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Ilker Hacihaliloglu
Due to its real-time, non-radiation based three-dimensional (3D) imaging capabilities, ultrasound (US) has been incorporated into various orthopedic procedures. However, imaging artifacts, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bone boundaries appearing several mm in thickness make the analysis of US data difficult. This paper provides a review about the state-of-the-art bone segmentation and enhancement methods developed for two-dimensional (2D) and 3D US data. First, an overview for the appearance of bone surface response in B-mode data is presented...
June 2017: Technology
Fatemeh Jalali, Felix Ellett, Daniel Irimia
The widespread bacterial resistance to a broad range of antibiotics necessitates rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing before effective treatment could start in the clinic. Among resistant bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important, and Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains are a common cause of life threatening infections. However, standard susceptibility testing for S. aureus is time consuming and thus the start of effective antibiotic treatment is often delayed. To circumvent the limitations of current susceptibility testing systems, we designed an assay that enables measurements of bacterial growth with higher spatial and temporal resolution than standard techniques...
June 2017: Technology
Joseph A Fantuzzo, Lidia De Filippis, Heather McGowan, Nan Yang, Yi-Han Ng, Apoorva Halikere, Jing-Jing Liu, Ronald P Hart, Marius Wernig, Jefrey D Zahn, Zhiping P Pang
Neurocircuits in the human brain govern complex behavior and involve connections from many different neuronal subtypes from different brain regions. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled the derivation of patient-specific human neuronal cells of various subtypes for the study of neuronal function and disease pathology. Nevertheless, one persistent challenge using these human-derived neurons is the ability to reconstruct models of human brain circuitry. To overcome this obstacle, we have developed a compartmentalized microfluidic device, which allows for spatial separation of cell bodies of different human-derived neuronal subtypes (excitatory, inhibitory and dopaminergic) but is permissive to the spreading of projecting processes...
June 2017: Technology
Joseph M Labuz, Christopher Moraes, David R Mertz, Brendan M Leung, Shuichi Takayama
New advances in engineering and biomedical technology have enabled recent efforts to capture essential aspects of human physiology in microscale, in-vitro systems. The application of these advances to experimentally model complex processes in an integrated platform - commonly called a 'human-on-a-chip (HOC)' - requires that relevant compartments and parameters be sized correctly relative to each other and to the system as a whole. Empirical observation, theoretical treatments of resource distribution systems and natural experiments can all be used to inform rational design of such a system, but technical and fundamental challenges (e...
March 2017: Technology
Aslihan Gokaltun, Martin L Yarmush, Ayse Asatekin, O Berk Usta
In the last decade microfabrication processes including rapid prototyping techniques have advanced rapidly and achieved a fairly mature stage. These advances have encouraged and enabled the use of microfluidic devices by a wider range of users with applications in biological separations and cell and organoid cultures. Accordingly, a significant current challenge in the field is controlling biomolecular interactions at interfaces and the development of novel biomaterials to satisfy the unique needs of the biomedical applications...
March 2017: Technology
Sindhu Row, Ana Santandreu, Daniel D Swartz, Stelios T Andreadis
Recent advances in vascular tissue engineering have led to the development of cell-free grafts that are available off-the-shelf for on demand surgery. Challenges associated with cell-based technologies including cell sourcing, cell expansion and long-term bioreactor culture motivated the development of completely cell-free vascular grafts. These are based on decellularized arteries, decellularized cultured cell-based tissue engineered grafts or biomaterials functionalized with biological signals that promote in situ tissue regeneration...
March 2017: Technology
Daniel P Yen, Yuta Ando, Keyue Shen
Micromilling has great potential in producing microdevices for lab-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip applications, but has remained under-utilized due to the high machinery costs and limited accessibility. In this paper, we assessed the machining capabilities of a low-cost 3-D mill in polycarbonate material, which were showcased by the production of microfluidic devices. The study demonstrates that this particular mill is well suited for the fabrication of multi-scale microdevices with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters...
December 2016: Technology
Christopher M Walthers, Chase J Lyall, Alireza K Nazemi, Puneet V Rana, James C Y Dunn
Tissue engineering is an innovative field of research applied to treat intestinal diseases. Engineered smooth muscle requires dense smooth muscle tissue and robust vascularization to support contraction. The purpose of this study was to use heparan sulfate (HS) and collagen coatings to increase the attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to scaffolds and improve their survival after implantation. SMCs grown on biologically coated scaffolds were evaluated for maturity and cell numbers after 2, 4 and 6 weeks in vitro and both 2 and 6 weeks in vivo...
September 2016: Technology
José I Padovani, Stefanie S Jeffrey, Roger T Howe
Droplet actuation is an essential mechanism for droplet-based microfluidic systems. On-demand electromagnetic actuation is used in a ferrofluid-based microfluidic system for water droplet displacement. Electropermanent magnets (EPMs) are used to induce 50 mT magnetic fields in a ferrofluid filled microchannel with gradients up to 6.4 × 10(4) kA/m(2). Short 50 µs current pulses activate the electropermanent magnets and generate negative magnetophoretic forces that range from 10 to 70 nN on 40 to 80 µm water-in-ferrofluid droplets...
June 2016: Technology
Y Alapan, Y Matsuyama, J A Little, U A Gurkan
In sickle cell disease (SCD), hemoglobin molecules polymerize intracellularly and lead to a cascade of events resulting in decreased deformability and increased adhesion of red blood cells (RBCs). Decreased deformability and increased adhesion of sickle RBCs lead to blood vessel occlusion (vaso-occlusion) in SCD patients. Here, we present a microfluidic approach integrated with a cell dimensioning algorithm to analyze dynamic deformability of adhered RBC at the single-cell level in controlled microphysiological flow...
