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ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755894/divalent-cation-removal-by-donnan-dialysis-for-improved-reverse-electrodialysis
#1
Timon Rijnaarts, Nathnael T Shenkute, Jeffery A Wood, Wiebe M de Vos, Kitty Nijmeijer
Divalent cations in feedwater can cause significant decreases in efficiencies for membrane processes, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED). In RED, power is harvested from the mixing of river and seawater, and the obtainable voltage is reduced and the resistance is increased if divalent cations are present. The power density of the RED process can be improved by removing divalent cations from the fresh water. Here, we study divalent cation removal from fresh water using seawater as draw solution in a Donnan dialysis (DD) process...
May 7, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780674/renewable-bis-pyrrolidone-based-monomers-as-components-for-thermally-curable-and-enzymatically-depolymerizable-2-oxazoline-thermoset-resins
#2
Manta Roy, Geert J Noordzij, Yara van den Boomen, Sanjay Rastogi, Carolus H R M Wilsens
In this study we describe the synthesis of bis(pyrrolidone) based dicarboxylic acids from itaconic acid and their application in 2-oxazoline resins for fully renewable thermoset materials. The monomers are obtained using a bulk aza-Michael addition of a diamine and two itaconic acid molecules using a catalytic amount of water. The monomers can be isolated in high purity after recrystallization, though their yield proved to be highly dependent on the selected diamine spacer length: In general, only the dicarboxylic acids containing diamines with an even number of methylene spacers are isolated in high yields...
April 2, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607268/synthesis-of-bio-aromatics-from-black-liquors-using-catalytic-pyrolysis
#3
André Heeres, Niels Schenk, Inouk Muizebelt, Ricardo Blees, Bart De Waele, Arend-Jan Zeeuw, Nathalie Meyer, Rob Carr, Erwin Wilbers, Hero Jan Heeres
Bio-aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes, BTX) were prepared by the catalytic pyrolysis of six different black liquors using both in situ and ex situ approaches. A wide range of catalysts was screened and conditions were optimized in microscale reactors. Up to 7 wt % of BTX, based on the organic fraction of the black liquors, was obtained for both the in situ and ex situ pyrolysis ( T = 500-600 °C) using a Ga-modified H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The in situ catalytic pyrolysis of black liquors from hardwood paper mills afforded slightly higher yields of aromatics/BTX than softwood black liquors, a trend that could be confirmed by the results obtained in the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis...
March 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607267/lewis-acid-catalyzed-conversion-of-5-hydroxymethylfurfural-to-1-2-4-benzenetriol-an-overlooked-biobased-compound
#4
Angela J Kumalaputri, Caelan Randolph, Edwin Otten, Hero J Heeres, Peter J Deuss
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a platform chemical that can be produced from renewable carbohydrate sources. HMF can be converted to 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BTO) which after catalytic hydrodeoxygenation provides a route to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. This mixture, known as KA oil, is an important feedstock for polymeric products such as nylons which use benzene as feedstock that is obtained from the BTX fraction produced in oil refineries. Therefore, the conversion of HMF to BTO provides a renewable, alternative route toward products such as nylons...
March 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607266/phosphate-recovery-from-human-waste-via-the-formation-of-hydroxyapatite-during-electrochemical-wastewater-treatment
#5
Clément A Cid, Justin T Jasper, Michael R Hoffmann
Electrolysis of toilet wastewater with TiO2 -coated semiconductor anodes and stainless steel cathodes is a potentially viable onsite sanitation solution in parts of the world without infrastructure for centralized wastewater treatment. In addition to treating toilet wastewater, pilot-scale and bench-scale experiments demonstrated that electrolysis can remove phosphate by cathodic precipitation as hydroxyapatite at no additional energy cost. Phosphate removal could be predicted based on initial phosphate and calcium concentrations, and up to 80% total phosphate removal was achieved...
March 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430341/high-rate-biomethanation-of-carbon-monoxide-rich-gases-via-a-thermophilic-synthetic-coculture
#6
Martijn Diender, Philipp S Uhl, Johannes H Bitter, Alfons J M Stams, Diana Z Sousa
Carbon monoxide-fermenting microorganisms can be used for the production of a wide range of commodity chemicals and fuels from syngas (generated by gasification of, e.g., wastes or biomass) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel industry). Microorganisms are normally more resistant to contaminants in the gas (e.g., hydrogen sulfide) than chemical catalysts, less expensive and self-regenerating. However, some carboxydotrophs are sensitive to high concentrations of CO, resulting in low growth rates and productivities...
