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Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038777/the-abcd-study-of-neurodevelopment-identifying-neurocircuit-targets-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-adolescent-substance-abuse
#1
James M Bjork, Lisa K Straub, Rosellen G Provost, Michael C Neale
Substance use disorders (SUD) can be considered developmental disorders in light of their frequent origins in substance initiation during adolescence. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders (such as conduct disorder), or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034144/exercise-treatments-for-psychosis-a-review
#2
Vijay A Mittal, Teresa Vargas, K Juston Osborne, Derek Dean, Tina Gupta, Ivanka Ristanovic, Christine I Hooker, Stewart A Shankman
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that has profound effects on a person's health and quality of life. Exercise represents a promising new treatment option that may supplement current psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis. A large body of work suggests that exercise can improve cardio-metabolic and health behavior and facilitate neurogenesis in areas of the brain that are notably impacted by psychosis. Recent efforts to incorporate exercise as either stand-alone or adjunctive treatment for individuals with schizophrenia range from yoga and light stretching to moderately intense walking, bike riding, or team sports...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674674/targeting-the-immune-system-with-pharmacotherapy-in-schizophrenia
#3
Jennifer K Melbourne, Benjamin Feiner, Cherise Rosen, Rajiv P Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948135/pharmacological-management-of-anxiety-disorders-in-the-elderly
#4
Elizabeth A Crocco, Sindy Jaramillo, Caroline Cruz-Ortiz, Katherine Camfield
Anxiety disorders are common in the elderly. Additionally, anxiety symptoms often accompany co-morbid psychiatric, medical, as well as neurodegenerative diseases in the older population. Anxiety in the elderly, often accompanied by depression, can lead to worsening physical, cognitive and functional impairments in this vulnerable population. Antidepressants are considered first line treatment. Both SSRIs and SNRIs are efficacious and well-tolerated in the elderly. Some SSRIs are strong inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 hepatic pathway whereas others have less potential for drug interaction...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932652/psychosocial-treatment-options-for-major-depressive-disorder-in-older-adults
#5
Brenna N Renn, Patricia A Areán
Late-life depression (LLD) is a public health concern with deleterious effects on overall health, cognition, quality of life, and mortality. Although LLD is relatively common, it is not a normal part of aging and is often under-recognized in older adults. However, psychotherapy is an effective treatment for LLD that aligns with many patients' preferences and can improve health and functioning. This review synthesized the current literature on evidence-based psychotherapies for the treatment of depression in older adults...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580231/hormones-and-neuropeptide-receptor-heteromers-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-targets-for-the-treatment-of-loss-of-control-of-food-intake-and-substance-use-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Sergi Ferré
Hormones and neuropeptides represent biological correlates of internal homeostatic signals detected and integrated in the hypothalamus, which establishes a robust functional connection with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The hypothalamus-VTA connection determines the ability of these signals to influence central dopaminergic neurotransmission and, therefore, their ability to increase responsiveness to their reward-associated stimuli and to establish appropriate associative learning. The hypothalamus also provides the main source of the multiple neuropeptides that are released in the VTA...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580230/the-use-of-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-in-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Seiya Miyamoto, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
Schizophrenia is a mostly chronic mental disorder, and symptomatic relapse is frequently observed. It is often associated with social and/or occupational decline that can be difficult to reverse. Most patients with the illness need long-term pharmacological treatment, and antipsychotic drugs represent the mainstay of clinical care. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are an important alternative to oral medication, particularly advantageous in the context of compliance management. Several new-generation antipsychotics (NGAs), including risperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, and aripiprazole, have become available as long-acting formulations, and new evidence has been accumulating...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018836/novel-therapeutics-for-addiction-behavioral-and-neuroeconomic-approaches
#8
Warren K Bickel, Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Lara Moody, Jeffrey S Stein, Amanda J Quisenberry
The maturing fields of behavioral- and neuro-economics provides conceptual understanding of the Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems theory (CNDS) and reinforcer pathology (i.e. high valuation of and excessive preference for drug reinforcers) allowing us to coherently categorize treatments into a theoretically comprehensive framework of addiction. In this chapter, we identify and clarify how existing and novel interventions can ameliorate reinforcer pathology in light of the CNDS and be leveraged to treat addiction...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493878/opioid-use-in-the-twenty-first-century-similarities-and-differences-across-national-borders
#9
Georgi Vasilev, Svetla Milcheva, Jasmin Vassileva
The global prevalence in the use of opiates and opioids has remained stable, though there were some unprecedented recent increases in opioid use and associated mortality and morbidity in the United States. Internationally, there is a strong tendency for consolidation of drug treatment strategies in favor of more systematic, structured and balanced approaches to regional and national drug policies. However, there are considerable differences in the scope, focus, and implementation of national drug policies and the political context is shaping drug prevention, treatment and rehabilitation efforts to an extent not typically observed in other public health domains...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648401/pharmacologic-treatment-of-pediatric-anxiety-disorders
