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Health & Justice

Alice Munro, Anthony Shakeshaft, Anton Clifford
Upon publication of the original article (Munro et al., 2017), the authors noticed the following errors.
March 14, 2018: Health & Justice
Sacha Kendall, Sarah Redshaw, Stephen Ward, Sarah Wayland, Elizabeth Sullivan
BACKGROUND: The paper presents a systematic review and metasynthesis of findings from qualitative evaluations of community reentry programs. The programs sought to engage recently released adult prison inmates with either problematic drug use or a mental health disorder. METHODS: Seven biomedical and social science databases, Cinahl, Pubmed, Scopus, Proquest, Medline, Sociological abstracts and Web of Science and publisher database Taylor and Francis were searched in 2016 resulting in 2373 potential papers...
March 2, 2018: Health & Justice
Meredith Greene, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Lia Metzger, Brie Williams
BACKGROUND: The number of older adults in the criminal justice system is rapidly increasing. While this population is thought to experience an early onset of aging-related health conditions ("accelerated aging"), studies have not directly compared rates of geriatric conditions in this population to those found in the general population. The aims of this study were to compare the burden of geriatric conditions among older adults in jail to rates found in an age-matched nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults...
February 17, 2018: Health & Justice
Caitlin McMillen Dowell, Gloria C Mejia, David B Preen, Leonie Segal
BACKGROUND: There are no population statistics collected on a routine basis on the children of prisoners in Australia. Accordingly, their potential vulnerability to adverse outcomes remains unclear. This study draws on linked administrative data to describe the exposure of children aged less than 2 years to maternal imprisonment in Western Australia, their contact with child protection services, and infant mortality rates. RESULTS: In Western Australia, 36.5 per 1000 Indigenous (n = 804) and 1...
January 15, 2018: Health & Justice
Reece Cossar, Mark Stoové, Stuart A Kinner, Paul Dietze, Campbell Aitken, Michael Curtis, Amy Kirwan, James R P Ogloff
BACKGROUND: Dual substance dependence and psychiatric and psychological morbidities are overrepresented in prison populations and associated with reoffending. In the context of an increasing prison population in Australia, investigating the needs of vulnerable people in prison with a dual diagnosis can help inform in-prison screening and treatment and improve prison and community service integration and continuation of care. In this study we quantified psychiatric well-being in a sample of people in prison with a history of injecting drug use in Victoria, Australia, and identified factors associated with this outcome...
January 13, 2018: Health & Justice
Larkin Street McReynolds, Gail Wasserman, Elise Ozbardakci
BACKGROUND: Despite elevations in risks associated with self-injurious behavior among community adolescents, the degree to which these features are associated with self-injury among incarcerated youth has rarely been examined. Although the DSM-5 recently proposed a distinct category of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), most studies of youths in forensic settings have not distinguished between subtypes of self-harming individuals. METHODS: Demographic, offense, and disorder contributors to NSSI in incarcerated youths of both genders (N = 358) were examined via a computerized self-report instrument (VISA), largely consistent with DSM-5...
December 13, 2017: Health & Justice
Alice Munro, Anthony Shakeshaft, Anton Clifford
BACKGROUND: Given the well-established evidence of disproportionately high rates of substance-related morbidity and mortality after release from incarceration for Indigenous Australians, access to comprehensive, effective and culturally safe residential rehabilitation treatment will likely assist in reducing recidivism to both prison and substance dependence for this population. In the absence of methodologically rigorous evidence, the delivery of Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation services vary widely, and divergent views exist regarding the appropriateness and efficacy of different potential treatment components...
December 4, 2017: Health & Justice
Kathryn M Nowotny
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to apply Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use to men's prisons to assess the direct and indirect effects of inmate predisposing characteristics through multiple types of need. Also examined are the effects of prison-specific enabling factors and the variation in use of health services across prisons. This study uses a nationally representative U.S. sample of men incarcerated in state prisons (n = 8816) and generalized structural equation and multilevel modeling...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Nathan Wong Link, Leah K Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Much work has investigated the association between substance use, crime, and recidivism, yet little scholarship has examined these associations longitudinally among samples of recently released prisoners. We examine the lagged reciprocal effects of hard substance use and crime, among other covariates, in the context of the prisoner reentry process. METHODS: We rely on data from the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) evaluation and employ cross-lagged panel models to examine short-term changes in substance use and crime over time among a large sample of high-risk, former prisoners (N = 1697)...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Rebecca Kemnitz, Theresa C Kuehl, Karli R Hochstatter, Emily Barker, Anna Corey, Elizabeth A Jacobs, Michael D Repplinger, William J Ehlenbach, David W Seal, James M Sosman, Ryan P Westergaard
BACKGROUND: While most people living with HIV who are incarcerated in United States receive appropriate HIV care while they are in prison, interruptions in antiretroviral therapy and virologic failure are extremely common after they are released. The purpose of this study was to describe whether and how HIV stigma influences continuity of care for people living with HIV while they transition from prison to community settings. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, telephone-based interviews with 32 adults who received HIV care while residing in a Wisconsin state prison, followed by a second interview 6 months after they returned to their home community...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Sehun Oh, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: Being offered illicit drugs is a critical factor leading to drug initiation and other psychosocial risk behaviors among adolescents in the United States. However, there exist few studies examining the recent trends in drug offers among adolescents, particularly across racial/ethnic subgroups. The present study examines trends and psychosocial/behavioral correlates of drug offers among adolescents of the three largest racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: We used data from the 2002-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health of adolescents aged 12-17, which include African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents (n = 199,700) in the U...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Laurie Leitch
This paper 1) discusses two important contributions that are shaping work with vulnerable and under-resourced populations: Kaiser Permanente's (1998) Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACE) which includes the impact of adverse experiences in childhood on adult health and health behaviors and the more recent advent of what has come to be known as Trauma-Informed Care (TIC), programs which incorporate knowledge of the impact of early trauma into policies and programs. 2) Despite many positive benefits that have come from both contributions there are unintended consequences, described in the paper, that have an impact on research and program evaluation as well as social policies and programs...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Erin Falconer, Tal El-Hay, Dimitris Alevras, John P Docherty, Chen Yanover, Alan Kalton, Yaara Goldschmidt, Michal Rosen-Zvi
BACKGROUND: Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. This article describes the creation of a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated dataset including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system...
