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Health & Justice

Rebecca Woodhouse, Matthew Neilson, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Julie Glanville, Catherine Hewitt, Amanda E Perry
BACKGROUND: Drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental health problems are common in the criminal justice system. A combination of drug use and mental health problems makes people more likely to be arrested for criminal involvement after release compared to offenders without a mental health problem. Previous research has evaluated interventions aimed broadly at those with a drug problem but rarely with drug use and mental health problems. This systematic review considers the effectiveness of interventions for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental health problems...
December 2016: Health & Justice
Lise Lafferty, Carla Treloar, Tony Butler, Jill Guthrie, Georgina M Chambers
BACKGROUND: Social capital has been shown to be a valuable resource for improving health outcomes. However, it has received little attention in the prison setting. Dimensions of social capital in mainstream society are likely to function differently among inmates in prison. This study seeks to identify and understand social capital dimensions among incarcerated men living with hepatitis C. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted across three correctional centres in New South Wales with 30 male inmates living with hepatitis C...
2016: Health & Justice
Katrina Bird, Michelle S Fitts, Alan R Clough
BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia are more likely than non-Indigenous children to be in contact with the child safety system. A large number of Queensland's Indigenous population live in remote and isolated communities in north Queensland where the state government's Alcohol Management Plans (AMPs) are in effect. In these communities it is an offence to have in one's possession more than the regulated amount and type of alcohol. A breach of these restrictions can result in convictions under the Liquor Act 1992...
2016: Health & Justice
Jeff Bouffard, Elizabeth Berger, Gaylene S Armstrong
BACKGROUND: In recent years, jurisdictions have recognized the strain placed on limited existing resources by criminal offenders with mental illness who frequently cycle through local jail facilities. In response, many locales have developed and implemented specialized programs to more effectively and efficiently manage these offenders, particularly the process of assigning defense attorneys to these often indigent defendants. METHODS: The current study examined the impact of an Indigent Defense Counsel (IDC) program designed to provide specially trained defense attorneys, and enhanced case management services to 257 indigent jail inmates with a qualifying, major mental health diagnosis (e...
2016: Health & Justice
Madison L Gates, Thad Wilkins, Elizabeth Ferguson, Veronica Walker, Robert K Bradford, Wonsuk Yoo
BACKGROUND: Studies have found that antipsychotics and antidepressants are associated with weight gain and obesity, particularly among women and some minority groups. Incarcerated populations (also referred to as offenders, prisoners or inmates) have a high prevalence of mental health problems and 15 % of offenders have been prescribed medications. Despite rates of antidepressant and antipsychotic use, investigations of weight gain and obesity in regard to these agents seldom have included offenders...
2016: Health & Justice
Jessica Olds, Rachel Reilly, Paul Yerrell, Janet Stajic, Jasmine Micklem, Kim Morey, Alex Brown
BACKGROUND: International frameworks supported by national principles in Australia stipulate that prisoners should be provided with health services equivalent to those provided in the general community. However, a number of barriers unique to the prison system may hinder the provision of equitable healthcare for this population. In Australia, Indigenous people carry a greater burden of cancer mortality, which the Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD) project is seeking to address...
2016: Health & Justice
Emily H Thomas, Emily A Wang, Leslie A Curry, Peggy G Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with a history of incarceration, little is known about how prisons manage CVD risk factors (CVD-RF) to mitigate this risk. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with individuals with CVD-RF who had been recently released from prison (n = 26). These individuals were recruited through community flyers and a primary care clinic in Connecticut. Using a grounded theory approach and the constant comparative method, we inductively generated themes about CVD-RF care in prisons...
2016: Health & Justice
Bronwyn Honorato, Nerina Caltabiano, Alan R Clough
BACKGROUND: There were approximately 34,000 prisoners incarcerated in Australian correctional centres as of 2014. The most common offence type for these prisoners was 'acts intended to cause injury', comprising 18 % of the total offences. Of the various risk factors for violent offending and incarceration identified in international research, trauma - either single events or ongoing; and substance abuse - which is commonly associated with violent behaviour across many cultures, are major contributors...
2016: Health & Justice
Stephanie A Spohr, Sumihiro Suzuki, Brittany Marshall, Faye S Taxman, Scott T Walters
BACKGROUND: People involved in the justice system are at 2.5 times the risk of HIV infection compared to the general population, which is further complicated by substance abuse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of social network quality and quantity on unprotected sex, criminal risk, and substance use. METHODS: We used data from 330 drug-involved offenders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to model and test path directionality and magnitude between the latent constructs of social support quality and quantity on risky behaviors...
2016: Health & Justice
Diane S Morse, Jennifer Silverstein, Katherine Thomas, Precious Bedel, Catherine Cerulli
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic diversion courts seek to address justice-involved participants' underlying problems leading to their legal system involvement, including substance use disorder, psychiatric illness, and intimate partner violence. The courts have not addressed systemic hurdles, which can contribute to a cycle of substance use disorder and recidivism, which in turn hinder health and wellness. The study purpose is to explore the systemic issues faced by women participants in drug treatment court from multiple perspectives to understand how these issues may relate to health and wellness in their lives...
December 2015: Health & Justice
Christy A Visher, Yang Yang, Shannon G Mitchell, Yvonne Patterson, Holly Swan, Jennifer Pankow
BACKGROUND: In the growing field of implementation science, sustainability is a critical component of the implementation process of moving evidence-based treatments to regular practice. This paper is intended to extend our understanding of factors that influence the sustainability of HIV services in correctional settings following an organization-level intervention designed to implement improvements in preventing, detecting, or treating HIV for persons under correctional supervision. METHODS: Using semi-structured interviews to elicit perceptions from the principal researcher and executive sponsor at each of nine participating sites, this study explores the variations in the sustainability of HIV services in these criminal justice settings following the experimental implementation intervention...
