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ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering

Eneko Larrañeta, Mikel Imízcoz, Jie X Toh, Nicola J Irwin, Anastasia Ripolin, Anastasia Perminova, Juan Domínguez-Robles, Alejandro Rodríguez, Ryan F Donnelly
Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer on the planet. It is a biocompatible, cheap, environmentally friendly and readily accessible material. It has been reported that these biomacromolecules have antimicrobial activities. Consequently, lignin (LIG) has the potential to be used for biomedical applications. In the present work, a simple method to prepare lignin-based hydrogels is described. The hydrogels were prepared by combining LIG with poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(methyl vinyl ether- co -maleic acid) through an esterification reaction...
July 2, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Mark Roghair, Yuchen Liu, Julius C Adiatma, Ruud A Weusthuis, Marieke E Bruins, Cees J N Buisman, David P B T B Strik
Chain elongation is an open-culture fermentation process that facilitates conversion of organic residues with an additional electron donor, such as ethanol, into valuable n-caproate. Open-culture processes are catalyzed by an undefined consortium of microorganisms which typically also bring undesired (competing) processes. Inhibition of competing processes, such as syntrophic ethanol oxidation, will lead to a more selective n-caproate production process. In this study, we investigated the effect of n-caproate concentration on the specific activity of chain elongation and competing processes using batch inhibition assays...
June 4, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Philipp Kuntke, Mariana Rodrigues, Tom Sleutels, Michel Saakes, Hubertus V M Hamelers, Cees J N Buisman
Nutrient and energy recovery is becoming more important for a sustainable future. Recently, we developed a hydrogen gas recycling electrochemical system (HRES) which combines a cation exchange membrane (CEM) and a gas-permeable hydrophobic membrane for ammonia recovery. This allowed for energy-efficient ammonia recovery, since hydrogen gas produced at the cathode was oxidized at the anode. Here, we successfully up-scaled and optimized this HRES for ammonia recovery. The electrode surface area was increased to 0...
June 4, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Timon Rijnaarts, Nathnael T Shenkute, Jeffery A Wood, Wiebe M de Vos, Kitty Nijmeijer
Divalent cations in feedwater can cause significant decreases in efficiencies for membrane processes, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED). In RED, power is harvested from the mixing of river and seawater, and the obtainable voltage is reduced and the resistance is increased if divalent cations are present. The power density of the RED process can be improved by removing divalent cations from the fresh water. Here, we study divalent cation removal from fresh water using seawater as draw solution in a Donnan dialysis (DD) process...
May 7, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Manta Roy, Geert J Noordzij, Yara van den Boomen, Sanjay Rastogi, Carolus H R M Wilsens
In this study we describe the synthesis of bis(pyrrolidone) based dicarboxylic acids from itaconic acid and their application in 2-oxazoline resins for fully renewable thermoset materials. The monomers are obtained using a bulk aza-Michael addition of a diamine and two itaconic acid molecules using a catalytic amount of water. The monomers can be isolated in high purity after recrystallization, though their yield proved to be highly dependent on the selected diamine spacer length: In general, only the dicarboxylic acids containing diamines with an even number of methylene spacers are isolated in high yields...
April 2, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
André Heeres, Niels Schenk, Inouk Muizebelt, Ricardo Blees, Bart De Waele, Arend-Jan Zeeuw, Nathalie Meyer, Rob Carr, Erwin Wilbers, Hero Jan Heeres
Bio-aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes, BTX) were prepared by the catalytic pyrolysis of six different black liquors using both in situ and ex situ approaches. A wide range of catalysts was screened and conditions were optimized in microscale reactors. Up to 7 wt % of BTX, based on the organic fraction of the black liquors, was obtained for both the in situ and ex situ pyrolysis ( T = 500-600 °C) using a Ga-modified H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The in situ catalytic pyrolysis of black liquors from hardwood paper mills afforded slightly higher yields of aromatics/BTX than softwood black liquors, a trend that could be confirmed by the results obtained in the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis...
