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Journal of Developmental Biology

Rwik Sen, Sofia A Pezoa, Lomeli Carpio Shull, Laura Hernandez-Lagunas, Lee A Niswander, Kristin Bruk Artinger
Cranial neural crest cells undergo cellular growth, patterning, and differentiation within the branchial arches to form cartilage and bone, resulting in a precise pattern of skeletal elements forming the craniofacial skeleton. However, it is unclear how cranial neural crest cells are regulated to give rise to the different shapes and sizes of the bone and cartilage. Epigenetic regulators are good candidates to be involved in this regulation, since they can exert both broad as well as precise control on pattern formation...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Alla Yalonetskaya, Albert A Mondragon, Johnny Elguero, Kimberly McCall
Cell proliferation and cell death are two opposing, yet complementary fundamental processes in development. Cell proliferation provides new cells, while developmental programmed cell death adjusts cell numbers and refines structures as an organism grows. Apoptosis is the best-characterized form of programmed cell death; however, there are many other non-apoptotic forms of cell death that occur throughout development. Drosophila is an excellent model for studying these varied forms of cell death given the array of cellular, molecular, and genetic techniques available...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Katherine Harding, Kristin White
Stem cells face a diversity of choices throughout their lives. At specific times, they may decide to initiate cell division, terminal differentiation, or apoptosis, or they may enter a quiescent non-proliferative state. Neural stem cells in the Drosophila central nervous system do all of these, at stereotypical times and anatomical positions during development. Distinct populations of neural stem cells offer a unique system to investigate the regulation of a particular stem cell behavior, while comparisons between populations can lead us to a broader understanding of stem cell identity...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Riley Kellermeyer, Leah M Heydman, Grant S Mastick, Thomas Kidd
Navigating growth cones are exposed to multiple signals simultaneously and have to integrate competing cues into a coherent navigational response. Integration of guidance cues is traditionally thought to occur at the level of cytoskeletal dynamics. Drosophila studies indicate that cells exhibit a low level of continuous caspase protease activation, and that axon guidance cues can activate or suppress caspase activity. We base a model for axon guidance on these observations. By analogy with other systems in which caspase signaling has non-apoptotic functions, we propose that caspase signaling can either reinforce repulsion or negate attraction in response to external guidance cues by cleaving cytoskeletal proteins...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Cynthia D Cooper, Steve D Erickson, Scott Yin, Trevor Moravec, Brian Peh, Kevin Curran
In zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), iridophores are specified from neural crest cells and represent a tractable system for examining mechanisms of cell fate and differentiation. Using this system, we have investigated the role of cAMP protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in pigment cell differentiation. Activation of PKA with the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin reduces the number of differentiated iridophores in wildtype larvae, with insignificant changes to melanophore number. Inhibition of PKA with H89 significantly increases iridophore number, supporting a specific role for PKA during iridophore development...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Diana M Juriloff, Muriel J Harris
The human neural tube defects (NTD), anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, originate from a failure of the embryonic neural tube to close. Human NTD are relatively common and both complex and heterogeneous in genetic origin, but the genetic variants and developmental mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we review the numerous studies, mainly in mice, of normal neural tube closure, the mechanisms of failure caused by specific gene mutations, and the evolution of the vertebrate cranial neural tube and its genetic processes, seeking insights into the etiology of human NTD...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Ethan G Wright
An outstanding question in developmental neurobiology is how RNA processing events contribute to the regulation of neurogenesis. RNA processing events are increasingly recognized as playing fundamental roles in regulating multiple developmental events during neurogenesis, from the asymmetric divisions of neural stem cells, to the generation of complex and diverse neurite morphologies. Indeed, both asymmetric cell division and neurite morphogenesis are often achieved by mechanisms that generate asymmetric protein distributions, including post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms such as the transport of translationally silent messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and local translation of mRNAs within neurites...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Paige M Drake, Tamara A Franz-Odendaal
The formation of non-neurogenic placodes is critical prior to the development of several epithelial derivatives (e.g., feathers, teeth, etc.) and their development frequently involves morphogenetic proteins (or morphogens). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, and recent research has shown that the extracellular matrix (ECM) can modulate morphogen diffusion and cell behaviors. This review summarizes the known roles of MMPs during the development of non-neurogenic structures that involve a placodal stage...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Olubusola Shifatu, Sarah Glasshagel-Chilson, Hannah M Nelson, Purva Patel, Wendy Tomamichel, Clay Higginbotham, Paula K Evans, Gregory S Lafontant, Alan R Burns, Pascal J Lafontant
Giant danios (genus Devario ), like zebrafish, are teleosts belonging to the danioninae subfamily of cyprinids. Adult giant danios are used in a variety of investigations aimed at understanding cellular and physiological processes, including heart regeneration. Despite their importance, little is known about development and growth in giant danios, or their cardiac and coronary vessels development. To address this scarcity of knowledge, we performed a systematic study of a giant danio ( Devario malabaricus ), focusing on its cardiac development, from the segmentation period to ten months post-fertilization...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Joseph T Tarr, Alex G Lambi, James P Bradley, Mary F Barbe, Steven N Popoff
