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International Journal of Mycobacteriology

Salvatore D'Antonio, Paola Rogliani, Gregorino Paone, Alfonso Altieri, Mario Giuseppe Alma, Mario Cazzola, Ermanno Puxeddu
The incidence and prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is increasing worldwide arousing concerns that NTM infection may become a serious health challenge. We recently observed a significant increase of NTM-positive sputa samples from patients referred to respiratory disease wards of a large tertiary hospital in Rome. A survey to identify possible NTM contamination revealed a massive presence of NTM in the hospital water supply network. After decontamination procedures, NTM presence dropped both in water pipelines and sputa samples...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Joseph O Falkinham, Myra D Williams, Rebecca Kwait, Leah Lande
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. METHODS: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Afua Ofori, Alexis R Steinmetz, John Akaasi, George A Asafu Adjaye Frimpong, Betty R Norman, Joseph Obeng-Baah, George Bedu-Addo, Richard O Phillips
Aspergillomas are often misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries where the prevalence of TB is high, hemoptysis is often equated with TB, and most patients are diagnosed clinically. This report describes the case of a patient being treated for smear-negative TB who presented with hemoptysis and was found to have an aspergilloma.
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Siavash Vaziri, Saeed Soleiman-Meigooni, Jalil Rajabi, Ali Asgari
Tuberculous ventriculitis is an inflammatory infection of the ventricular system of the brain, and is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We herein present the case of an immunocompromised patient with brain tuberculomas who developed ventriculitis during treatment. The patient was successfully treated with a high dose of steroid, long-term antituberculosis drugs, and aggressive supportive care.
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Justice K Boakye-Appiah, Alexis R Steinmetz, Peter Pupulampu, Stephen Ofori-Yirenkyi, Ishmael Tetteh, Michael Frimpong, Patrick Oppong, Ohene Opare-Sem, Betty R Norman, Ymkje Stienstra, Tjip S van der Werf, Mark Wansbrough-Jones, Frank Bonsu, Joseph Obeng-Baah, Richard O Phillips
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) represent a major threat to global TB control. In low- and middle-income countries, resource constraints make it difficult to identify and monitor cases of resistance using drug susceptibility testing and culture. Molecular assays such as the GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin may prove to be a cost-effective solution to this problem in these settings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of GeneXpert in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB since it was introduced into two tertiary hospitals in Ghana in 2013...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Sundeep Chowdhry, Akhilesh Shukla, Paschal D'souza, Tapan Dhali, Prashansa Jaiswal
Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a common complication of lepromatous leprosy. Some patients unresponsive to conventional, first-line therapeutics develop recurrent, recalcitrant ENL. Here, we report a case of severe refractory ENL that was successfully treated with Etanercept. Biologics may be considered as therapeutic alternatives in management of severe, recalcitrant ENL.
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Amira Bahour, Eman Sobh, Sahar Elsayed, Wegdan Amer
Cutaneous tuberculosis is frequently misleading and challenging, as it mimics a wide differential diagnosis. Here, we present two pediatric cases with chronic multiple ulcerating nodules. Proper history, physical examination, and histopathological analysis are included in the workup of suspected skin tuberculosis. Diagnosis was confirmed by positive culture for mycobacteria.
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Leen Rigouts, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) was endorsed as the initial diagnostic tool in people suspected of human immunodeficiency virus-associated or drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). However, information regarding the performance of Xpert for diagnosing smear-negative TB in high burden settings remains limited. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert and the impact of bleach concentration on the performance of Xpert using smear-negative sputum samples from human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Chidubem L Ogbudebe, Sam Izuogu, Charity E Abu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide, with a disproportionate number of those affected living in slum areas. We assessed the magnitude of pulmonary cases among tuberculosis patients in an urban slum in southeast Nigeria, their demographic and clinical characteristics and any associations with treatment outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients registered under the National TB Programme (NTP) from 1 January to 31 December 2012 was carried out...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Tarikere C Taranath, Bheemanagouda N Patil
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The present investigation was undertaken to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles using Limonia acidissima L. and to test their efficacy against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODS: The formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed with UV-visible spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the presence of bio-molecules involved in the stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The shape and size was confirmed with atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscope...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Jean Bosco Jouda, Isabelle Kamga Mawabo, Augustin Notedji, Céline Djama Mbazoa, Jean Nkenfou, Jean Wandji, Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: According to estimates by the World Health Organization, there were 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases in 2014: 5.4 million among men, 3.2 million among women, and 1.0 million among children. There were also 1.5 million TB deaths. Although there are potent anti-TB molecules, the misuse of these drugs in addition to inconsistent or partial treatment have led to the development of multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB. It is established that plants harbor microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes, which also produce metabolites...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Belayneh Dimah, Feyisa Efa, Kedir Abdella, Wakjira Kebede, Ketema Abdissa, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The nature and frequency of mutations in rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates vary considerably according to geographic locations. However, information regarding specific mutational patterns in Ethiopia remains limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out among confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Southwest Ethiopia. Mutations associated with RIF and INH resistances were studied using GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay in 112 M...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Elvis Ndukong Ndzi, Celine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Luc Christian Gwom, Nadine Fainguem, Joseph Fokam, Yone Pefura
