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Current Oral Health Reports

Hope M Amm, Mary MacDougall
Several molecular pathways have been shown to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors. These neoplasms arise from the epithelial or mesenchymal cells of the dental apparatus in the jaw or oral mucosa. Next generation genomic sequencing has identified gene mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with many of these tumors. In this review, we focus on two of the most common odontogenic tumor subtypes: ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. We highlight gene expression and protein immunohistological findings and known genetic alterations in the hedgehog, BRAF/Ras/MAPK, epidermal growth factor receptor, Wnt and Akt signaling pathways relevant to these tumors...
June 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Rebecca C Hoesli, Jeffrey S Moyer
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been found to be an immunosuppressive malignancy, with many defects in the host immune system contributing to the progression of disease. A greater understanding of these defects has lead to the identification and investigation of new therapeutic strategies, targeting immune system dysfunction in an effort to improve the outcomes of this disease. This article provides a brief review of the knowledge regarding the immune defects present in head and neck cancer, as well as a review of the current therapeutic strategies being investigated for use...
June 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Benjamin Cross, Roberta C Faustoferri, Robert G Quivey
Extraordinary technological advances have greatly accelerated our ability to identify bacteria, at the species level, present in clinical samples taken from the human mouth. In addition, technologies are evolving such that the oral samples can be analyzed for their protein and metabolic products. As a result, pictures are the advent of personalized dental medicine is becoming closer to reality.
March 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Hubertine Me Willems, Zhenbo Xu, Brian M Peters
Microbes rarely exist as single species planktonic forms as they have been commonly studied in the laboratory. Instead, the vast majority exists as part of complex polymicrobial biofilm communities attached to host and environmental surfaces. The oral cavity represents one of the most diverse and well-studied polymicrobial consortia. Despite a burgeoning field of mechanistic biofilm research within the past decades, our understanding of interactions that occur between microbial members within oral biofilms is still limited...
March 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Rooban Thavarajah, Madan Kumar, Anusa Arunachalam Mohandoss, Lance T Vernon
Proper tooth brushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Integrated Health Coaching (IHC), may help optimize tooth brushing technique in those with suboptimal skills. Some motor activities, including tooth brushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill...
September 2015: Current Oral Health Reports
Lance T Vernon, Anita R Howard
Oral health is managed based on objective measures such as the presence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. In recent years, oral health researchers and practitioners have shown increasing interest in a widened array of physical, psychological, and social factors found to influence patients' oral health. In this article, we introduce a behavior change coaching approach that can be used to enhance psychosocial diagnosis and client-centered delivery of health-promoting interventions. Briefly, this health coaching approach is based on an interactive assessment (both physical and psychological), a non-judgmental exploration of patients' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, a mapping of patient behaviors that may contribute to disease progression, gauging patient motivation, and tailoring health communication to encourage health-promoting behavior change...
September 2015: Current Oral Health Reports
A Wilson Aruni, Yuetan Dou, Arunima Mishra, Hansel M Fletcher
Oral Biofilms are one of the most complex and diverse ecosystem developed by successive colonization of more than 600 bacterial taxa. Development starts with the attachment of early colonizers such as Actinomyces species and oral streptococci on the acquired pellicle and tooth enamel. These bacteria not only adhere to tooth surface but also interact with each other and lay foundation for attachment of bridging colonizer such as Fusobacterium nucleatum followed by late colonizers including the red complex species: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola-the founders of periodontal disease...
March 1, 2015: Current Oral Health Reports
Mi Du, Xuejing Duan, Pishan Yang
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which leads to destruction of both the soft and hard tissues of the periodontium. Tissue engineering is a therapeutic approach in regenerative medicine that aims to induce new functional tissue regeneration via the synergistic combination of cells, biomaterials, and/or growth factors. Advances in our understanding of the biology of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, have provided opportunities for periodontal tissue engineering...
2015: Current Oral Health Reports
M D Lagerweij, C van Loveren
WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % reduction in DMFT for 12-year-olds in Western Europe and the USA, caries still affects 60-90 % of the children throughout the world. In the high- and middle-income countries, the nature of caries has changed from a rapid progressing disease of childhood to a slowly progressing disease throughout adulthood and even old age...
