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Global Health, Science and Practice

Roy Jacobstein
This article draws from national surveys of every sub-Saharan African country with at least 1 recent survey published between 2015 and 2017 and 2 prior surveys from 2003 to 2014. Twelve countries comprising over 60% of the region's population met these inclusion criteria. The analysis considers recent and longer-term changes in 3 key variables: modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR), method-specific prevalence, and a method's share of the current modern method mix. As recently as 2011, implant CPR in sub-Saharan Africa was only 1...
March 20, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Ariel Pablos-Méndez, Mario C Raviglione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Whitney M Moret
INTRODUCTION: Economic strengthening practitioners are increasingly seeking data collection tools that will help them target households vulnerable to HIV and poor child well-being outcomes, match households to appropriate interventions, monitor their status, and determine readiness for graduation from project support. This article discusses efforts in 3 countries to develop simple, valid tools to quantify and classify economic vulnerability status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In Côte d'Ivoire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with 3,749 households to develop a scale based on the definition of HIV-related economic vulnerability from the U...
March 1, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Robert J Magnani, John Ross, Jessica Williamson, Michelle Weinberger
The need for annual family planning program tracking data under the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative has contributed to renewed interest in family planning service statistics as a potential data source for annual estimates of the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR). We sought to assess (1) how well a set of commonly recorded data elements in routine service statistics systems could, with some fairly simple adjustments, track key population-level outcome indicators, and (2) whether some data elements performed better than others...
February 21, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Marina Plesons, Sheena Hadi, Qadeer Baig, Iliana Lang
BACKGROUND: Despite international recommendations and supportive evidence, there are few examples of scaled-up and sustained programs to provide adolescents with sexuality education. Moreover, despite acknowledgment that building community support and responding to resistance are key challenges, there is a lack of detailed discussion on specific programmatic strategies to address these issues. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the work of 2 organizations-Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan-that are successfully implementing large-scale sexuality education programs in Pakistan, collectively reaching more than 500,000 students...
February 13, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Raghavan Srinivasan, Tanwir Ahmad, Vidya Raghavan, Manisha Kaushik, Ramakant Pathak
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to 54 districts in 4 states of India. Poor awareness of the disease and inappropriate health-seeking behavior are major challenges to eliminating the disease. Between February 2016 and March 2017, we implemented a behavior change communication (BCC) intervention in 33 districts of Bihar, 4 districts of Jharkhand, and 3 districts of West Bengal using a mix of channels, including group and interpersonal communication, to improve knowledge, attitudes, and practices of communities, frontline health workers, and opinion leaders...
January 31, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Guiella Georges, Turke Shani, Coulibaly Hamadou, Scott Radloff, Choi Yoonjoung
The subcutaneous (SC) injectable, widely known by its commercial name Sayana Press, has potential to improve access to contraceptive methods. In Burkina Faso, SC-injectables were first piloted in select regions in 2014 and introduced nationally in 2016. PMA2020 is the first national survey to track programmatic progress of SC-injectable introduction at both population and health facility levels in the country across 2 rounds of data collection: March-May 2016 and November 2016-January 2017. Over this 6-month period, SC-injectable availability at public service delivery points increased from 50% to 85%, largely driven by increases in availability among the non-pilot regions...
