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International Journal of Mycobacteriology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043641/association-of-slow-recovery-of-mycobacterium-africanum-infected-patients-posttreatment-with-high-content-of-persister-like-bacilli-in-pretreatment-sputum
#1
Leopold D Tientcheu, Andrew Bell, Oumie Secka, Abigail Ayorinde, Jacob Otu, Nathalie J Garton, Jayne S Sutherland, Martin O Ota, Martin Antonio, H M Dockrell, Beate Kampmann, Michael R Barer
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium africanum that causes 40% of tuberculosis (TB) in West Africa grows more slowly in culture and has similar transmission capacity compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but M. africanum-exposed contacts progress more slowly to active disease. The presence of lipid body (LB) containing M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) cells in sputum samples has been associated with mycobacterial transcriptomes indicating slow or no growth and persister-like antibiotic tolerance...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043640/alternate-efflux-pump-mechanism-may-contribute-to-drug-resistance-in-extensively-drug-resistant-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Ambreen Zaver, Asho Ali, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Mussarat Ashraf, Taane G Clark, Ruth McNerney, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the biggest threats to public health and TB control programs worldwide. XDR-TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, as well as to a fluoroquinolone and to at least one injectable aminoglycoside. Drug resistance in MTB has primarily been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, it has also been shown that efflux pumps may play a role in resistance of MTB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043639/identification-of-novel-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dihydrofolate-reductase-inhibitors-through-rational-drug-design
#3
Mymoona Akhter
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is one of the validated drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. DHFR inhibitors have been used to treat various life-threatening diseases such as cancer, malaria, and several bacterial infections. However, all clinically effective DHFR inhibitors are non-selective, and inhibit both human and pathogenic DHFRs more or less to a similar extent. The crystal structure of various DHFRs complexed with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and different inhibitors is available in the protein data bank...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043638/activity-of-drugs-against-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
A Iacobino, G Piccaro, F Giannoni, A Mustazzolu, L Fattorini
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous mixtures of cellular and caseous granulomas coexist in the lungs of tuberculosis (TB) patients, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) existing from actively replicating (AR) to dormant, nonreplicating (NR) stages. Within cellular granulomas, the pH is estimated to be less than 6, whereas in the necrotic centres of hypoxic, cholesterol/triacylglycerol-rich, caseous granulomas, the pH varies between 7.2 and 7.4. To combat TB, we should kill both AR and NR stages of Mtb...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043637/importance-of-the-%C3%AE-10-helix-for-devr-activation-a-road-map-for-screening-inhibitors-against-devr-mediated-dormancy-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Atul Vashist, D Prithvi Raj, Umesh Datta Gupta, Rajiv Bhat, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Bacterial persistence is the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB) and poses the biggest threat to the success of any antitubercular drug regimen. The DevR/DosR dormancy regulator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis belongs to the NarL subfamily of response regulators and is essential for M. tuberculosis persistence in macaque models of TB. The DevR/DosR crystal structure revealed a unique (αβ)4 topology instead of the classical (αβ)5 structure found in the receiver domain of other regulators in this subfamily...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043636/evaluation-the-virulence-of-mycobacterium-bovis-isolated-from-milk-samples-through-histopathological-study-in-laboratory-animals
#6
I M Al-Saqur, A N Al-Thwani, I M Al-Attar, M S Al-Mashhadani
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium bovis has a broad host range, and it is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in bovine, domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects human, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cow's milk. It is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043635/comparative-evaluation-of-diagnostic-tests-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-the-tissues-of-sheep-affected-with-distinct-pathology-of-paratuberculosis
#7
Ganesh G Sonawane, Bhupendra N Tripathi
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis, mainly of cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic and wild animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Currently, MAP has been recognized as an important animal pathogen with significant zoonotic and public health concerns. The early detection of infected animals using suitable diagnostic methods helps in developing control and preventive strategies for the herd...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043634/mycobacterial-excretory-secretory-31-protein-with-serine-protease-and-lipase-activities-an-immunogen-and-drug-target-against-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Bhaskar C Harinath
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared as a global emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993 and still remains one of the world's biggest threats. Worldwide, 9.6 million people have been estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2014: 5.4 million men, 3.2 million women, and 1.0 million children. To reduce this burden, detection and treatment gaps must be addressed and new tools developed (Global TB report 2015). METHODS: Seroreactivity of the purified excretory secretory (ES) antigens ES-31, ES-43, ES-41, and ES-6 have been assessed in pulmonary TB (fresh, relapse, chronic, and latent), extrapulmonary TB, and in human immunodeficiency virus-TB coinfection...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043633/development-of-escherichia-coli-and-mycobacterium-smegmatis-recombinants-expressing-major-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-antigenic-proteins
#9
Hanady A Amoudy, Hussain A Safar, Abu S Mustafa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate pathogenic bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of most tuberculosis (TB) cases. Until today, the only approved TB vaccine is Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), which has been used since 1921. While BCG provides fairly effective protection for infants and young children, its efficacy in adults is variable around the world. This could be due to several parameters including strains of the vaccine and exposure of individuals to different environmental bacterial infections...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043632/mycobacterial-coinfection-and-persisting-bovine-tuberculosis-has-the-time-arrived-for-a-policy-review
#10
Nader Mosavari, Morad Moradi Geravand, Keyvan Tadayon, Rohollah Keshavarz