February 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430340/laccase-mediator-systems-their-reactivity-toward-phenolic-lignin-structures
#7
Roelant Hilgers, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
Laccase-mediator systems (LMS) have been widely studied for their capacity to oxidize the nonphenolic subunits of lignin (70-90% of the polymer). The phenolic subunits (10-30% of the polymer), which can also be oxidized without mediators, have received considerably less attention. Consequently, it remains unclear to what extent the presence of a mediator influences the reactions of the phenolic subunits of lignin. To get more insight in this, UHPLC-MS was used to study the reactions of a phenolic lignin dimer (GBG), initiated by a laccase from Trametes versicolor , alone or in combination with the mediators HBT and ABTS...
February 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333351/understanding-the-effect-of-the-dianhydride-structure-on-the-properties-of-semiaromatic-polyimides-containing-a-biobased-fatty-diamine
#8
Arijana Susa, Johan Bijleveld, Marianella Hernandez Santana, Santiago J Garcia
In this work we report the effect of the hard block dianhydride structure on the overall properties of partially biobased semiaromatic polyimides. For the study, four polyimides were synthesized using aliphatic fatty dimer diamine (DD1) as the soft block and four different commercially available aromatic dianhydrides as the hard block: 4,4'-(4,4'-isopropylidenediphenoxy) bis(phthalic anhydride) (BPADA), 4,4'-oxidiphthalic anhydride (ODPA), 4,4'-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA), and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA)...
January 2, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333350/scale-up-of-a-luminescent-solar-concentrator-based-photomicroreactor-via-numbering-up
#9
Fang Zhao, Dario Cambié, Jeroen Janse, Eric W Wieland, Koen P L Kuijpers, Volker Hessel, Michael G Debije, Timothy Noël
The use of solar energy to power chemical reactions is a long-standing dream of the chemical community. Recently, visible-light-mediated photoredox catalysis has been recognized as the ideal catalytic transformation to convert solar energy into chemical bonds. However, scaling photochemical transformations has been extremely challenging due to Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law. Recently, we have pioneered the development of luminescent solar concentrator photomicroreactors (LSC-PMs), which display an excellent energy efficiency...
January 2, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355241/response-to-comment-on-turning-vulcanized-natural-rubber-into-a-self-healing-polymer-effect-of-the-disulfide-polysulfide-ratio
#10
Marianella Hernández Santana, Antonio M Grande, Sybrand van der Zwaag, Santiago J García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226036/heat-treated-stainless-steel-felt-as-a-new-cathode-material-in-a-methane-producing-bioelectrochemical-system
#11
Dandan Liu, Tianye Zheng, Cees Buisman, Annemiek Ter Heijne
Methane-producing bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a promising technology to convert renewable surplus electricity into the form of storable methane. One of the key challenges for this technology is the search for suitable cathode materials with improved biocompatibility and low cost. Here, we study heat-treated stainless steel felt (HSSF) for its performance as biocathode. The HSSF had superior electrocatalytic properties for hydrogen evolution compared to untreated stainless steel felt (SSF) and graphite felt (GF), leading to a faster start-up of the biocathodes...
December 4, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142789/catalytic-depolymerization-of-lignin-and-woody-biomass-in-supercritical-ethanol-influence-of-reaction-temperature-and-feedstock
#12
Xiaoming Huang, Ceylanpinar Atay, Jiadong Zhu, Sanne W L Palstra, Tamás I Korányi, Michael D Boot, Emiel J M Hensen
The one-step ethanolysis approach to upgrade lignin to monomeric aromatics using a CuMgAl mixed oxide catalyst is studied in detail. The influence of reaction temperature (200-420 °C) on the product distribution is investigated. At low temperature (200-250 °C), recondensation is dominant, while char-forming reactions become significant at high reaction temperature (>380 °C). At preferred intermediate temperatures (300-340 °C), char-forming reactions are effectively suppressed by alkylation and Guerbet and esterification reactions...
November 6, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989827/recovery-of-volatile-fatty-acids-from-fermented-wastewater-by-adsorption
#13
Ehsan Reyhanitash, Sascha R A Kersten, Boelo Schuur
Separation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermented wastewater is challenging, due to low VFA concentrations in mineral-rich streams. As a result, separation capacity and selectivity with traditional solvents and adsorbents are both compromised. In this study, using a complex artificial model solution mimicking real fermented wastewaters, it is shown that a simple and robust adsorption-based separation technique can retain a remarkable capacity and selectivity for VFAs. Four types of polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based resins (primary, secondary, and tertiary amine-functionalized, and nonfunctionalized) were examined as the adsorbents...