January 25, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Susan Igras, Irit Sinai, Marie Mukabatsinda, Fidele Ngabo, Victoria Jennings, Rebecka Lundgren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Helen Smith, Charles Ameh, Pamela Godia, Judith Maua, Kigen Bartilol, Patrick Amoth, Matthews Mathai, Nynke van den Broek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Anne-Marie Rick, Gretchen Domek, Maureen Cunningham, Daniel Olson, Molly M Lamb, Andrea Jimenez-Zambrano, Gretchen Heinrichs, Stephen Berman, Edwin J Asturias
BACKGROUND: Congenital microcephaly is the result of a disturbance in early brain development and can have multiple etiologies. Establishing background prevalence of microcephaly in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas is important for improving identification of ZIKV-affected newborns. However, to date, there is limited consistent guidance for the accurate identification of microcephaly in infants of unknown gestational age, a common concern in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Occipital frontal head circumference (OFC) obtained from infants (0-13 days) of unknown gestational age at enrollment in a pregnancy registry in rural Guatemala from August 2014 to March 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Liuichi Hara, Ramy Guirguis, Keith Hummel, Monica Villanueva
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) DELIVER PROJECT work together to strengthen public health commodity supply chains by standardizing bar coding under a single set of global standards. From 2015, UNFPA and USAID collaborated to pilot test how tracking and tracing of bar coded health products could be operationalized in the public health supply chains of Ethiopia and Pakistan and inform the ecosystem needed to begin full implementation...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Sujatha Sankaran, Prema S Ravi, Yichen Ethel Wu, Sharan Shanabogue, Sangeetha Ashok, Kaylan Agnew, Margaret C Fang, Raman A Khanna, Madhavi Dandu, James D Harrison
Poor blood pressure control results in tremendous morbidity and mortality in India where the leading cause of death among adults is from coronary heart disease. Despite having little formal education, community health workers (CHWs) are integral to successful public health interventions in India and other low- and middle-income countries that have a shortage of trained health professionals. Training CHWs to screen for and manage chronic hypertension, with support from trained clinicians, offers an excellent opportunity for effecting systemwide change in hypertension-related burden of disease...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Janie Benson, Kathryn Andersen, Joan Healy, Dalia Brahmi
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy disproportionately affects young women and adolescents in developing countries. The abortion care setting offers a unique opportunity for adolescents and young women to access a full range of contraceptive services. This evaluation assesses the factors that influence contraceptive uptake among adolescents and young women seeking abortion care in health facilities. METHODS: Following provider training, we analyzed client log book data from 921,918 abortion care cases in 4,881 health facilities in 10 countries from July 2011 through June 2015...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Shannon Doocy, Sarah Cohen, Jillian Emerson, Joseph Menakuntuala, Jozimo Santos Rocha
BACKGROUND: Food and nutrition security in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo are threatened by political instability and chronic poverty. The Jenga Jamaa II project, implemented between 2011 and 2016 in South Kivu Province, aimed to improve household food security and child nutritional status using various intervention strategies, including farmer field school (FFS) programs. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the changes in agricultural production techniques, household food security, and child nutritional status associated with participation in FFS programs...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Esther Spindler, Nisreen Bitar, Julie Solo, Elizabeth Menstell, Dominick Shattuck
Health practitioners, researchers, and donors are stumped about Jordan's stalled fertility rate, which has stagnated between 3.7 and 3.5 children per woman from 2002 to 2012, above the national replacement level of 2.1. This stall paralleled United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funding investments in family planning in Jordan, triggering an assessment of USAID family planning programming in Jordan. This article describes the methods, results, and implications of the programmatic assessment...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Maria Isabel Rodriguez, Mary E Gaffield, Leo Han, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: The association between increased risk of HIV acquisition and use of progestin-only injectables (POIs) is controversial. We sought to compare the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition with use of POIs using updated data on this association and considering an expanded number of African countries. METHODS: We designed a decision-analytic model to compare the benefits and risks of POIs on the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition on life expectancy for women in 9 African countries...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Bonnie Jones-Hepler, Katelin Moran, Jennifer Griffin, Elizabeth M McClure, Doris Rouse, Carolina Barbosa, Emily MacGuire, Elizabeth Robbins, Robert L Goldenberg
Maternal, fetal, and neonatal mortality disproportionately impact low- and middle-income countries, and many current interventions that can save lives are often not available nor appropriate for these settings. Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technologies (MANDATE) is a mathematical model designed to evaluate which interventions have the greatest potential to save maternal, fetal, and neonatal lives saved in sub-Saharan Africa and India. The MANDATE decision-support model includes interventions such as preventive interventions, diagnostics, treatments, and transfers to different care settings to compare the relative impact of different interventions on mortality outcomes...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Maureen Norton, Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Cate Lane
BACKGROUND: In 2017, of the 22.5 million parenting adolescents (ages 15-19) in 60 countries, approximately 4.1 million gave birth to a second or higher-order child. Adolescent pregnancy in general, and rapid repeat pregnancies specifically, expose young mothers and their children to multiple health and socioeconomic risks. The purpose of this article is to review the impact of interventions designed to prevent unintended, rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, including those aimed at changing norms to postpone "intended" closely spaced pregnancies to promote healthy spacing...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Leo Han, Eva Patil, Nancy Kidula, Mary Lyn Gaffield, Petrus S Steyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Steve Hodgins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
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