December 2017: Health & Justice
J D Lee, B Tofighi, R McDonald, A Campbell, M C Hu, E Nunes
BACKGROUND: The acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of web-based interventions among criminal justice involved populations are understudied. This study is a secondary analysis of baseline characteristics associated with criminal justice system (CJS) status as treatment outcome moderators among participants enrolling in a large randomized trial of a web-based psychosocial intervention (Therapeutic Education System [TES]) as part of outpatient addiction treatment. METHODS: We compared demographic and clinical characteristics, TES participation rates, and the trial's two co-primary outcomes, end of treatment abstinence and treatment retention, by self-reported CJS status at baseline: 1) CJS-mandated to community treatment (CJS-mandated), 2) CJS-recommended to treatment (CJS-recommended), 3) no CJS treatment mandate (CJS-none)...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Nickolas D Zaller, David H Cloud, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Sarah Martino, Benjamin Bouvier, Brad Brockmann
Though the full implications of a Trump presidency for ongoing health care and criminal justice reform efforts remain uncertain, whatever policy changes are made will be particularly salient for the South, which experiences the highest incarceration rates, highest uninsured rates, and worst health outcomes in the United States. The passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 was a watershed event and many states have taken advantage of opportunities created by the ACA to expand healthcare coverage to their poorest residents, and to develop partnerships between health and justice systems...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Cheneal Puljević, Stuart A Kinner, Dominique de Andrade
BACKGROUND: A smoking ban was implemented across all prisons in Queensland, Australia, in May 2014, with the aim of improving the health of prisoners and prison staff. However, relapse to smoking after release from prison is common. Only one previous study, conducted in the United States, has used a randomised design to evaluate an intervention to assist individuals in remaining abstinent from smoking following release from a smoke-free prison. METHODS: This paper describes the rationale for and design of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to extend smoking abstinence in men after release from smoke-free prisons in the state of Queensland, Australia...
December 2017: Health & Justice
Nikhil Tomar, Marilyn A Ghezzi, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Amy Blank Wilson, Tonya B Van Deinse, Stacey Burgin, Gary S Cuddeback
BACKGROUND: The large and growing number of probationers with mental illnesses pose significant challenges to the probationer officers who supervise them. Stigma towards mental illnesses among probation officers is largely unstudied and the effectiveness of training initiatives designed to educate probation officers about mental illness is unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, we report findings from a statewide mental health training initiative designed to improve probation officers' knowledge of mental illnesses...
November 15, 2017: Health & Justice
Karli R Hochstatter, Lauren J Stockman, Ryan Holzmacher, James Greer, David W Seal, Quinton A Taylor, Emma K Gill, Ryan P Westergaard
BACKGROUND: Incarcerated populations are disproportionately burdened by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The introduction of highly-effective, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment has potential to substantially reduce the burden of liver disease in this population, but accurate information about access to and utilization of this treatment is currently limited. The goals of this study were to characterize receipt of HCV care and treatment services for a cohort of HCV-infected adults identified in a state prison system, and to describe the complex health needs of this population...
October 30, 2017: Health & Justice
Megan Carroll, Georgina Sutherland, Anna Kemp-Casey, Stuart A Kinner
BACKGROUND: Studies of healthcare service use often rely on self-reported data, especially in disadvantaged populations. Despite this, the reliability of self-reported healthcare service use is often questioned and routinely-collected, administrative data are usually considered preferable. In this paper we examine the agreement between self-reported healthcare service use and administrative records, in a large cohort of adults recently released from prison in Australia. METHODS: Baseline interviews within 6 weeks of expected release from prison and follow-up interviews at 1, 3 and 6 months post-release were linked to routinely-collected, administrative health records over the same time period...
December 2016: Health & Justice
Rebecca Woodhouse, Matthew Neilson, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Julie Glanville, Catherine Hewitt, Amanda E Perry
BACKGROUND: Drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental health problems are common in the criminal justice system. A combination of drug use and mental health problems makes people more likely to be arrested for criminal involvement after release compared to offenders without a mental health problem. Previous research has evaluated interventions aimed broadly at those with a drug problem but rarely with drug use and mental health problems. This systematic review considers the effectiveness of interventions for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental health problems...
December 2016: Health & Justice
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