October 2, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706759/mild-and-selective-protein-release-of-cell-wall-deficient-microalgae-with-pulsed-electric-field
#14
Gerard P 't Lam, Jelmer A van der Kolk, Akshita Chordia, Marian H Vermuë, Giuseppe Olivieri, Michel H M Eppink, René H Wijffels
Pulsed electric field (PEF) is considered to be a very promising technology for mild cell disruption. The application of PEF for microalgae that have a rigid cell wall, however, is hampered by the presence of that rigid outer cell wall. A cell wall free mutant of C. reinhardtii was used to mimic pretreated microalgae with removed cell wall, to investigate the possibility of using PEF for protein release from microalgae. A complete release of hydrophilic proteins from the cell wall free mutants was observed whereas PEF treatment on the cell wall containing species resulted in substantially lower protein yields...
July 3, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706758/solution-based-fabrication-of-polycrystalline-si-thin-film-transistors-from-recycled-polysilanes
#15
Paolo M Sberna, Miki Trifunovic, Ryoichi Ishihara
Currently, research has been focusing on printing and laser crystallization of cyclosilanes, bringing to life polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with outstanding properties. However, the synthesis of these Si-based inks is generally complex and expensive. Here, we prove that a polysilane ink, obtained as a byproduct of silicon gases and derivatives, can be used successfully for the synthesis of poly-Si by laser annealing, at room temperature, and for n- and p-channel TFTs. The devices, fabricated according to CMOS compatible processes at 350 °C, showed field effect mobilities up to 8 and 2 cm(2)/(V s) for n- and p-type TFTs, respectively...
July 3, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480150/biobased-furanics-kinetic-studies-on-the-acid-catalyzed-decomposition-of-2-hydroxyacetyl-furan-in-water-using-br%C3%A3-nsted-acid-catalysts
#16
J N M Soetedjo, H H van de Bovenkamp, P J Deuss, H J Heeres
Biobased furanics like 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are interesting platform chemicals for the synthesis of biofuel additives and polymer precursors. 5-HMF is typically prepared from C6 ketoses like fructose, psicose, sorbose and tagatose. A known byproduct is 2-hydroxyacetylfuran (2-HAF), particularly when using sorbose and psicose as the reactants. We here report an experimental and kinetic modeling study on the rate of decomposition of 2-HAF in a typical reaction medium for 5-HMF synthesis (water, Brönsted acid), with the incentive to gain insights in the stability of 2-HAF...
May 1, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405528/synergy-in-lignin-upgrading-by-a-combination-of-cu-based-mixed-oxide-and-ni-phosphide-catalysts-in-supercritical-ethanol
#17
Tamás I Korányi, Xiaoming Huang, Alessandro E Coumans, Emiel J M Hensen
The depolymerization of lignin to bioaromatics usually requires a hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) step to lower the oxygen content. A mixed Cu-Mg-Al oxide (CuMgAlO x ) is an effective catalyst for the depolymerization of lignin in supercritical ethanol. We explored the use of Ni-based cocatalysts, i.e. Ni/SiO2, Ni2P/SiO2, and Ni/ASA (ASA = amorphous silica alumina), with the aim of combining lignin depolymerization and HDO in a single reaction step. While the silica-supported catalysts were themselves hardly active in lignin upgrading, Ni/ASA displayed comparable lignin monomer yield as CuMgAlO x ...
April 3, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413733/experimental-studies-on-the-hydrotreatment-of-kraft-lignin-to-aromatics-and-alkylphenolics-using-economically-viable-fe-based-catalysts
#18
Shilpa Agarwal, Ramesh Kumar Chowdari, Idoia Hita, Hero Jan Heeres
Limonite, a low-cost iron ore, was investigated as a potential hydrotreatment catalyst for kraft lignin without the use of an external solvent (batch reactor, initial H2 pressure of 100 bar, 4 h). The best results were obtained at 450 °C resulting in 34 wt % of liquefied kraft lignin (lignin oil) on lignin intake. The composition of the lignin oil was determined in detail (elemental composition, GC-MS, GC×GC-FID, and GPC). The total GC-detectable monomeric species amounts up to 31 wt % on lignin intake, indicating that 92 wt % of the products in the lignin oil are volatile and thus of low molecular weight...
March 6, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066690/high-power-365-nm-uv-led-mercury-arc-lamp-replacement-for-photochemistry-and-chemical-photolithography
#19
K Hölz, J Lietard, M M Somoza
Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p-type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications...
January 3, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668136/characterization-and-comparison-of-fast-pyrolysis-bio-oils-from-pinewood-rapeseed-cake-and-wheat-straw-using-13-c-nmr-and-comprehensive-gc-%C3%A3-gc
#20
Leila Negahdar, Arturo Gonzalez-Quiroga, Daria Otyuskaya, Hilal E Toraman, Li Liu, Johann T B H Jastrzebski, Kevin M Van Geem, Guy B Marin, Joris W Thybaut, Bert M Weckhuysen
Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading...
September 6, 2016: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
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