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTb) is mainly a disease of cattle, although it continues to infect human populations across the world. Operation of a test and slaughter plan in Iran since 1981 has lowered the frequency of BTb from >5% to <0.14% at the national scale. In 2015, unusual uncontrollable epidemics of BTb were detected in two cattle farms in municipal suburbs of Qazvin and Isfahan. These farms had a tuberculin-test-certified record of BTb-free status for the past 5 consecutive years, with no new cattle registered with either of the two herds during this time period...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043631/the-first-population-structure-and-comparative-genomics-analysis-of-mycobacterium-africanum-strains-from-ghana-reveals-higher-diversity-of-lineage-5
#11
Isaac D Otchere, Simon R Harris, Sanches L Busso, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Stephen Osei-Wusu, Kwadwo Koram, Julian Parkhill, Sebastien Gagneux, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium africanum (MAF) remains an important TB causing pathogen in West Africa; however, little is known about its population structure and actual diversity which may have implications for diagnostics and vaccines. We carried out comparative genomics analysis of candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and MAF using whole genome sequencing. METHODS: Clinical MTB complex strains (n=187) comprising L4 (n=22), L5 (n=126), and L6 (n=39) isolated over 8years from Ghana were whole genome sequenced...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043630/effective-testing-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-using-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-stool-specimens-in-immunocompetent-pakistani-children
#12
Zahra Hasan, Fehmina Arif, Sadia Shakoor, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Akbar Kanji, Mussarat Ashraf, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is largely a paucibacillary disease and difficult to diagnose. It is difficult to obtain a sputum or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, and patients are often undiagnosed and treated empirically. Stool is a noninvasive specimen not usually used for TB testing in Pakistan. We investigated the value of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in children with pulmonary TB cases, by performing comparative testing of GA and stool samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043629/nontuberculosis-mycobacteria-isolation-from-clinical-samples-in-iraq
#13
Shatha T Ahmed, Ahmed A Alsudani, Ruqaya M Ali, Batool A Shihab, Sana A Hussein
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM), defined as any mycobacterial strain other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, are a diverse group of pathogens that cause a substantive, but often unappreciated worldwide burden of illness. NTM cause illness similar to M. tuberculosis, but generally do not respond to classic tuberculosis (TB) drug regimens. Here, we evaluated GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS (Hain Lifesciences) for rapid identification of NTM and compared its results with those of other biochemical tests...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043628/expression-of-inflammatory-cytokine-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-genes-in-the-small-intestine-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-tissues-of-pauci-and-multibacillary-sheep-naturally-infected-with-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis
#14
Ganesh G Sonawane, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis, primarily affecting ruminants, and caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The disease is widely prevalent throughout the world with significant economic losses. MAP has also been implicated with human Crohn's disease. There exists a strong correlation between the immune response and development of various types of pathologies in ruminants. The polarization of the immune response, which is critical to clinical outcome of the paratuberculosis infection, is controlled by the differential expression of certain cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in Johne's disease...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043627/paying-attention-to-the-details-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strain-specific-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-clonal-variants
#15
Darío García de Viedma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043626/comparison-of-two-molecular-methods-and-an-automated-liquid-culture-system-for-the-early-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-both-pulmonary-and-extrapulmonary-specimens-in-kuwait
#16
E M Mokaddas, H Saadaldeen, S Ahmad
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Molecular methods for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are widely used for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of two molecular techniques for the detection of MTB for both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens in comparison with conventional culture techniques in Kuwait and to correlate the results with clinical and histopathological diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 9,594 consecutive pulmonary (n=5,597) and extrapulmonary (n=3,997) specimens received by the Kuwait National TB Reference Laboratory from November 2011 to December 2015 were processed for direct smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli using a Zhiel-Neelsen stain, Xpert MTB/RIF assay, ProbTec polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and growth in fully automated MGIT 960 system tubes...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043625/pulmonary-infections-after-tuberculosis
#17
Kauser Jabeen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Despite effective treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients, destruction of lung parenchyma may lead to complications including repeated infections. These infections are often misdiagnosed or wrongly identified as TB recurrence, and hence are not treated effectively. The frequency and severity of these infections vary with the extent of damage, and are much more prominent in patients with post-TB bronchiectasis and fibrocavitary diseases. This presentation will focus on the epidemiology, treatment, and management of post-TB infections and challenges, and the impact of these infections on public health in high-TB-burden countries...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043624/new-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-pyrazinamide-implications-for-susceptibility-testing-and-future-regimens
#18
Richard M Anthony, Alice den Hertog, Mikael Mansjö, Jim Werngren
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is included in the 2016 World Health Organization multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment guidelines and is a key component of most ongoing clinical trials investigating novel antibiotic combinations. PZA resistance is associated with worse tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Unfortunately, for such an important drug, phenotypic susceptibility testing is extremely challenging. The exacting bacterial growth conditions required to induce susceptibility to the drug reduce the accuracy of the susceptibility assay, even in experienced laboratories, and widespread testing is not performed...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043623/update-on-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#19
H Simon Schaaf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043622/emerging-clones-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-russia-and-former-soviet-union-countries-beijing-genotype-and-beyond
#20
Igor Mokrousov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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