Development of the palate is the result of an organized series of events that require exquisite spatial and temporal regulation at the cellular level. There are a myriad of growth factors, receptors and signaling pathways that have been shown to play an important role in growth, elevation and/or fusion of the palatal shelves. Altered expression or activation of a number of these factors, receptors and signaling pathways have been shown to cause cleft palate in humans or mice with varying degrees of penetrance...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Mireya Ruiz-Losada, David Blom-Dahl, Sergio Córdoba, Carlos Estella
Appendages are external projections of the body that serve the animal for locomotion, feeding, or environment exploration. The appendages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are derived from the imaginal discs, epithelial sac-like structures specified in the embryo that grow and pattern during larva development. In the last decades, genetic and developmental studies in the fruit fly have provided extensive knowledge regarding the mechanisms that direct the formation of the appendages. Importantly, many of the signaling pathways and patterning genes identified and characterized in Drosophila have similar functions during vertebrate appendage development...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Bin Liu, Hongmei Xiao, Chunjie Zhao
The Wnt- and BMP-rich cortical hem has been demonstrated to be critical for the pattern formation of the telencephalon, and it is particularly important for the induction of the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the cortical hem is one of the sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Many Cajal-Retzius cells are produced in the hem and populated to the media-caudal surface of the telencephalon. However, the mechanism of the maintenance of the hem remain unclear. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line CAG-loxp-stop-loxp-Foxg1-IRES-EGFP ...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Joana F Monteiro, Sandra Martins, Matheus Farias, Telma Costa, Ana Catarina Certal
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) is one of the top model organisms used in biomedical research. Therefore, it is fundamental that zebrafish facilities continuously improve husbandry methods to provide fish with the best physiological and welfare conditions that suit each experimental purpose. Nutrition is a husbandry aspect that needs further optimization, as it greatly affects growth, reproduction, health and behaviour. Here, we have compared the impact of different feeding regimens on zebrafish survival, growth and reproductive performance...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Tapan A Shah, Melissa B Rogers
Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic, whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Billy A Watson, Jennifer M Feenstra, Jonathan M Van Arsdale, Karndeep S Rai-Bhatti, Diana J H Kim, Ashley S Coggins, Gennaya L Mattison, Stephen Yoo, Eric D Steinman, Charmaine U Pira, Brendan R Gongol, Kerby C Oberg
During limb development, fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) govern proximal⁻distal outgrowth and patterning. FGFs also synchronize developmental patterning between the proximal⁻distal and anterior⁻posterior axes by maintaining Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in cells of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) in the distal posterior mesoderm. Shh, in turn, maintains Fgfs in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) that caps the distal tip of the limb bud. Crosstalk between Fgf and Shh signaling is critical for patterned limb development, but the mechanisms underlying this feedback loop are not well-characterized...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Henk Roelink
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) coordinates Zn2+ in a manner that resembles that of peptidases. The ability of Shh to undergo autoproteolytic processing is impaired in mutants that affect the Zn2+ coordination, while mutating residues essential for catalytic activity results in more stable forms of Shh. The residues involved in Zn2+ coordination in Shh are found to be mutated in some individuals with the congenital birth defect holoprosencephaly, demonstrating their importance in development. Highly conserved Shh domains are found in parts of some bacterial proteins that are members of the larger family of DD-peptidases, supporting the notion that Shh acts as a peptidase...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Chih-Ning Chang, Chrissa Kioussi
Muscles control body movement and locomotion, posture and body position and soft tissue support. Mesoderm derived cells gives rise to 700 unique muscles in humans as a result of well-orchestrated signaling and transcriptional networks in specific time and space. Although the anatomical structure of skeletal muscles is similar, their functions and locations are specialized. This is the result of specific signaling as the embryo grows and cells migrate to form different structures and organs. As cells progress to their next state, they suppress current sequence specific transcription factors (SSTF) and construct new networks to establish new myogenic features...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
(no author information available yet)
The winner of the 2018 JDB Travel Award was granted to Ms. Victoria Deneke, BS, who is a fifth-year graduate student in Dr. Stefano Di Talia’s laboratory in the Department of Cell Biology at Duke University Medical Center, USA.[…].
May 5, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Giuliana D Clemente, Matthew R Hannaford, Hamze Beati, Katja Kapp, Jens Januschke, Eric R Griffis, Hans-Arno J Müller
Spindly was originally identified as a specific regulator of Dynein activity at the kinetochore. In early prometaphase, Spindly recruits the Dynein/Dynactin complex, promoting the establishment of stable kinetochore-microtubule interactions and progression into anaphase. While details of Spindly function in mitosis have been worked out in cultured human cells and in the C. elegans zygote, the function of Spindly within the context of an organism has not yet been addressed. Here, we present loss- and gain-of-function studies of Spindly using transgenic RNAi in Drosophila ...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Yashi Ahmed
In mammals, the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and proliferation, whereas Wnt pathway hyperactivation, resulting primarily from the inactivation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), triggers the development of the vast majority of colorectal cancers. The Drosophila adult gut has recently emerged as a powerful model to elucidate the mechanisms by which Wingless/Wnt signaling regulates intestinal development, homeostasis, regeneration, and tumorigenesis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
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