bearden
The debilitating nature of schizophrenia necessitates early detection of individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) in order to facilitate early intervention. In particular, comparisons between those who develop fully psychotic features (CHR+) and those who do not (CHR-) offer the opportunity to reveal distinct risk factors for psychosis, as well as possible intervention target points. Recent studies have investigated baseline clinical, neurocognitive, neuroanatomic, neurohormonal, and psychophysiological predictors of outcome; premorbid social dysfunction, deficits in neurocognitive performance, neuroanatomic changes, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction have been implicated in psychosis emergence...
June 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26052479/examining-the-psychosis-continuum
#13
Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
The notion that psychosis may exist on a continuum with normal experience has been proposed in multiple forms throughout the history of psychiatry. However, in recent years there has been an exponential increase in efforts aimed at elucidating what has been termed the 'psychosis continuum'. The present review seeks to summarize some of the more basic characteristics of this continuum and to present some of the recent findings that provide support for its validity. While there is still considerable work to be done, the emerging data holds considerable promise for advancing our understanding of both risk and resilience to psychiatric disorders characterized by psychosis...
May 1, 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25883891/neuroimaging-biomarkers-for-psychosis
#14
Brandon M Hager, Matcheri S Keshavan
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers provide clinicians with a predictable model for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of medical ailments. Psychiatry has lagged behind other areas of medicine in the identification of biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we investigated the current state of neuroimaging as it pertains to biomarkers for psychosis. METHODS: We reviewed systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the structural (sMRI), functional (fMRI), diffusion-tensor (DTI), Positron emission tomography (PET) and spectroscopy (MRS) studies of subjects at-risk or those with an established schizophrenic illness...
March 6, 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417548/epidemiological-studies-of-substance-dependence-and-abuse-in-adults
#15
Erin Delker, Qiana Brown, Deborah Hasin
Drug and alcohol use disorders account for a high and potentially preventable proportion of overall disability and mortality. This article reviews published data on the distribution of alcohol and drug abuse and dependence in the USA. Published data shows that alcohol use disorders are more prevalent than illegal drug use disorders, although the persistence of both disorders was similar over a three-year follow-up period. Significant variability exists within sex, racial/ethnic, and age groups. Men, Native Americans, and young adults, aged 18 to 25, are at a higher risk of substance dependence...
March 1, 2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26317062/clinical-outcome-and-mechanisms-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Maarten van Westen, Erik Rietveld, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
Clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) shows robust effects in terms of a mean Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) reduction of 47.7 % and a mean response percentage (minimum 35 % YBOCS reduction) of 58.2 %. It appears that most patients regain a normal quality of life (QoL) after DBS. Reviewing the literature of the last 4 years, we argue that the mechanisms of action of DBS are a combination of excitatory and inhibitory as well as local and distal effects...
2015: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25729637/genome-wide-analyses-of-working-memory-ability-a-review
#17
E E M Knowles, S R Mathias, D R McKay, E Sprooten, John Blangero, Laura Almasy, D C Glahn
Working memory, a theoretical construct from the field of cognitive psychology, is crucial to everyday life. It refers to the ability to temporarily store and manipulate task-relevant information. The identification of genes for working memory might shed light on the molecular mechanisms of this important cognitive ability and-given the genetic overlap between, for example, schizophrenia risk and working-memory ability-might also reveal important candidate genes for psychiatric illness. A number of genome-wide searches for genes that influence working memory have been conducted in recent years...
December 2014: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25664232/gwas-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-schizophrenia
#18
Jakob Grove, Anders D Børglum, Brad D Pearce
In recent years good progress has been made in uncovering the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Even so, as a polygenic disorder, schizophrenia has a complex etiology that is far from understood. Meanwhile data are being collected enabling the study of interactions between genes and the environment. A confluence of data from genetic and environmental exposure studies points to the role of infections and immunity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In a recent study by Børglum et al., a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene CTNNA3 was identified that may provide clues to gene-environment interactions...
December 1, 2014: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25745592/neurobiology-of-pediatric-anxiety-disorders
#19
Jeffrey R Strawn, Kelli C Dominick, Luis R Patino, Christopher D Doyle, Lara S Picard, K Luan Phan
While the fear-based anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and separation anxiety disorder) are among the most common psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents, only recently has an integrated understanding of the neurobiology of these disorders developed. In this regard, both structural and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated neuroanatomic and functional abnormalities within the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in youth with fear-based anxiety disorders, and have also suggested altered functional connectivity among components of the anterior limbic network (ALN), as well as alterations in neurochemistry within the anterior cingulate cortex...
September 1, 2014: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25705579/looking-beyond-fear-and-extinction-learning-considering-novel-treatment-targets-for-anxiety
#20
Jennifer C Britton, Travis C Evans, Michael V Hernandez
Fear conditioning studies provide valuable insight into how fears are learned and extinguished. Previous work focuses on fear and extinction learning to understand and treat anxiety disorders. However, a cascade of cognitive processes that extend beyond learning may also yield therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders. Throughout this review, we will discuss recent findings of fear generalization, memory consolidation, and reconsolidation. Factors related to effectiveness, efficiency and durability of extinction-based treatments will be addressed...
September 2014: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
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