March 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Angela J Kumalaputri, Caelan Randolph, Edwin Otten, Hero J Heeres, Peter J Deuss
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a platform chemical that can be produced from renewable carbohydrate sources. HMF can be converted to 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BTO) which after catalytic hydrodeoxygenation provides a route to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. This mixture, known as KA oil, is an important feedstock for polymeric products such as nylons which use benzene as feedstock that is obtained from the BTX fraction produced in oil refineries. Therefore, the conversion of HMF to BTO provides a renewable, alternative route toward products such as nylons...
March 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Clément A Cid, Justin T Jasper, Michael R Hoffmann
Electrolysis of toilet wastewater with TiO2 -coated semiconductor anodes and stainless steel cathodes is a potentially viable onsite sanitation solution in parts of the world without infrastructure for centralized wastewater treatment. In addition to treating toilet wastewater, pilot-scale and bench-scale experiments demonstrated that electrolysis can remove phosphate by cathodic precipitation as hydroxyapatite at no additional energy cost. Phosphate removal could be predicted based on initial phosphate and calcium concentrations, and up to 80% total phosphate removal was achieved...
March 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Martijn Diender, Philipp S Uhl, Johannes H Bitter, Alfons J M Stams, Diana Z Sousa
Carbon monoxide-fermenting microorganisms can be used for the production of a wide range of commodity chemicals and fuels from syngas (generated by gasification of, e.g., wastes or biomass) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel industry). Microorganisms are normally more resistant to contaminants in the gas (e.g., hydrogen sulfide) than chemical catalysts, less expensive and self-regenerating. However, some carboxydotrophs are sensitive to high concentrations of CO, resulting in low growth rates and productivities...
February 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Roelant Hilgers, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
Laccase-mediator systems (LMS) have been widely studied for their capacity to oxidize the nonphenolic subunits of lignin (70-90% of the polymer). The phenolic subunits (10-30% of the polymer), which can also be oxidized without mediators, have received considerably less attention. Consequently, it remains unclear to what extent the presence of a mediator influences the reactions of the phenolic subunits of lignin. To get more insight in this, UHPLC-MS was used to study the reactions of a phenolic lignin dimer (GBG), initiated by a laccase from Trametes versicolor , alone or in combination with the mediators HBT and ABTS...
February 5, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Arijana Susa, Johan Bijleveld, Marianella Hernandez Santana, Santiago J Garcia
In this work we report the effect of the hard block dianhydride structure on the overall properties of partially biobased semiaromatic polyimides. For the study, four polyimides were synthesized using aliphatic fatty dimer diamine (DD1) as the soft block and four different commercially available aromatic dianhydrides as the hard block: 4,4'-(4,4'-isopropylidenediphenoxy) bis(phthalic anhydride) (BPADA), 4,4'-oxidiphthalic anhydride (ODPA), 4,4'-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA), and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA)...
January 2, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Fang Zhao, Dario Cambié, Jeroen Janse, Eric W Wieland, Koen P L Kuijpers, Volker Hessel, Michael G Debije, Timothy Noël
The use of solar energy to power chemical reactions is a long-standing dream of the chemical community. Recently, visible-light-mediated photoredox catalysis has been recognized as the ideal catalytic transformation to convert solar energy into chemical bonds. However, scaling photochemical transformations has been extremely challenging due to Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law. Recently, we have pioneered the development of luminescent solar concentrator photomicroreactors (LSC-PMs), which display an excellent energy efficiency...
January 2, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Marianella Hernández Santana, Antonio M Grande, Sybrand van der Zwaag, Santiago J García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Dandan Liu, Tianye Zheng, Cees Buisman, Annemiek Ter Heijne
Methane-producing bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a promising technology to convert renewable surplus electricity into the form of storable methane. One of the key challenges for this technology is the search for suitable cathode materials with improved biocompatibility and low cost. Here, we study heat-treated stainless steel felt (HSSF) for its performance as biocathode. The HSSF had superior electrocatalytic properties for hydrogen evolution compared to untreated stainless steel felt (SSF) and graphite felt (GF), leading to a faster start-up of the biocathodes...