2015: Current Oral Health Reports
Sali Al-Ansari, Judith A E M Zecha, Andrei Barasch, Jan de Lange, Fred R Rozema, Judith E Raber-Durlacher
Oral mucositis induced by conventional cytotoxic cancer therapies is a common and significant clinical problem in oncology. Mucositis symptoms, which include severe pain, may lead to dose reductions and unplanned interruptions of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and often affect patients' quality of life. In addition, ulcerative mucositis represents a risk factor for local or systemic infectious complications that may be life-threatening in immunosuppressed patients. The development of biologically based targeted cancer therapies, which aim to block the growth, spread, and survival of tumors by interfering with specific molecular targets, may have reduced mucosal injury, but did not eliminate it...
2015: Current Oral Health Reports
M H van der Veen
This paper discusses the use of new technologies for the assessment of caries and more in particular changes in caries activity. Over the past decades, we have seen a shift from restorative treatment caries to a prevention-driven approach. Also there is a need for shorter and less expensive caries clinical trials. These demand earlier detection of lesions and the monitoring of lesion changes longitudinally in time, which has led to the development of new technologies to aid clinical visual examination. Also clinical visual inspection indices have been refined to fit this purpose...
2015: Current Oral Health Reports
Yasushi Shimada, Alireza Sadr, Yasunori Sumi, Junji Tagami
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive technique providing cross-sectional images of a tooth structure. This review describes the use of OCT for detecting dental caries, tooth fractures, and interfacial gaps in intraoral restorations. OCT can be a reliable and an accurate method and a safer alternative to X-ray radiography.
2015: Current Oral Health Reports
Jeffrey B Payne, Lorne M Golub, Geoffrey M Thiele, Ted R Mikuls
In this review, we critically evaluate the case-control studies examining the relationship between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis, two common chronic inflammatory diseases with a similar host-mediated pathogenesis. We review the "two-hit" periodontitis model that our group previously proposed, in which we elucidate how a systemic disease such as RA can potentially exacerbate or initiate periodontitis. Furthermore, we discuss adjunctive host modulation therapy, originally developed for periodontitis (i...
2015: Current Oral Health Reports
Tetsuo Kobayashi, Hiromasa Yoshie
Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are common chronic inflammatory conditions and share many clinical and pathologic features. There is evidence to suggest that similar profiles of cytokine genotypes and their coding proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and RA. In particular, constitutive overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been implicated to play a pathologic role in the two inflammatory diseases...
2015: Current Oral Health Reports
Maha Yakob, Laurel Fuentes, Marilene B Wang, Elliot Abemayor, David T W Wong
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on thorough clinical oral examination combined with biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers...
June 1, 2014: Current Oral Health Reports
Nasi Huang, Frank C Gibson
Periodontal disease (PD) is a highly complex disease involving many factors; however, two principal facets central to initiation and progression of the majority of PD are the composition of the microbes in the sub-gingival plaque, and the host immune response to these organisms. Numerous studies point to the complexity of PD, and to the fact that despite innate and adaptive immune activation, and resultant inflammation, our immune response fails to cure disease. Stunning new findings have begun to clarify several complexities of the host-pathogen interaction of PD pointing to key roles for microbial dysboisis and immune imbalance in the pathogenesis of disease...
June 1, 2014: Current Oral Health Reports
Justin Merritt, Zhiyun Chen, Nan Liu, Jens Kreth
Within the past 10 years, it has become increasingly evident that posttranscriptional regulation is among the most important mechanisms used by bacteria to modulate gene expression in response to environmental perturbations. Posttranscriptional mechanisms provide a much faster response and lower energy burden compared to most transcription regulatory pathways and they have the unique advantage that they can override existing transcriptional responses once the environment changes. Because of this, virulence factor gene expression is particularly suited for posttranscriptional control, and not surprisingly, an abundance of recent evidence indicates that posttranscriptional regulators are the predominant virulence regulators of human pathogens...
March 1, 2014: Current Oral Health Reports
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