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Current Epidemiology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547696/population-attributable-and-preventable-fractions-cancer-risk-factor-surveillance-and-cancer-policy-projection
#1
Kevin D Shield, D Maxwell Parkin, David C Whiteman, Jürgen Rehm, Vivian Viallon, Claire Marant Micallef, Paolo Vineis, Lesley Rushton, Freddie Bray, Isabelle Soerjomataram
The proportions of new cancer cases and deaths that are caused by exposure to risk factors and that could be prevented are key statistics for public health policy and planning. This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating, challenges in the analysis of, and utility of, population attributable and preventable fractions for cancers caused by major risk factors such as tobacco smoking, dietary factors, high body fat, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, infectious agents, occupational exposure, air pollution, sun exposure, and insufficient breastfeeding...
September 2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642548/social-determinants-of-population-health-a-systems-sciences-approach
#2
David S Fink, Katherine M Keyes, Magdalena Cerdá
Population distributions of health emerge from the complex interplay of health-related factors at multiple levels, from the biological to the societal level. Individuals are aggregated within social networks, affected by their locations, and influenced differently across time. From aggregations of individuals, group properties can emerge, including some exposures that are ubiquitous within populations but variant across populations. By combining a focus on social determinants of health with a conceptual framework for understanding how genetics, biology, behavior, psychology, society, and environment interact, a systems science approach can inform our understanding of the underlying causes of the unequal distribution of health across generations and populations, and can help us identify promising approaches to reduce such inequalities...
March 2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326386/the-consistency-assumption-for-causal-inference-in-social-epidemiology-when-a-rose-is-not-a-rose
#3
David H Rehkopf, M Maria Glymour, Theresa L Osypuk
The assumption that exposures as measured in observational settings have clear and specific definitions underpins epidemiologic research and allows us to use observational data to predict outcomes in interventions. This leap between exposures as measured and exposures as intervened upon is typically supported by the consistency assumption. The consistency assumption has received extensive attention in risk factor epidemiology but relatively little emphasis in social epidemiology. However, violations of the consistency assumption may be especially important to consider when understanding how social and economic exposures influence health...
March 2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239427/health-impacts-of-the-great-recession-a-critical-review
#4
Claire Margerison-Zilko, Sidra Goldman-Mellor, April Falconi, Janelle Downing
The severity, sudden onset, and multipronged nature of the Great Recession (2007-2009) provided a unique opportunity to examine the health impacts of macroeconomic downturn. We comprehensively review empirical literature examining the relationship between the Recession and mental and physical health outcomes in developed nations. Overall, studies reported detrimental impacts of the Recession on health, particularly mental health. Macro- and individual-level employment- and housing-related sequelae of the Recession were associated with declining fertility and self-rated health, and increasing morbidity, psychological distress, and suicide, although traffic fatalities and population-level alcohol consumption declined...
March 2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172171/connecting-the-dots-in-childhood-obesity-disparities-a-review-of-growth-patterns-from-birth-to-pre-adolescence
#5
Janne Boone-Heinonen, Lynne Messer, Kate Andrade, Erin Takemoto
In this review, we considered how disparities in obesity emerge between birth, when socially disadvantaged infants tend to be small, and later in childhood, when socially disadvantaged groups have high risk of obesity. We reviewed epidemiologic evidence of socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differences in growth from infancy to pre-adolescence. Minority race/ethnicity and lower socioeconomic status was associated with rapid weight gain in infancy but not in older age groups, and social differences in linear growth and relative weight were unclear...
March 1, 2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547695/regression-discontinuity-for-causal-effect-estimation-in-epidemiology
#6
Catherine E Oldenburg, Ellen Moscoe, Till Bärnighausen
Regression discontinuity analyses can generate estimates of the causal effects of an exposure when a continuously measured variable is used to assign the exposure to individuals based on a threshold rule. Individuals just above the threshold are expected to be similar in their distribution of measured and unmeasured baseline covariates to individuals just below the threshold, resulting in exchangeability. At the threshold exchangeability is guaranteed if there is random variation in the continuous assignment variable, e...