June 2016: Technology
Charles C Sharkey, Jiahe Li, Sweta Roy, Qianhui Wu, Michael R King
This study outlines a drug delivery mechanism that utilizes two independent vehicles, allowing for delivery of chemically and physically distinct agents. The mechanism was utilized to deliver a new anti-cancer combination therapy consisting of piperlongumine (PL) and TRAIL to treat PC3 prostate cancer and HCT116 colon cancer cells. PL, a small-molecule hydrophobic drug, was encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. TRAIL was chemically conjugated to the surface of liposomes. PL was first administered to sensitize cancer cells to the effects of TRAIL...
March 2016: Technology
Ryan Thompson, Christina Chan
Neural differentiation is largely dependent on extracellular signals within the cell microenvironment. These extracellular signals are mainly in the form of soluble factors that activate intracellular signaling cascades that drive changes in the cell nucleus. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the physical microenvironment provides signals that can also influence lineage commitment and very low modulus surfaces has been repeatedly demonstrated to promote neurogenesis. The molecular mechanisms governing mechano-induced neural differentiation are still largely uncharacterized; however, a growing body of evidence indicates that physical stimuli can regulate known signaling cascades and transcription factors involved in neural differentiation...
March 2016: Technology
Daniel Vocelle, Olivia M Chesniak, Amanda P Malefyt, Georgina Comiskey, Kwasi Adu-Berchie, Milton R Smith, Christina Chan, S Patrick Walton
Understanding the endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery vehicle complexes remains a critical bottleneck in designing siRNA delivery vehicles for highly active RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics. In this study, we show that dextran functionalization of silica nanoparticles enhanced uptake and intracellular delivery of siRNAs in cultured cells. Using pharmacological inhibitors for endocytotic pathways, we determined that our complexes are endocytosed via a previously unreported mechanism for siRNA delivery in which dextran initiates scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis through a clathrin/caveolin-independent process...
March 2016: Technology
Justin R Klesmith, Timothy A Whitehead
A central challenge in the field of metabolic engineering is the efficient identification of a metabolic pathway genotype that maximizes specific productivity over a robust range of process conditions. Here we review current methods for optimizing specific productivity of metabolic pathways in living cells. New tools for library generation, computational analysis of pathway sequence-flux space, and high-throughput screening and selection techniques are discussed.
March 2016: Technology
Tim C Chang, Weiliang Tang, William Jen Hoe Koh, Alexander J E Rettie, Mary J Emond, Raymond J Monnat, Albert Folch
We developed micromolded microwell arrays to study the proliferation and senescence of single cells. Microwell arrays were designed to be compatible with conventional cell culture protocols to simplify cell loading, cell culture, and imaging. We demonstrated the utility of these arrays by measuring the proliferation and senescence of isogenic cells which expressed or had been depleted of the human Werner syndrome protein. Our results allowed us to reveal cell-to-cell heterogeneity in proliferation in WRN+ and WRN-depleted fibroblasts during clonal growth...
December 2015: Technology
Shyam Sundhar Bale, Gautham Vivek Sridharan, Inna Golberg, Ljupcho Prodanov, William J McCarty, Osman Berk Usta, Rohit Jindal, Martin L Yarmush
To evaluate drug and metabolite efficacy on a target organ, it is essential to include metabolic function of hepatocytes, and to evaluate metabolite influence on both hepatocytes and the target of interest. Herein, we have developed a two-chamber microfabricated device separated by a membrane enabling communication between hepatocytes and cancer cells. The microscale environment created enables cell co-culture in a low media-to-cell ratio leading to higher metabolite formation and rapid accumulation, which is lost in traditional plate cultures or other interconnected models due to higher culture volumes...
December 2015: Technology
U Hassan, B Reddy, G Damhorst, O Sonoiki, T Ghonge, C Yang, R Bashir
Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility...
December 2015: Technology
Mohammed Arif I Mahmood, Mohammad Raziul Hasan, Umair J M Khan, Peter B Allen, Young-Tae Kim, Andrew D Ellington, Samir M Iqbal
In this paper, we report a one-step tumor cell detection approach based on the dynamic morphological behavior tracking of cancer cells on a ligand modified surface. Every cell on the surface was tracked in real time for several minutes immediately after seeding until these were finally attached. Cancer cells were found to be very active in the aptamer microenvironment, changing their shapes rapidly from spherical to semi-elliptical, with much flatter spread and extending pseudopods at regular intervals. When incubated on a functionalized surface, the balancing forces between cell surface molecules and the surface-bound aptamers, together with the flexibility of the membranes, caused cells to show these distinct dynamic activities and variations in their morphologies...
December 2015: Technology
Jungwoo Lee, Nathaniel Kohl, Sachin Shanbhang, Biju Parekkadan
Microfluidic technologies have substantially advanced cancer research by enabling the isolation of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The characterization of isolated CTCs has been limited due to the difficulty in recovering and growing isolated cells with high fidelity. Here, we present a strategy that uses a 3D scaffold, integrated into a microfludic device, as a transferable substrate that can be readily isolated after device operation for serial use in vivo as a transplanted tissue bed...
December 2015: Technology
Young Shik Shin, Jungwoo Kim, Dazy Johnson, Alex A Dooraghi, Wilson X Mai, Lisa Ta, Arion F Chatziioannou, Michael E Phelps, David A Nathanson, James R Heath
The most common positron emission tomography (PET) radio-labeled probe for molecular diagnostics in patient care and research is the glucose analog, 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG). We report on an integrated microfluidics-chip/beta particle imaging system for in vitro (18)F-FDG radioassays of glycolysis with single cell resolution. We investigated the kinetic responses of single glioblastoma cancer cells to targeted inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Further, we find a weak positive correlation between cell size and rate of glycolysis...
June 2015: Technology
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