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a re-emerging disease with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS infections. Discovered in 1959, diagnosed by various approaches and treated with antibiotics, the treatment of TB infection still poses public health concerns. Many cases of resistance and cross-resistance are observed. Diagnosis by culture, which is considered as the standard method, takes too long (20-30days) and is not suitable for extrapulmonary TB. QuantiFERON test, which is an indirect immunoassay based on blood, was developed...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Satoshi Hamada, Yutaka Ito, Toyohiro Hirai, Kimihiko Murase, Takahiro Tsuji, Kohei Fujita, Tadashi Mio, Koichi Maekawa, Takashi Fujii, Shigeki Ono, Takashi Nishimura, Akihiko Hayashi, Toshiaki Komori, Naohisa Fujita, Akio Niimi, Satoshi Ichiyama, Kazuo Chin, Michiaki Mishima
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (pNTM) disease, including Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), varies widely according to geographic region. However, the factors that influence regional variations in pNTM disease prevalence remain unknown. This study was undertaken to examine whether environmental or occupational factors or host traits could influence regional variations in pNTM disease prevalence. METHODS: We collected laboratory data on pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB) and pNTM from two hospitals in the West Harima area of Japan and five hospitals in Kyoto City, Japan from 2012 to 2013...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Ketema Tafess, Belete Mengistu, Desalegn Woldeyohannes, Solomon Sisay
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) as a standard strategy to control the disease. In Ethiopia the strategy was started in 1992 as a pilot in the Arsi and Bale zone, Oromia Region. The DOTS strategy has been subsequently scaled up in the country and implemented at a national level reaching better coverage, although there are recognizable variations from region to region and district to district...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa, Ratna Wahyuni, Iswahyudi, Dinar Adriaty, Irawan Yusuf, Sutjipto, Indropo Agusni, Shinzo Izumi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Phagolysosome process in macrophage of leprosy patients' is important in the early phase of eliminating Mycobacterium leprae invasion. This study was to clarify the involvement of Rab5, Rab7, and trytophan aspartate-containing coat protein (TACO) from host macrophage and leprae lipoarabinomannan (Lep-LAM) and phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) from M. leprae cell wall as the reflection of phagolysosome process in relation to 16 subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) M. leprae as a marker of viability of M...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Géraldine Daneau, Elie Nduwamahoro, Kristina Fissette, Patrick Rüdelsheim, Dick van Soolingen, Bouke C de Jong, Leen Rigouts
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Guidelines for the manipulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cultures require a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) infrastructure and accompanying code of conduct. In this study, we aimed to validate and apply detection methods for viable mycobacteria from surfaces in a BSL-3 MTB laboratory. METHODS: We evaluated phenotypic (Replicate Organism Detection and Counting [RODAC] plates) and molecular (propidium monoazide [PMA]-based polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) approaches for the detection of viable mycobacteria, as well as the effect of 70% ethanol applied for 5min for disinfection against mycobacteria...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
K N'guessan Kouassi, Alagna Riccardo, C Dutoziet Christian, Guei André, Coulibaly Férilaha, Seck-Angu Hortense, Assandé Jean-Marc, Cirillo Daniela Maria, Dosso Mireille
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains an important cause of mortality worldwide. Previous tuberculosis treatment is a strong determinant of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. The study objective was to describe the mutations detected of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex clinical strains screened with GeneXpert isolated from previously treated patients in Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: Sputum collected and decontaminated by the n-acetyl-l-cysteine method was used to perform Ziehl-Neelsen staining, GeneXpert MTB/rifampicin, and culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
V Sundeep Chaitanya, Madhusmita Das, Tiffany L Eisenbach, Angela Amoako, Lakshmi Rajan, Ilse Horo, Mannam Ebenezer
With the absence of an effective diagnostic tool for leprosy, cases with negative bacteriological index and limited clinical manifestations often pose diagnostic challenges. In this study, we investigated the utility of a novel Mycobacterium leprae specific 112-bp DNA sequence in the promoter region of probable 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (pseudogene, ML1545) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis of leprosy in comparison to that of the RLEP gene. DNA was extracted from slit skin scrapings of 180 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy cases that were classified as per Ridley Jopling classifications and bacteriological index (BI)...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Hasnain Javed, Zarfishan Tahir, Hafiza Jawairia Hashmi, Nazia Jamil
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide, with new threats of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. Pakistan is the fifth highest among high-burden TB countries and the fourth highest among high-burden drug-resistant-TB countries. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, and Pakistani youth is the highest population group in Pakistan and second in the world. This study was aimed at assessing the understanding, awareness, and mindset of university students toward TB, MDR TB, and XDR TB in Lahore...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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