December 4, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Xiaoming Huang, Ceylanpinar Atay, Jiadong Zhu, Sanne W L Palstra, Tamás I Korányi, Michael D Boot, Emiel J M Hensen
The one-step ethanolysis approach to upgrade lignin to monomeric aromatics using a CuMgAl mixed oxide catalyst is studied in detail. The influence of reaction temperature (200-420 °C) on the product distribution is investigated. At low temperature (200-250 °C), recondensation is dominant, while char-forming reactions become significant at high reaction temperature (>380 °C). At preferred intermediate temperatures (300-340 °C), char-forming reactions are effectively suppressed by alkylation and Guerbet and esterification reactions...
November 6, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Ehsan Reyhanitash, Sascha R A Kersten, Boelo Schuur
Separation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermented wastewater is challenging, due to low VFA concentrations in mineral-rich streams. As a result, separation capacity and selectivity with traditional solvents and adsorbents are both compromised. In this study, using a complex artificial model solution mimicking real fermented wastewaters, it is shown that a simple and robust adsorption-based separation technique can retain a remarkable capacity and selectivity for VFAs. Four types of polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based resins (primary, secondary, and tertiary amine-functionalized, and nonfunctionalized) were examined as the adsorbents...
October 2, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Gerard P 't Lam, Jelmer A van der Kolk, Akshita Chordia, Marian H Vermuë, Giuseppe Olivieri, Michel H M Eppink, René H Wijffels
Pulsed electric field (PEF) is considered to be a very promising technology for mild cell disruption. The application of PEF for microalgae that have a rigid cell wall, however, is hampered by the presence of that rigid outer cell wall. A cell wall free mutant of C. reinhardtii was used to mimic pretreated microalgae with removed cell wall, to investigate the possibility of using PEF for protein release from microalgae. A complete release of hydrophilic proteins from the cell wall free mutants was observed whereas PEF treatment on the cell wall containing species resulted in substantially lower protein yields...
July 3, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Paolo M Sberna, Miki Trifunovic, Ryoichi Ishihara
Currently, research has been focusing on printing and laser crystallization of cyclosilanes, bringing to life polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with outstanding properties. However, the synthesis of these Si-based inks is generally complex and expensive. Here, we prove that a polysilane ink, obtained as a byproduct of silicon gases and derivatives, can be used successfully for the synthesis of poly-Si by laser annealing, at room temperature, and for n- and p-channel TFTs. The devices, fabricated according to CMOS compatible processes at 350 °C, showed field effect mobilities up to 8 and 2 cm(2)/(V s) for n- and p-type TFTs, respectively...
July 3, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
J N M Soetedjo, H H van de Bovenkamp, P J Deuss, H J Heeres
Biobased furanics like 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are interesting platform chemicals for the synthesis of biofuel additives and polymer precursors. 5-HMF is typically prepared from C6 ketoses like fructose, psicose, sorbose and tagatose. A known byproduct is 2-hydroxyacetylfuran (2-HAF), particularly when using sorbose and psicose as the reactants. We here report an experimental and kinetic modeling study on the rate of decomposition of 2-HAF in a typical reaction medium for 5-HMF synthesis (water, Brönsted acid), with the incentive to gain insights in the stability of 2-HAF...
May 1, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Tamás I Korányi, Xiaoming Huang, Alessandro E Coumans, Emiel J M Hensen
The depolymerization of lignin to bioaromatics usually requires a hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) step to lower the oxygen content. A mixed Cu-Mg-Al oxide (CuMgAlO x ) is an effective catalyst for the depolymerization of lignin in supercritical ethanol. We explored the use of Ni-based cocatalysts, i.e. Ni/SiO2, Ni2P/SiO2, and Ni/ASA (ASA = amorphous silica alumina), with the aim of combining lignin depolymerization and HDO in a single reaction step. While the silica-supported catalysts were themselves hardly active in lignin upgrading, Ni/ASA displayed comparable lignin monomer yield as CuMgAlO x ...
April 3, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
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