December 2015: Health & Justice
Holly Swan, Matthew L Hiller, Carmen E Albizu-García, Michele Pich, Yvonne Patterson, Daniel J O'Connell
The prevalence of HIV among U.S. inmates is much greater than in the general population, creating public health concerns and cost issues for the criminal justice system. The HIV Services and Treatment Implementation in Corrections protocol of the NIDA funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies cooperative tested the efficacy of an organizational process improvement strategy on improving HIV services in correctional facilities. For this paper, we analyzed efficacy of this strategy on improving inmate awareness and perceptions of HIV services...
June 2015: Health & Justice
Precious Bedell, John L Wilson, Ann Marie White, Diane S Morse
BACKGROUND: Re-entry community health workers (CHWs) are individuals who connect diverse community residents at risk for chronic health issues such as Hepatitis C virus and cardiovascular disease with post-prison healthcare and re-entry services. While the utilization of CHWs has been documented in other marginalized populations, there is little knowledge surrounding the work of re-entry CHWs with individuals released from incarceration. Specifically, CHWs' experiences and perceptions of the uniqueness of their efforts to link individuals to healthcare have not been documented systematically...
2015: Health & Justice
Julia Rozanova, Shan-Estelle Brown, Ambika Bhushan, Ruthanne Marcus, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: This paper examines how family and social relations facilitate and inhibit adherence to antiretroviraltherapy (ART) for people living with HIV (PLH) who have underlying substance use disorders and are transitioningto the community post-incarceration. METHODS: Combining the methods of inductive close reading and constantcomparison, we analyzed the data from 30 semi-structured interviews of PLH who had recently transitioned to thecommunity within the previous 90 days...
2015: Health & Justice
Catherine L Kothari, Robert Butkiewicz, Emily R Williams, Caron Jacobson, Diane S Morse, Catherine Cerulli
BACKGROUND: Based upon therapeutic justice principles, mental health courts use legal leverage to improve access and compliance to treatment for defendants who are mentally ill. Justice-involved women have a higher prevalence of mental illness than men, and it plays a greater role in their criminal behavior. Despite this, studies examining whether women respond differently than men to mental health courts are lacking. Study goals were to examine gender-related differences in mental health court participation, and in criminal justice, psychiatric and health-related outcomes...
December 5, 2014: Health & Justice
Angela Di Paola, Frederick L Altice, Mary Lindsay Powell, Robert L Trestman, Sandra A Springer
BACKGROUND: The criminal justice system (CJS), specifically prisons and jails, is ideally suited for uniform screening of psychiatric (PD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), who are concentrated in these settings. By accurately diagnosing PDs and SUDs in these controlled settings, treatment can be initiated and contribute to improved continuity of care upon release. In the context of PLWHA, it may also improve combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) adherence, and reduce HIV transmission risk behaviors...
October 29, 2014: Health & Justice
Joseph W Frank, Emily A Wang, Marcella Nunez-Smith, Hedwig Lee, Megan Comfort
BACKGROUND: Healthcare discrimination based on race/ethnicity is associated with decreased healthcare access and utilization among racial/ethnic minority patients. Discrimination based on criminal record may also negatively impact healthcare access and utilization among ex-prisoners. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey of 172 men recently released from state prison. We examined the association between self-reported criminal record discrimination by healthcare workers and utilization of 1) emergency department (ED) and 2) primary care services...
March 25, 2014: Health & Justice
Michael S Shafer, Michael Prendergast, Gerald Melnick, Lynda A Stein, Wayne N Welsh
BACKGROUND: The Organizational Process Improvement Intervention (OPII), conducted by the NIDA-funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies consortium of nine research centers, examined an organizational intervention to improve the processes used in correctional settings to assess substance abusing offenders, develop case plans, transfer this information to community-based treatment agencies, and monitor the services provided by these community based treatment agencies. METHODS/DESIGN: A multi-site cluster randomized design was used to evaluate an inter-agency organizational process improvement intervention among dyads of correctional agencies and community based treatment agencies...
2014: Health & Justice
Peter D Friedmann, Lori J Ducharme, Wayne Welsh, Linda Frisman, Kevin Knight, Timothy Kinlock, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Elizabeth Hall, Terry Urbine, Michael Gordon, Sami Abdel-Salam, Dan O'Connell, Carmen Albizu-Garcia, Hannah Knudsen, Jamieson Duval, Juliane Fenster
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are highly prevalent in community correctional populations, yet these settings frequently are ill-equipped to identify and refer offenders to community-based treatment services. In particular, community corrections staff are often opposed to the use of medication in addiction treatment because of inadequate knowledge, resources, and organizational structures to facilitate client linkages to evidence-based services. METHODS/DESIGN: Each of the NIDA-funded Research Centers recruited 2 criminal justice agencies to participate in the study...
December 19, 2013: Health & Justice
Steven Belenko, Christy Visher, Michael Copenhaver, Matthew Hiller, Gerald Melnick, Daniel O'Connell, Frank Pearson, Bennett Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Persons held in correctional facilities are at high risk for HIV infection and their prevalence of HIV is substantially higher than in the general population. Thus, the need for proper surveillance and care of this high risk population is a paramount public health issue. This study aims to evaluate an organization-level intervention strategy for improving HIV services for persons in prison or jail. METHODS/DESIGN: HIV Services and Treatment Implementation in Corrections (HIV-STIC) is using a cluster randomized trial design to test an organization-level intervention designed to implement improvements in preventing, detecting, and treating HIV for persons under correctional supervision...
December 2013: Health & Justice
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