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Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013890/using-animal-models-to-improve-the-design-and-application-of-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-in-humans
#1
Carlos A Sánchez-León, Claudia Ammann, Javier F Medina, Javier Márquez-Ruiz
Purpose of Review: Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a non-invasive stimulation technique used for modulating brain function in humans. To help tES reach its full therapeutic potential, it is necessary to address a number of critical gaps in our knowledge. Here, we review studies that have taken advantage of animal models to provide invaluable insight about the basic science behind tES. Recent Findings: Animal studies are playing a key role in elucidating the mechanisms implicated in tES, defining safety limits, validating computational models, inspiring new stimulation protocols, enhancing brain function and exploring new therapeutic applications...
June 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225184/traumatic-stress-epigenetics
#2
John R Pfeiffer, Leon Mutesa, Monica Uddin
Purpose of Review: Traumatic stress has profound impacts on many domains of life, yet the mechanisms that confer risk for or resilience to the development of traumatic stress-related psychopathologies are still very much under investigation. The current review highlights recent developments in the field of traumatic stress epigenetics in humans. Recent Findings: Recent results reveal traumatic stress-related epigenetic dysregulation in neural, endocrine, and immune system genes and associated networks...
March 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034992/rapid-acting-antidepressants-mechanistic-insights-and-future-directions
#3
Danielle M Gerhard, Ronald S Duman
Purpose of Review: Ketamine produces rapid (within hours) antidepressant actions, even in patients considered treatment resistant, and even shows promise for suicidal ideation. Here, we review current research on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ketamine and other novel rapid-acting antidepressants, and briefly explore gender differences in the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD. Recent Findings: Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, increases BDNF release and synaptic connectivity, opposing the deficits caused by chronic stress and depression...
March 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892518/pathways-to-neuroprediction-opportunities-and-challenges-to-prediction-of-treatment-response-in-depression
#4
Scott A Langenecker, Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp
Purpose of review: We set out to review the current state of science in neuroprediction, using biological measures of brain function, with task based fMRI to prospectively predict response to a variety of treatments. Recent findings: Task-based fMRI neuroprediction studies are balanced between whole brain and ROI specific analyses. The predominant tasks are emotion processing, with ROIs based upon amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus, both within the salience and emotion network...
March 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862163/recent-trends-in-the-use-of-electrical-neuromodulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
John-Stuart Brittain, Hayriye Cagnan
Purpose of Review: This review aims to survey recent trends in electrical forms of neuromodulation, with a specific application to Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging trends are identified, highlighting synergies in state-of-the-art neuromodulation strategies, with directions for future improvements in stimulation efficacy suggested. Recent Findings: Deep brain stimulation remains the most common and effective form of electrical stimulation for the treatment of PD...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862162/motor-cortical-gamma-oscillations-what-have-we-learnt-and-where-are-we-headed
#6
REVIEW
Magdalena Nowak, Catharina Zich, Charlotte J Stagg
Purpose of Review: An increase in oscillatory activity in the γ -frequency band (approximately 50-100 Hz) has long been noted during human movement. However, its functional role has been difficult to elucidate. The advent of novel techniques, particularly transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has dramatically increased our ability to study γ oscillations. Here, we review our current understanding of the role of γ oscillations in the human motor cortex, with reference to γ activity outside the motor system, and evidence from animal models...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577011/current-understanding-of-the-neural-mechanisms-of-dissociation-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Annegret Krause-Utz, Bernet Elzinga
Purpose of Review: In this article, we aim to give an overview over recent neuroimaging research on dissociation in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Stress-related dissociation is highly prevalent in BPD, while so far only little is known about its neural underpinnings. Recent Findings: Based on research in depersonalization and the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, it has been proposed that dissociation involves alterations in a cortico-limbic network...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577010/developmental-aspects-of-schizotypy-and-suspiciousness-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Keri K Wong, Adrian Raine
Purpose of the Review: This review identifies the early developmental processes that contribute to schizotypy and suspiciousness in adolescence and adulthood. It includes the most recent literature on these phenomena in childhood. Recent Findings: The early developmental processes that affect schizotypy and paranoia in later life are complex. In contrast to existing studies of psychiatric patients and clinical/nonclinical adult populations, the study of schizotypy and suspiciousness in young children and adolescents is possible due to new child-appropriate dimensional assessments...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577009/intrusive-memories-of-trauma-in-the-laboratory-methodological-developments-and-future-directions
#9
REVIEW
Alex Lau-Zhu, Emily A Holmes, Kate Porcheret
Purpose of the Review: Intrusive memories are those that spring to mind unbidden, e.g. sensory recollections of stressful/traumatic events. We review recent methods to monitor intrusions of a stressor (a trauma film) within the laboratory. Recent Findings: Recent studies suggest three main methodologies after viewing a trauma film by which to monitor intrusions in the laboratory: during post-film rest periods, after exposure to trigger cues, and while performing an ongoing task...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009124/developing-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-as-a-treatment-tool-for-cocaine-use-disorder-a-series-of-six-translational-studies
#10
Colleen A Hanlon, Tonisha Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Sarah Hamilton, William DeVries, Oliver Mithoefer, Christopher Austelle, Daniel H Lench, Brittany Correia, Melanie Canterberry, Joshua P Smith, Kathleen T Brady, Mark S George
Purpose of the Review: Cocaine dependence is a chronic and relapsing disorder which is particularly resistant to behavioral or pharmacologic treatment, and likely involves multiple dysfunctional frontal-striatal circuits. Through advances in preclinical research in the last decade, we now have an unprecedented understanding of the neural control of drug-taking behavior. In both rodent models and human clinical neuroimaging studies, it is apparent that medial frontal-striatal limbic circuits regulate drug cue-triggered behavior...