2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547694/variability-in-cancer-risk-and-outcomes-within-us-latinos-by-national-origin-and-genetic-ancestry
#7
Mariana C Stern, Laura Fejerman, Rina Das, V Wendy Setiawan, Marcia R Cruz-Correa, Eliseo J Perez-Stable, Jane C Figueiredo
Latinos have lower rates for most common cancer sites and higher rates of some less common cancers (gallbladder, liver, gastric, and cervical) than other ethnic/racial groups. Latinos are a highly heterogeneous population with diverse national origins, unique genetic admixture patterns, and wide spectrum of socio-demographic characteristics. Across the major cancers (breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and liver) US-born Latinos have higher incidence and worse survival than foreign-born, and those with low-socioeconomic status have the lowest incidence...
2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218013/getting-to-zero-tuberculosis-elimination-in-california
#8
Pennan M Barry, Alexander W Kay, Jennifer M Flood, James Watt
This review of tuberculosis epidemiology is intended to provide a historical perspective on the public health approach to tuberculosis (TB) control in California. This historical context offers a lens through which to view current epidemiologic trends and insight into how new therapeutic tools can be applied. Since 1993, the year detailed case reporting was instituted, California has had a decrease in recent TB transmission as evidenced by a reduction in pediatric cases and an increased percentage of cases attributable to progression of latent infection to TB disease in the foreign-born population...
2016: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954351/the-active-comparator-new-user-study-design-in-pharmacoepidemiology-historical-foundations-and-contemporary-application
#9
Jennifer L Lund, David B Richardson, Til Stürmer
Better understanding of biases related to selective prescribing of, and adherence to, preventive treatments has led to improvements in the design and analysis of pharmacoepidemiologic studies. One influential development has been the "active comparator, new user" study design, which seeks to emulate the design of a head-to-head randomized controlled trial. In this review, we first discuss biases that may affect pharmacoepidemiologic studies and describe their direction and magnitude in a variety of settings...
December 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664818/polygenic-scores-in-epidemiology-risk-prediction-etiology-and-clinical-utility
#10
Brion S Maher
Genes account for a significant proportion of the risk for most common diseases. The genome-wide association scan (GWAS) era of genetic epidemiology has generated a massive amount of data, revolutionized our thinking on the genetic architecture of common diseases and positioned the field to realistically consider risk prediction for common polygenic diseases, such as non-familial cancers, and autoimmune, cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases. Polygenic scoring is an approach that shows promise for understanding the polygenic contribution to common human diseases...
December 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26587368/methods-to-estimate-the-comparative-effectiveness-of-clinical-strategies-that-administer-the-same-intervention-at-different-times
#11
Anders Huitfeldt, Mette Kalager, James M Robins, Geir Hoff, Miguel A Hernán
Clinical guidelines that rely on observational data due to the absence of data from randomized trials benefit when the observational data or its analysis emulates trial data or its analysis. In this paper, we review a methodology for emulating trials that compare the effects of different timing strategies, that is, strategies that vary the frequency of delivery of a medical intervention or procedure. We review trial emulation for comparing (i) single applications of the procedure at different times, (ii) fixed schedules of application, and (iii) schedules adapted to the evolving clinical characteristics of the patients...
September 1, 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26576336/are-all-biases-missing-data-problems
#12
Chanelle J Howe, Lauren E Cain, Joseph W Hogan
Estimating causal effects is a frequent goal of epidemiologic studies. Traditionally, there have been three established systematic threats to consistent estimation of causal effects. These three threats are bias due to confounders, selection, and measurement error. Confounding, selection, and measurement bias have typically been characterized as distinct types of biases. However, each of these biases can also be characterized as missing data problems that can be addressed with missing data solutions. Here we describe how the aforementioned systematic threats arise from missing data as well as review methods and their related assumptions for reducing each bias type...
September 1, 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26525431/towards-an-understanding-of-racial-differences-in-post-stroke-disability
#13
Lesli E Skolarus, James F Burke
Due to the aging of the baby boomer generation, the number of stroke survivors is expected to increase from 7 million to over 10 million in 2030. Stroke survivorship will be particularly important for African Americans who have a higher incidence of strokes compared to non-Hispanics whites and greater post stroke disability. Current evidence suggests that the most prominent racial differences in post-stroke disability emerge in the post-stroke period. Further work, with a focus on modifiable factors, is needed to understand which factors in the post-stroke period lead to racial differences in post-stroke disability...