#10
Farah S Hussain, Eric T Dobson, Jeffrey R Strawn
The last decade has seen considerable advances in the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents and a considerable expansion of the evidence base for psychopharmacologic in this population. The extant data suggest that, for fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia/social anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are well tolerated and offer considerable benefit...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867834/neurobiology-of-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Ayşegül Özerdem, Deniz Ceylan, Güneş Can
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness which follows a relapsing and remitting course and requires lifetime treatment. The lack of biological markers for BD is a major difficulty in clinical practice. Exploring multiple endophenotypes to fit in multivariate genetic models for BD is an important element in the process of finding tools to facilitate early diagnosis, early intervention, prevention of new episodes, and follow-up of treatment response in BD. Reviewing of studies on neuroimaging, neurocognition, and biochemical parameters in populations with high genetic risk for the illness can yield an integrative perspective on the neurobiology of risk for BD...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376016/treating-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Gary Remington, George Foussias, Gagan Fervaha, Ofer Agid, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Jimmy Lee, Margaret Hahn
Interest in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia has increased rapidly over the last several decades, paralleling a growing interest in functional, in addition to clinical, recovery, and evidence underscoring the importance negative symptoms play in the former. Efforts continue to better define and measure negative symptoms, distinguish their impact from that of other symptom domains, and establish effective treatments as well as trials to assess these. Multiple interventions have been the subject of investigation, to date, including numerous pharmacological strategies, brain stimulation, and non-somatic approaches...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398288/a-review-of-brain-stimulation-treatments-for-late-life-depression
#13
Daniel M Blumberger, Jonathan H Hsu, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Opinion Statement Recurrence, relapse and resistance to first-line therapies are common and pervasive issues in the treatment of depression in older adults. As a result, brain stimulation modalities are essential treatment options in this population. The majority of data for the effectiveness of brain stimulation modalities comes from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) studies. Current ECT trials are focused on prolonging response after a successful course and mitigating the cognitive adverse effects. Newer forms of brain stimulation have emerged; unfortunately, as with most advances in medicine older adults have not been systematically included in clinical trials...
December 2015: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949595/are-eating-disorders-related-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Shauna P Reinblatt
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Binge-eating behavior is often impulsive and is the hallmark of the two eating disorders, binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), both of which are associated with significant health impairment. Bingeing behavior is also seen in the binge purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. Individuals with AN of the binge purge subtypes, BN and BED, have been found to exhibit impulsive behaviors that are often not limited to binge eating alone...
December 2015: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918229/-does-ketamine-have-rapid-anti-suicidal-ideation-effects
#15
Laili Soleimani, Alison Welch, James W Murrough
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713665/neuromodulation-treatments-for-schizophrenia
#16
Mehmet E Dokucu
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that causes great suffering and debilitation worldwide. We have a multitude of medications that are effective for psychosis. However, these have not been successful in treating the negative and cognitive symptom domains of schizophrenia. These symptoms are responsible for the larger part of functional impairments that result from schizophrenia. In addition, there are many patients for whom no significant improvement is achieved even in the positive symptom domain. Hence, other treatment modalities have been explored to help these patients...
September 2015: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26413454/gender-considerations-in-addiction-implications-for-treatment
#17
Kathryn Polak, Nancy A Haug, Haroldo E Drachenberg, Dace S Svikis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26301176/glutamatergic-agents-for-ocd-and-related-disorders
#18
Christopher Pittenger
Pharmacotherapy remains inadequate for many patients with OCD; there is an urgent need for alternative pharmacological strategies. Convergent evidence suggests imbalance in glutamate, the brain's primary excitatory neurotransmitter, in some patients. This has motivated interest in glutamate modulators in patients who are unresponsive to standard pharmacotherapeutic approaches. While no glutamate modulator can be considered proven as an efficacious treatment of OCD, promising suggestions of benefit have been reported for memantine and riluzole...
September 2015: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26301175/current-and-emergent-treatments-for-symptoms-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia
#19
Daniel C Javitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26009706/use-of-preclinical-drug-vs-food-choice-procedures-to-evaluate-candidate-medications-for-cocaine-addiction
#20
Matthew L Banks, Blake A Hutsell, Kathryn L Schwienteck, S Stevens Negus
Drug addiction is a disease that manifests as an inappropriate allocation of behavior towards the procurement and use of the abused substance and away from other behaviors that produce more adaptive reinforcers (e.g. exercise, work, family and social relationships). The goal of treating drug addiction is not only to decrease drug-maintained behaviors, but also to promote a reallocation of behavior towards alternative, nondrug reinforcers. Experimental procedures that offer concurrent access to both a drug reinforcer and an alternative, nondrug reinforcer provide a research tool for assessment of medication effects on drug choice and behavioral allocation...
June 2015: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
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