December 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862161/shifts-in-audiovisual-processing-in-healthy-aging
#11
Sarah H Baum, Ryan Stevenson
Purpose of Review: The integration of information across sensory modalities into unified percepts is a fundamental sensory process upon which a multitude of cognitive processes are based. We review the body of literature exploring aging-related changes in audiovisual integration published over the last five years. Specifically, we review the impact of changes in temporal processing, the influence of the effectiveness of sensory inputs, the role of working memory, and the newer studies of intra-individual variability during these processes...
September 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840088/mechanisms-of-cognitive-aging-in-the-hiv-positive-adult
#12
Asante Kamkwalala, Paul Newhouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As of the year 2016, an estimated 50% of the United States' HIV-Positive population is aged 50 years or older. Due to a combination of increased rates of infection in older adults, and successful anti-retroviral (ART) regimens allowing HIV-positive adults to survive for decades with the disease, we are now faced with a steadily graying HIV-positive population, with only limited knowledge of how the cognitive and physiological effects of aging intersect with those of chronic HIV-infection...
September 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607288/neural-correlates-of-aggressive-behavior-in-real-time-a-review-of-fmri-studies-of-laboratory-reactive-aggression
#13
Jennifer R Fanning, Sarah Keedy, Mitchell E Berman, Royce Lee, Emil F Coccaro
Purpose of review: Aggressive behavior has adaptive value in many natural environments; however, it places substantial burden and costs on human society. For this reason, there has long been interest in understanding the neurobiological basis of aggression. This interest, and the flourishing of neuroimaging research in general, has spurred the development of a large and growing scientific literature on the topic. As a result, a neural circuit model of aggressive behavior has emerged that implicates interconnected brain regions that are involved in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and cognitive control...
June 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503791/prosocial-behavior-and-depression-a-case-for-developmental-gender-differences
#14
Gabriela Alarcón, Erika E Forbes
Purpose of Review: Prosocial behavior and depression are related constructs that both increase during adolescence and display gender-specific effects. The current review surveys literature examining the association between depressive symptoms and prosociality, measured with behavioral economic paradigms, across development and proposes a theoretical model explaining a mechanism through which adolescent girls have higher risk for depression than boys. Recent Findings: Relative to healthy controls, prosocial behavior is reduced in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) but may be increased in adolescents with MDD...
June 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399432/mistrustful-and-misunderstood-a-review-of-paranoid-personality-disorder
#15
Royce Lee
Purpose of review: Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) has historically been neglected by science out of proportion to its prevalence or its association with negative clinical outcomes. This review provides an update on what is known about PPD regarding its prevalence, demographics, comorbidity, biological mechanism, risk factors, and relationship to psychotic disorders. Recent Findings: PPD has long been the subject of a rich and prescient theoretical literature which has provided a surprisingly coherent account of the psychological mechanism of non-delusional paranoia...
June 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657916/using-new-approaches-in-neurobiology-to-rethink-stress-induced-amnesia
#16
Jelena Radulovic
Purpose of Review: Psychological stress can impact memory systems in several different ways. In individuals with healthy defense and coping systems, stress results in the formation of negatively valenced memories whose ability to induce emotional and somatic distress subsides with time. Vulnerable individuals, however, go on to develop stress-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suffer from significant memory abnormalities. Whether expressed as intrusive trauma memories, partial amnesia, or dissociative amnesia, such abnormalities are thought to be the core source of patients' symptoms, which are often debilitating and implicate an entire socio-cognitive-affective spectrum...
March 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690972/computational-psychiatry-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#17
Sarah K Fineberg, Dylan Stahl, Philip Corlett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification...
March 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316903/network-guided-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-depression
#18
Marc J Dubin, Conor Liston, Michael A Avissar, Irena Ilieva, Faith M Gunning
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: First, we will identify candidate predictive biomarkers of antidepressant response of TMS based on the neuroimaging literature. Next, we will review the effects of TMS on networks involved in depression. Finally, we will discuss ways in which our current understanding of network engagement by TMS may be used to optimize its antidepressant effect. RECENT FINDINGS: The past few years has seen significant interest in the antidepressant mechanisms of TMS...
March 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568721/monoamine-oxidase-a-in-antisocial-personality-disorder-and-borderline-personality-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Nathan J Kolla, Sarah A Vinette
Purpose of Review: Variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene and MAO-A enzyme levels have been linked to antisocial behavior and aggression in clinical and non-clinical populations. Here, we provide an overview of the genetic, epigenetic, and neuroimaging research that has examined MAO-A structure and function in antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent Findings: The low-activity MAO-A variable nucleotide tandem repeat genetic polymorphism has shown a robust association with large samples of violent and seriously violent offenders, many of whom had ASPD...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201595/microbes-tickling-your-tummy-the-importance-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Paula Perez-Pardo, Mitch Hartog, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld
Purpose of Review: Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are known to experience gastrointestinal dysfunction that might precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. Evidence suggests an important role of the gut-brain axis in PD pathogenesis. These interactions might be essentially influenced by the gut microbiota. Here, we review recent findings supporting that changes in the gut microbiota composition might be a trigger for inflammation contributing to neurodegeneration in PD...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
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