September 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500080/human-papillomavirus-hpv-infections-and-the-importance-of-hpv-vaccination
#14
Chia-Ching J Wang, Joel M Palefsky
HPV persistence is necessary for the development of anogenital cancer. Studies show that cervical and anal HPV infections in women and in men who have sex with men are common. Clearance of HPV infection is similarly common; few individuals show persistence unless they are HIV-infected. HIV strongly influences the development of cervical and anal cancer, as well as their pre-malignant counterparts. Women with cervical and vulvar HPV-associated lesions have higher rates of anal cancer than the general population...
June 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26185745/a-review-of-the-health-benefits-of-greenness
#15
Peter James, Rachel F Banay, Jaime E Hart, Francine Laden
Researchers are increasingly exploring how neighborhood greenness, or vegetation, may affect health behaviors and outcomes. Greenness may influence health by promoting physical activity and social contact; decreasing stress; and mitigating air pollution, noise, and heat exposure. Greenness is generally measured using satellite-based vegetation indices or land-use databases linked to participants' addresses. In this review, we found fairly strong evidence for a positive association between greenness and physical activity, and a less consistent negative association between greenness and body weight...
June 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26046010/neuromythology-of-manganism
#16
Kristin M Andruska, And Brad A Racette
Manganese is an essential trace element with neurotoxicant properties at high levels that were first described in the mid-nineteenth century. The largest sources of occupational and environmental exposures are mining, fossil fuel combustion, and iron and steel industries. Manganese neurotoxicity has been described in many workers with high levels of occupational manganese exposure and can cause a distinct neurologic phenotype known as manganism. Recently, our understanding of the clinical syndrome and pathophysiology of manganese toxicity has shifted...
June 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25960941/update-on-the-epidemiology-and-prevention-of-hiv-aids-in-the-united-states
#17
Amanda D Castel, Manya Magnus, Alan E Greenberg
This update on the epidemiology and prevention of HIV in the United States is intended to provide contextual background that will help inform an understanding of recent developments in the domestic HIV epidemic. We describe the epidemiology of HIV disease in the US and the HIV continuum of care based on data collected primarily through HIV surveillance systems led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention including HIV incidence, prevalence, comorbidities and death. Populations and geographic regions disparately impacted by HIV are also highlighted...
June 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26576335/modeling-social-norms-and-social-influence-in-obesity
#18
David A Shoham, Ross Hammond, Hazhir Rahmandad, Youfa Wang, Peter Hovmand
The worldwide increase in obesity has led to changes in what is considered "normal" or desirable weight, especially among populations at higher risk. We show that social norms are key to understanding the obesity epidemic, and that social influence mechanisms provide a necessary linkage between individual obesity-related behaviors and population-level characteristics. Because influence mechanisms cannot be directly observed, we show how three complex systems tools may be used to gain insights into observed epidemiologic patterns: social network analysis, agent-based modeling, and systems dynamics modeling...
March 1, 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366336/developmental-programming-priming-disease-susceptibility-for-subsequent-generations
#19
L C Messer, J Boone-Heinonen, L Mponwane, L Wallack, K L Thornburg
Racial and/or ethnic minorities carry the highest burden of many adverse health outcomes intergenerationally We propose a paradigm in which developmental programming exacerbates the effects of racial patterning of adverse environmental conditions, thereby contributing to health disparity persistence. Evidence that developmental programming induces a heightened response to adverse exposures ("second hits") encountered later in life is considered. We evaluated the evidence for the second hit phenomenon reported in animal and human studies from three domains (air, stress, nutrition)...
March 1, 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236577/challenges-in-studying-modifiable-risk-factors-for-birth-defects
#20
Sarah C Tinker, Suzanne Gilboa, Jennita Reefhuis, Mary M Jenkins, Marcy Schaeffer, Cynthia A Moore
Conducting research to identify modifiable risk factors for birth defects is difficult for a variety of reasons. While some challenges are familiar to researchers across many disciplines, the confluence of issues affecting birth defects research may not be well understood by those outside of the field. This article describes several methodological challenges to the study of birth defects and ways these challenges might be addressed: (1) ascertainment, definition and classification of birth defects; (2) exposure assessment on modifiable risk factors; (3) analytical challenges related to small numbers and multiple statistical tests; (4) the role of genetics, including the collection of specimens and analysis of genetic data; and (5) challenges in translating research and demonstrating public health impact...
March 2015: Current Epidemiology Reports
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